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Distinguish clearly between heat and temperature.



Ans. Heat. Heat is a form of energy which produces in us the sensation of hotness or coldness. According to
dynamic theory, heat may be regarded a the energy of molecular motion which is equal to the sun total of the kinetic
energy possessed by the molecules by virtue of their translational, vibrational and rotational motions.
Temperature. Temperature is the degree of hotness or coldness of a body. It may be defined as the thermal
state of a body which decides the direction of flow of heat energy from one body to another when they are placed in
thermal contact with each other. According to kinetic theory, the temperature of a body is the measure of the average
kinetic energy of its molecules.

Define the term thermometry.


Thermometry. The branch of physics that deal with the measurement of temperate is called thermometry.


What is a thermometer? What is its principle?

Ans. Thermometer. Any thermometer makes use of some measurable property of a substance which change
linearly with temperature. Some of the thermometric properties are length, volume, pressure, electrical resistance,
thermoelectric thermo emf, radiated power, etc. Mercury and alcohol are the liquid used in the common liquid in
glass thermometers.
Q .4) What is meant by triple point of water ? What is the advantage of taking triple point of water is the fixed point
for a temperature scale?
Ans. Triple point of water. The triple point of water is the state at which the three phases of water namely ice,
liquid water and water vapour are equally stable and co exist in equilibrium. It is unique because it occurs at a
specific temperature of 273.16 K and a specific pressure of 0.46 cm of Hg column. Thus for water,

Ptr 0.46 cm of Hg
Ttr 273.16 K or 0.01o C
The melting point of ice and boiling point of water both change with pressure. Also, the presence of impurities
changes their values. But the triple point of water has a unique temperature and is independent of external factors. So
the triple point of water is preferred as the fixed point for a temperature scale.
In the absolute Kelvin scale, the triple point of water is assigned the value 273.16 K. The absolute zero is taken as the
other fixed point on this scale.
Q.19) What is meant by coefficient of linear expansion, superficial expansion and cubical expansion of solid?
Derive the relationship between them.

= / 2 / 3,
Show that

where the symbols have their usual meanings.

, and ,

Relation between

Consider a cube of side l . Its original volume is

V l3

Suppose the cube is heated so that its temperature increase by

. Its each side will become

l ' l l l l T l 1 T

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The new volume of the cube will be

V ' l '3 l 3 1 T V (1 3 T + 3 2 T 2 + 3 T 3 )


is small, so the terms containing

2 and 3

can be neglected. Then

V ' = V (1 3 T)


By the definition of the coefficient of cubical expansion,

V ' V








V 1 3 T V

Similarly, it can be proved that


1 2 3

Q.22) Mention some applications of thermal expansion in daily life.






Practical applications of thermal expansion:

A small gap is left between the iron rails of railway tracks. The two rails are joined by fish plates. If no gap
is left between the rails, the rails may bend due to expansion in summer and the train may get derailed.
Space is left between the girders used for supporting bridges. This allows their expansion during summer.
Moreover, the ends of the girders are placed on metal rollers to allow the expansion and contraction to take
place easily with the change of season.
The iron ring to be put on the rim of a cart wheel is always of slightly smaller diameter than that of the
wheel. When the iron ring is heated to become red hot, it expands and slips on to the wheel easily. When it is
cooled, it contracts and grips the wheel firmly.
Clock pendulums are made of invar. Invar is an alloy. It has extremely small temperature coefficient of
expansion. So the length of invar pendulum does not change with the change of season and the clock gives
almost correct time.
A glass stopper jammed in the neck of a glass bottle can be removed by warming the neck of the bottle.
When the neck of the bottle is slightly warmed, its mouth becomes slightly wider. The stopper becomes loose
and comes out easily.
Only platinum wire is used for fusing into glass. This is because the coefficient of thermal expansion of
platinum is almost the same as that of glass.

Q.27) Define the terms heat capacity and water equivalent. Give their CGS and SI units.
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Heat capacity or thermal capacity. The heat capacity of a body is defined as the amount of heat required to
raise its temperature through one degree.
By definition, the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of unit mass of a body is equal to specific
heat c. So heat required for m mass is m x c

Heat capacity = Mass x Specific heat


S = mc

The CGS unit of heat capacity is cal oC-1 and the SI unit is JK-1.
Water equivalent . The water equivalent of a body is defined as the mass of water which requires the same
amount heat as is required by the given body for the same rise of temperature.
Water equivalent = Mass

Specific heat



The CGS unit of water equivalent is g and the SI unit is kg.

Q.30) State the principle of calorimetry. How will you use this principle to determine the specific heat of solid?

Determination of a specific heat of a solid. Suppose a calorimeter of water equivalent




at temperature . Now a solid of mass
heated to temperature
calorimeter. Let T be the final temperature of the mixture.

contains water of

is dropped into the water of the



be the specific heat of the solid and

that of water, then

m1 c ' T T1
Heat gained by water and calorimetry

m2 c T2 T
Heat lost by the hot solid =
Applying the principle of calorimeter for the steady state,
Heat lost = Heat gained

m2 c T2 T m1 c ' T T1


m1 c ' T T1
m2 T2 T

Hence the specific heat c of the solid can be determined by knowing the value of the specific water heat

of water.

Q.34) What is the effect of pressure on melting point of a substance?

Ans. Effect of pressure on melting point. The melting point of those substance which expand on melting (e.g.,
paraffin wax, phosphorus, sulphur, etc.) increases with the increase in pressure while the melting point of those
substances which contract on melting (e.g., ice, cast iron, bismuth etc.) decreases with increase in pressure.
Q.38) What is latent heat? Give its units. With the help of a suitable graph, explain the terms latent heat of fusion
and latent heat of vaporization.

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Ans. Latent Heat. The amount of heat required to change the state of unit mass of a substance at constant
temperature and pressure is called latent heat of the substance.
If m mass of a substance undergoes a change from one state to another, then the amount of heat required for the
process is

Q mL
Where L is the latent heat of the substance and is a characteristic of the substance. Its value also depends on the
pressure. Clearly,


SI unit of latent heat

= J kg 1

CGS unit of latent heat = cal g 1

Latent heat of fusion. The amount of heat required to change the state of unit mass of a substance from solid to liquid

at its melting point is called latent heat of fusion or latent heat of melting. It is denoted by

Latent heat of vaporization. The amount of heat required to change the state of unit mass of a substance from liquid

to vapour at its boiling point is called latent heat of vaporization or latent heat of boiling. It is denoted by
Q.50) What is black body? How can it be realized in practice?
Ans. Black body. A black body is one which neither reflects nor transmits but absorbs whole of the heat radiation
incident on it. The absorptive power of a perfect black body is unity.
When a black body is heated to a high temperature, it emits radiations of all possible wavelengths within a certain
wavelength range. The radiations emitted by a black body are called full or black body radiations.
Black Coat ing

Radiat ion

Inci dent

(a) A black body absorber

(b) A black body emitter

Ferys black body. Ferys black body consists of a hollow double walled metal sphere coated inside with
lamp black and nickel polished from outside. Heat radiations entering the sphere through the small opening are
completely absorbed due to multiple reflections. The conical projection opposite the opening prevents direct

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To use it as a source of heat radiation, the enclosure is heated in a suitable bath to maintain its temperature constant.
The radiations coming out from the small hole are black body radiations.
The wavelength range of emitted radiation is independent of the material of the body and depends only on the
temperature of the black body.
Q.51) State and explain the Kirchhoffs law of heat radiation.

Krichhoffs law . It states that at any given temperature the ratio of the emissive power i.e to the absorptive


corresponding to certain wavelength is constant for all bodies and this constant is equal to the emissive

power of the perfect black body

at the same temperature and corresponding to the wavelength. That is

E (constant)
Hence a good absorber is a good emitter
Illustration. If a polished metal ball with a spot of platinum black on it is heated in a furnace to about 1200 K and
then taken out into a dark room, the black spot appears brighter than the polished surface. This is because the black
spot is a better absorber and hence, by Kirchhoffs law, a better emitter of radiation.
Q.52) State Stefan Boltzmann law. Write the CGS and SI unit of Stefan Boltzmann constant.
Ans. Stefan Boltzmann law. It states that the total amount of energy radiated per second per unit area of a
perfect black body is directly proportional to the fourth power of the absolute temperature of the body.




E T 4

is called Stefans constant. Its value is

5.67 105 erg s 1 cm 2 K 4

5.67 108 Js 1 m 2 K 4 = 5.67 10 8 Wm 2 K 4

Q.53) State and illustrate Wiens displacement law.

Ans. Wiens displacement law. It states that the wavelength
corresponding to which the energy emitted by a
perfect black body is maximum is inversely proportional to the absolute temperature (T) of the black body i.e.,

or m
m T

Where b is a constant of proportionality and is called Wiens constant. Its value is

b = 2.9 103 mK

Illustration. When an iron piece is heated in a hot flame, its colour first becomes dull red, then reddish yellow and
finally white. This observation is an accordance with Wiens law because with increasing temperature, the emission of
energy is maximum corresponding to smaller wavelength.
Importance. Wiens law can be used to estimate the surface temperature of the moon, sun and other stars.
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Q.28) What is calorimetry? State the principle of calorimetry.

Calorimetry. The branch of physics that deals with the measurement of heat is called calorimetry.

Principle of calorimetry or the law of mixtures. Whenever two bodies of different temperatures are placed in
contact with one another, they have share heat till their temperature become equal.
The principle of calorimetry states that the heat gained by the cold body must be equal to the heat lost by the hot body,
provided there is no exchange of heat with the surroundings.
Heat gained = Heat lost.

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