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Hofstede Cultural Questionnaire

POWER DISTANCE
(high score = prefer large power distance)
Children should be taught that their 1 2 3 4 5 Children should be taught to never
opinion is as important as
question their parents
their parents.
authority .
Children should be taught to not
1 2 3 4 5 Children should be taught to accept the
take things for granted
authority of older or important
people.
, in
the family or other institutions.
In a company/organization, people 1 2 3 4 5 All people in an organization or
must be able to create their own
company have clearly defined
place/function .
roles .
People must not take the boss
1 2 3 4 5 The boss makes all decisions.
decisions for granted. Always
Everybody in a organization/company
question the actions of the boss.
accepts and respects him.
The most effective way to change a 1 2 3 4 5 The most effective way to change a
political system is through public
political system is to replace those in
debates and free elections.
power through drastic means .
TOTAL
UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE (high score = prefer avoid uncertainty)
Children must be taught to cope with
1 2 3 4 5 Children must be taught to be
organized and to
chaos and ambiguity
avoid ambiguity.
.
People who can move in different
1 2 3 4 5 High competence and expert
environments are appreciated in
leadership are appreciated in society.
society.
People should not have to carry an ID 1 2 3 4 5 People should always have an ID.
.
1 2 3 4 5 It is OK to show feelings in public, at
It is improper to express
the right place and time.
feelings in public.
Society has very few rules.
1 2 3 4 5 There are some rules and customs
that all people must respect.
TOTAL
INDIVIDUALISM / COLLECTIVISM (high score = prefer individualism)
People have strong loyalty to the
1 2 3 4 5 People choose their friends based on
group(s) they belong to.
common likes/dislikes/interests.
1
2
3
4
5
I have full personal freedom.
The conventions and rules
of the group I belong to influence my
behaviour.
I am concerned with what others
1 2 3 4 5 I am concerned only with my own rules
think about me.
and objectives.
1
2
3
4
5
People are promoted based on
People are promoted
competence , no matter their age.
and recognized based on their
loyalty and age.
It is immoral for a boss not 1 2 3 4 5 It is immoral for a boss to offer a job to
a relative.
to offer a job to a relative .
TOTAL

MASCULINITY / FEMININITY (high score = prefer masculinity)


I have sympathy for those 1 2 3 4 5 I admire winners and I think those who
lose must be punished.
who do not win and I envy
others for their success.
At work, I am motivated 1 2 3 4 5 At work, I need to have clear objectives
and an evaluation system for what
by a relaxed, friendly
I accomplish .
atmosphere.
Decisions at work must be based on 1 2 3 4 5 Conflict is positive and productive.
consensus .
1 2 3 4 5 Men should be focused on material
A good quality of life is
success and women must
important for both men and women.
be concerned with the well-being of
the others.
1 2 3 4 5 What I want most from my partner is
I seek love and mutual affection
support in difficult situations.
in a partner.
TOTAL
CONFUCIAN DYNAMISM (high = prefer long-term orientation)
People know very clearly what is
1 2 3 4 5 People work on common goals
Good and what is Bad.
without being so concerned
with what is Good and what is Bad.
1 2 3 4 5 People think everything is relative
People value personal stability
and continuity .
and always changing.
Children must be taught to ask WHY. 1 2 3 4 5 Children must be taught to ask WHAT
and HOW.
Peoples behaviour is always
1 2 3 4 5 People project their actions into
influenced by their roots .
the future.
1
2
3
4
5
People want coherence in
People can live with contradictory
the information they receive.
information.
TOTAL
*multiply your total x4 to get an approximate equivalent to these figures(2001):
PD
UA
IC MAS CD
Australia (AUL)
36
51
90
61
31
Brazil (BRA)
Canada (CAN)
France (FRA)
Germany (FRG)
Great Britain (GBR)
Hong Kong (HOK)
India (IND)
Japan (JPN)
Netherlands (NET)
Norway (NOR)
South Korea (KOR)
Philippines (PHI)
Singapore (SIN)
Sweden (SWE)
Taiwan (TAI)
Thailand (THA)
United States (USA)

69
39
68
35
35
68
77
54
38
31
60
94
74
31
58
64
40

76
48
86
65
35
29
40
92
53
50
85
44
8
29
69
64
46

38
80
71
67
89
25
48
46
80
69
18
32
20
71
17
20
91

49
52
43
66
66
57
56
95
14
8
39
64
48
5
45
34
62

65
23
-31
25
96
61
80
44
-75
19
48
33
87
56
29