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INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH LITERATURE

EXERCISE FOR FINAL (X7Q)

No.

NAME

NPM

1.

Syavira A. Alatas

201212579049

2.

Ainisyifa Hayatussadiyah

201312500001

3.

Nurul Hesti Sulistyowati

201312500047

4.

Maria goreti

201512579026

OLD ENGLISH PERIOD


1. Who first introduced England to the writing system?
The first person whos introduced England to the writing system is St. Augustinus from Rome,
not only Christianity among the people but also introduced the Roman alphabet to replace the
rune, or symbolic cuts and scratches on woods and stones (The development of English
Literature).
2. Why did Alfred instruct the translation of the Bible into Anglo-Saxon? How?
Alfred instruct the translation of the Bible into Anglo-Saxon because he has a desire to educate
his people, and helped to bring the West Saxon dialect into a strong position as the language of
literature and history.
3. How did England know the writing system in the Old English period?
England knows the writing system in the Old English period through to missionaries who is not
only spread Christianity among the people but also introduced the Roman alphabet to replace
the rune, or symbolic cuts and scratches on woods and stones. And with this new facility, people
could record the oral stories into written works.
4. The invasion by the Norman in the Middle English period lead to changes in the English language
used at that time. Explain
The arrival of the Norman introduced England to French (a language derived from Latin), and the
parallel use of both English and French which is soon after the conquest French became the
language used by educated people meanwhile the Anglo-Saxon (Old English) was spoken only by
uneducated people. This situation use for more than 300 years.
5. What is the name of the epic long poem of the Old English period set in the sixth century?
The name of the epic long poem of the Old English period set in the sixth century is Beowulf.
MIDDLE ENGLISH
1. What is the title of the greatest work by Geoffrey Chaucer in the Middle English period?
The title of the greatest work by Geoffrey Chaucer in the Middle English period is The
Canterbury Tales.
2. These were two kinds of plays when plays were first introduced in the Middle English. They were
miracle plays and mystery plays. Mention the main difference of both plays.
Medieval mystery plays focused on the representation of Bible stories in churches as tableaux
with accompanying antiphonal song. They told of subjects such as the Creation, Adam and Eve,
the murder of Abel, and the last judgment. Meanwhile Miracle plays, or Saint's plays, are

INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH LITERATURE


EXERCISE FOR FINAL (X7Q)
specifically re-enacted miraculous interventions by the saints, particularly St. Nicholas or St.
Mary, into the lives of ordinary people, rather than biblical events.
3. What was the main reason of the introduction of drama in the Middle English? How do we relate
the drama and the Bible?
The main reason of the introduction of drama in the Middle English is to show scenes from the
Bible for an audience who perhaps could not understand the Latin of the Bible. We can related
the drama and the Bible because the play showed the mysterious or miraculous event of the
Bible and the saints lives.
4. The first debate poem which was written in the Middle English is The Owl and The Nightingale, a
verse debate between two birds mentioned in the title about life: to live morally or to live for
pleasures.
RENAISANCE
1. Henry VIII decided to cut the connection with the Catholic Church in Italy. What were the result
of this decision to England?
This decision gave a whole new vision of mans relations with God. The King or queen became
the human being on earth who was closest to God, at the head of the Great Chain of Being
which led down to the rest of mankind, animals, and insects and so on.
2. Shakespeare is more noticeable than Marlowe in English Literature. What are the reasons?
There are three major reasons why Shakespeare is more noticeable than Marlowe in English
Literature; First, when he began to be productive, the other two prominent dramatists (Kyd &
Marlowe) had all died, leaving Shakespeare as a leading dramatist. Second, he had great depth
of vision, linguistic power and scope of poetic expression. Finally, he was able to satisfy an
audience made up of people with very different educational and intellectual backgrounds.
3. Shakespeares plays are divided into four categories. What are they?
1) Shakespeares History Plays
2) Shakespeares Tragedies
3) Shakespeares Comedies
4) Shakespeares Late Plays
4. Why did prose in the Renaissance become a new important form in the Renaissance? How?
Renaissance prose becomes a new important form because it helped to form the modern English
language, and it gives the earliest examples of many forms of writing which later became very
popular. And many form of prose writing reached a wide audience through the new invention of
printing. Travel writing, essays, guide books and political pamphlets all appeared, thats how.
5. Shakespeare is known as the important figure in English Literature. Explain the main difference
between his tragedy and late plays.
The main difference between Shakespeare tragedies and late plays is in the plot, Tragedy focus
on the reversal of fortune of the central character which leads to their ruin and ultimately,
death. Meanwhile the late plays published originally as either tragedy or comedy. They share
some elements of tragedy but end happily like Shakespeares comedies.
6. This play is said to be the most pessimistic tragedy by Shakespeare. It is about a king with his
three daughters which lead to a tragic end merely because of misunderstood love. It is
The King Lear is the most pessimism, where life has lost its meaning.

INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH LITERATURE


EXERCISE FOR FINAL (X7Q)
7. Mention some of Shakespeares late plays.
Shakespeare's late plays are:
Pericles, Prince of Tyre, ca. 160308
Cymbeline, ca. 160810
The Winter's Tale, ca. 160911
The Tempest, ca. 160311
The Two Noble Kinsmen, ca. 161214 (co-written with John Fletcher)
8. Name two great tragedy plays by Christopher Marlowe which tells about how characters with
relentless ambition shall end in the failure.
Dr. Faustus and Tamburline the Great are the drama which Marlowe shows up the excess in his
characters in such a way the audience sees clearly that this final failure is the result of his
ambition.
9. What greatly help the development of literary works in the Renaissance? Explain
Printing Machine greatly helped the development of renaissance. All kind of writing was open to
anyone who could read. In a very short time the Renaissance was worldwide.
10. Who ruled England after King Henry VIII? What accomplishment could England have during the
new monarch?
After King Henry VIII, his daughter Queen Elizabeth ruled England. She became the symbol of the
Golden Age. During the monarch it coincided with the greater economic prosperity that was
resulted from Elizabethans reign which proved to be advantageous for the further development
of literature, especially drama.
COMMONWEALTH AND RESTORATION
1. James VI was the first king of Scotland and England. What differences did he make to England
during his reign?
During James VI reign, colonial expansion and the British Empire began. Many English people
migrated to America. He united England and Scotland and wanted to rule as an absolute morach
without the assistance of parliament.
2. What was the main concern of the Restoration drama and mention a king of drama which was
introduced in this age?
The main concern of the Restoration was to avoid another revolution. The spirit of the
restoration was one of reason. The plays of the time reflect, the manners and morals of the man
and woman who had returned with the king from France so Restoration comedy is often called
the Comedy of manners. King of drama which was introduced in this age is John Dryden, he
produced many works and was one of the first to make his career as a professional author.
3. Tragedy by Shakespeare was made into a new version in Restoration Why?
Because the political side of literature became important during the Commonwealth in a way it
never was before.
4. What is comedy manner? Charles I reign ended with his execution. Why?
Restoration comedy is often called the Comedy of manners because the plays of the time reflect,
the manners and morals of the man and woman who had returned with the king from France. In
Charles I reign, the religious discrimination and absolute monarch broke a civil war between the

INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH LITERATURE


EXERCISE FOR FINAL (X7Q)

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

Royalist or the cavalier and the Roundheads or The Puritans who supported the parliamentary
side and the victory of the Roundheads led to the execution of King Charles I itself.
Why was the theme of Restoration drama different from the one in the Renaissance?
In the renaissance, writers has been occupied with great, general philosophical problems but the
new society of the restoration gave much more importance than before to stable values, and
much less importance to the search for new values or the exploration of new worlds as in
Renaissance.
Under Oliver Cromwell, England was changed to be Commonwealth for about 11 years. What
was the main reason of this?
The main reason was because Charles I discriminate the religious matters to those who were not
member of the Church of England and broke the civil war with the Puritans who had a very strict
religious belief which is not suitable for Christianity.
The theme of Restoration drama was different from the one in the Renaissance. Why?
In the renaissance, writers has been occupied with great, general philosophical problems but the
new society of the restoration gave much more importance than before to stable values, and
much less importance to the search for new values or the exploration of new worlds as in
Renaissance.
A prose by John Bunyan is possibly the most widely read of all books in the English literature.
What is the title and what is the prose about?
The tittle of John Bunyan prose is The Pilgrims Progress. It is an allegory and also a dream-vision,
like many mediaeval texts. It described on his journey through this life toward the world which is
to come.
What was the cause of the civil war between the royalist and the roundheads?
The religious discrimination and absolute monarch broke a civil war between the Royalist or the
cavalier and the Roundheads or The Puritans who supported the parliamentary side.
During the restoration, there was restriction made regarding to drama Explain.
Since the puritans succeeded and Cromwell becomes the leader of the common wealth, they
closed all the theaters because they believed drama is an entertainment which is not suitable for
Christianity.

AUGUSTAN
1. During both in the Commonwealth and Restoration, there was restriction made regarding to
drama but based on different reason. Explain.
In Commonwealth theaters closed because they believed drama is an entertainment which is
not suitable for Christianity, but in Restoration, it is to prevent the risk of another revolution and
self-interest as the driving force behind the individual and the new middle classes.
2. What is Jonathan Swifts satire works which is in four parts?
Jonathan Swifts satire which is in four parts titled Gullivers Travels.
3. In the Augustan, publication on society and manners started to emerge. Give examples.
London was more concerned with the society and manners and with the gossip of the coffee
houses, which were the center of Londons literary life in the first half of the century. For
Examples; The Gentlemans Journal, The Gentlemans Magazine, The Tattler and The Spectator.
4. This work by Robinson Crusoe praises the human spirit which is inspired by a true story, it is

INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH LITERATURE


EXERCISE FOR FINAL (X7Q)
Robinson Crusoe was inspired by the story of Alexander Selkirk who had actually been on a
desert island for many years.
5. What happened to the development of drama in the commonwealth? Explain
Theatre and drama were not any longer the main form of literary exploration, the novel was
becoming the most important literary genre.
6. Audiences of the Augustan were different from the one in the Renaissance. They refused to have
violence performed on stage as once in the Renaissance. Explain by focusing on the plays by
Shakespeare.
Ideas about Shakespeare that many people think of as typically post-Romantic were frequently
expressed in the 18th and even in the 17th century. The only aspects of Shakespeare's plays that
were consistently disliked and singled out for criticism in the 18th century were the puns
("clenches") and the "low" (sexual) allusions.
ROMANTIC
1. A psychological poem by William Wordswort in which the individual searches for personal
understanding is entitled.
The Prelude
2. Who is Marry Shelley?
Marry Shelley is the wife of Percy Bysshe Shelley and also an author of a later Gothic novel,
Frankenstein who shows and extraordinary world in which a living being is made by a Genevan
student from the bones of the dead, but become a monster which nobody can control.
3. What are Jane Austen famous works in romantic age? What is the main focus of her works?
Jane Austen famous works are Pride and Prejudice, Emma and Mansfield Park, her main focus is
in the moral, social and psychological behavior of her characters. She writes mainly about young
heroines as they grow up and search for personal happiness.
4. Samuel Taylor Coleridge is one of the greatest Romantic writers. He and William Wordswort
published the Lyrical Ballads. What is Coleridge best poem included in the Lyrical Ballads?
The Rime of the Ancient mariner is one of the four poems by Samuel Taylor Coleridge in Lyrical
Ballads and become his best-known poem.
VICTORIAN
1. What is the title of novels by Charles Dickens which tells about the misfortunate conditions of
children in the Victorian Period?
Charles Dickens novels which tell about the misfortunate conditions of children are Oliver Twist
and Nicholas Nicleby.
2. Some of great woman writes are the Bronte sisters. One of them is Emily Bronte who is famous
for her work entitled Wuthering Heights.
3. Detective story was another genre of novel which became popular in the Victorian. At first they
were called as Novels of Sensation

1. The major figure of Old English literature is Bede. What is his best known book until today? Bede,
known as the Venerable Bede a monk, theologian, historian and chronologist wrote many books,
mostly about the Bible but he best known today for his Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum
(Ecclesiastical History of the English People)
2. Name some famous playwright before Shakespeare? Thomas Kyd and Christopher Marlowe
3. Who was known as the Prince of Poets? Edmund Spenser
4. What is the title of John Miltons epic poem which uses the English Myth of King Arthur? Paradise
Lost
5. Satire became an important kind of poetry. One of the work is Absalom and Achitophel which was
written by John Dryden
6. Name two acts which were issued as a reponse to plays satirizing politicians and the false values of
the society? The Beggars Operas and the Historical Register for the Year 1963
7. The rise of the novel from the early 1700s was encouraged by the coming of some woman writers.
Mention some early women writers in that age. Aphra Behn and Mary de la Riviera Manley
8. What is the title of Samuel Richardsons novel which is narrated through letters? Pamela
9. Name some writers of the early gothic novels? Horace Walpole, Edmund Burke, Clara Reeve, Ann
Radcliffe, etc.
10. Explain the concept of the Graveyard School? A poetry which is concern with death and delightful
gloom came about twenty years before similar ideas in the Gothic novel
11. Mention some names of literary magazines which emerged in the Augustan? The Gentlemans
Magazine, The Tatler and The Spectator
12. The Augustan and Romantic saw feelings and logical thinking differently. Explain? For Augustans,
feeling and imagination were dangerous; for Romantics, reason and the intellect were dangerous
13. Explain some reasons of Sir Walter Scotts popularity? He writes about revolution, history and social
change and about characters from all levels of society. He was popular because he defined clear
unchanging values in a world of rapid changes, and created exciting plots and characters
14. Name some social problems occurred during the reign of Queen Victoria? This was an age of
extremes: The working classes were poor, and lived and worked in terrible circumstances; the
middle classes grew rich and comfortable. There were double standards in this society
15. Mention some political turmoil occurred which led to the end of the success of England?

16. George Elliot is a pen name for one famous woman writer. Who is she? Mary ann evans.
17. Queen Victorias favorite elegy was In Memoriam by Lord Tennyson. What is the elegy about?
It is an elegy to a friend, Arthur Hallam who died young, its tone of regret and loss. And when queen
victoria become a widow on the death of her husband, in memoriam become her fav.

UAP 2016/2017

The Canterbury Tales ~ The greatest work by Geoffrey Chaucer which is actually a linked stories of
about 30 pilgrims on their way from Tabard Inn in Southwark to the shrine of Thomas a Becket
King Lear ~ One of Shakespeare tragedy plays which is said to be the most pessimistic play
Lyrical Ballads ~ A collection of poems by William Wordswort and Samuel Taylor Colleridge which
marks the beginning of Romantic movement in literature.
Oliver Twist ~A work by Charles Dickens which focuses on the social problems faced by the people in
Victorian.
Frankenstein ~ A work by Marry Shelly which can be seen as one of the first modern science fiction
novel. It tells about an extraordinary world in which a living being is made by a Genevan student
from the bones of the dead but becomes a monster which nobody can control.
Gullivers travels ~A novel by Jonathan Swift which is divided into four parts and written as a strong
social criticism.
Sense and Sensibility ~ A novel by Jane Austen in which she contrast two sisters, Elinor who is
rational and self-controlled and Marianne who is more emotional.
Wuthering Heights ~ The only novel written by Emiliy Bronte, set in rough countryside of Yorkshire.
The novel shows how the central characters, Cathy and Heathcliff present a new view of woman and
emotion.
The Prelude ~ A psychological poem by William Wordswort in which the individual searches for
personal understanding.
The Spectators and The Tatler ~ Literary magazine published in the Augustan which play as an
important media in expressing ideas and a point of view, setting standards of taste and judgment of
the time.

The first settlers of the British island were the Celts, before the Norman Conquest, Angles, Saxon
and Jutes who came from the Northern Germany invaded Celts of England.
Two kinds of plays in Middle English were called mystery and miracle plays which is showed the
mysterious and miraculous events of the Bible and the saints lives.
King Alfred instructs the translation of the Bible into Anglo-Saxon because he has a desire to educate
his people and helped to bring the West Saxon dialect into a strong position.
Henry Viii decided to cut the connection with the Catholic Church in Italy and made himself the head
of the Church of England so the king and queen became the human being on earth who was closest
to God.
Epistolary Novel ~ A novel told through the medium of letters, written as a stories of documents.
Jane Austen is known for her famous novel entitled Pride and Prejudice.
Oliver Cromwell is the leader of the Puritans who made himself the Lord of Protector.
Queen Elizabeth became the symbol of the Golden Age.
Detective story were called novels of sensation. Sherlock Holmes are the character in the novel by
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.


The arrival of the Norman introduced England to French (a language derived from Latin). And soon
after the conquest French become the language used by educated people meanwhile The Anglo
Saxon (Old English) was spoken only by uneducated people. The situation of two parallel languages
in daily use in the same country lasted for more than 300 years.
Printing machine greatly helped the development of renaissance. All kind of writing was open to
anyone who could read. In a very short time the Renaissance was worldwide.
Shakespeares History Plays (ex: Henry V, Henry Vi, Henry VII, Julius Caesar, Antony & Cleopatra)
Shakespeares Tragedies (ex: Hamlet, Romeo & Juliet, King Lear, Othello, etc.)
Shakespeares Comedies (ex: As you like it, the twelfth night, the comedy of error, etc.)
Shakespeares Late Plays (ex: Pericles, Prince of Tyre, The winters tale, The Tempest, etc.)
Of all the tragedies King Lear is the most pessimism, where life has lost its meaning. It is about a king
with his three daughters which lead to a tragic and merely because of misunderstood love. Lear
gives his land and power to two of his daughters, Goneril and Regan, but they treat him badly. His
third daughter, Cordelia, who really loves him, is, however, misunderstood by his father. There is no
real hope for the future at the end of the play, as Lear words show. His daughter Cordelia lies dead
in his arms.
Theater were closed in Commonwealth period because the roundheads or the Puritans (also known
as the non-conformist who supported parliamentary side succeeded in civil war, led by the Oliver
Cromwell. And because the Puritans had a very strict religious belief and think that entertainment
like dramas was not suitable thats why they banned it.
The playwright of the Restoration make a new version of tragedy by Shakespeare because the
characteristics of restoration plays has changes, it reflect the manners and morals , it gave much
more importance than before to stable values and it made the Shakespeares plays became more
lite in plot.
UAP, UPM & SUSULAN

French literature different from the Anglo Saxon which was humorous less in spirit, hard in
vocabulary and monotonous in alliteration.
The features of French literature that the Normans imported to England are clarity of expression,
varied verification, varied moods and themes.
There are two famous literary works in Old English Period: The Battle of Malden and Beowulf which
are written in rich and powerful language, full of new words, new tones, and new rhythms and with
many images of light, colors and actions.
The characteristics features of Middle English literature; English got mature and widespread to every
strata of society, high moral values, religion become less important than enjoying life, people
prevented it from further advance and the Norman at the conquest had no literature to offer.
A ballad is a form of verse, often a narrative set to music, it was during Middle English period when
Robin Hood began to appear. These are initially in oral form, and they generally reflect daily life of
lower class people in England at this time.

The impact of printing machine to literary works at Middle ages is in literary, the first books to be
printed were bibles but when William caxton and his assistant brought printing to England in the
1470s, they began to print literary works. The first of which was a story of king Arthur and the knight
of the round table by sir Thomas malory published in 1485 (La morte dArthur).
The period of renaissance means re-birth it is an intellectual movement which especially refers to
the revival of ancient Greek and Latin learning in Europe that took place from about 1500-1600.
3 writers of this period and their literary works are:
1) John lily (Euphemism Style) ~ 1554-1606; Endymion, The man in the moon, etc.
2) Thomas Kyd (drama & melodrama) ~ 1558-1595; The Spanish Tragedy.
3) Christopher Marlowe (greatest dramatist) ~ 1564-1593; Tamburline the great, Dr. Faustus, The
Jew of Malta and Edward II.
Dr. Faustus by Christopher Marlowe considered as a tragedy plays because the story based on the
German legend of a man who for the sake of universal knowledge sold his soul to the devil so the
story itself has a twist of fortune and complex investigation of character and motive which in
Elizabethan called as tragedy play.
Three major reasons why Shakespeare occupied a place of supreme importance in English literature;
1) When he began to be productive the other two prominent dramatists kyd and Marlowe had all
died leaving him as a leading dramatist
2) He had a great depth of vision, linguistic power and scope of poetic expression
3) He was able to satisfy an audience made up of people with very different educational and
intellectual backgrounds.
During commonwealth era many English migrated to America; some in the hope of making financial
profits and other in order to find religious freedom and freeland.
The causes of the hundred years war with France was because Edward III of England through his
mother Isabella of France, attacks on lands he own in France and declares himself King of France
to control the kingdom.
The characteristics of Restoration drama is often called the comedy of manners the plays reflect the
manners and morals of the men and women who had returned with the king of France.
The main subjects of comedy drama in Restoration period was love but there were new concern
developed from the earlier city comedy.
Gullivers Travels by Jonathan Swift is divided into four parts. It considered as a satire because it
observes another world in which ordinary human actions are criticized when performed by
extraordinary characters.
1) Gullivers travels to Liliput, where he meets the very small inhabitants
2) Gullivers Travels to Brobdignag, where the people are enormous
3) Gullivers Travels to Laputa, where he rescued by the flying island of laputa
4) Gullivers Travels to Houyhnhnms, where he meets the cultured horsed and compared their
ways with the nasty monkey-like yahoos who represent humanity.
The lake poets were a group of English poets who all lived in the lake district of England. The 3 main
figure of what has become known as the lake school were William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor
Coleridge, and Robert Southey.

Wordswort worked closely with the poet S. taulor Coleridge but they are very different poets,
coleridges poetry is more about extraordinary and supernatural world meanwhile wordswort about
day to day ordinary world.
Oliver Twist is the second novel by Charles Dickens, it is notable for its unromantic portrayal of
criminals and their sordid lives as well as for exposing the cruel treatment of the many orphans in
London in the mid-19th century. Oliver twist become the early example of the social novel.
In Oliver twist, Oliver bed treatment in an institution for the poor and working for criminals
meanwhile Nicholas life in Yorkshire school where he suffers terribly the sufferings of children a man
theme of Dickens writing.
Hard times by Charles dickens described the situation of England at that time, industry is contrasted,
with the freedom of the individual and the whole novel present a very pessimistic picture of
England.
Gothic novel is a novel which set in medieval times with castles and ghosts appearances and
disappearances, and a whole range of frightening effect, it explored extremes of feeling and
imagination. Gothich writers and thir works;
1) Horace walpoles ~ The castle of otranto
2) Edmund Burke ~ The Sublime and the beautiful
3) Clara Reeve ~ The old English baron
4) Ann Radcliffe ~ the mysteries of udolpho
The main interest of Jane Austens is in the moral, social and psychological behavior of her
characters and her most well-known novels is pride and prejudice, Emma, etc.
Woman writers in victorian period;
1) Elizabeth Gaskell ~ Hary barton, north & south
2) Charlotte bronte ~ Jane Eyre
3) Emily Bronte ~ Wuthering Heights
4) Anne Bronte ~ The tenant of wildfell hall\
Renaissance Literature
Bought in influence of Latin (comedy and tragedy)
Consist very little action and a lot of blank verse
Appealed only to limited audience well-educated people
Augustan Literature
The head controlled the heart
Felling and imagination were dangerous
Individual spirit is more important
Romantic Literature
The hear controlled the head
Reason and the intellect were dangerous
Society is more important