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pg 2

Design considerations (General design principles)....... pg 5

Machine description......................

pg 6

Performance evaluation.................

pg 9

Improvements in manufacturing ...............

pg 10

plate rolling machine

Making a gear jam alert system............

pg 11


pg 15
pg 20

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Plate rolling machine

A Plate Rolling Machine is a machine that will roll different kind of metal
sheet into a round, cylindrical or conical shape. It can be also called plate
bending machine or roll bending machine. There are both manual and
electrically powered rolling machine. A plate rolling machine is an important
machine in steel processing factories.
They are different kinds of Technology to roll the metal plate:
(1) Roller machine: Anatomy; a Top-Roll, the Pinching-Roll, and two SideRolls. The flat metal plate is placed in the machine on either side and "prebend" on the same side. The Side-Rolls do the work of bending. The Pinching
Roll holds the plate.
(2) Roll Machines (Variable Pitch aka Variable Geometry): Anatomy; One
Pressing Top-Roll, Two Pressing Side-Rolls
The 3 Roll Variable Pitch aka Variable Geometry works by having all
three rolls being able to move and tilt. The Top-Roll moves on the vertical
plane. The Side-Rolls move on the horizontal plane.
When rolling, the Top-Roll presses the metal plate between the two SideRolls. The advantage of having the Variable 3 Roll is the ability to roll many
thicknesses and diameters of cylinders. For example; The Side-Rolls are what
produce the mechanical advantage. With the Side-Rolls all the way open, then
you have the maximum mechanical advantage. With the Side-Rolls all the way
in, you have the least mechanical advantage. So, your machine has a capability
of rolling 2" thick material with the maximum mechanical advantage, but your
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job is only 1/2" thick. Simply reduce the mechanical advantage and you have a
machine that can roll from 1/2" ~ 2" thick.
Sheet metal fabrication plays an important role in the metal
manufacturing world (Cloutier, 2000). Sheet metal is used in the production of
materials ranging from tools, to hinges, automobiles etc. Sheet metal fabrication
ranges from deep drawing, stamping, forming, and hydro forming, to highenergy-rate forming (HERF) to create desired shapes (Cloutier, 2000).
Fascinating and elegant shapes may be folded from a single plane sheet of
material without stretching, tearing or cutting, if one incorporates curved folds
into the design (Martin et al., 2008).
Shape rolling of sheet metal is the bending continually of the piece along a
linear axis. This causes alteration of the original form of the sheet as it passes
through a pathway of series of rollers. Such work tool as shape rolling machine
is found to be very useful in manufacturing processes for used parts in various
industries like inner and outer panels and stiffeners in automotive and
agricultural industries, small metal workshops to roll round and conical profiles
for stoves, cylinders (flue pipe, water pipes), basic machine elements with
curved surfaces, buckets, bins, gear box cover, mud guards, drinkers and feeders
for poultry, feed mixers etc. and also in food cans and civil engineering
A wide range of these products should satisfy tight tolerances compared to
desired geometry (Behrouzi et al., 2008).
The local artisans and craftsmen are the known major producers of simple
farm tools and equipment in Nigeria while the small scale welders had been
found to have the highest farm tools and equipment production potentials in
Nigeria (Yiljep, 1999); however, inadequate production facilities and lack of
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appropriate reconditioning tools and equipments, are some of the major

problems faced by these local manufacturers (IFAD, 1988). The identification,
selection, design desirability, and promotion of locally modified tools is made
possible through the strengthening and redesigning of machine vital
components, the improvement of welders craftsmanship and adequate
enhancement of local manufacturing processes through the use of locally
improved work tools and machines.
A critical appraisal of locally available metal rolling machines indicated a
necessity of improving on ergonomic design, system complexity and cost
(Bello, 2012). Rob (1985) published a work based on the report of the
Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG) on the development of
rolling machine for sheet metal work. The complexity of the crank mechanism,
the numerous and intricate component parts of the machine defeated the aim of
simple technology tool development and manufacture. The machine rolls sheet
metal up to 1.5 mm thick and 1m wide and rolls complete cylinders down to 75
mm diameter with 55 mm diameter rollers.
Considering high cost of tools and products in sheet rolling processes,
detection and controlling factors for producing precise product are important. In
most processes, geometry and configuration of rolling components could be
obtained from the geometry of product at the end of loading. Therefore elastic
recovery (known as spring back) formed part of the unloading process, and it is
the most important factor in deviation of final products from desired geometry.
Spring back is influenced by a combination of various process parameters such
as tool shape and dimension, contact friction condition, material properties,
thickness, etc. (George,1983; Cho et al., 2003). This work therefore reported the
design and evaluation of a simplified shape rolling machine with simple crank
mechanism, higher diameter of roll (up to 200 mm), spring loaded bearing
blocks for stress relief when load is overbearing (machine handling a load
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beyond the designed safety factor and load carrying capacity), low cost and for
varying roller aperture for easy sheet metal rolling.

Design considerations
General design principles
Following basic shearing operation on a sheet metal, components can be rolled
to give it a definite shape. Bending of parts depends upon material properties at
the location of the bend. To achieve bending, the work material must be
subjected to two major forces; frictional force which causes a no-slip action
when metal and roller came in contact and a bending force acting against the
forward speed and the torque applied to move the material (Figure 1).

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where, a = distance from exit zone to the no-slip point (assume a = L/2); F =
force applied to rollers; T = torque applied to rollers; L = roll gap;

r = radius

of rollers; = frictional force 0.4 Nm-1; ho, hf = thickness of the sheet before
and after time t. Figure 1 Shape rolling mechanism
At least two rollers were involved in flat rolling depending on the thickness and
properties of material while three or multiple roller system is required in shape
rolling. A work material under bending load is subjected to some form of
residual stress and deformation as it bends. Materials at the outer bend radius
undergo tensile plastic deformation while the material at the inner bend radius
undergoes compressive plastic deformation.
Machine description
1. Drive shaft crank
2. Top roller
3. Compression spring
4. Base bearing block
5. Fastener
6. Roller shaft bushing
7. Base metal bearing
8. U shaped bracket
9. 3 rollers (high grade carbon steel)
10. Aperture adjuster
11. Electric motors
12. Main switch

The major design components consisted of three rollers supported on spring

loaded bearing blocks mounted on a frame (Figure 2).

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Figure 2 Schematic drawing of the machine

The rollers were arranged in triangular form; two sets of rollers below and one
above. The upper roller provide the bending force while the back base roller
provides the required driving force and the front end roller bends the metal
according to set radius of bend. Two base bearing blocks (made of hard wood)
mounted on the frame provided supports for the base rollers while the press
roller is supported by two wooden bearings blocks, and mounted on a U-shaped
metal bracket.

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Figure 3 Bearing block assembly

The clamping beam is spring loaded (using old car valve-springs) to simplify
positioning and radius adjustment on the sheet. The clamping beam is also fully
adjustable fore and aft by means of two threaded knobs, which results in very
accurate bends. The shaping beam is simply supported and has a wellpositioned stout drive handle.
Aperture adjuster on each block assembly ensures easy loading of work piece
and adjustment to required radius of bent. The free end of the top bearing block
is spring loaded to increase or to reduce top-base roller clearance. Two other
bores on each bearing blocks provide an adjustment for the roller gap variability
thereby making it possible to roll sheet metal to different sizes. The top roller
provides the bearing load (bending force) and also compliments the driving
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roller when working on thick materials. The lower back roller provides the
necessary driving forces while the idler roller does the bending and material
There are two crank levers, one on the top roller and another on the frontend roller. The lever (handle) coupling head has a square configuration which
fits into the square end of the roller shaft. The frame structure is made of
(50505) mm angle iron for the purposes of strength. The height of the entire
machine when mounted on the frame is 800 mm. This height is convenient for
operators of an average height of 1,680 mm. A tool table is provided below the
rollers for safe keeping of tools and cranks. The roller head assembly is
detachable from the frame and can be mounted on a tableto be used as a table
top machine for tinkering works.
Performance evaluation
Performance evaluation of the fabricated machine was carried out in the
Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology workshop of the Federal
Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti. The capacity of the machine was evaluated based on the
maximum width of strips of metal that can be rolled without exceeding the
designed maximum bearing load and the numbers of operators required to
conveniently operate the machine without overbearing efforts.
Maximum length capacity of the machine is determined by the width of material
that can conveniently be passed through the aperture without difficulty. The
roller aperture is determined by the maximum size opening between the three
rollers when aligned axially. The percentage acceptance is determined from the
analysis or -respondents acceptability of the adapted technology.

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Improvements in manufacturing plate rolling machine

The major upgrades in modern plate rolling machine are;
1). High grade carbon steel rolls driven hydraulically
2). Foot controls for forward and reverse.
3). Bending rolls hydraulically powered up and down with digital readout
showing position. Rolls stops when foot pedal is released.
4). Manual hand wheel for pinch and bending roll adjustments.
5). Metal guide cover usually made of welded steel frame.
6). Emergency stop cable around the machine for protecting the machine.
7). An operator controlled panel mounted on a pedestal and has all push buttons
to control all movements of the machine.
8). Keyed main ON-OFF switch.
9). 220volts, 3 phase, 1HP Electric motor.
10. Making a jam alert system.

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The working principle
A generator will be connected to the motor which will generate
electricity for the panel to be made and the voltage will be
stepped down to 9 volts with a step down transformer.
A generator is a device that converts mechanical energy into electrical
energy. According to faradays law of electromagnetism which state that
whenever there is a change in the magnetic lines linking a circuit, there will
always be an induced EMF induced in the circuit or whenever a conductor
cuts a magnetic flux or is cut by a magnetic flux, an EMF is induced in the
conductor which means electrical voltage will be generated when any
conductor is moved at right angles through a magnetic field.
Generator operation is based on the principle of electromagnetic induction. This
means that voltage is generated when any conductor is moved at right angles
through a magnetic field. When voltage is produced in this manner, it will cause
the current to flow in the conductor if that conductor is a complete circuit.
Whew! Got all that? Now lets explain that in common sense terms, starting
with the internal parts.
ARMATURE - An armature starts out as a bare hardened steel shaft. To this
shaft is added a series or group of non-insulated copper wires wound close
together. They in turn will form what is called a loop.
The loops of wire are then embedded in a series of slots in an iron core. This
iron core is then attached to the armature shaft. This shaft spins and helps to
generate the electrical current. As you might guess, the size of the wire and the
number of wires in the loop will affect the output of the generator.
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COMMUTATOR - The commutator is a series of segments or bars that are also

attached to the armature shaft at the rear of the armature. It is the wire ends
from the loops of the armature windings in the iron core that are attached to the
commutator. When this is done, a complete circuit is formed.
FIELD COILS - Field coils are the windings or the group of wires that are
wrapped around the pole magnet. It is the job of the field coils to take the
current drawn to the pole magnet, and make it stronger. (Field coils are the
windings that are attached to the inside of the generator housing.) This increased
strength in current will force even more current to be drawn to the pole
magnets, which will continue to build up current.
This is how the current produced by the generator is built up and increased,
until it can be used by the battery and the accessories.
The ends of the armature loop are securely attached to a split ring called a
BRUSHES - After the generator develops the current, it is the brushes that carry
the current to the field circuit and the load circuit, so the electricity can be
used by the battery and the accessories. This process is called commutation.
The brushes will ride on the commutator segments of the armature. Brush
holders hold the brushes in position by way ofspring tension.
Most automotive generators will contain two brushes, one that is grounded to
the frame of the generator, one that will be insulated from the frame.
The insulated brush is the positive brush and is connected to the A terminal of
the generator, and to one end of the field coils.
The other end of the field coil is connected to the insulated F terminal of the
BEARINGS AND BUSHINGS - At either end of a generator you will find a
bushing or a bearing. They have the job of making the armature shaft run true in
the housing between the field coils and pole shoes.

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Bushings will be made of copper or brass and are soaked in oil before they are
installed. The brass or copper bushing material is porous and able to absorb the
oil like a sponge. This provides the lubrication between the shaft and the
bushing. They can also be re-oiled from the oiling tube on the outside of the
Some heavy-duty generators will use ball bearings instead of bushings for the
armature shaft to ride . This is done to support a radiator fan or other accessory.

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The generator is connected to the gears and the rotation

per minute of the gears determines the voltage level of the
generator and then sent to the transformer for stepping up. The
rotating part called the ROTOR is connected to a gear

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A transformer is a static machine used for transforming power
from one circuit to another without changing frequency.

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Transformer change voltage levels

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The transformer is then connected to a relay before going to the control panel.
The relay short circuits when the generator stops generating, sending signal to
the buzzer panel.
In figure below, we will divide into two sectors work together. Firstly, as low
frequency oscillator. Secondly, will be sound frequency oscillator.
On this second section include two transistors are CS 9012, CS 9013 are set as
the audio frequency oscillator has out of 1200 Hz to a speaker. Transistors fall
into two main classes bipolar and field effect. They are also classified
according to the semiconductor material employed silicon or germanium, and
to their field of application (for example, general purpose, switching, high
frequency, and so on). Transistors are also classified according to the
application that they are designed

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And some current from transistor will through to LED.

Figure 1 Trembling sound buzzer circuit

Thus when the sound signal occurs, LED will also glow. But The latter circuit
will connected through pin C of TR2. So if TR2 not conducted current, this
circuit will con not generate sound.
In that first section will use TR1 and TR2 connect together with R, C as the
multivibrator oscillator to generate low frequencies of 5 Hz. Thus TR2 will
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conduct and stop current with speed about 5 Hz per minutes. Causes circuit in
the second section generate frequency out of sounds is approximated, sonorous,
clear melodic quite vividly.
How to builds
This circuit use power supply of 9V. All resistors use W of size. The speaker
size 2 inch 0.25 W. 8 ohm.
This project is not used many components so can assemble on the universal
PCB board. But can make a PCB layout see as Figure 2. (LEFT) Then the
wiring for circuit wiring and various components can view of the example in
Figure 2(Right). look out carefully for is the polarity of the electrolytic
capacitors and Pin of the transistors are not an error.

Figure 2 Single-sided PCB layout(left) and The components layout of this

The components List
TR-C1815 or C945 or C458_______NPN transistors_____2 pcs.
TR-CS9013 or equivalent_______NPN transistors_____1 pcs.

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TR-CS9012 or equivalent________PNP transistors_____1 pcs.

C-10uF 16V_____Electrolytic capacitors_____________3 pcs.
C-33uF 16V_____Electrolytic capacitors_____________1 pcs.
C-0.047uF 50V____polyester capacitors______________1 pcs.
other see text.
It is highly recommended that EasyEDA should be used for PCB design and

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JOHN BIRD Electrical and electronics principles of energy
Third edition 2007 pg 169.
Blalock Thomas alternating current electrification 1886 pp 17
Behrouzi, M., B. Shakeri, and Mollaei Dariani. EngOpt 2008
-International Conference on Engineering Optimization.June1-5,
2008: Inverse Analysis of Springback in Sheet Metal Forming by
Cloutier, M. 2000. Sheet Metal Fabrication. ME 353 Instructor:
Jesse Adams. Smf.pdf. modified May 15th 2010.1-18.
John H Martin, R. Micheal Gordan, and Steve E.Fitzwater
Processes on Rolling machine 2008
George, L. 1983. The theory and practice of metal work. 3rd
edition. PTF low price edition. Longman, London
Bello, R. S.2012. Workshop Technology& Practice. South
Carolina, US: Createspace.
Cho, J.R., S.J. Moon, and S.S. Kang. 2003. Finite Element
investigation on Springback Characteristics in Sheet Metal
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U-bending Process. Journal of Materials Processing

Technology, 141(1): 109-116.

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