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Indian Economy

Friday, September 04, 2015

2:01 PM

Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.
Inclusive growth and issues arising from it
Government Budgeting

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24 September 2015


Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing
of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers
Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations,
revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing

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24 September 2015


Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations,
revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing

Direct Cash transfer instead of PDS

The central government gazetted the Cash Transfer of Food Subsidy Rules on 21 August 2015.
Issues with PDS: lot of leakage in transportation, distribution, corruption
Prons of DCT:

Reduce corruption and leakages(Theft, Rotten).

It would enable the poor to access goods currently denied them by a PDS beset by corruption.
buy better quality food of their choice from the open market
bypass brokers as well as reduce the waste and holding costs of storing grains in government silos.
It would also help reduce fiscal deficit by curbing expenditures earmarked for the PDS that are siphoned off through corruption, as well as avoiding
substantially higher costs of transferring food rather than cash.

It is possible for people to spend cash transfers not on more nutritious food but instead on non-food items
Research confirms that culturally decisions relating to cash in households tend to be made by men
Decisions relating to food are made by women in almost all cultures, and therefore food rather than cash in a household is more likely to end up as food
in a childs stomach.
Many rural are not reachable to banks, while 3 villages in every four are having PDS beset.
PDS supplies rations at a constant price, irrespective of the fluctuations in market prices.
Cash transfer can also have corruption, we know about corruption in direct pension transfer
It's may be easier to curb down corruption and leakage rather than making every family aware of cash usages for food only

Q: It is found that slashing fertilizer subsidy altogether could save the government over Rs 1 lakh crore a year. Is it possible to remove fertilizer
subsidy completely? Should it be removed? Critically examine.
Fertiliser subsidy is an integral part of the Green Revolution strategy to unburden the farmer of input costs and raise agricultural productivity.
Consequences of completely removing the subsidies are below
1) Poor farmer already reeling under high debt and uncertainty comes under high input costs
5) Farmers need to lend money, will increase debt, and so as the tension, cases of suicide may increase which can unstable the condition of
6) In case higher cost of fertiliser poor farmer may not afford it, and in absence of proper fertiliser crop yield may be less
2) Food inflation rises as cost of producing food increases
6) In case higher cost of fertiliser poor farmer may not afford it, and in absence of proper fertilizer crop yield may be less
3) Indian agricultural produce becomes less competitive in international market where farmers enjoy greater subsidies
4) Increase in contract farming whereby the contractor subsidies all inputs and farmer becomes tenant on his own land
There also are certain benefits of stopping fertiliser subsidy altogether:
1) Judicious use of fertiliser starts, NPK+Urea nutrient level balance achieved and soil quality improves
2) Shift to organic fertiliser / compost and other natural inputs, making crops healthier
3) Shift to GM crops that need less fertiliser
4) improvement in fiscal discipline and meeting fiscal deficit target becomes easier
Thus, there are slightly more costs to removing Fertiliser subsidy than there are benefits. What is suggested instead:
1) this subsidy be better targeted using JAM trinity
2) more target based subsidy is needed, and phase-off be gradual and slow
3) innovative repurposing of fertiliser plants for neem-coating, organic fertilisers
4) ensuring bank-credit mechanism to fall back on if subsidy is removed.

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4) ensuring bank-credit mechanism to fall back on if subsidy is removed.

However, with the fall in oil and natural gas prices internationally, cost of producing fertiliser has come down, thus there is not much need to phase
out this subsidy in the near future.

Q: It is argued that subsidising crop insurance premium and running subsidised health insurance program are fraught with risks and are not
sustainable in the long run. Critically examine why.
Subsidising Crop Insurance Premium(CIP) & Health Insurance Programme (HIP) is being said risky and unsustainable in long-run:
1) Encourage Risk Taking : While farmers may choose sub-optimal cropping pattern, persons may lack on preventive caring measures.
2) Prevalent High co-relative risk : While agriculture is susceptible to poor monsoon and extreme wheather events (recent 2 sucessive droughts), Health
sector is fraught with various vector-borne diseases (Dengue, Malaria etc) and cardiovascular diseases.
3) Corrupt practices can force insurance companies to withdraw, or may cause more financial burden on government.
4) Collection inefficiency : It may not show interest while collecting premium as the deficit will be financed by the Government, no matter how much the
deficit ( promised in Pradhan Mantri Fasal Beema Yojana).
5) Attractive buisness : Giving such role to market forces in critical sector like Agriculture and Health, may result in profit-making for private players at
the cost of interests of farmers and patients .
However, CIP & HIP can be said sustainable in long term and risk free because :
1) More Disposable Income : Higher expenditure burden on government will leave patients and farmers with more disposable income which can
increase the quantum of economic activity by boosting their purchasing power & lead to sustainable growth.
2) Accessibility : Programmes usually remained unsustainable because of low coverage. Here Low premium prices would incentivise farmers and
patients to get access to insurance scheme in a large number.
3) Decreasing Government's burden : Insurance programmes would lead to gradual productivity of agriculture and health sector leaving less and less
dependable thereby reducing government's fiscal burden with progress of time.
Government's objective is commendable but its solution response to the problem needs some corrections to meet its objective as well as in costeffective way :
1) Fix the Accountability of the private insurance provider with respect to premium collection.
2) Continuous monitoring of the scheme so that efficiency can be infused during implementation time.
3) An independent commitee of experts can be set for proper evaluation of outcomes and submitting report after every 6 months.
Ext: besides providing insurance people should be encouraged to have better life style, hygiene, encourage to practice yoga, provide clean drinking
water, better sanitation facility.
Better irrigation facility and advance technology can help in increasing productivity.
Q: The union government has announced that it would introduce a Bill in the current budget session for targeted delivery of financial and other
subsidies, benefits and services by using the Aadhaar framework. Discuss the significance of this move.
Union govt initiative to use Aadhaar based framework for targeting beneficiaries is a welcome step because1) It has proven its efficacy in LPG subsidy through DBT.
2) Helpful in removing fake or ghost beneficiaries
3) It will substantially decrease the govt. expenditure on subsidies because of low admin cost
4) Bring more transparency and accountability in public service.
5) It will be a step towards financial inclusion and digital governance.
However there are certain issues relating to it1) Through legislation Aadhaar will be made compulsory for any subsidy which is against SC order.
2) Still there are people who do not have Aadhaar or their details in them are faulty.
3) Aadhaar is not the proof of nationality hence can be used by illegal migrants.
4) Poor banking infrastructure in rural areas will be a stumbling block.
5) Protection of private information in Aadhaar.
Though Aadhaar has proved its efficacy in LPG subsidies but to make it full-proof govt has to take various steps so that the issues arising out of it will not
hamper the growth story of the poof.

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Food Security
24 September 2015


Issues of buffer stocks and food security

Ensuring food security has become a burning issue in the wake of burgeoning population. In this regard, two approaches are being put forward: TAD
and MSF to making food security a reality
"Tinker with agricultural details"(TAD) refers to increasing agricultural productivity and hence farm output. This is traditional view of achieving food
Pros: Affordable, does not require drastic changes already lot of work is going on, only requires effective utilisation of resources and change in lifestyle
Cons- short term solution as Earth's ecological capacity is limited and agricultural productivity can be increased to a certain extent.
For example, TAD in India are: Green revolution, Organic farming, Soil health card, SRI technique (The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is a
methodology aimed at increasing the yield of rice produced in farming. It is a low water, labor-intensive, organic method that uses younger seedlings
singly spaced and typically hand weeded with special tools.) etc. These aim to improve farm productivity.
"Mend societal fundamentals"(MSF) refers to control of basic societal fundamentals in terms of existing inequalities, higher population etc. Thus the
women empowerment, use of contraception, family planning program etc will come under MSF. Also more than food availability it is food
affordability which plays an important role in food security. For that the income inequalities must be reduced by creating enabling environment.
MSF example can be family planning, achieving an optimum fertility (same mentioned under National population policy- 2000), ASHA model, 10%
surcharge on people earning more than 1 crore rupees per year, promoting MSMEs and Dalit capitalism etc.
Long term solution, does not put stress on resources, reduction in population growth is achievable
Cons- requires time to change societal mindset
Traditionally TAD has been the driver of food security but there is a limitation on how much it can provide. Majority of Scientist believes that we
should work on TAD but TAD can help in short term goals, in long run both TAD and MSF have to complement each other.

Q: Can genetically modified (GM) food crops ensure food security in India? Why has government allowed GM cotton but not GM food crops for
cultivation in India? Do you think its time for India to start cultivating GM food crops? Critically comment.
Genetically Modified Crop involves artificial insertion of genes of organism belonging to another biological kingdom. GM crops have been touted
as the harbinger of food security in India. This is being contended because of the following reasons GM crops offer a viable alternative as they increase crop yields by 22%, reduced chemical pesticides by 37% and increased farmer profits by 68%.
GM crops can be made to tackle climate changes i.e. heat waves, droughts and chilled conditions by insertion of appropriate genes and thus
acreage of crops can be increased
Productivity and nutrient amount can be enriched that will ensure availability of balanced diet e.g. Golden rice has Vitamin A
Ability to tackle attacks by pest and common plant diseases will keep pilferages under check
In India, Bt Brinjal and Bt Cotton were the first crops to get permission. Being the first one, these crops were started as an experiment to test out
their viability. After many discussions and other effects on environment government stopped the production of Bt Brinjal, However the production
of Bt cotton is allowed, as it is not edible and having less impact on human health.
GM cotton has shown a mixed picture and is now being criticized for being vulnerable to Whitefly attacks shows that some of the claims were
GM seeds cannot be reused and Monsanto holds the monopoly in supply of GM seeds. Thus, in the long run this create dependency on a foreign
GM crops are immune to antibiotics and their consumption by human beings can lead to anti-microbial resistance among them thus rendering
antibiotics ineffective in case of disease
However, going ahead with GM crops may sow the seed of second green revolution and tackle the climate change problems. However before
allowing GM food crops below things need to be take care of
India has less-than-robust regulatory environment for genetically modified organisms. Department of Biotechnology is the regulator as well as
the promoter of GM crops. Setup different department for promotion and regulator.

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the promoter of GM crops. Setup different department for promotion and regulator.
Allow each GM crop for small production on pilot basis and observe the environment effect of that. Analyze weather GM crop is really pest
resistance as it is claimed to be along with impact of climate.
Pros and cons must adequately weighed before moving ahead on decision regarding cultivation of GM crops, when government is having all that
analysis in favor of GM food crops then it would be right time to allow their production at large scale.
#GMCrops #BTCrops

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Technology missions
24 September 2015


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Animal Rearing
24 September 2015

Economics of animal-rearing


Transportation of animals falls under the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960 that came into force in 1978 It is criticized as it was a non-cognizable
offence and the penalty was Rs. 50.
Kerala government has amended center vehicle rule to insert a clause for transportation of animal.
Vehicle must have to have separate compartment of pre defined size for different animals, same vehical can't be used for any other purpose. Special
Licenses for such vehicles.
#Animal Protection

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Food Processing
24 September 2015


Food processing and related industries in India- scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management
A sweet banana species with orange pulp named as Musa indandamanensis has been discovered in Andamans. It was discovered by the Botanical
Survey of India (BSI) from a remote Krishna Nalah tropical rain forest on the Little Andaman islands.
Musa indandamanensis is thrice the size of a regular banana species and has unique green flowers and fruit bunch lux.
Q: The recent Union Budget has given a thumbs-up to domestic food processing, with the proposal to permit 100 per cent foreign direct investment in
the marketing of food products made in India. Discuss the implications of allowing 100 percent FDI in food processing sector.
Positives Implications:

Increase food processing industry so will increase employment

Raw food products demand will increase
High demand, high prices to farmer if proper e-market is setup and rules and regulation are farmed
High competition, high production may bring down product price, good for consumer
Will boost export, government revenue will increase , more investment on priority things
Negative Implications:

May put extra burden on natural resources, not good for sustainable development
May harm local industry
May modify the crop pattern of farmer to produce only food in demand
#FoodFDI #FoodProcessing

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Land reforms in India

Land Reform
24 September 2015


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Industrial Policies
24 September 2015

Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects
on industrial growth


Global Competitiveness Report by World Economic Forum (WEF) has moved up India to 16 position at 55th. Switzerland is on top.
Business leaders still consider corruption to be the biggest obstacle to doing business in the country, followed by policy instability, inflation, access to
finance, government instability and inadequate supple of infrastructure, among others.
Though infrastructure in the country has improved (81st, up six places), it remains a major growth bottleneck, electricity in particular.
The government budget deficit has gradually dropped since its 2008 peak, although it still amounted to 7 per cent of GDP in 2014, one of the highest in the
world (131st)
#Business #Trade #Infrastructure

EY (Ernst & Young) survey on 500 investors ranked India as most favorable destination. China is on 2nd followed by Brazil.
Investors preferring to invest on Smart city project and infrastructure projects. Reasons for investors attractions are
Macroeconomic stability, Political stability, Relaxation in FDI, Governments efforts on ease of doing business, digital India, hope of decreasing corporate
tax from 30% to 25%, GST
Investors rated Indias domestic market and availability of labor among the most attractive features for doing business.
Red tape, poor infrastructure, and complex investment rules were prime hindrance for investors till now.
#Development #Growth #Globalization
Anti-dumping duties: It is counter import measure used by a country under the multilateral World Trade Organisation (WTO) regime to protect its
domestic producers and market from below-cost/cheap imports. It varies from product to product and from country to country.
Finance Ministry has imposed anti-dumping duties on imported Chinese auto parts used in commercial vehicles for a period of five years.
Other products having anti dumping duties are Fully-drawn/oriented yarn, spin-drawn yarn and flat yarn of polyester, fibre mostly product imported
from China, Thailand, Malaysia
#Tax #Import
Shri Venkateswara Mobile and Electronics Manufacturing Hub in Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh. It is countrys first dedicated mobile manufacturing
electronics cluster to be established in lines with Union Governments flagship MakeInIndia initiative.
In this hub, Foxconn which is worlds largest contract manufacturer of electronics already has started its operations for manufacturing brands such as
Xiomi and Gionee.
Other important mobile brands like Micromax, UTL (Karbonn) and Celkon are also planning to start their manufacturing operations in this hub.
The first of its king hub is expected to create more than 10,000 jobs within a year. By the year 2019, it will contribute at least 5 per cent of the all-India
target of 15 lakh jobs.

Privatization or Disinvestment
If the government wants, it could move on disinvestment aggressively without needing any legislative approval and brinkmanship. Instead, its
floundering around, trying to restructure and improve these companies without a clear game-plan.
Maharatnas, are performing well. Their return on capital and return on assets have been higher than those of comparable corporate firms by 4%
and 2%, respectively. Hence, for now, the plan could leave the Maharatnas in state hands. Maharatnas include BHEL, Coal India, GAIL, Indian Oil,
However, even in this category the situation has seen a reversal of trends in the last three years. Few Maharatnas are showing a continuous
decline in performance. Therefore, among the Maharatnas, SAIL, BHEL and Indian Oil need serious restructuring and better leadership.
The performance of the 17 Navratnas is consistently worse than that of comparable private corporates, with return on capital roughly 2% lower
compared to equivalent private firms.
This is the group that should be privatisedespecially Bharat Electronics, MTNL, NMDC and Oil India.

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This is the group that should be privatisedespecially Bharat Electronics, MTNL, NMDC and Oil India.
The category of Miniratna is formed by 73 companies, and these are the ones that are most ripe for strategic disinvestment. A plan to sell most
of these companies should be developed, with those in manufacturing and the services sector high on the list for immediate sale as these are
the worst performers.
Pros of Privatization
The PSUs which were strategically disinvested under the previous NDA government have done exceedingly well, thereby enhancing efficiency
and improving the return on assets.
The proceeds of the disinvestment could be parked into the strategic investment fund established recently. If these proceeds are used to
leverage private funding of the same magnitude, India could be able to invest an additional $50 billion per yearroughly 2.5% of GDPin
public infrastructure for the next 10 years.
It will unlock funds for building badly-needed social infrastructureroads, power transmission lines, sewage systems, irrigation systems,
railways and urban infrastructure.
This will also help draw in private investment, including FDI

Even though it is mandatory to implement the Section 135 of the Companies Act 2013, the desired result is not seen on the ground. In your opinion
how the provisions of this Section can be implemented effectively? Critically discuss.

Q. Critically analyse the provisions of union governments Start-up India plan and the challenges that lie in its implementation.
Critically analyse the provisions of union governments Start-up India plan and the challenges that lie in its implementation.
Tailoring policy to get the government out of the way of start-ups was the underlying theme at the StartUp India
Significant Provisions of Startup India are as follows
1) A sum of 10000 crore rupee to facilitate funding for next four years.
2) Self certification for compliance related to labour law and environmental laws
3) No Labour-law inspection for next three years.
4) Relaxation in norms for public procurement.
5) Tax exemption for first three years and relaxation of capital gains
6) Support for legal issues and filing for patents was also promised
7) More Incubators and 500 new laboratories with 3D printing facilities
Challenges in Implementation
1) To be eligible for schemes, start-ups will have to show that their innovation has "significantly improved" existing processes, here bureaucracy
will come in picture, projects may be delayed while getting approval for eligibly, it may leads to corruption, as it's on bureaucrats to judge the
2) only companies which satisfy the government's restrictive definition of a start-up - "driven by technology or intellectual property"
3) The government cannot target or identify innovation; only the market can. The government should focus on creating conditions for
4) Needs to get approval from inter-ministerial board to be eligible for tax benefits.
5) De-domiciling of Indian startups, for example Flip-kart is registered in Singapore
5) Labour rights may be compromised as self certification is needed and no inspection for 3 years
Benefits of Startup India
Will increase the employment
Will decrease the brain drain
Will promote the Make In India
Q: It is said that countries across the world are de-industrialising. What do you understand by de-industrialisation? Why is it happening? Can
India buck this trend? Examine.
Reduction in the size or share of the manufacturing sector in an economy is referred as De-industrialising. It leads to both social and economic
changes in a particular region, due to reduction in industrial activities.

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This trend is an outcome of interplay between different factors like

Increased productivity in manufacturing sector because of enhanced labor skills and automation reduced the demand for new labor
Increasing share of tertiary or service sector in the economy as a sign of developed economy
Ageing population of developed economies that creates a shortfall of workers e.g. in Japan
Sluggish global demand post 2008 crisis and Eurozone crisis
Growth of labor intensive industries in developing economies leading to shifting of manufacturing industries in these countries
Shifting of manufacturing industry in developing countries, fulfilling the demand of global consumer, so less demand in local industries
Climate change is also causing the shutdown of pollution exhaustive industries.
It is being argued that this trend can engulf India too as India is consistently registering higher growths in the services sector. Further, innovations
in S&T and emphasis on skill education will improve the productivity and reduced the demand for workers. However, such concerns may be
misplaced because-

India is spearheading 'Make in India' program that seeks to rejuvenate the manufacturing sector
Various policies and programs like NIMZ and National Manufacturing Policy are in practice
Improved productivity as an outcome of automation will create jobs in capital industries
Foreign Trade Policy 2015 seeks to explore new markets for manufactured good and hence an increase in demand for workers
India has not seen it's Industrial era properly, with young and cheap labor forces it is highly likely that India will buck this trend.

Q: The mobile phone industry is said to be a bright spot amidst economic gloom in India. Yet, its said that the increasing penetration of smartphones
and mobile technology will be facing major challenges in coming days. Examine these challenges and measures needed to overcome them.
Mobile Technology in India has been growing exponentially but it is said that the industry will be facing major challenges in the coming days. These
challenges are Infrastructure still remains a problem
Increased competition with limited spectrum would lead to major problems for the consumer. Ex- call drop, reduced network speed, poor network
Lower broadband penetration in villages leads to digital divide.
Affordability and digital literacy are major setbacks.
Further increased competition would lead to price war between telecoms which would hinder start ups.
Security threats comes along with the advancement, need to develop better antivirus programs to protect consumer information.
Proper implementation of schemes like BharatNet, Digital India would solve major bottlenecks like Internet penetration, infrastructure and digital
Infrastructure sharing should be facilitated.
More mobile friendly apps and antivirus would be needed. This would also require funding. Start up India is a good step in this direction.
Involvement of private sector via Project Loon is a welcome step.
Govt should simplify its regulations and ease taxation so that the end consumers do not have to bear the cost.

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Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc

24 September 2015


Sagarmala initiative
A comprehensive plan to develop Andaman & Nicobar and Lakshadweep islands, for an integrated modernization of the region.
The Sagarmala project seeks to develop a string of ports around Indias coast. The objective of this initiative is to promote Port-led development along Indias
7500 km long coastline.
The Union Ministry of Shipping has been appointed as the nodal ministry for this initiative.

Supporting and enabling Port-led Development through appropriate policy and institutional interventions
Port Infrastructure Enhancement, including modernization and setting up of new ports
Efficient Evacuation to and from hinterland.
Development of island, tourism, fisheries etc.
A National Sagarmala Apex Committee (NSAC) is envisaged for overall policy guidance and high level coordination
The NSAC shall be chaired by the Minister incharge of Shipping, with Cabinet Ministers from stakeholder Ministries and Chief Ministers/Ministers incharge of
ports of maritime states as members.

Develop these islands under the Swiss challenge system

Process of giving contracts. Any person with credentials can submit a development proposal to the government. That proposal will be made online and a second
person can give suggestions to improve and beat that proposal
This method is approved by SC in 2009, already used by many states like Gujarat, AP, MP, Bihar for road contracts.
It will benefit around 14 per cent of countrys overall population from at least 13 States and Union Territories. If inland waterways programme is included in it
will benefit at least 55 per cent of all population.
#Waterways #Development #Ports #Trade

Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (JNPT), Countries largest container port, 4th terminal project has started which will increase the capacity of EXIM from 4.5 million
container to 10 million container. After this project this will be in top 15 ports of the world, currently its in 31th.
It will be executed by Bharat Mumbai Container Terminal (BMCT), a subsidiary of Port of Singapore on a design, fund, built, operate and transfer (BOT) basis.
At present, JNPT operates one of the three terminals at the port while the other two are operated by DP World and APM Terminals.
#Export #Import #Infrastructure

The Kaladan project connects Sittwe Port in Myanmar to the India-Myanmar border.
Jointly initiated by India and Myanmar to create a multi-modal platform for cargo
shipments from the eastern ports to Myanmar and to the North-eastern parts of the
country through Myanmar.
It is expected to open up sea routes and promote economic development in the
North-eastern states, and also add value to the economic, commercial and strategic
ties between India and Myanmar.
This project will reduce distance from Kolkata to Sittwe by approximately 1328 km
and will reduce the need to transport good through the narrow Siliguri corridor, also
known as Chickens Neck.
The project is being piloted and funded by the Ministry of External Affairs (India).

Alternate Train Accommodation Scheme (ATAS) VIKALP

For online booking, passenger will get to opt for seat in another train based on availability. It is not guaranteed that passenger will get a confirm seat but
chances are more now. Source and terminating station may get changed to nearest possible cluster stations.
As per the scheme, there would be no extra charges taken from the passenger or any refund provided for the difference of fare.

Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI) is the statutory authority in charge of the waterways in India.
Center agreed to include the stretch of the river Godavari from Nasik in Maharashtra to Rajahmundry in Andhra Pradesh in the revised National
Waterways Bill, 2015 for national waterways -4.

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Mobile operators will have to compensate 1 rs for each call drop, maximum 3 in a day.
Call drop may occur if signal strength of mobile tower of telecom operator goes below the minimum acceptable single to make a call.
It may also even occur due to interference created by bad environmental conditions and because of improper hard handoff if user is moving from one cell
to another cell.
#Network #Telecommunication

Bibek Debroy Committee on railway reforms has given following recommendations

Accounting reforms
Streamlining recruitment processes
It must distance itself from non-core activities such as running schools and hospitals
Nuclear Reactor
India has very modest deposits of uranium and some of the worlds largest sources of thorium.
1954 Homi Bhabha envisioned Indias nuclear power programme in three stages from country resouces of Uranium and Thorium.

1) Heavy water reactors fuelled by natural uranium would produce plutonium.

2) Fuelled by a mix of the plutonium and natural uranium [ 0.7% uranium-235, 99.3% uranium-238, and a trace of uranium-234 by weight (0.0055%)]. This
uranium would transmute (Transmutation is the conversion of an atom of one element to an atom of another through nuclear reactions. Induced nuclear
transmutation is transmutation which is induced by scientists by striking the nuclei with high volume particles) into more plutonium and once sufficient
stocks have been built up, thorium would be introduced into the fuel cycle to convert it into uranium 233 for the third stage.
3) In the final stage, a mix of thorium and uranium(233) fuels the reactors. The thorium transmutes to U-233 as in the second stage, which powers the
reactor. Fresh thorium can replace the depleted thorium in the reactor core, making it essentially a thorium-fuelled reactor even though it is the U-233
that is undergoing fission to produce electricity.
Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) at Kalpakkam, India is finally ready to start the second stage. It will take many more such fast breed reactors and 4
decade to have enough inventory to start stage 3rd.
India can overcome the shortage of fissile material (Plutonium) by procuring it from the international market. No such international treaty which can
forbid the procurement of Plutonium. UK and Japan are looking for reducing their stockpile of Plutonium.
Nuclear power is the fourth-largest source of electricity in India after thermal, hydroelectric and renewable sources of electricity
Emphasise on Thorium reactors:

Thorium reactors produce far less waste than present-day reactors.

The minuscule waste that is generated from these reactors is toxic for only three or four hundred years rather than thousands of years.
Thorium reactors are cheaper because they have higher burnup.
Thorium reactors are significantly more proliferation-resistant than present reactors. This is because the U-233 produced by transmuting thorium also
contains U-232, a strong source of gamma radiation that makes it difficult to work with. Its daughter product, thallium-208, is equally difficult to handle
and easy to detect.


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Nuclear Weapon
India has boosted its nuclear triadnuclear-armed strike aircraft, land-based inter-continental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) and sea-based submarinelaunched ballistic missiles (SLBMs)and now has a strong nuclear deterrence capability vis-a-vis its nuclear-armed neighbours. Such [a triad] essentially
increases the deterrence potential of the states nuclear forces. Nuclear triad insures that enemy can't destroy whole nuclear capability of a country in
first strike, so attacking country will have the threat of getting response from attacked country.
Pakistan China, Russia, UK, France and US are having more warhead than India.
Although having more warheads than your opponent does not necessarily translate to greater security.
This is largely because nuclear weapons are weapons of mass destruction,
meant primarily to scare and deter, usually ending in a situation of strategic stalemate
between countries that possess nuclear weapons.
The possibility of mutually assured destruction, or MAD, as it is commonly known,
also prevents their use in the subcontinent.
No first use. Thats the declared essence of Indias nuclear doctrine, adopted in January 2003.
It says India will use atomic weapons in retaliation against a nuclear attack on Indian territory
or on Indian forces anywhere. The retaliation, said the report, will be massive and designed
to inflict unacceptable damage.
India also declares it will not use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear weapon states.
Under the leadership of Javahar Lal Nehru, India pursued a policy aversion for nuclear weapon. However, The 1962 Sino-Indian war, and Chinas
decision to conduct nuclear tests in 1964, led Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri to authorise the theoretical framework for what wasironicallytermed
a Subterranean Nuclear Explosion for Peaceful Purposes (SNEPP).
The SNEPP culminated in Pokhran I, Indias first peaceful nuclear explosion on May 18, 1974, when Indira Gandhi was Prime Minister. After a 24-year
pause, India conducted five nuclear weapons tests in May 1998 when Atal Behari Vajpayee was Prime Minister.
The plutonium used for the device was obtained from the Canada-India-US Research Reactor (heavy water for the reactor came from the US),
according to the Federation of American Scientists.
Heavy water (deuterium oxide (2H 2O ) is a form of water that contains a larger than normal amount of the hydrogen isotope deuterium (2H or D, also
known as heavy hydrogen)
This led to international sanctions on India, which severely hampered Indias nuclear weapons programme. More importantly, this event led to the
creation of the Nuclear Suppliers Group. The NSG was established in 1975, and its members commit themselves to exporting sensitive nuclear
technologies only to countries that adhere to strict non-proliferation standards.
India remains outside the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). However,
India has a facility-specific safeguards agreement in place with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and a waiver from the Nuclear Suppliers
Group (NSG) allowing it to participate in global civilian nuclear technology commerce.
The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, is an international treaty whose
objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to
further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament
A total of 191 states have joined the Treaty, though North Korea, which acceded to the NPT in 1985 but never came into compliance, announced its
withdrawal in 2003.[2] Four UN member states have never joined the NPT: India, Israel, Pakistan and South Sudan.
Main objectives of NTP are ...
disarmament, and
the right to peacefully use nuclear technology
Despite being the member of NTP and permanent members of UNSC US, UK, France, Russia, China are still having amount of nuclear warhead and
disarmament process is very slow. This is why India is not joining it and criticizing it. These five states have 22,000 warheads.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit
its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons. The IAEA was established as an autonomous organization on 29 July 1957. Though
established independently of the United Nations through its own international treaty, the IAEA Statute, the IAEA reports to both the United Nations
General Assembly and Security Council.
The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is a multilateral treaty by which states agree to ban all nuclear explosions in all environments, for
military or civilian purposes. It was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 September 1996 but it has not entered into force due to the
non-ratification of eight specific states. states that need to take further action for the treaty to enter into force: China, Egypt, India, Iran, Israel, North
Korea, Pakistan, United States.
If India will go for more nuclear weapon production then it can cost it UNSC permanent member seat. It may encourage other countries to compete.
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If India will go for more nuclear weapon production then it can cost it UNSC permanent member seat. It may encourage other countries to compete.
NSG may prohibit the supply of nuclear material for energy purposes. It may damage the image of India as peace spreading country.

Ujwal DISCOM Assurance Yojana (UDAY). UDAY provides for the financial turnaround and revival of Power Distribution companies (DISCOMs)
There are three chief reasons for the accumulation of the liability:
1. Tariff hikes not keeping pace with the rise in costs. (Area to take care by UDAY)
2. Pilferage
3. Transmission losses
Why to Support DISCOMs
Discoms are having huge dues of around 4 lakh crore, huge loss will effect the power supply, which will impact the public life and economic
growth. It will also effect the digital India and make in India missions.
Defaults on bank loans will impact the Banking sector.
As per UDAY:
States to issue bonds to banks as repayment for discom dues.
Impact of UDAY: financial picture of DISCOMs can be significantly improved and DISCOMs can buy enough power to meet aggregate demand in
their domains.
UDAY is not covering below issues

Smart metering.
Upgrading of transformers.
Separating agricultural connections at the transformer level.
Use of efficient LED bulbs, agricultural pumps, fans & air-conditioners
UDAY is seen as good example of cooperative and competitive government.
Rating agency Crisil believes that by fiscal 2018, UDAY can potentially reduce the power companies losses by 50%.
#Energy #Power

Solar Energy
Prime Minister Modi recently launched International Solar Alliance (ISA) in Paris on the sidelines of the climate change summit.

This international alliance brings together developing and developed countries to expand energy access, accelerate solar power deployment
The alliance will function from the National Institute of Solar Energy in India, Gurgaon.
The Centre will provide land and $30 million to form a secretariat for the Alliance, and also support it for five years.
Alliance would pursue are, cooperation in training, building institutions, regulatory issues, common standards, and investment including joint ventures.
The alliance has the potential to propel international solar markets forward while fighting climate change, improving global health and boosting
#Energy Conservation

Germany would provide concessional loans in the range of one billion Euros over the next five years through Kreditanstalt fur Wiederaufbau (KfW) under
MoU for Solar Energy development, fund will help India achieve its ambitious target of having 100 GW solar power generation capacity by 2022 under
the National Solar Mission.
Q. Briefly examine the aims of the International Solar Alliance (ISA), the International Renewable Energy Agency, Renewable Energy Policy Network,
Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership and Global Green Growth Institute. Also examine Indias role in these institutions.
International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) is an intergovernmental organization
Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century(REN21), is a global renewable energy multi-stakeholder policy network that provides international
leadership for the rapid transition to renewable energy
Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP) is a Vienna-based non-profit, non-governmental organisation
Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) is a treaty-based international organization headquartered in Seoul, Republic of Korea.
All of these institutions are related to green energy and having many common aims

Research and Develop cost effective and efficient tech for renewable energy.
Creating network for collaborated research, providing training.
Developing standards for solar energy, providing certification for renewable energy sources.
Investing in renewable energy projects, providing more pollution free means of energy requirements.
Bringing together governments, non governments institutes, academics, private players to work together to make plan for sustainable goal using

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Bringing together governments, non governments institutes, academics, private players to work together to make plan for sustainable goal using
renewable energy sources.

National Investment and Infrastructure Fund (NIIF)

The Fund aims to attract investment from both domestic and international sources.
The governments contribution would be limited to 49% of the subscribed capital.
The government will seek participation from strategic investors such as sovereign fund, quasi sovereign funds and multilateral or bilateral
investors, which can help leverage this fund to many times.
Cash-rich PSUs, pension funds, provident funds, National Small Saving Fund will be able to pick up stake in the fund.
The fund was registered as a category II alternative investment fund with the Securities and Exchange Board of India (Sebi) recently.
The finance ministry has appointed India Infrastructure Finance Co. Ltd (IIFCL) as investment adviser to NIIF and IDBI Capital Market Services
Ltd as an adviser to NIIF Trustee Ltd initially for six months and one year respectively.
#FDI #Development
River Information Services (RIS) are combination of modern tracking equipment related hardware and software designed to optimize traffic and
transport processes in inland navigation.
The system enhances swift electronic data transfer between mobile vessels and shore (Base stations) through advance and real-time exchange of
The first of its kind in India, the new system will facilitate safe and accurate navigation on National Waterway 1 on the Ganges River.
RIS is being implemented under the overall responsibility of Inland Waterway Authority of India, a statutory body administered by the Ministry of
This would facilitate:Enhancement of inland navigation safety in ports and rivers.
Better use of the inland waterways (More ships can traverse without accidental risks )
Environmental protection (By avoding collision with Ships hence by reducing unwanted splitting, avoid collision with big mammals )
RIS enables achievement of safe and efficient inland water transport by avoiding the following risks:Ship- to Ship collisions
Ship Bridge collisions
#InfrastructureDevelopment #Trade

Q: Recently, the union government proposed key civil aviation reforms. Discuss the significance of these reforms.
Increase in competition along with the capacity to reach to larger number of consumers has proved to be crucial for growth of many sectors in Indian
economy. Civil aviation reforms proposed recently is seen as a step to increase the competitiveness in the aviation sector while transforming the sector
as safe , secure , affordable and sustainable.
Various initiatives that are a part of the Civil Aviation Policy are Proposal to replace 5/20 rule - Removal of mandatory obligation of running the business for minimum of 5 yers and the flight capacity of 20 flights
encourages new companies with high potential in providing efficient services and creates a pro consumer environment as high competition is created.
Improving regional connectivity- Improving regional connectivity by providing fiscal assistance and revamping of air ports accompanied by Replacing 5/20
rule with domestic flight credits improves domestic connectivity.
Open sky proposal - Proposal to provide mutual open access to various countries with in the range of 5000 km will allow Indian companies to increase
the number for flights to SAARC countries , European nations etc without any restrictions. As well as open sky policy will bring down the price of the
Auctioning bilateral landing will bring down the price, will give more chance to small entities.
Increase in the international cap from 49% in aviation sector helps more FDI in the sector and increase in competition .
Aviation Safety- Strengthening of Aircraft accident and investigation agency will help in faster and efficient investigations during unexpected events.
Improving Maintenance industry - Improving the domestic industry for maintain and repairing of Aircrafts will reduce the current dependence on
foreign countries for these services.
Improving the Air Navigational Services offered by india with adaptation of latest technology will benefit the industry as will allow export of these
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Thus , the proposal for the civil aviation policy has many initiatives that can improve the efficient of the sector and also have multi faceted benefits
ultimately benefiting the Indian economy , however efficient implementation of the initiatives at a faster pace can only determine the results .

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Investment models
24 September 2015


Buildoperatetransfer (BOT):
It is a form of project financing, wherein a private entity receives a concession from the private or public sector to finance, design, construct, and operate a facility stated
in the concession contract.
In the BOT framework a third party, delegates to a private sector entity to design and build infrastructure and to operate and maintain these facilities for a certain period.
During this period the private party has the responsibility to raise the finance for the project and is entitled to retain all revenues generated by the project and is the owner
of the regarded facility.
The facility will be then transferred to the public administration at the end of the concession agreement, without any remuneration of the private entity involved
According to CRISIL Ratings, around 7,500 km of highway projects in India 5,100 km under construction and 2,400 km operational awarded between FY10 and FY12 on a
build, operate, transfer (BOT) basis are at high risk.
The removal of restriction on exit clause can allow developers to sell stakes in some projects and raise about Rs 5,000 crore. These funds can be used to turn around
stressed projects, meet existing commitments and also as growth capital.
On delay of project, contract increase the cost, which also a reason for intentional delay. Banks gives more money to contractor as loan then the cost of recovering assets
due to which banks are facing huge loss, it could be part of scam also. Road sector is the second most non performing sector after steel.
#Highway #Funds #Borrow #Investment #BOT #Road

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SnT developments
24 September 2015


Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life

Takaaki Kajita of Japan and Arthur McDonald of Canada have won the 2015 Nobel Prize in physics for discovering the chameleon-like nature of
neutrinos, work that yielded the crucial insight that the tiny particles have mass.
Neutrinos change identities as they whiz through the universe at nearly the speed of light
Neutrinos are miniscule particles created in nuclear reactions, such as in the sun and the stars, or in nuclear power plants. There are three kinds of
Neutrinos interact with matter via the weak force. The weakness of this force gives neutrinos the property that matter is almost transparent to them.
Since they rarely interact, these neutrinos pass through the Sun, and even the Earth, unhindered.
They are electrically neutral, weakly interacting elementary subatomic particle with half-integer spin. They are the second most widely occurring particle
in the universe after photons which are the particles makingg up light.
Neutrinos are the second most bountiful particles after photons, which carry light, with trillions of them streaming through our bodies every second,
but their true nature has been poorly understood.
It belongs to the lepton family. There are three types of neutrinos: electron neutrinos (ve), muon neutrinos(vu) and tau neutrinos(vT) differing in terms
of mass.
#Universe #Neutrinos #Discoveries

Team of scientists have discovered two complex organic molecules viz. Ethyl alcohol and a simple sugar known as glycol+aldehyde on a comet.
These two complex organic molecules are considered as building blocks of life. This discovery on a comet may shed light on the cosmic origins of earth i.e.
provide important clues to the hypothesis that a falling comet collided with earth, leading to the origins of life.
The research was done using a 30-metre long telescope at the Institut de Radioastronomie Millimetrique locaed in Sierra Nevada in Spain.
It was conducted in January 2015 when the Comet Lovejoy was closest to the Sun and was brightest and most productive.
Comet Lovejoy was releasing as much alcohol as in five hundred bottles of wine every second during its peak activity. They also had detected 21
different organic molecules in gas released from the comet along with the ethyl alcohol and simple sugar.

INS Vikramaditya is a Kiev class aircraft carrier which was commissioned by Russian Navy in 1987 under the name Baku.
Under the Russian control it last sailed in 1995 before being offered to India. Russia sold the carrier to India after it became too expensive for the country
to operate it on a post-Cold War budget.
Presently, the carrier is the flagship and centre-piece of the Indian Navys operations and is under the administrative control of the Flag Officer
Commanding-in-Chief (CIC), Western Naval Command (WNC), Mumbai and is part of the sword arm of Indian Navy.

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A method to efficiently turn human stem cells into retinal nerve cells that transmit visual signals from the eye to the brain.
Death and dysfunction of these cells cause loss of sight in conditions like glaucoma and multiple sclerosis (MS).
A naturally occurring plant chemical called forskolin on the first day of the process helped improve the cells efficiency of becoming retinal cells.
Clones are organisms that are exact genetic copies. Every single bit of their DNA is identical.
Clones can happen naturallyidentical twins are just one of many examples. Or they can be made in the lab
There are two ways to make an exact genetic copy of an organism in a lab: artificial embryo twinning and somatic cell nuclear transfer.
1. Artificial Embryo Twinning
In nature, twins form very early in development when the embryo splits in two. Twinning happens in the first days after egg and sperm join, while
the embryo is made of just a small number of unspecialized cells. Each half of the embryo continues dividing on its own, ultimately developing into
separate, complete individuals. Since they developed from the same fertilized egg, the resulting individuals are genetically identical.
Artificial embryo twinning uses the same approach, but it is carried out in a Petri dish instead of inside the mother. A very early embryo is separated
into individual cells, which are allowed to divide and develop for a short time in the Petri dish. The embryos are then placed into a surrogate mother,
where they finish developing. Again, since all the embryos came from the same fertilized egg, they are genetically identical.
2. Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), also called nuclear transfer, uses a different approach than artificial embryo twinning, but it produces the same
result: an exact genetic copy, or clone, of an individual. This was the method used to create Dolly the Sheep.
Somatic cell: A somatic cell is any cell in the body other than sperm and egg, the two types of reproductive cells. Reproductive cells are also called
germ cells. In mammals, every somatic cell has two complete sets of chromosomes, whereas the germ cells have only one complete set.
Nuclear: The nucleus is a compartment that holds the cell's DNA. The DNA is divided into packages called chromosomes, and it contains all the
information needed to form an organism. It's small differences in our DNA that make each of us unique.
Transfer:To make Dolly, researchers isolated a somatic cell from an adult female sheep. Next they removed the nucleus and all of its DNA from an egg
cell. Then they transferred the nucleus from the somatic cell to the egg cell. After a couple of chemical tweaks, the egg cell, with its new nucleus, was
behaving just like a freshly fertilized egg. It developed into an embryo, which was implanted into a surrogate mother and carried to term. (The transfer
step is most often done using an electrical current to fuse the membranes of the egg and the somatic cell.)
Ethical Issues:
Most pro-life supporters believe that a fertilized ovum is a full human person. When its nucleus is removed during cloning, that person is, in effect,
Large scale cloning could deplete genetic diversity. It is diversity that drives evolution and adaptation.
Proponents of animal rights argue that non-human animals possess certain moral rights as living entities and should therefore be afforded the same
ethical considerations as human beings.
There may be expectations that the cloned individuals would act identically to the human from which they were cloned, which could infringe on the
right to self-determination.
It might effect relationships. For example, a child born from an adult DNA cloning from his father would be, in effect, a delayed twin of one of his
parents. That has never happened before and may lead to emotional difficulties.

Big data is a broad term for data sets so large or complex that traditional data processing applications are inadequate. Challenges include analysis,
capture, data curation, search, sharing, storage, transfer, visualization, querying and information privacy.
Term Big data is also refers to processing very large set of complex information to extract a meaningful inferences from that. Analysis of data sets
can find new correlations to "spot business trends, prevent diseases, combat crime and so on.
1. Gene sequencing : Big data provided essential tools for analysing the characteristics of different genes.
Big data analytics has helped healthcare improve by providing personalized medicine and prescriptive analytics
2. GMO : Applications in R&D of Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) and toxicity analysis of GMO using data acquired through field trails and

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2. GMO : Applications in R&D of Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) and toxicity analysis of GMO using data acquired through field trails and
clinical trails.
4. Agriculture : Better pest resistant varieties, High yielding varieties could be developed by analysing the genetic data from diverse crops.
5. Animal husbandry : Applications in hybrid breed development, cloning technologies, etc.
6. Climate change and biodiversity : Better climate resilient crops should be developed, analysing plants, seeds, crops from biodiversity hotspots cant
be done manually.
Apart from biotech Big data has wide range of applications in intelligence, security, education. All these can help in good governance if utilised for
bonafide purposes.
Immuno-oncology is a targeted therapy that activates our immune system, enabling it to selectively recognise cancer cells and destroy them.
This form of treatment uses or enhances the patients own immune system to be able to stop the growth of cancer cells. For example, many NSCLC
cells have molecules on the surface of tumor cells known as PD-L1. Patients have immune cells that fight disease known as T-cells. T-cells usually
recognize cancer cells as being foreign and attack the cells. However, if a cancer cell has the PD-L1 molecule on its surface, the T-cell no longer
recognizes it as abnormal. Drugs that block this molecule make the cell visible to T-cells so it can now be attacked.
A biomarker is something that can be used as an indicator of a particular disease state or some other physiological state of an organism. They
provide biological data which can be used to predict drug failures and also allow scientists to identify patient pools that would respond favourably
to a particular drug, it will save time and resources spent on clinical trials.
Recently Indian scientists birke new grounds by idnetifying a biomarker for Alzheimer's.
A companion diagnostic is a medical device (often in vitro), which provides essential information for safe+effective use of a corresponding drug or
biological product.
A biosimilar is a biologic drug which is almost an identical copy of the original manufactured by a different company. They are officially approved
and can be manufactured after expiry of patent.
Potential It will not only provide affordable access to citizens but will also be hugely beneficial for Indian pharmaceutical companies that develop high
quality biosimilars.
Application They provide affordable healthcare especially in developing + least developed countries.

The Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), also called Mangalyaan is a space probe orbiting Mars since 24 September 2014. It was launched on 5
November 2013 by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). It is India's first interplanetary mission and ISRO has become the fourth space
agency to reach Mars, after the Soviet space program, NASA, and the European Space Agency. It is the first Asian nation to reach Mars orbit, and
the first nation in the world to do so in its first attempt.
The primary objective of the Mars Orbiter Mission is to showcase India's rocket launch systems, spacecraft building and operations capabilities.
Specifically, the primary objective is to develop the technologies required for designing, planning, management and operations of an
interplanetary mission. The secondary objective is to explore Mars' surface features, morphology, mineralogy and Martian atmosphere using
indigenous scientific instruments.
Li-Fi is a communication technology which uses visible light spectrum and is also called Visible Light Communication (VLC)
Comparison of Li-Fi with Wi-Fi technology:
-> Wi-Fi uses radio spectrum whereas Li-Fi uses visible light spectrum (and some part of UV and IR spectrum)
-> Wi Fi can't penetrate into water whereas Li Fi can do with ease
-> Speed of Li Fi is 100 times faster than Wi Fi
-> Li Fi can be restricted within opaque structure (like house) but Wi Fi have access even outside opaque structure
-> Wi-Fi is more harmful as Wi-Fi creates electronic pollution and can affect living organisms
Advantage of Li Fi and potential in India:
Li-Fi can be used in marine technology and finds utility in submarines, naval operations etc.
Li-Fi can be used at places like hospitals, nuclear plants and petrochemicals where Wi-Fi can't be used as it's harmful
Li Fi can create a secure Local network (as it is packed inside an opaque structure) and can be used by our intelligence agencies

Q. What do you understand by optogenetics? Examine how is it different from CLARITY another related method. Also discuss applications
of CLARITY and Optogenetics.

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of CLARITY and Optogenetics.

Optogenetics and Clarity are recent scientific methods devised to enhance the study of the human brain. Both however differ in their reach and
efficacy though serving the same function.
OPTOGENETICSIn optogenetics specific targetted cells are infused with a gene that directs the production of a light-sensitive protein (derived from algae or
other microbes) that can then turn brain cells on or off in response to a focussed light signal. Thisilluminates the brain, enabling researchers
to manipulate electrical activity. This process however doesn't give the picture of the brain in it's entirety. Hence, Clarity was developed to fill in
the gaps.
CLARITY-This process makes brains transparent, by building a hydrogel inside the brain, removing lipids and fats that make the brain opaque.
This allows scientists to study the wiring of a three-dimensional brain in its entirety, without having to laboriously dissect and reassemble tissues
as has been the practice. Clarity has been developing faster than optogenetics for it's enhanced results.
APPLICATIONS- Both can be used in figuring out the mechanisms of psychiatric disorders like Alzheimer's, Parkinsons and other mental
conditions like anxiety, stress and frustration.

Q: Technological change is an endogenous factor in growth and Internet is technology at its best. Discuss how internet tools such as e-commerce
can help in growth and development of rural regions in India.
With boost to internet penetration through initiatives like Digital India, NOFN (National Optical Fiber Network), Project Loon and Free Basis
internet tools can help in growth of rural regions in India esp through e-commerce:
1. Provide large and global market place for indigenous local products, art and craft.
2. National Agriculture Market e-Platform: It will help in price discovery, enable efficient trading system and better distribution of food between
food deficit and surplus region and provide for better remuneration for farmers. Government both union and states should work together to make it
a possibility.
3. With improvement in rural incomes ,the e-commerce will provide rural buyers with lots of choice in terms of buying high quality seeds, fertilizers,
pump set and other consumer goods etc without commuting to urban areas.
4. E-Banking can bring a lot of changes, rupay card can be used which is associated with Jhan dhan yojana, it will give villagers opportunity to
mandatory use card.
However it is important that e-commerce is driven by the rural people rather than private players from outside. Model like rural cluster level etailers and Taobao model of China can be emulated.
Other then E-commerce below are other benefits of Internet in rural areas
E-grievances Platform: This can be utilized very well, it would be easy for grieved people to lodge their concern efficiently to correct departments,
and resolution would also be fast as every thing would be in record, it will increase some accountabilities.
Education: Whole internet is kind of huge library which can be utilized with some training. Many reputed institutes started uploading their
curriculum, e-library. Lot of training courses are available online related to different competitive exams, this will save huge cost of rural students
who can't afford to move to cities and join costly coaching.
Policy: Government can utilize internet using some specific sites to make villagers aware about it's policies and benefits.
Many cases people can fill e-forms for policy related claims.
Apply online for many government related initiative and stay updated.
Health: E-medicines platform can be used efficiently to deliver medicines. People can make themselves aware of basic diseases.
Social Integration: Villages can get themselves updated what is going in external world using social platforms, e-news, can access and reach to many
The National Optical Fibre Network (NOFN) is a project initiated in 2011 and funded by Universal Service Obligation Fund to provide broadband
connectivity to over two lakh (200,000) Gram panchayats of India .The project provides internet access using existing optical fiber and extending it
to the Gram panchayats. The project was intended to enable the government of India to provide e-services and e-applications nationally. A special
purpose vehicle Bharat Broadband Network Limited (BBNL) was created as a Public Sector Undertaking (PSU) under the Companies Act of 1956 for
the execution of the project.
Project Loon is a research and development project being developed by Google X with the mission of providing Internet access to rural and remote
areas. The project uses high-altitude balloons placed in the stratosphere at an altitude of about 18 km (11 mi) to create an aerial wireless network
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areas. The project uses high-altitude balloons placed in the stratosphere at an altitude of about 18 km (11 mi) to create an aerial wireless network
with up to 4G-LTE speeds.
Users of the service connect to the balloon network using a special Internet antenna attached to their building. The signal travels through the
balloon network from balloon to balloon, then to a ground-based station connected to an Internet service provider (ISP), then onto the global
Internet. It can be used to provide internet services in case of disasters.
Q: Write a critical note on the BharatNet project.
Ans: BharatNet project is modified version of National optical fibre network, aims to provide broadband connectivity to around 2.5 lakh gram
panchayats of India.
Availability of maximum 100Mbps bandwidth to each gram panchayat
Boost to digital India- e-goverance, e-education, e-commerce, e-healthcare
Since gram panchayats are most highlighted unit, this project is expected to be beneficial for our agricultural families (mKisan)
Helpful in spreading financial inclusion (e-banking), woman empowerment esp. dalit & tribal women (DISHA), women safety (Himmat)
Despite the Centre having agreements with the state governments for getting the right-of-way available free of cost, officers involved in the
implementation have reported back that whenever they go to lay the optical fibre, they run into construction and population issueseven in the
fields, the farmers have objections
RoW involves a wide number of agencies including state governments, forest departments with the infrastructure requirement of digging land for
laying the cable. Trai has flagged those issues and the solutions are not easy as it requires a lot of streamlining of policy.
Complicated design of connectivity between BSNL & optics
Very expensive project , need efforts to get stakeholder involved in PPP model. Allow private sector to generate revenue from extra capacity. For
instance, if the private company builds up the fibre network and 50 per cent of it is used by BharatNet, it can make money the way it wants from the
remaining unutilised 50 per cent
AP has asked Center to provide fund as support and they will handle this project, following this TN and Gujarat are also demanding same
It aimed to leverage the existing fibre optical network of Central utilities BSNL, RailTel and Power Grid and laying incremental fibre wherever
necessary to bridge the connectivity gap between panchayats and blocks. Bharat Broadband Network limited.
Robust administrative & governance framework for non-discriminatory access to fibers for operators
Adequate human resource & technological tools.
management of right-of way by coordination among all the stakeholder
plans were afoot to execute work for 1 lakh GPs, which was later scaled down to 50,000 GPs, data up to March 2015 showed that only about 20,000
GPs had been covered under the NOFN just about 40 per cent of the planned target. As on December 6, 2015, optical fibre cable (OFC) laying in
32,272 GPs had been completed and 76,624 kilometer fibre laid, according to latest government data.
mKisan SMS Portal for Farmers has empowered all Central and State Government
Organizations in Agriculture & Allied sectors (including State Agriculture Universities,
Krishi Vigyan Kendras, Agromet Forecasts Units of India Meteorological Department, ICAR
Institutes, Organization in Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries etc.) to give
information/services/advisories to farmers by SMS in their language, preference of
agricultural practices and locations.
USSD (Unstructured Supplementary Service Data), IVRS (Interactive Voice Response
System) and Pull SMS are value added services which have enabled farmers and other
stakeholders not only to receive broadcast messages but also to get web based services on
their mobile without having internet. Semi-literate and illiterate farmers have also been

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USSD (Unstructured Supplementary Service Data), IVRS (Interactive Voice Response

System) and Pull SMS are value added services which have enabled farmers and other
stakeholders not only to receive broadcast messages but also to get web based services on
their mobile without having internet. Semi-literate and illiterate farmers have also been
targeted to be reached through voice messages.
As part of agricultural extension (extending research from lab to the field), under the
National e-Governance Plan - Agriculture (NeGP-A), various modes of delivery of services
have been envisaged. These include internet, touch screen kiosks, agri-clinics, private
kiosks, mass media, Common Service Centres, Kisan Call Centres
Digital Saksharta Abhiyan (DISHA): The Digital Saksharta Abhiyan (DISHA) mission was launched on 21 August 2014 that envisages providing digital
literacy to non IT literate citizens. The scheme imparts IT training to 52.5 lakh persons that include Anganwadi and ASHA workers and authorised
ration dealers in all the States/UTs across the country.
Disha handbook that has pictographic lessons on computers operations. This initiative was taken by Ministry to spread out digital literacy in
women from tribal and Dalit background in Bihar. To promote digital literacy government has initiated training program under Digital Saksharta
Abhiyan in all states. The training is conducted in collaboration with Intel, which is working with the Common Service Centres (CSCs) for the
purpose of digital literacy in India. So far Intel has trained over 200 Dalit women and aims to train over 500 women in Bihar.
Himmat is women safety mobile application of Delhi Police.

Q. What do you understand by astrobiology? Discuss its applications and achievements of India in this field.
Ans: Astrobiology is the study of the origin and evolution of life process on the Earth and the distribution of various life forms on it ,and other
parts of the Universe. Astrobiology plays a profound role in tracing the beginning of life forms on the Earth and finding other habitable celestial
bodies in the Universe ,along with the possibility of the existence of aliens ,the enigma that has made the world wonder for so many years.
Biology is specialized in study of life at micro level, Astro is about study of Universe.
Some application of astrobiology are:1. finding the origin and evolution of different life forms on the Earth,apart from already established by the biology discipline .
2.tracing the evolution of various topographical features on the Earth,for ex ,studying the origin of springs etc.
3. searching for other habitable places in the solar system and outside of it.
4. carrying research on the possibility of water and air on other planets. The Mars Mission( Curiosity rover ) by NASA and ( Mangalyan) by
ISRO ,are such few projects .
Achievements of India in the field of astrobiology are :-India's space agency ISRO launched ,Mangalyan, its maiden Mars Mission ,creating a history by being the lowest costed mission to Mars carried so
far, for studying its land-forms and tracing the possibility of water.
-- India is also planning to launch its second Mars Misison with collaboration from France ,possibly in 2020.this time, by landing a land rover on the
red planet's surface.
--.India is also involved in the Spaceward Bound programme, which is a NASA project that educates future space explorers and funds expeditions
to places with extreme climate conditions. For this ,it is setting an expedition to Ladakh along with the NASA , to study the topographical features
there .
Before Ladakh, there have been expeditions to the deserts such in Atacama, Chile; Mojave, California; Arkaroola, Australia as well as the Arctic and
Antarctica, organised since 2006.

Q : What do you understand by cognitive computing? Discuss its applications and its significance for India.
Cognition is psychological result of perception, learning and reasoning. So, Cognitive computing is the simulation of human thought processes
in a computerized model. Cognitive computing involves self-learning systems that use data mining, pattern recognition and natural language
processing to mimic the way the human brain works.
Cognitive computing is the subset of Artificial Intelligence.
Developing a machine/system which can process thought like human brain as well as in much more faster speed may bring enormous benefits
to human kind.
Applications and Significance for India:
Currently IBM's has developed a system to work on cognitive computing known as Watson, RBI may use this system to understand how pattern,
sentiments of investors, which is actually Big data and can be analyzed by a machine only.

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sentiments of investors, which is actually Big data and can be analyzed by a machine only.
Use in HealthCare: Standard systems can be developed to analyze disease pattern across various patients it will help in developing application
to treat the diseases in faster and efficient way.
Business: Few Indian companies has started using cognitive computing system to learn about the requirement of consumer, by analyzing their
like, dislikes, needs. It can boost many industry if it can be analyzed perfectly what consumer is looking for, generally for this industries has to
conduct surveys and human analyze this, which slow and cost inefficient process.
Security: Visual sensing and learning from it is also part of cognitive commuting, based on footage of CCTV and other monitoring system,
system can decide what actions need to be taken.
Can be used to track the sensitive activities in social media, now the days it is found that if somebody could have analyzed the post pattern of a
person then many crimes could have been prevented.
Environment: regional weather can be affected by several global reasons, and analyzing all the reason, combining and predicting weather is
very complex procedure that's why still we are not able to provide perfect forecast, with the help of cognitive computing this analysis will be
simple and more accurate forecast can be done. Which will helpful for agriculture sector, people can prepare for natural disasters, if we learn
disaster because of human actions then that can be prevented too.
Their numerous other fields in which cognitive computing can be used started from Astronomy, Tourism sector demand etc.

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Indians Achievements
24 September 2015

Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology

and developing new technology


Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has established the worlds highest terrestrial centre at 17,600 feet above sea level at Changla near
Pengong lake in Ladakh.
The centre will serve as a natural cold storage for preserving rare and endangered medical plants
important utility for research work in frontal areas of food and agriculture and bio-medical sciences for well being of the soldiers deployed in high altitude
cold desert, soil less micro farming.
provide unique opportunity to other establishments and labs of DRDO for evaluation and testing of electronics and communication devices.
It will serve as testing ground of various materials for high altitude applications including UAVs micro engines, batteries and fuel cells, high altitude clothing
etc. in naturally occurring extreme cold conditions at Changla.
#Research #Plants #DRDO #Soldiers

The Indian Navy has commissioned the first totally indigenously-designed and built torpedo launch and recovery vessel (TRV)INS Astradharini.
Has modern power generation and distribution, navigation and communication systems.
The catamaran hull configuration significantly reduces the power requirement of the ship that is capable of attaining 15 knots
Collaborative effort of Naval Science and Technological Laboratory (NSTL), IIT Kharagpur and Shoft Shipyard.
INS Astradhani will be used to carry out the technical trials of underwater weapons and systems developed by NSTL
#MakeInIndia #Navy #War #Technology

The fast patrol vessel (FPV) of Aadesh-Class of Indian Coast Guard, ICGS Arinjay was commissioned in Kochi, Kerala
It will be used for Anti-smuggling and anti-piracy activities and also for search and rescue operation. Fisheries protection and monitoring activities. To
increase the protection level of Indias exclusive economic zone (EEZ).

Indias supersonic cruise missile BrahMos was recently test-fired from the countrys newest stealth-destroyer INS Kochi off the west coast
INS Kochi is a 7,500-tonne indigenously developed warship which has new design concepts for survivability, stealth and manoeuvrability.
It can carry 16 BrahMos missiles in two eight-cell vertical launch systems besides other modern weapons and sensors.
It is a two stage missile, jointly developed by India and Russia.
The missile can fly at a supersonic speed of 2.8 Mach and at a height of ten metres during the final stages of its flight.
It can be launched from Land, submarine and ships.

The Union Cabinet has given its approval for introduction of Regional Center for Biotechnology Bill, 2015. It will provide a legal status to the
Regional Centre for Biotechnology in Faridabad so as to function independently as an autonomous body and also an institution of national
importance for education, training and research in the areas of biotechnology.
The center would also act as a hub of biotechnology expertise in the countries in South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)
region, and more generally in the Asia region.
The centre would offer training in the related areas of biotechnology including bio-drug discovery science, nano-science and medicine, imaging
techniques, designer crops, bioengineering and biomaterials, intellectual property, technology transfer and regulation to fulfil and overcome the
acute shortage of skilled human resources in India.

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Various technical fields

24 September 2015


Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights
As per UN's (International Telecommunication Unit) ITUs information and communication technology (ICT) Development Index (IDI),
India is ranked out of 131 out of 167. It has slipped six ranks as compared to it's rank in 2010, though IDI value has increased.
IDI values included total mobile subscriptions, number of households having computer and internet, and access to internet in general.
India has improved in all areas but relatively less as compared to other countries.
India along with Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Bangladesh is least performing countries. However, South Korea topped the list followed by
Denmark and Iceland.

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24 September 2015


Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs)
Countries across the globe have committed to create a new international climate agreement by the conclusion of the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate
Change (UNFCCC) Conference of the Parties (COP21) in Paris in December 2015.
In February 2015, Switzerland became the first nation to submit its INDC to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, later followed by the European Union
Will contain the steps taken to reduce green house gas emission as well as steps taken to adapt with climate changes.
Developing countries like India and China has committed to reduce C02 emission more than their share while the developed countries like US, EU has
committed to reduce just 1/5th of their share by 2030.
US fair share of reduction is 13000 MTC02e while it is committing to reduce only around 2000 MTC02e, India's is 54 MTC02e while India is committing to reduce
280 MTC02e.
India has following AIMs for INDC, increase electricity production from renewable energy resources as well as forestation to increase carbon sink capacity.
Afforestation using already running national programmers and schemes such as National Afforestation Programme (NAP), Joint Forest Management (JFM), the
Green India Mission (GIM) and compensatory Afforestation (CA).
Outcome of NAP is around 10-20%, growing and maintenance of forest is difficult.
Thirty-Sixth Report of the Lok Sabha Secretariat Committee on Estimates (Fifteenth Lok Sabha) on National Afforestation Programme in February 2014
observed that the outcome of the NAP, launched in 2002, had been negative. Forest cover declined by 367 sq km.
INDC propose is relying on fail policy, difficulty of getting land for forestation, rate of forest diversion for other projects like clean nuclear, hydro and coal energy
and all will require diversion for forest land under Forest conservation act, currently forest diversion is 35,000 ha annually.
Indias intended contribution on forests to mitigate climate change ignores the rich history of landscape management practices involving communities living in
forests and is uninformed of the impact of the growing energy sector on forests. Without both these, Indias INDCs will not create any forests with roots on the
Afforestation The conversion of bare or cultivated land into forest.
#Conservation #Green House Gas #INDC #UNFCCC

Green Highways (Plantation, Transplantation, Beautification and Maintenance) Policy 2015

To help the environment, local communities, and generate employment by planting trees along all the highways in the country.
Every year 1% of the total cost of highway projects will go to the Green Highways Fund.
Progress will be monitored by ISRO, target of plantations will be given to NGO, private and public firms.
The National Forest Policy mandate is for a forest cover of 33% of the countrys land area. Currently, only % is covered by forests.
#Environment Protection #Employment #ISRO #Technology #NGO #Forest

According to WHO report, in which it has mentioned 13 cities of India in 20 polluted cities of the world with Delhi at the top, WHO has observed the
level of PM2.5. However Center Pollution Control Board has rejected the report saying that data is not correct.
Though India is at 3rd number incase of C02 emission after China and USA and followed by Russia. US is decreasing emission trend while China and
India are increasing emission.
WHO has considered the level of PM in air to create the list, suspended particulate (PM 10) and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5). India is having more
PM level in air than US and china though they are having more C02 emission because sources of PM are bio fuel burning, bio mass burning, wood
burning, pollution from diesel vehicles and dust. While main source of C02 is from hydro projects which may be releasing c02 but not PM.
Measures of Pollution: PM 2.5, PM 10, CO, Lead etc. Air Quality Index is used to measure the availability of these pollutants in environment.
According to the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), 77% of Indian urban exceed the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for
respirable suspended particulate matter (PM10).
It also shows that both the urban and the rural populations are exposed to dangerously high levels of fine particulates (PM2.5).

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Impact of air pollution

Air pollution can trigger lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia and other acute lower respiratory infections, loss of vision,
including cataracts, and it heightens the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Bad air is also blamed for the growth in stress levels as well as non-communicable diseases, such as high blood pressure.
Air pollution has also made India home to the highest rate of deaths caused by chronic respiratory diseases anywhere in the world.
It also causes acid rain and leads to the formation of Ground-level ozone.
Effect on Environment
Due to increased level of C02 Global warming, inconsistent weather, climate change, affecting agriculture, raising water level.
Water and land pollution due factories extracts, excess extraction of coal from mining causes land slides.
Main Causes of air pollution:
Fuelwood and biomass burning, fuel adulteration (use of gasoline and Diesel having more tax), vehicle emission and traffic congestion. India's annual
crop burning, resulting smoke and air pollution.
During the autumn and winter months, some 500 million tons of crop residue are burnt. road dust (56 per cent), construction (14 per cent), industry
(10 per cent), vehicles (9 per cent), burning waste and other factors (10 per cent)
vehicles cause most pollution when moving at very low speeds or at very high speeds.
Steps Taken Till now and need to be taken:

Bharat stage emission standards are emission standards instituted by the Government of India to regulate the output of air pollutants from internal
combustion engine equipment, including motor vehicles. (These are the standards set on manufacturing companies)
The Bharat Stage norms are based on European regulations. Bharat stage-IV emission norms have been implemented in 13 mega cities for new 4wheelers from 2010,BS-IV auto fuels are being supplied in these northern India and in rest of India BS III grade fuel is supplied.
Mass emission standards (Bharat Stage III) have been notified for two, three wheelers and diesel driven agricultural tractors from April 1, 2010
throughout the country.
Central Pollution Control Board and State Pollution Control Boards are implementing the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1981 to
restore air quality.
A mutually time targeted programme is implemented under Corporate Responsibility for Environment Protection (CREP).
The government has also launched a colour-coded national air-quality index in April 2015, along with the promise of more monitoring stations, to
continuously monitor the air quality.
Environment Tax imposed by NGT, Even-Odd rules, ban registration of new diesel vehicles, car pooling. Delhi government had temporarily closed
the coal plants.
Decrease the uses of Bio mass for cooking, more LPG connections are needed, Pahal is a good initiative to give up LPG subsidy voluntary which can be
utilized for giving more connections to needy people.
India is having financial and technical constraints so stopping coal based plant and shifting to new renewable energy sources will take time.
India is having good resources of coal plants, coal is cheap for producing energy, most of developed countries has used coal.
Planting of trees will in plain area and near construction site, this will decrease the dryness of the soil, which will reduce the dust pollution.
Regulation on construction and industry are needed to decrease the amount of dust in environment.
Spread awareness in public, farmers regarding impact of waste burning on environment, giving them mechanism to dispose waste.
Mechanism for faster movement of traffic, wasting fuel while sticking on traffic contribute to pollution
Step taken around the world:

Paris Climate talk

In Shanghai and Beijing government instructed schools to keep children Indore, restricting car travel, limiting factory production. In Paris government
has offered free public transport.
Impact of proponing the BS VI by 1 year
Automobile industry may have to invest more in R&D and manufacturing to compliance with BS VI
This will increase the cost of product, demand will be decreased, less profit to companies
Consumer has to pay more
Less number of cars as it would be costly, better standard are suppose to decrease the pollution by 80%, good for environment
Bad for economy but good for environment, so good for public health, savings in treatment, in long run it's good decision.
National Green Tribunal (NGT) has directed all commercial vehicles entering Delhi to pay environmental compensation charge in addition to the toll tax.
Environmental tax was taken by NGT as a tough measure to curb air pollution in Delhi.
The collected amount would be used for improving the ambient air quality of Delhi. Delhi Pollution Control Committee (DPCC) will maintain a separate
account for this collected amount.
#NGT #PollutionControl #Environment

Green India Mission is one of the eight Missions outlined under National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC)
It aims at increasing the forest cover as well density of existing forests in four states Mizoram, Manipur, Kerala, Jharkhand.
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It aims at increasing the forest cover as well density of existing forests in four states Mizoram, Manipur, Kerala, Jharkhand.
#Biodiversity #Conservation
Integrated Coastal Zone Management

Improve livelihood of coastal communities, conserve coastal ecosystem, assisted by world bank.
Infrastructure requirements and livelihood improvement means in coastal districts. Conservation of mangroves is among the components.
Implemented by the Department of Forests and Environment with assistance from the Union Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC).
Gujarat, Odisha and West Bengal are already covered under phase 1 of ICZM
#Conservation #Mangrove #Coastal

Science Express Climate Action Special (SECAS) with the theme of Climate Change.
The Science Express aims to create awareness about various challenges and issues associated with Climate Change.
It is an innovative science exhibition mounted on a 16 coach AC train and built by the Indian Railways for Department of Science and Technology
It is collaborative initiative of DoS&T and Union Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC) and Union Ministry of Railways.
Initially for about 7 months, the train will travel across India covering about 18,000 kms and halting at 64 locations spread over 20 States
#GovernmentInitiatives #Conservation #Awareness

Hermit crabs are ubiquitous animals often not considered to be true crabs as they lack an external shell on their soft abdomen which leaves them
vulnerable to predators.
To protect themselves, they live in abandoned gastropod (snail) shells and often select larger shells as they grow up.
Their last two pairs of legs are small and modified and, along with their uropods (appendages at the end of the abdomen), are used to clamp onto the
internal whorls of the shell.
More than 40 species of hermit crabs were documented from the Kerala coast during the research projects.

Kolleru lake is one of the largest fresh water lakes in the country. It is located between Krishna and Godavari delta.
It was declared as a wildlife sanctuary in 1999, It is a Ramsar site. It is also listed as an Important Bird Area. 224 species of birds have been from in
and around the lake.

The lake is known to amateur birdwatchers and professional ornithologists as a Pelicanery a location where the Grey Pelicans, a large magnificent
bird, nest and breed.
Grey pelicans had vanished from the lake in 1973 for nearly 35 years and returned to it to nest again in December 2006. The Grey Pelican also called
the Spot Billed Pelican is listed in Schedule I of the Wildlife Protection Act and in the Red Data Book. It is also considered a globally threatened
species under the vulnerable category.
The Grey Pelican returned to the lake only after Operation Kolleru, in which the fish tanks were destroyed implementing a Supreme Court order.
Thousands of pelicans visit Kolleru Wildlife Sanctuary every year for the annual breeding season.

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Thousands of pelicans visit Kolleru Wildlife Sanctuary every year for the annual breeding season.

The Ramsar Convention (formally, the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat) is an international
treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands, recognizing the fundamental ecological functions of wetlands and their
economic, cultural, scientific, and recreational value. It is named after the city of Ramsar in Iran, where the Convention was signed in 1971.
The Ramsar Convention works closely with five other organisations known as International Organization Partners (IOPs). These are Birdlife
International, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Wetlands
International and WWF(World wide fund for nature) International. These support the work of the Convention by providing expert technical advice,
helping implement field studies and providing financial support.
There is a standing committee, a scientific review panel, and a secretariat. The headquarters is located in Gland, Switzerland, shared with the IUCN
Q: Discuss the threats faced by major wetlands in India and measures needed to deal with these threats.
A wetland is a place where the land is covered by water, either salt, fresh or somewhere in between. Marshes and ponds, the edge of a lake or
ocean, the delta at the mouth of a river, low-lying areas that frequently floodall of these are wetlands.
According to the Ramsar convention, Wetland is an area of marsh, fen, peatland or water, wheather natural or artificial, permanent or temporary,
static or flowing and depthof which at low tides does not exceed 6 metres.
India has notified only 26 wetland sites under the Ramsar convention despite having a rich collection.
Wetland act as habitat for hundreds of birds and other species, it may have many plants which can be used for medical purposes. So conservation of
wetlands is very important.
Wetlands in India face threats mainly due to:
1. Human activities like conversion of lands for agriculture, overgrazing, overfishing
2. Mining and extraction resulting in release of toxic wastes in nearby ponds, lakes, rivers; removal of sand from river beds
3. Construction activities have led to deforestation, habitat destruction, filling of natural tanks and reservoirs
4. Wastes from industries, agriculture run off are discarded in to major rivers like Ganga, Palar, Yamuna
5. Except Odisha, none of the other states has yet classified wetlands as per wetland conservation and management rules (2010).
Measures that need to be taken:
1.Spread awareness about the importance of wetland, organize rallies, and strengthen legal measures to prevent damage to it.
1. Identify: the areas under threat what causes it, and at what rate it is affected and demarcate the area, include more wetland sites under Ramsar
convention to give it more attention.
2. Regenerate: by natural or artificial means the purity of wetland, rebuild the reservoir tanks;
3. Protect: the forests, wildlife, the complete ecosystem so as to not let it happen again;
4. Conserve: soil, water; use organic farming and reduce the release of chemical wastes
5. Remove encroachments, proper planning of new developments like smart cities
6. Other ways to provide for urban facilities: Spread the use of solar fuels instead of fuel-wood, treating and reusage of sewage water for various
uses than simply pumping from underground or natural reservoirs.

Olive Ridley Turtles also known as the Pacific ridley sea turtle. Generally found in warm and tropical waters, primarily in the Pacific and Indian Oceans.
Listed as endangered species in IUCN Red Data Book because of their few remaining nesting sites in the world.
Protected under Schedule-I of Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 of India.
Every year endangered Olive Ridley turtles arrive during winters for mass nesting in Rushikulya river mouth and Gahirmatha marine sanctuary along
Odisha coast.
Role of International Financing in Sustainable developement
Sustainable development refers to development that is environmentally compatible, economically
realistic and socially responsible. International financial institutions through their lending facility hold
the cord to development which endangers environment or development which is sustainable in nature.
Role in sustainable development:
a) Conditional lending: International financial institutes apply environmental and social safeguards to
deflect damages that projects can cause.
b) Increasing financing for renewable energy generation projects which give access to electricity to a
significant marginalized population and low carbon growth projects.
Water Conservation and Management

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Water Conservation and Management

Step Taken by GOI:
India is working with following countries for joint working and knowledge transfer on water management, efficient use of water, micro-irrigation,
recycling/re-use of waste water, desalination, aquifer recharge and in-situ water conservation techniques, Australia, Rwanda, Cambodia, Iran,
Iraq, Fiji, China, Israel and Bahrain.
The Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation has been envisaging bilateral cooperation with other countries in
water resources development and management through sharing of policy and technical expertise, conducting of training courses, workshops,
scientific and technical symposia, exchange of experts and study tours.

It looked at efficiency of coal and water use, air and water pollution and ash management at 47 plants and found that more than half were
violating already lax air pollution standards. The Badarpur plant, incidentally, was among those with the lowest efficiency. Its oldest unit is over 40
years old.
ban on registration of certain diesel-powered vehicles. This led to a build-up of unsold stock of cars as well as a decline in the share prices of the
main manufacturers of diesel vehicles such as Tata Motors and Mahindra & Mahindra.
Indian cities are not riding on this smog road alone. Shanghai ordered schools to keep children indoors and factories to limit production, as air
contaminants in China's commercial hub reached the highest levels in two years. Some construction was also halted. Earlier, Beijing's
environmental protection bureau issued a red alert, suspending schools, restricting car travel, limiting industrial production and banning fireworks
as smog levels rose. Paris was in the news a few months ago when it imposed a partial driving ban and made public transport free for a day to
control smog.
Q. Critically analyse the environmental impact of subsidies, especially in the India.
Subsidies help in attainment of more disposable income in the hands of farmers which help them diversify output. It helps in reduction of poverty,
help the striving middle class, increase in export production etc. However ,there are many negative externalities attached to it .
Inefficient use of water resources and ground water depletion. Subsidies encourages farmers to pump more water than they need.
Promotes overuse of fertilizers and pesticides. Such subsidies provide a way to enhance per yield production, leading to soil degradation . Making
food more poisonous for human consumption.
The Food security act is a measure. It puts the burden on farmers to produce more, resulting in inefficient crop management, degradation etc.This
coupled with unpredictable monsoon results in crop failures and hence decrease in fertility levels. MSP's attract farmers to produce cash crops
Leads to increase in use of fossil fuels, thereby going against global need to reduce its impact on temperature levels. Excessive use of diesel increases
pollution levels.
Water Subsidies: Very cheap or free water allow people to not think about minimizing their usage, preventing wastage of water/
However, one cant ignore the positive impact on environment like:
1) Subsidies in LPG have promoted use of cleaner fuel
2) Lower tariffs for import of cleaner technology with more focus on renewable energy
3) R& D,information dissemination by the govt can also be seen as subsidies in the light of least environmental impact
4) Electricity subsidies will allow use of efficient technology to harness hydropower with least loss
Along with subsidies, people will have to make aware of environment protection, avoiding the wastage of natural resources, make aware of water
status, soil status so that they can effectively utilize the resources at the same time protect environment. Providing subsidies is not the issue but
using the subsidies with least effect on environment and humans is the deal.

Q: The renaming of the Ganga Action Plan as Namami Gange, launched in 1985 by the then Prime Minister, does not reflect a new or more
acute understanding of the problem. Critically examine.
Ans: Renaming of Ganga Action Plan to Namami Gange is done to send a message that its not only a task but duty to preserve the heritage
resource as well as to present it as a new task to start with new sprit. To understand that new Namami Gange failed to understand the core
problem or not we need to understand what are the core problems
Core Issues/Problems:
1) More than thousand million liter sewage, used water is being dumped into Ganga and it's tributary without much treatment.
2) Industrial poisonous waste is keep on harming the rivers, because of less strict action and corruption.
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2) Industrial poisonous waste is keep on harming the rivers, because of less strict action and corruption.
3) Continued construction of DAMs in ecological sensitive areas, which is causing slow flow of river slow refresh of river water
4) Less awareness in people, people still think that holy river Ganga is self capable of cleansing itself.
Changes done in Namami Gange:
1. Established separate ministry under Union ministry of water and resources for river rejuvenation
2. Funding made 100% central government and a Rs. 20,000 crore fund was sanctioned of which two installment in budget 2014-15 and 2015-16
has already been sanctioned. Fund will help to create more treatment plants, however, approval of may plats are pending.
2. Involved people living on the banks, panchayati raj institutions, local bodies for the 1st time in implementation of project, Involving people is
most essential part, however Government should engage with NGOs, recognize the efforts of individuals and NGOs by awarding them.
3. No accountability of audit officer who cleared the industries which are not implementing the all norms.
4. Not proper synching and understanding between ministries, ministry of water resources want to build 6 Dams for which Environment
ministry is not clearing the project.
Government is giving efforts, clearing the funds, but due to lack of accountability at different levels and lack of strict actions, lack of combined
efforts, Namami Gange till now is not being successful though it's a huge task, and we can hope that new government will learn from its mistakes
past and rectify those mistakes.
5. Ganga Eco task force a separate army formed for monitoring and implementation
6. Implementation to be done jointly by National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) (implementation wing of NGBRA) and State Programme
Management Group (SPMG).
7. Creation of PPP and SPV for pollution hot spots
Worked on Small Issues like:
1. Creation of bio toilets in Magh mela in Allahabad
2. Ghat cleaning in Varanasi
Several reports have evinced laxity on this issue like
1. Much money has been spent on meeting organisation
2. Projects for sewage treatment plant of 90 million per day is waiting approval

Q: Negotiations under the Montreal Protocol are unashamedly about business interests. Any change to the Protocol can impact businesses
directly. Discuss about the objectives of Montreal Protocol and critically comment on the statement.
Montreal protocol is an international treaty to protect the ozone layer by phasing out ozone depleting substances from environment.
1) phased out the CFC ,which is largely contributed to ozone hole by,2010
2) phased out HFC, which was approved to use after CFC but again confined as ozone depleting substance, by 2030
Produced mostly in developed countries, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) replaced CFCs and HCFCs. HFCs pose no harm to the ozone layer because,
unlike CFCs and HCFCs, they do not contain chlorine. But it has been established that HFCs are not innocuous either. They are greenhouse gases,
with a high global warming potential (GWP), comparable to that of CFCs and HCFCs.
The Montreal Protocol does not currently address HFCs, but these substances figure in the basket of six greenhouse gases under the Kyoto
Protocol. Developed countries following the Kyoto Protocol report their HFC emission data to UNFCCC; parties to the Montreal Protocol have no
such obligation.

Why negotiation under negotiation directly impact business:

1) by phasing out CFC, HFC, the industries, which are using these substances in their product as AC, Refrigerator, will become also on the verge of
phased out. So how to protect their interest is discussed in negotiation more than environment protection.
2) Alternative to these substances are synthetic HFC, but these are also lead to global warming, so again restriction on industries to used it upto
certain limits.
3) Another alternative to these are Gentle 5 ( hydrocarbon, carbon dioxide, water, ammonia and air) which can be used in AC, and refrigerator
but flaws are also present there as lack of safety standard and financial viability.
4) Treaty is binding and there is no concept of differentiated responsibility

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4) Treaty is binding and there is no concept of differentiated responsibility

So objectives of Montreal Protocol should be aimed to complete, but not with the shut down of industries interest because if their profit or
interest goes down, then they may be left the treaty or other agreement to protect themselves from any loss. So objective should be a win-win
situation .

Q: What processes are involved in E-waste processing? It is said that in India E-waste processing sector is mainly informal. Can it be made a formal
sector? What will be the advantages? Examine.
With extensive use of electronic equipments, and rapidly dumping them for upgraded ones, e-waste is fast becoming a cause on concern for the
environment. Some important e-waste disposal/ processing methods are:
1. LANDFILLING- burying into pits
-- Is unsafe and poses the threat of chemicals leaching into soil and groundwater and contaminating them
2. INCINERATION- mostly open-air burning
-- If used unscientifically, the process may release toxic fumes
-- Is an eco-friendly method and can help recover valuable metals etc
-- Productively uses indigenous micro-organisms to detoxify the pollutants
-- Includes sub-processes such as 'Bio-sorption", " Bio-Leaching" etc
-- Uses indigenous plants to absorb and degrade pollutants
Given its vast volume, the e-waste processing mostly involves collection from scrap-dealers and then recycling/ dumping in un-organised manner.
However, by involving all the shareholders- producers, relevant NGOs, municipal corporations, research institutes- it can be formalised. This can be
done through an updated E-waste Rules notification under the EPA(Environment Protection Act) 1986
Efforts of NGOs like SAAHAS in Bengaluru (support SME linkage with ISRO) and DISHA in Kolkata (helped send waste to authorized recyclers)
provide the guiding light in this direction. It will have the following advantages:
1. Prevent child-abuse for manual scavenging of waste for useful metals etc
2. Will ensure fixed monetary returns for stakeholders
3. Will make the involved workers less vulnerable and secure their livelihood
3. The principle of "Extended Producer Responsibility" currently puts all the onus on manufacturers.
-- Formalisation will help share the responsibilities and efforts,
-- And also ensure seamless ground-level collection, and subsequent passage up the chain
-- Will possibly lead to greater conformance with the rules
4. Private R&D firms may get lured into the sector and help evolve more eco-friendly techniques for e-waste management
However government would first need to pitch-in with measures for increasing public awareness, and providing basic infrastructure for waste
collection and treatment centres, for making the formalisation successful.
However, this problem presents an opportunity in itself. The recent Startup India Campaign can promote startups in the E-Waste sector. With better
use of technology and knowledge, E-Waste can be used to make new electronic equipments which can give a boost to Make In India Campaign too.
The Digital India Initiative also envisages India to be a manufacturing hub of electronic products with zero imports. The hardware in the form of EWaste can be refurbished or used to create new hardware, resulting into growth of manufacturing and creation of jobs along with better
environment protection through regulatory oversight and use of technology.

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Disaster and disaster management

24 September 2015


Powerful Typhoon Koppu (also known as Lando) has hit the northern Philippines battering the coast with powerful winds with speed of 240 kph. The eye
of tropical cyclone (typhoon) Koppu has struck the remote northern coastal town of Casiguran which is 215 kms northeast of Philippines capital city
Manila. It is category 4 typhoon on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale.

The Disaster Management Act has made the statutory provisions for constitution of National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) for the purpose of
specialized response to natural and man-made disasters.
After Orissa Super Cyclone (1999) and Gujarat Earthquake (2001), government released the need of specialized response force, which let to the enactment
of the DM Act on 26 Dec 2005.
NRDF main functions are response during disaster and disaster management, basic and operational level training to State Response Forces (Police, Civil
Defence and Home Guards), community Capacity Building Programme, Public Awareness Campaign.
It is the only dedicated disaster response force of the world.
It is the only agency with comprehensive response capabilities having multi-disciplinary and multi-skilled, high-tech, stand alone nature.
It consists of experienced paramilitary personnel specially trained and equipped for disaster response.
NDRF has tied up with about 30 PSUs in order to develop mutual understanding and enhance capabilities to jointly tackle man-made or natural
emergencies. under this it will extend its skill modules like on tackling nuclear, biological and chemical disasters to train their personnel. Once trained, the
workforce of the PSUs can effectively act to help the NDRF as force multipliers during big challenges and they can render a relief and rescue task
independently when any state government or local administration seeks their help, can function as first responders till the NDRF arrives on the scene.

In 2005, Indian Government had started its own interim tsunami warning centre after the devastating tsunami which had hit the Indian Ocean countries
on December 26, 2004.
newly-installed Tsunami Early Warning System Siren was successfully tested near INS Angre, off Reserve Bank of India (RBI) head office in south Mumbai.
The siren system has been installed at the Meteorology Office of Western Naval Command by Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services
The system has a radical range of 3 kms in all directions and gives continuous hoot for 60 seconds during emergency.
The siren will be remotely controlled by Hyderabad based INCOIS and will operate in case of a possible Tsunami threat in the local region.
7 tsunami buoys with sensors will record the speed and height of waves. It will further alert the monitoring centre in Hyderabad.
The warning siren will provide precise tsunami alert to Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC), disaster management authorities and Indian Navy
to prevent the possible damage.

Disaster Management as Human Right

Disaster affects a people property, life, dignity so of course it should be a human right.
It is the duty of the government to spend more on research related to disaster management, preparedness, response including relief and rehabilitation,
and mitigation.
Accountability of fund raising and fund utilization, aid distribution, effort done post disaster to rehabilitate.
Women are prone to sexual violence, there is cast based discrimination in distribution of aid.
Government should give best possible effort to handle situation including deployment of extra women police, forces which can prevent violence against
women, representatives of ST SC bodies should be send their to avoid any discrimination.
A special team to monitor the aid distribution should be deployed to prevent the corruption.
NGOs related to disaster management and human right can be associated with process.

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Minimum standards are met while building the infrastructure, there is something need to learn here from Japan.

Q: It is said that the world will witness pandemics in coming decades that could be disastrous to human population. What are the likely reasons that
could contribute to outbreak of pandemics? How can these outbreaks be prevented? Discuss.
Pandemics is defined as spread of infectious diseases through human contact over large areas. Likely reasons are :
A) Climate change and Global warming : Many tropical diseases are now spreading to temperate and other colder areas as these become habitable
for tropical vectors and spread diseases to new areas all due to climate changes associated with global warming.
B) Easy people to people contact : With new modes of transportation it becomes easy to have people contacts across nations, this also makes easy for
diseases to spread to new areas and cause outbreaks in absence of natural enemies in new areas. Ex: Zika, Flu virus etc
C) Due to destruction of Forests: Many species comes in contact with each other due to habitat loss and laeds to genetic exchanges , also comes in
contact with people and spread diseases like Ebola outbreak due to contact between fruit bat and humans.
D) Poor Sanitary condition : Due to this gut bacteria mixes with water and is taken up by waterfowl for further genetic modification and cause deadly
diseases when enters human through water contamination.
E) Chemical Infections due to mishandling of chemically disastrous material, water pollution caused by industries.
F) Low immunity in people not able to get enough nutrition causes more danger towards these diseases. Poor hygiene, most of these pandemics
originate from developing countries.
G) Unsafe food habits, eating infected animals, causes spread of diseases.
How it can be prevented :
1) Spread awareness about hygiene standard, safe food habits.
2) Provide education, food, health assistance to poor countries.
3)Proper surveillance of diseases areas and easy transfer of information across countries.
4) Proper checkups when person from affected country visits our country.
5) universal health coverage" (UHC) by UN which has been a guiding theme for countries to plan their healthcare program
3) Strengthening of healthcare systems to handle such conditions, trained staff , equipments and beds availability all to be increased.
4) Research to find ways how to stop such pandemics from occurring and likely ways of there spread.
5)Proper sanitary systems and aware people about benefits of using flush toilets than open defecation.
6) To prevent climate change as far as possible as it is root cause of spreading vectors to new areas with no natural enemies.

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Linkages between development and spread of extremism

20 January 2016


Q :The Maoists agenda to keep the tribals away from the advantages of development can be defeated only if the direct action of security forces
is supplemented effectively with developmental works. Do you think this strategy has worked to curb naxalism? Critically comment.

For over three decade the mighty Indian state tried to muzzle naxal menace with heavy hand and gun power but alas it only ended up giving wind to
the flame. The idea that hungry men rebel only came to limelight in the last one decade.
Government adopted a twin pronged approach inclusive development with surgical paramilitary operation. The aim was to repaint red corridor
with a brush of development, inclusive growth and emancipation.
Government is building the roads in deep forest areas to bring the development as well to help the military tasks, but this development is not very
fast, neither it's very protective, Maoists breaks, blasts these roads to make it non workable.
Many more mobile towers are being built for better communication, but Maoist taking it as a threat, destroying the towers or taking the phones of
the villagers so that they cant pass any information.
More roads, more communication connectivity will bring more development, more employment, everybody wants a peaceful life except few,
employment will attract the youth to leave the path of violence and join the path of welfare.
This twin strategy is having effects but it's not curbing down Nexals as expected because of slow development, less protection of infrastructure
which gives time for Maoists to destroy it, if government want to handle nexal issue honestly they will have to make youth more aware of
democratic benefits, fill have to fasten the development with adequate protect to already built infrastructure.
Diplomatic discussions with rebels helped all across the world to settle down social unrest, along with development and gun power, government
should also think about it.

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Internal Security & Border Management

24 September 2015


Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber
security; money-laundering and its prevention.
Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security
Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism

Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA):

It is an autonomous body, a think-tank on strategic affairs
It is funded by the Indian Ministry of Defense
It was established in 1965
Cyberdome is a Kerala government project to deal with cyber security, it will have 50 ethical hackers as well as volunteer contribution from IT companies.
It would work on prevention of hacking and defacement of websites and child pornography.
It would have facilities to analyse Skype and VOIP (Voice over Inernet Protocol) calls and deal with money laundering on the Internet. Policing the Dark
Net would be another mandate of the Cyberdome.
Cyberdome would synergise its operations with the Computer Emergency Response Team-Kerala
It will have components for social media awareness, anti piracy, crime intelligence gathering also.

Q: Discuss the differences between Hydrogen bomb (thermonuclear) and atomic bomb. Why do you think international community and
institutions have failed to ensure that North Korea do not possess nuclear devices? Examine.
1.Hydrogen bomb is based on nuclear fusion, atomic bomb is based on nuclear fission.
2. In hydrogen bomb two hydrogen nuclei fuse under very high temperature conditions,hence a small fission reaction is first used to create
this high temperature.
4. Hydrogen bomb is much more destructive than atom bomb. For reference, the atomic bomb used on Hiroshima and Nagasaki were
equivalent to 15-20 kilotons of TNT while the first hydrogen bomb tested by US in 1952 was equivalent to 10000 kilotons of TNT.
5. No hydrogen bomb has been used in a war ever

-NPT and CTBT's discriminatory nature which forced countries like India to stay away form it. North Korea followed.
- Failure of China: The rising China can tame North Korea as both are ideologically more alike. However China itself is engaged in a pseudo
cold war with America.
- Previous sanctions: North Korea previously tested atomic bombs in 2006,2009 and 2013. US and UN imposed certain sanctions which further
alienated North Korea from nuclear disarmament process.
- Troubled neighborhood: Rivalry between North Korea and south Korea
- Kim Jong Un : is dictator of North Korea and has been irrational, erratic and sometimes maniac. This helps North Korea in becoming a rebel
in International diplomacy.
Q: It is said that Indias repeated experiments with anti-terrorism laws have been, by and large, unsuccessful. Critically examine why.
Ans: Broad purposes of anti- terrorism law are to give punishment to those who are responsible, give justice to victims, and create fear of
law to prevent the terrorism, to examine the success of the law we need to look at the below points to see that weather purpose are
solved and what are the side effects...
Punish the responsible: Due to slow judicial system, non coordination between inter departments, political and system loopholes, process
of fixing the punishment goes very long and real culprits delays for long. On the other hand, anti terror laws many times misused
politically, and in morally corrupt way by arresting innocents, killing innocents on suspicion, and years of court trail ruin the life of
innocents by the time court finally declare that they were innocent.
Justice to Victim: Delayed punishment cause even more punishment to victims rather than justice. Financial assistance to family of those
who injured and died is also low and takes long time.
Fear of law: There might be possibility that many youth did not accept the path of terror because of fear of law, but as they did not come
to news so we will not know numbers.
However, still few grieved, mind washed youths are taking the path of terror irrespective of outcome, sometime for revenge, sometime on
the name of God and sometime for money. Irrespective of strict laws many socially stable and respected people who have grievances
against the system help terrorists.

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Bring the peace: Beside of anti terror laws including MISA, NSA, POTA, TADA, terrorist attacks keep happening every year.
As well as strict acts under laws are many times misused to harass people, many of innocent has been killed on the name suspicion, there
are even cases of brutality against women and children. Human right activists keep fighting for fundamental human right.
It can be said that purposes of laws might have been fulfilled in some cases but on the cost of Human rights, cost of Innocent lives, it is not
right to say a law successful if it's not completely fulfilling its purposes as having huge social cost.
Issue with most laws has been they enacted as a knee jerk reaction (MISA during emergency, POTA post parliament attack). The hurry
results large loopholes, unceremoniously curtail fundamental rights, akin to absolute power which leads to moral corruption , ends up as
political tool than serving original purpose, reminder of colonial legacy, provides disproportionate power corresponding to rank of
officer, loggerheads with existing laws ( eg unlawful prevention act), challenges cooperative federalism, more focus on retribution than
fair and transparent investigation, ultimately their provisions are opposed to a liberal and democratic state and result being struck
down in law of court.
Measures to be taken:
Rather than new law need of an hour is robust investigation system via better training, infrastructure, application of modern
technology, cutting edge forensic department, sharp intelligence, implementation of ARC recommendation of separation of
investigation and law enforcement branch. Better coordination between centre and state and among states, plugging loopholes in
unlawful prevention act. Deeper engagement with SAARC and ASEAN for intelligence collaboration, sharing best practices. Gujarat effort
to pass its terror law is reminder that yet again Indian state fail to learn from world best terror agency that neither laws nor machines
ultimately its the temperament which lay solid base for robust anti terror mechanism.

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Security Forces
24 September 2015

Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate


Indian Army and NSG Role

The Indian Army as well as the NSG National security guards are the agencies used by the government in security management through out the
length and the breath of the country . Both the forces are highly trained in operations related to their specific areas . The Indian army have been in
existence before Independence but the NSG is a special force raised back in 1984.
Though they are meant to protect the citizens of the nations but their respective mandates are not the same as elaborated below
1) The Indian army's main role to fight and scuttle external aggression but NSG is mainly used as a force for counter terrorism and anti-Hijack
operations .
2) Indian army goes for direct recruitment of its personnel and is under the control of the ministry of defense but NSG is completely deputed force
taken from central police , army , state police e.t.c and is under the control of ministry of Home affairs .
3) Indian army is used for disaster relief operations in practice when National Disaster Relief force become unable to handle it due to resource count
and for UN peacekeeping mission abroad but on the other hand NSG is used as a force for the protection of certain VIPs of Z+ category status and as
a Bomb Disposal squad .
Both the forces are highly disciplined and have been in forefront in accomplishing their given duties to perfection which can be seen by the
commitment shown in preserving the unity and diversity of this nation .

Q:In the light of the centrality of the oceans for Indias prosperity and security, it is recognised that India should rapidly modernise its poor
maritime infrastructure and strengthen its naval forces. Critically discuss why Indian ocean is important for Indias prosperity and security and
the progress made in upgrading its capabilities in maritime domain.

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