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Original Title: Investigation of Very Fast Transient Overvoltage Distribution in Taper Winding of Tesla Transformer

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Distribution in Taper Winding of Tesla Transformer

Peng Ying and Ruan Jiangjun

School of Electrical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430072, China

In order to study the very fast transient overvoltage (VFTO) distribution in the taper winding of a tesla transformer under high-frequency steep-fronted voltage surge, we built a distributed line model based on multiconductor transmission line (MTL) theory. We used

a new hybrid algorithm combining finite-element-method (FEM) and interpolation formulas to quickly evaluate the induction coeffiby utilizing some characteristics of the taper structure. The turn-to-ground and interturn voltage distributions can be

cient matrix

obtained by solving the telegraphists equations in the frequency domain. We measured the voltage distribution inside the taper winding

to find some ways to weaken the voltage oscillations. Here, we compare the results with numerical values.

Index TermsMulticonductor transmission line (MTL), taper winding, tesla transformer, very fast transient overvoltage (VFTO).

I. INTRODUCTION

N a nanosecond periodically pulsed generator, the magnitude of output pulse of a tesla transformers secondary

winding is even higher than several hundred kilovolts. The

reflected wave travels back and injects the secondary winding

with a high amplitude, steep wave front, and high repeating

frequency, which comprises high-order harmonics that can

cause internal resonance and lead to an extremely uneven

distribution of turn-to-ground voltage and interturn voltage.

This often results in partial discharge and interturn insulation

failure in the winding. So it is necessary to study the very fast

transient overvoltage (VFTO) in a tesla transformers secondary

winding and find some ways to even the voltage distribution,

eliminate or weaken the internal oscillation, and improve the

transformers endurance. The VFTOs depend not only on the

incident waves style, but also on the structure of winding.

Most of the related studies emphasize the wave propagation

in windings of ac machines and power transformers. Seldom

are done either on the simulation or experiment of transient

behavior of a tesla transformers taper winding. Mainly there

are three methods to simulate such a problem.

1) Lumped Circuit Model: When the windings length is far

less than the wavelength, each coil can be represented with a

, shunt capacilumped element, including self-inductance

tance

, resistance

, mutual inductance

, and series

capacitance

, whereas the mutual resistance and conductance are always neglected. Electromagnetic transients program

(EMTP) or frequency-domain method can achieve the exact response of the whole network after linking all these elements.

Initial works [1][5] showed its successful application in predicting VFTO or partial discharge in windings of power transformer and ac machines.

2) Multiconductor Transmission Line (MTL) Model: As

model 1) does not consider the waves traveling in each coil,

it is not accurate enough while the pulse has a shorter rise

or fall time or the coils are long enough to compare with the

wavelength. In the situation, each coil should be taken as a

be calculated by solving the telegraphists equations with

given boundary conditions. The most recent research [6][8]

on the waves propagation in windings used the MTL model

combined with the single transmission line (STL) model. In

particular, works by Petrarca [6], [8], Guardado [9], [10],

McLaren [11], [12], Shibuya [13], [14], and Cornick [15] were

of great significance in this field.

3) Full-Wave Solution: Although both 1) and 2) simplify the

field problem to a circuit problem, the measured and numerical values show the simplification is reasonable and sometimes accurate enough. Nonetheless, the direct field solution

is more attractive but hard to obtain due to the complexity of

model and lots of degrees of freedom. Miri [16][19] performed

transient electric field analysis in racetrack-shaped toroidal field

model for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor using the finite-element method (FEM), but the process

was not given in detail, such as the governing equations, degrees

of freedom, boundary conditions, and so on.

Other related topics can also be found. For example, Yamashita [20] carried out a field-circuit method to calculate

transient electric field in transformer winding. A two-dimensional (2-D) axisymmetrical electric field finite-element (FE)

analysis is performed, applied with Dirichlet boundary values

obtained from an advanced lumped circuit network calculation.

Oyegoke [21] compared three approaches for predicting the

magnitude and distribution of the transient voltages in the stator

winding of an electric machine subjected to a steep-fronted

surge. For reference, [22][26] may give more suggestions on

similar problems, which will not be expatiated here.

The electrical parameters evaluation is rather important for

an equivalent circuit model. It greatly determines the accuracy

and efficiency of numerical models, such as the unit lengths

inductance matrix , induction coefficient matrix , and resistance matrix of the MTL model. (Neglecting conductance

matrix affects little to the results [5], [9].) Analytical formulas

or field calculations (based on electromagnetic energy) are normally used to extract these parameters [27][31]. The analytical

method is very limited for the formulas are from experience or

related to special windings with a simple geometry. The field

method may be more applicable for complex, various winding

One difficulty still exists, forcing us to make an important

assumption. The iron cores magnetic characteristic is hard to

describe under different high frequency. By measurements or

simulation, most of the authors [3], [5], [8], [9], [11][14], [21]

thought that the iron core behaves like a flux barrier at frequency of interest (110 MHz higher). Two reasons may explain

this phenomenon. One is the skin effect (skin depth less than

1 10 m) that causes the component of magnetic flux penetrating into the core is too small. The second is the transmission

line effect results that the current in adjacent turns may flow in

opposite direction which counteracts the total flux. Therefore,

the main flux loops not in the iron core, but in the air. The inductance coupling between coils is no more nonlinear when eliminating the effect of iron core, thus the winding system is a linear

system allowing the superposition theorem.

Also, voltage or electric field measurement is a hard task

that should be done to validate the computer models accuracy. Malewski [32] had developed a method consisting of

the time-domain measurement of a transient voltage between

the adjacent discs and disc to ground. High resolution, a fast

digital recorder, and an optically isolated probe were used in

measurement. Fujita [33] used an optical fiber transmission

system (Sony-Tektronix A6904S) to measure interturn voltages

directly. The results clearly showed a traveling wave generated

at coils end and propagating along the winding.

Considering all the above factors and the speciality of our

problemsteep wave front (ns), high repeating frequency, and

taper structure of winding, the lumped equivalent circuit will not

be accurate enough. If we divide the taper winding into several

coils and combine STL with MTL as [6], [13] did, without

taking into account the mutual inductances between coils, an

improper discontinuity of voltage distribution will occur at the

connection point of adjacent coils. So a MTL model of the tesla

transformers taper winding is built to properly model actual

electromagnetic coupling among turns. Direct FE analysis to

extract an arbitrary -conductor systems needs

steps of energy solution, which is unacceptable if is large. Fortunately, by analyzing of the tesla transformers sample taper

winding, we find its good characteristics (detailed in Section III)

that help us to build some analytical formulas depending on

s several elements obtained from a few steps of advanced

FE analysis. The quantitative level of energy solution steps is

greatly reduced from

to . Based on the flux barrier assumption, an equivalent relative permeability

(1 10 ) is

used so as to evaluate in static magnetic field calculation instead of high-frequency analysis. By fast Fourier transformation

(FFT), the pulse is represented by the sum of harmonics. So the

telegraphists equations are solved utilizing the modal analysis

in frequency domain and at last the results will be transferred

into the time domain, plotting the turn-to-ground and interturn

voltage distribution. Besides the simulation, turns voltage with

respect to ground are measured under several situations. The results show the severe voltage oscillations in windings and the

most severe unevenness of voltage distribution among coils appear mostly at head section of the winding whereas in the middle

and grounding section, the voltage oscillation seems to be well

constrained.

435

wrapped on a taper-shaped framework.

Fig. 2.

A. Structure of a Tesla Transformer

The tesla transformer, capable of transmitting high-voltage

pulses, is embedded in numerous devices in the fields of radio,

television, telecommunications, medicine, high-voltage periodically pulsed generators, etc. It consists of five main parts: inner

iron core, outer iron, chamber, primary winding, and secondary

winding (taper-shaped). The chamber is filled with transformer

oil to ensure good insulation of winding. One end of the secondary winding is connected with the inner iron core while the

other end is connected to the ground. Fig. 1 shows a typical

structure of the 2-D axial section.

B. MTL Model

An -conductor uniform lossy transmission line system is

constructed by splitting the winding along its axial plane and

spreading turns into parallel lines in which the chamber wall

is treated as the ground plane. This modeling assumes that the

average perimeter of coils is far longer than the windings axial

length. Thus, by an initial capacitive coupling, the voltage distribution will be established instantaneously across the whole

winding. The lengths of adjacent lines are almost the same because of the windings small taper angle (6 12 ). As for any

two distant lines, though they are quite different in length, their

electromagnetic coupling is weak enough to be neglected, compared with two adjacent ones (illustrated in Section III). So the

taper winding in this case can be treated as an equal-length MTL

model shown in Fig. 2.

In Fig. 2,

, and are the head and tail ends voltages and currents of the th line, respectively. Arrows indicate

the positive direction of currents.

When every turn in the winding is represented as a transmission line, then the propagation phenomena in transformer

436

winding can be fully described by making use of the telegraphists equations in time domain

(1)

(2)

are the voltage and

In (1) and (2), respectively,

current vectors

.

and are square matrices

of the resistances, inductances, conductances, and induction coefficients in MTL model, whereas will be neglected in this

paper.

only, which greatly reduce s half bandwidth and changes it

to a banded matrix. As

will not be used

in later calculation, in the example, we need only evaluate the

and it also presents a

linear increasing in middle part shown in Fig. 3(b). Depending

and

s features, a rapid accurate method to evaluate

on

is achieved by linear interpolation.

Build the actual FE model of the taper winding as in

; calculate

Fig. 3(a); calculate

of those turns that do not follow the feature mentioned

above, especially the turns at the head and tail end, e.g.,

A. Induction Coefficient Matrix

Based on the electromagnetic theory, total static electric enof an -conductor system in region can be given by

ergy

FE solution steps in total and the middle turns

can

be interpolated by

(3)

(6)

where

are electric field intensity and electric flux density,

are the voltage to ground and charges of the th conductor.

is also written as

(7)

(4)

where

is a self-induction coefficient and

induction coefficient,

, and

.

Substituting in (3) with (4) gives

(8)

is a mutual

(5)

hard to list. So a normal procedure to evaluate by field method

is as follows.

First, apply a unit potential on the th conductor,

while the others are set to zero potential. Due to an approximate axisymmetrical structure of the model, a 2-D static

electric field FE analysis can calculate

. Then by (5),

the diagonal elements of are obtained.

Apply unit potentials on the th and th conductor,

are set to zero potential. As in step 1,

after the FE analysis, other elements of are obtained as

well by (5). (

is from 1 to

from

to ).

FE soFollowing the procedures above requires

lution steps to get , which is almost impossible for teslas

taper winding

. Some alternative methods should

be carried out. By analyzing

of a typical sample winding

[

, taper angle 15 , Fig. 3(a)], we can find some interesting characteristics that will help us overcome the difficulty. As shown in Fig. 3(b), first, except the end turns, the

of middle turns increase linearly; second, except the iron

core (conductor no. 1), the turns

decrease rapidly with the

distance between th and th conductor increasing, which may

be explained as the shielding effect of their interval turns. The

to the direct method shown in Fig. 3(b). The formulas may be

different for other structures, depending on the taper angle and

linear section.

Attention should be paid that the framework of winding

cannot be neglected in FE analysis (relative permittivity

). The postprocess for

includes two simplifications.

First is the equivalent of iron cores capacitive effect on the

turns by multiplying

with a coefficient

whose value

should be adjusted according to the measurements. Second, as

the procedure above obtains coils

of the three-dimensional

model, it should be transferred into unit length value with

dividing the th turns perimeter and

dividing average

perimeter of the th, th turns.

B. Inductance Matrix

Due to the existence of the framework and iron core, the relationship between and does not match

(9)

where

is the velocity of wave propagation in uniform

medium.

So elements in are evaluated by the following definitions:

(10)

where

are the self-inductance and current of the th coil,

is the mutual inductance between the th and th coils,

Fig. 3.

437

438

where

angular frequency is , so the complex impedance and admittance matrices of the line, respectively, are

(14)

The common solutions of (12) and (13) have the forms

(15)

(16)

are incident and reflected voltage vector, and

where

is the characteristic admittance matrix. Based on modal analysis, it gives

(17)

The voltage and current vectors at head

ends satisfy [9]

and tail

(18)

Fig. 4. Typical magnetic flux.

(19)

is the

flux linkages of th coil produced by .

The exact behavior of iron core at high frequency is impossible to describe. So the shielding effect of iron core and conductors to the flux at the interested frequencies is equivalent by

setting a small relative permeability

when

performing a static magnetic field FE analysis. Its value is adjusted with reference to measurements. As shown in Fig. 4, the

chamber wall, iron core, and conductors together form flux

barriers to limit the flux path similar to high-frequency phenomenon, which results in the rapid decrease of mutual inductive coupling between turns. A static FE solution will obtain the

magnetic flux density by applying unit current density in the

th coil. Then by surface integrations of for each coil, along

with (10),

are evaluated. should also be transferred

into unit length value the same as .

(20)

where

According with the connections of turns and grounding

impedance , the boundary conditions can be written as

[9], it is possible to arrange (20) to yield

C. Resistance Matrix

As the turns are thin enough (cross section radius 0.2 mm),

the skin effect at high frequencies is approximately equivalent

by multiplying with a coefficient

(21)

(11)

is calculated with

and

is known as the

where

exciting source. Then

can be obtained. The head voltage of

each turn is eventually achieved by means of a single multiplication of

and the first column of inverse .

So first by decomposing the inject pulse into time harmonics

of different frequencies, with the solution method, we can obtain

the winding systems voltage distribution in frequency domain.

Then by superposition of Fourier series, the voltage distribution

in time domain can be obtained.

where

is the unit length resistance of the th coil, is the

conductivity of turns, and is the turns cross section area.

Without mutual resistance,

is a diagonal matrix. As mentioned before, the dielectric loss will not be taken into account.

IV. SOLUTION

Because of the symmetry of

forms can be written as

V. MEASUREMENTS

(12)

A. Model Description

(13)

sheet that is hollow inside to be filled with transformer oil. Its

439

TABLE II

MEASURED RESULTS OF PRIME CONCERN

Fig. 5. Models description. (a) Iron cores dimension. (b) Sketch of the

models structure.

TABLE I

MODELS SIZES

size and the sketch of model for testing are shown in Fig. 5. The

winding will not be seen in the sketch.

The pulse generator can produce various types of pulse,

which inject from the connection point of windings head and

iron core. It is hard to set measuring points for every turn

because of close winding. And the spatial voltage distribution

is believed not to change suddenly within every ten turns. So

the probe of Tektronix TDS220 scope (bandwidth 100 MHz,

sampling rate 1 GS/s) is kept well connected with the measuring

points set every ten turns, where the insulation is well removed.

Table I lists all the testing combinations and Table II lists the

results of prime concern.

B. Analysis

The measured values clearly show the voltages at head

end of winding fluctuate more sharply than those at the

middle or ground section. The positions where the maximum

turn-to-ground voltage

or interturn voltage

appears will change with different taper angles and pulse types.

However, most of these positions are concentrated at the be-

the maximum voltage to ground reaches 2.32 times of peak

source magnitude

happens at turn 120 of model 3 under

100 kHz sinusoidal wave. The heaviest interturn (between

two measuring points, ten-turn interval) electric stress appears

between turn 1 and 10 of model 1 under 1 MHz pulse exciting,

with a magnitude 1.8 times of

.

By comparison, the existence of iron core can limit the inside voltage oscillation to a great extent. The models structure

determines a natural resonant frequency . When the main frequency of inject wave differs much with , the internal resonance will not happen, such as 100 kHz sinusoidal waves case.

If is close to , like cases of 1 MHz sinusoidal or 100 kHz

pulse (duty cycle 0.5, rise time 20 ns) that consist of abundant high-order harmonics, severe oscillations happen in most

models.

An attempt has been carried out to lower the magnitude of

peak interturn voltage. A tapered aluminum sheet connected to

the ground is placed adhering to the inner wall of the framework, covering about 20 turns of model 3 where the maximum

interturn voltage appears under 100 kHz pulse exciting. The results show a decrease of

ratio from 2.32 to 2.29,

ratio from 1.38 to 1.04.

440

Fig. 6. Comparison between numerical and measured values. Voltage to ground of turn 10; 20; . . . ; 90.

waveforms of model 1, 100 kHz pulse

is shown in Fig. 6, from which we can see

the oscillations occur at the two slope edges of the pulse. Although the waveforms of several turns have good agreements,

some errors still exist especially at the edges of pulse, which

are probably caused by three factors listed below.

The inaccuracy of and are due to the idealization of actual model: the effect of iron core on each turn is not the same,

so it is not accurate to model it by a single

. Furthermore, the

iron cores magnetic characteristic under high frequency may

not be so simple just using single . It could be nonlinear with

or frequency. The eddy current in the core may be another

reason. Limited by rough equipment, the measurement work

could easily be affected by EMI signals.

VI. CONCLUSION

The study of VFTO in a tesla transformers secondary

winding, which occurs during the wave traveling back that

causes steep-fronted surges, is important for insulation coordination. It is especially important to find the position that

configuration of the winding and wave style. In this paper,

the MTL model is used to study VFTO in the taper winding,

whose may be simplified as a banded matrix and its middle

section is linear to be evaluated by analytical formulas more

rapidly without loss of accuracy. An equivalent

to simulate

conductors flux barrier feature makes be evaluated with

static magnetic FE analysis. The electromagnetic coupling

between turns decreases quickly with their distance increasing

in this kind of structure. With the frequency-domain method,

the equations of MTL applied with proper boundary conditions

could be easily solved for obtaining the voltage distribution

across the winding. A simple platform for measurement is built

to study VFTO in windings under various conditions and is

helpful for finding effective ways to improve the uneven voltage

distribution. The results show severe voltage oscillations inside

the windings, especially under situations that the surges main

frequency

is close to the resonant frequency . So for

steep-fronted surges, the fluctuation occurs more easily and

the peak value of interturn voltage may reach several times of

the sources magnitude, which is rather dangerous to interturn

insulation. The numerical voltage waveforms with respect to

the time have good agreements but also show some deviation

from the measured ones. It indicates that some simplifications

and , but

of computer model may be reasonable, such as

not accurate enough. So more accurate methods for simulation

and measurement work are in our future plan.

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hoverpain@hotmail.com, ruan308@126.com).

Peng Ying was born in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, on December 20, 1980.

He received the bachelors degree in electrical engineering from Huazhong University of Science and Technology in 2002. Currently, he is working toward the

Ph.D. degree in numerical analysis of electromagnetic field in the Institute of

Advanced Technology of Electrical Engineering, Wuhan University.

His major fields of interest are numerical method of electromagnetic field

calculation in engineering.

Ruan Jiangjun was born in Zhejiang, China, on June 25, 1968. He received the

B.S. and Ph.D. degrees in electric machine engineering from Huazhong University of Science & Technology (HUST) in 1990 and 1995, respectively, and

finished his post-doctoral research in 1998 from Wuhan University of Hydraulic

& Electric Engineering.

He is currently Professor of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei Province,

China. His research interests include electromagnetic field numerical simulation, electromagnetic compatibility, and high-voltage engineering.

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