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MIE343: ERGONOMICS MIDTERM


DEFINITIONS
Anthropometry: the scientific study of the measurements/proportions of the human body
and application of them to establish strength capabilities of the human body
Biomechanics: The application of mechanical principles (levers and forces) to the analysis
of body part structure and movement
Ergonomics: The Science of Fitting the Task to the Person
Ligament: Fibrous tissue that attaches bone to bone, serves to hold bones together
Muscle: Fibrous tissue that contracts to create movement
Sprain: stretching/tearing of ligaments
Strain: stretching/tearing of muscle or tendon
Tendon Sheath: Surrounds tendons, provides lubrication for movement of tendon
Tendon: Fibrous tissue that attaches muscle to bone, serves to move bone
Tendonitis: Damage/inflammation of tendons
Work physiology: The study of the bodys response to physical or mental effort, usually
considered in terms of the effects on different systems
Bursa: small sac between tendons, ligaments and bone that allows smooth movement
Bursitis: Inflammation of the bursa
MVC (Maximum Voluntary Contraction): The force a muscle can generate when fully
contracted MUSCLE EFFORT
Static Muscular Work: The work done by musculoskeletal structure in supporting weight
of limb, fighting gravity. Keeping muscle contracted without interruption.
Psychophysics: Psychophysics is a branch of Psychology that determines the laws of
correspondence between the outer world and inner experience.
ERGONOMICS AND ANTHROPOMETRY
DISCIPLINES OF ERGONOMICS:
1. Biomechanics
2. Work physiology
3. Skill physiology

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TYPES OF ERGONOMIC PROBLEMS:

Anthropometric
Cognition/
Perception
Musculoskeletal
Cardiovascular
Psychomotor skills

Body size, strength


Information overload/underload, Visibility
One time/cumulative effects
Circulatory system
Reaction time, movement time, accuracy

Sensory/perceptual Seeing, hearing, touching, orientation


WORK PHYSIOLOGY:
We get tired called work if lack of sufficient supply of nutrients and accumulation of
waste in muscles in body, then whole body fatigue otherwise, for an individual muscle
localized fatigue
WHY SHOULD YOU CARE ABOUT PREVENTING LOST TIME INJURIES?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Approximately 4 - 10 times direct costs


Absenteeism
Labour turnover
Training and development
Social/Legal obligations
a. Improvements in labour relations
b. Improved morale
c. Legislative requirements
OSHA Law and Regulations (Occupational Safety and Health Administration)
USA
CCOHS?
PSHSA?
RESULTS OF ERGONOMICS:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Health
Safety
Productivity
Quality

ERGONOMIC SYMPTOMS:
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Aches/pains
Productivity issues
Quality problems
Absenteeism
Accidents

JOB DOCUMENTATION
1. Identify the job

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2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

State the work objectives objective over job description


Describe work schedule shift/rotation length details
Determine production rate note slowdowns + peak periods as well
List tools, equipment, parts handled
Describe work methods
a. Break into elements; irregular or regular
b. Identify problems

STAGES OF BRAINSTORMING:
1. Idea generation
2. Action Planning
3. Implementation
ERGONOMIC RESOURCES:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS)


Ministry of Labour
Workplace Safety and Insurance Board
Association of Canadian Ergonomists
Occupational Health and Safety Council of Ontario (OHSCO)

X percentile = m + SD*z
MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS
COMMON CAUSE
Continuous hand/body movement due to repetitive work
TYPES OF MSDS
1. Acute
a. Single overexertion
b. Exceeds tolerance of a particular tissue
2. Cumulative
a. Developed over time (weeks, months, years)
b. Cumulative overloading
c. Overuse of muscle
FACTORS AFFECTING RISK OF INJURY
1.
2.
3.
4.

Duration
Repetition
Force
Tissue Tolerance
a. Increases with training
b. Decreases with age
c. Decreases with immobilization muscle loss due to not using
5. Posture (not a main one)

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SIGN VS SYMPTOM
Sign is objective, can be detected by someone other than the person experiencing it
Symptom is subjective evidence of disease, experienced by person effected

SIGNS & SYMPTOMS OF MSDS


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Pain
Limited range of motion
Stiffness
Weakness
Burning sensation

6.
7.
8.
9.

Redness, swelling, local skin warmth


Numbness or tingling
Sensitivity to cold
Sleep disturbance

CUMULATIVE MSDS

NAME DESCRIPTION
DeQuervain
ss Disease

SYMPTOMS

JOB ACTIVITIES

Painful condition affecting


tendons on thumb side of
wrist.

Pain, swelling
near base of
thumb

Cause: overuse of tendon


which thickens and swells the
tendon sheath.

Difficulty
moving thumb
for grasping

Stay-at-home
mothers (lifting
babys uses thumb
as leverage)
Pianists, bowling,
sewing

sticking
sensation in
thumb when
moving

Carpal
Tunnel
Syndrome

Occurs when the median


nerve, which runs from the
forearm into the palm of the
hand, becomes pressed or
squeezed at the wrist.

Pain, weakness,
or numbness in
the hand and
wrist, radiating
up the arm.

The carpal tunnel - a narrow,


rigid passageway of ligament
and bones at the base of the
hand - houses the median
nerve and tendons

Tingling
sensation

Data entry jobs,


Assembly line
workers (in
manufacturing, fish,
meat packing,
sewing)

Cause: thickening from


irritated, overused tendons
narrows the tunnel and causes
the median nerve to be
compressed.

Vibration

A form of Reynauds
syndrome

Tingling
numbness in

Lumberjacks more
susceptible.

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white
finger

Cause: An industrial injury


caused by continuous use of
vibrating handheld machinery
Common in cold climates
Affects the blood vessels,
nerves, muscles, and joints,
of the hand, wrist, and arm

Thoracic
outlet
syndrome

Thoracic outlet syndrome is a


group of disorders that occur
when blood vessels or nerves
in the space between your
collarbone and your first rib
(thoracic outlet) are
compressed. It can affect one
or more of the nerves that
innervate the upper limb
and/or blood vessels as they
pass between the chest and
upper extremity.

fingers due to
nerves effected
Fingers turn
white, due to
loss of blood
circulation
In severe cases,
muscles
affected and
causes loss of
strength in
grasp
Pain, numbness,
swelling of the
hands

Workers in the
construction
industry that use
vibration tools.
(Breaking concrete
with handheld
breaker)

Athletes: baseball
pitching and
swimming
Stocking shelves

Cause: Prolonged shoulder


flexion, Extending arms
above shoulder height,
Carrying loads on the
shoulder
MULTIVARIATE THEORY OF MSDS
MSDs are caused by:
Predisposing factors + biomechanic factors of job structural and
biomechanical /chemical, immune responses
Predisposing factors:
1. Genetic traits
2. Morphological factors: age, body size etc
3. Psychosocial factors: Stress
Biomechanical factors:
If the job requires static muscular work
DEVELOPMENT OF AN OVERUSE INJURY

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Frequent repetitive manual work for prolonged period of time muscles fatigue and
tendons are irritated reduces blood flow and waste products build up Muscles pain and
tendons swell Muscles spasm and tendons pain Stiffness in joint and/or chronic pain
Functional disability!
DIFFERENTIAL FATIGUE THEORY
Task might differentially load muscles prolonged/repeated loading may result in altered
kinematic and loading patterns some muscles work at higher %MVC than others causes
differential fatigue and a kinetic imbalance increasing risk of injury
Optimal Performance at eustress demand

NON-OCCUPATIONAL RISK FACTORS

Age
Being Female
Diabetes

Wrist size/shape
Leisure activities

OCCUPATIONAL RISK FACTORS

PRIMARY RISK FACTORS:

1. Force
Greatest force produced at resting length
Muscles ability to produce force is based on its length, insertion points, age, gender

2. Posture

Should
er

Abduction > 60
Repetitive raising of the arms or static raised arm posture.
Backward extension - reaches behind the body

Elbow

Rotation of the forearm


Forceful grip
Reaches > 50 cm (20") requires forward flexion at the shoulder,
extension of elbow
Work height influences arm and wrist posture

Wrist
and
hand

Keep the wrist close to the neutral position,


Power grip preferable to pinch grip forces
Avoid repetitive or prolonged application of forces requiring >30% of
worker's strength

3. Static Muscle demands


Reduced blood flow

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Supporting weight of limb, fighting gravity. Keeping muscle contracted without


interruption

4. Repetition
Cycle time < 30 seconds or > 50% of the cycle spent performing the same work
actions HARM

5. Mechanical Pressure
On palm of hand, wrists
Tool handle design / impacts
Workstation design implications

WORKPLACE RISK FACTORS:

1. Vibration
Vibration White Finger
Raynauds Syndrome
Other RSI to hand/wrist and
shoulder
Hand tools
2.
3. Gloves
Impair tactile sensations
Interference with dexterity

4.
5. Work Procedures
Incentive schemes
High peak work rates
6.
7. Psychosocial factors
Control over task
Low employee morale
Stress from peers / supervisor
Pressure to meet quotas
Stress from production demands

8. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL APPROACH

Training
Rotation
Re-sequence jobs to reduce repetition
Allow self-pacing of work when possible
New employees should start at a slower rate
Allow frequent rest pauses

9. ENGINEERING CONTROLS APPROACH

Reduction of extreme joint movement


Alter the tool or controls
Moving the part
Moving the worker
Reduction of excessive force requirements
Keep cutting edges sharp
Use weaker springs in triggers
use jigs and clamps instead of hands to grip parts
Power with motors rather than muscles
Spreading the force
Use trigger levers rather than single finger push buttons
Allow the worker to alternate hands
Get better mechanical advantage
Use stronger muscle groups
Use tools with longer handles
Reduction of highly repetitive movements
Restructure so worker has larger and more varied number of tasks to perform

10.

FORDISM AND ERGONOMICS

1. Substantial increase in wages eliminated incentive scheme work procedure workers


safer
2. Increased repetitiveness of work due to assembly line nature of work
11.

NIOSH VS SNOOK CALCULATION

12. NIOSH equation - An approach to calculating a maximum permissible load for


different lifting circumstances.
13. Snook Tables - psychophysical ratings, these tables provide load/rate limits for material
handling based on operators perception of how much load they believe they can handle
under varying conditions of load, frequency, position etc
14.

TOOLS AND INJURIES

15. Second most common days away from work injury (first is back injuries)
16.

SIGNS OF PROBLEMS WITH TOOLS

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

High injury/first aid rates


Worker complaints
Lower than expected worker productivity
Observe workers rubbing sore tissue
Observe workers modifying tools

17.

PROBLEMS WITH MOST TOOLS

1. Most tools are one size fits all, but hand size differs and 10% users are left handed
2. Tools sold and bought in bulk, ergonomically unfriendly for users
3. If tool requires high force a greater percentage of %MVC (Muscle effort) is
used therefore more fatigue higher chance of injury
18.

TOOL GRIP TYPES

19. POWER GRIP:


20. 4 Fingers on 1 side of handle + thumb on the other side of handle
21. make a fist such that tool long axis is perpendicular to forearm
22. High force, low precision
23. Handles should be long enough for the largest hand to have maximum surface
contact
24. PRECISION GRIP:
25. Tool is pinched between fingers and thumb
26. About 20% the force of power grip, but much better control
27. If tool is enclosed by hand, its an internal precision grip (eg: scalpel)
28.For internal: handle length should be long enough to extend past the tender
middle part of the palm
29.
30. If tool is not enclosed by hand, its an external precision grip (eg: pencil)
31. For external: handle must be long enough to pass beyond the base of the thumb
or index finger
32. HANDLE PROPERTIES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Friction
Poor conductor of heat, no electricity conductivity
Gloves accounted for
Tool should not weigh more than 2.3kg. Small precision tools much weigh much less
No Pinch points
Less Vibration

33.

Fine grooves improve grip: wet or dry


Shape of handle comes into effect in maximizing grip force
Rectangular/triangular cross sections in screwdrivers maximize torque by reducing
slip
Screwdriver: rectangle/triangular
Wrenches: cylindrical. Tapered even better (for various finger accommodations)
Wrench torque > screwdriver

34.

Socket wrench torque > spanner/vice grip (adjustable)


Robertson> Philip head > slotted head
PRINCIPLES FOR TOOL SELECTION AND USE - NIOSH

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Maintain straight wrists.


Avoid static muscle loading.
Avoid stress on soft tissue.
Reduce grip force requirements. (use compressive grip)
Whenever possible, select tools that use a full-hand power grip rather than a precision
finger grip.
6. Maintain optimal grip span
7. Avoid sharp edges and pinch points
8. Avoid repetitive trigger-finger actions. Use trigger levers instead
9. Isolate hands from heat, cold, and vibration.
10. Wear gloves that fit.
35.

PREVENTING BACK INJURY

36. Over time, Load limit to prevent injury goes down. Also decreases as you get old
37.Why the declining tolerance?
38. Continuous activity Ligaments stretch/inflame creates instability in spine muscles
are hyper-excited to prevent damage Causes back sprain etc, in some cases
Invertebral Disc Compression
39.Shorter as the day goes:
40. When standing discs compressed this causes the fluid inside the disc to leak out
over the day gradually reducing width of disc and thus your height. Fluids are
recovered at night during sleep
41.Micro-fractures:
42. Occurs on end-plates of disc when overloading heals over time scar tissue builds up
scar tissue ineffective in allowing fluid to transfer back in disc stays compressed
bad
43. Spine can support 350kg safely (cadaver), 6100 N max (cadaver)
44. A person: 35lbs safe limit even with best posture, but should aim for max of 25kg
45. NIOSH max: 23kg
46. So whats Ministry of Labour max? NIOSH I think?
47.How to prevent micro-fractures?
48. Stick your bum out when lifting locks vertebral column together in natural lower back
curve takes some load off the discs
49. Harder to do in real life
50.

51.

SPINE AND BACK

52.
53. Spine:
1.
2.
3.
4.

33 certebrae, 3 natural curves


Vertebrae encloses and protects spinal chord
Lordosis (curve in) and Kyphosis (curve out) curves create spring like structure
Curves increase column strength, maintains balance and absorbs shock

54. 4 types of vertebrae


1.
2.
3.
4.

Cervical in neck region


Thoracic in chest region
Lumbar in lower back region
Sacral vertebrae

55.Intervertebral Discs
1. Act as shock absorbers
2. Stabilize interaction between 2 discs
56. Temporary deformation:
57. Force on disc fluid leaves due to compression deforms fluid reenters via osmosis
when force removes happens when sleeping
58. Ambulance driver study (slipped disc: permanent deformation):
59. prolonged time spent hunched forward caused uneven compression over time lead
to a bulge --. Aka slipped disc hurts if pressed against spinal nerve only happens
after years of stress on surrounding ligaments fixed via spinal fusion limits
movements
60. Torsional loading rotating while lifting bad for disc too
61. Key Muscle Groups:
1. Erector Spinae group of muscles extends back from hunched position
2. Rectus Abdominus Muscle (Abs) stabilizes during lifts
62. Chronic lower back pain causes:
1.
2.
3.
4.
63.

Spinal herniation
Osteoartharitis
Vertebral fracture
Some evidence of psychogenic origin

64.

65.

66.
67.

LEGISLATIVE REQUIREMENTS:

68.Regulations for Industrial Establishments S. 49.


69. Lifting/carrying in a way .such precautions and safeguards including
protective clothing guards or other precautions as will ensure that the lifting
carrying or moving of the materials articles or things does not endanger the
safety of any worker.
70.

NIOSH VS SNOOK

71. The RWL is highly correlated with the data of Snook and Ciriello (1991) in the low
frequency range, and it is equal to about 85% and 95% of the female and male
population limits, respectively. These results indicate that the NIOSH equation made use
of the data of Snook and Ciriello (1991) in the low frequency range.
72. While the NIOSH equation establishes a recommended weight limit for lifting, the Snook
tables provide guidance as to the proportion of the population that should be able to do
the tasks as a regular part of daily work.The NIOSH lifting guideline, in particular, is
limited in its application. This lifting equation is based on the assumption that other
manual material handling activities (holding, pushing, pulling, carrying and climbing)
constitute less than 10 per cent of a workers activity, which is generally not the case
73.
74.

REGULATIONS GOVERNING CANADA

75. Canada Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (COHS)


76. Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSA)

77.
78.
79.