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# Colleen Gallagher

EECE 2160
Professor Mark Niedre

## Lab #7: ECG Part 2

Intro/Objectives:
In this lab, the goal is to further experiment with building a fully functional and
accurate ECG system. We will apply our knowledge of instrumentation amplifiers, filters,
and analog-to-digital converters in order to build our system. Using the electrodes, we
will measure a persons heart rate by first amplifying the signal, filtering out the low
frequency noise with the high pass filter, filtering out the high frequency noise with a low
pass filter and finally converting the signal from analog to digital to be interpreted on the
oscilloscope. Once the system is built, we can further expand on our data analysis skills
in Matlab through acquiring ECG traces. As well as utilizing what we have learned
throughout the semester, we will be developing our circuit trouble shooting and design
skills in order to have our circuit best fit the goals outlined in the lab.

Results/Analysis:
Part 1: Overview:

Part 2:
2.1) For the AD627, we used an Rg value of 550 , causing the gain of this chip to be about:

gain=

200 k
+5=368.6
550

2.2) For the high pass filter application, our cut-on frequency was 0.1 Hz or 0.628 rad/s. We used
an Rf value of 100 k, an Rs value of 160 k, and a Cs value of 10 F. We chose these values
based on these calculations:
1
1
1
=
=
=
=1.59
f c2 (0.12 ) 0.628
=RsCs=( 160 k ) ( 10 )=1.60
The theoretical gain of this high pass filter was:
Rf 100 k
gain= =
=0.625
Rs 160 k

2.3) For the low pass filter application, our cut-off frequency was 200 Hz or 1256.6 rad/s. We
chose the Rf value to be 80k, the Rs value to be 47k, and the Cf value to be 10 nF. We chose
these values based on these calculations:
1
1
1
4
=
=
=
=7.9610
f c2 (2002 ) 1256.6
=Rf Cf =( 80 k ) ( 10 n )=8.0104
The theoretical gain of this low pass filter was:
Rf 80 k
gain= =
=1.70
Rs 47 k
2.4)

It is important to remove high frequency noise before A/D conversion rather than after because
the sampling rate for the ADC may not be high enough for the high frequency noise added to the
original signal. As a result, the rounding (quantization) error will be greater and thus more data
will be lost. Then if after the conversion, a low pass filter is implemented, the filter might filter
out signals that werent supposed to be in that range but were because of the quantization error.
2.5) The total gain of this circuit is found by multiplying the individual gains together:
total gain=( 368.6 ) ( 0.625 ) (1.7 )=391.7

Part 4:
4.1) Due to Nyquists Theorem, the sampling frequency needs to be at least twice the
value of the frequency of the input signal, this value being 150 Hz, so at least 300 Hz. We
varied our choice in sampling frequency: 10,000 Hz, 3,000 Hz, 400 Hz, 1,000 Hz, 1,000
Hz, and 1,000 Hz.

10,000 Hz:

3,000 Hz:

400 Hz:

1,000 Hz:

1,000 Hz:

1,000 Hz:

4.2)

This trace is a normal 10 second period where the patient is not moving and breathing
normal. This is for comparison with the other experiments.

This trace shows the patient moving their arms very slowly. As you can see, there is more
noise than the non-moving trace. This is due to noise caused by signals generated by
muscles moving and contracting.

This trace shows the patient breathing slowly. There is not as much noise present as the
previous trace with the patient moving their arms, but still more noise than the trace
where the patient is still and breathing normally. This is most likely due to the fact that
when a person is breathing slowly, their diaphragm expands and deflates at a slower pace
but it takes more movement because more air is being taken in with each breath. This
causes the patients body to move more, resulting in more muscle movement and thus
more noise.
The approximate value for the QRS complex on the surface of the skin before
amplification can be found by looking at the voltage (amplitude) of the output signal of
the heart rate and then dividing it by the total theoretical gain:
0.8 V
QRS=
=0.002=2 mV
391.7

Conclusion:
From this lab, I gained a better understanding of combining all of the concepts we
have learned throughout the semester as well as modifying a circuit in order to satisfy the
design goals. Again, the concept that perfect results are not always the most realistic was
reinforced, but we managed to acquire acceptable signals through our implementation of
this circuit. In addition, Matlab data analysis techniques were expanded on and utilized to
interpret the heartrate signals. There werent many key lessons learned, but rather more
so the application of other key lessons as well as learning how to debug the circuit to
produce a signal that better aligned with the design goals and looked like a normal heart
signal.