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Unit. 1 Ordinary Differential Equations

UNIT I

## ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

Part A

The A.E is m2 m 1 0 m

om

## Problem 1 Solve the equation D 2 D 1 y 0

Solution:
1 1 4 1 3i
.

2
2

1 3i
1
3
and ;
2
2
2
x
G.S : y e A cos x B sin x

.c

3x
3x
G.S : y e A cos
B sin
where A, B are arbitrary constants.
2
2

in
pa
ul

1
x
2

## Problem 2 Find the particular integral of D 2 a 2 y b cos ax c sin ax.

Solution:
Given D 2 a 2 y b cos ax c sin ax.

1
1
cos ax c. 2
sin ax.
2
D a
D a2
bx sin ax cx cos ax

2a
2a
x
b sin ax c cos ax .
2a
2

.R

ej

P.I b

Solution:

D 1

e x cos x

e x

w
w

P.I

D 1 1

cos x

1
cos x
D2
1
e x sin x
D
x
e cos x.
e x

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Unit. 1 Ordinary Differential Equations

## Problem 4 Find the particular integral of D 2 4 y x 4 .

Solution:
1
x4
D 4
2

x4

D
4 1

om

P.I

1 D2 4
1
x
4
4

.c

1 D2 D4 4
1

x
4
4 16

in
pa
ul

1
4.3x 2 4.3.2.1
x4

4
4
16
1
3
x 4 3x2 .
4
2

Problem 5 Solve D 2 6 D 9 y e2 x x3 .
Solution:

m 3, 3
C.F: A Bx e 3x

D 3

e 2 x x 3

e 2 x

D 2 3

x3

.R

ej

The A.E is m 2 6m 9 0
2
m 3 0

e 2 x

1 D

x 3 e2 x 1 D x3
2

w
w

P.I e 2 x 1 2 D 3D 2 4 D 3 x 3

e 2 x x3 2 3 x 2 3 3.2 x 4 3.2.1
e 2 x x 3 6 x 2 18 x 24

G.S. y A Bx e 3 x x 3 6 x 2 18 x 24 e 2 x .

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Unit. 1 Ordinary Differential Equations

Problem 6 Solve D 2 2 D 1 y x
Solution:

m 1 2
1 2 x
1 2 x
C.F: Ae
Be
Ae x e
1
P.I 2
x
D 2D 1

2x

Be x e

2x

1
x
1 2 D D 2

.c

2 4 4
y
2

1 2D D 2 x
1

2x

Be

2x

in
pa
ul

P.I 1 2 D D 2 x x 2
G.S: y e x Ae

om

The A.E is m 2 2m 1 0 m

x 2.

Solution:
1
e2 x cos x
D 4D 5
1

e2 x cos x
2
D 2 1
2

e 2 x

D 2 2

cos x

1
cos x
D 1
2

xe 2 x
sin x.
2

P.I

.R

e 2 x

ej

P.I

w
w

## Problem 8 Solve for x from the equations x y t and x y 1 .

Solution:
x y t (1) x y 1 x 1 y
x y 1 (2) x x 1 1

Thus x x 2 (or) D 2 1 x 2
m2 1 0 m i
C.F. A cos t B sin t

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Unit. 1 Ordinary Differential Equations

P.I

1
1
2
2

2 2

D 2 1

## G.S: x A cos t B sin t 2.

om

Problem 9 Solve D3 3D 2 6 D 8 y x .
Solution:
The A.E is m3 3m 2 6m 8 0
m 1 m 2 m 4 0
m 1, 2, 4

in
pa
ul

.c

## C.F is C1e x C2e 2 x C3e 4 x

1
P.I 3
x
2
D 3D 6 D 8
1

x
3
D 3D 2 6 D
8 1

1 D3 3D 2 6 D
1
x
8
8

.R

ej

1 D 3 3D 2 6 D
1
.. x
8
8

1
6 1
3
x x .
8
8 8
4
Complete solution is y C.F P.I
1
3
y C1 e x C2 e 2 x C3e 4 x x .
8
4

## Problem 10 Solve the equation D 2 4 D 13 y e 2 x

Solution:

w
w

Given D 2 4 D 13 y e 2 x
The A.E is m 2 4m 13 0
4 16 52
m
2
4 36

2
4 6i

2 3i
2
C.F y e2 x A cos 3x B sin 3x

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Unit. 1 Ordinary Differential Equations

1
e2 x
D 4 D 13
1
1

e2 x e2 x
4 8 13
9
G.S: y C.F P.I
2

y e 2 x A cos 3 x B sin 3x

e2 x
.
9

om

P.I.

## Problem 11 Solve the equation D5 D y 12e x

Solution:

.c

Given D 5 D y 12e x

in
pa
ul

The A.E is m5 m 0
m m 4 1 0
m4 1 0
m 0 or m 4 1 0

1 m 2 1 0

m 0, m 1, m i
C.F C1 e0 x C2 e x C3e x C4 cos x C5 sin x
1
12e x
D D
1

12e x Replacing D by 1
1 1
x

12e x Replacing D by 1
5D 4 1
x
x

5 1
4
G.S. y C.F P.I
5

.R

ej

P.I

w
w

## Problem 12 Solve the equation D 2 5D 6 y e 7 x sinh 3x

Solution:
The A.E is m5 5m 6 0
m 2 m 3 0

m 2, 3
C.F. is C1 e 2 x C2 e 3 x
1
P.I 2
e 7 x sinh 3x
D 5D 6
6

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Unit. 1 Ordinary Differential Equations

3x
1
e 3 x
7 x e
e

2
D 2 5D 6

1
1
1

2
e 4 x 2
e10 x
2 D 5D 6
D 5D 6

4 x
10 x

1 e
e

2 16 20 6 10 50 6

1 e4 x e10 x

2 2
34

G.S. y C1e 2 x C2 e 3 x

e 4 x e 10 x
.

4
68

.c

om

Given m3 3m 2 4m 2 0
m 1 m 2 2m 2 0

in
pa
ul

## Problem 13 Solve the equation D3 3D 2 4 D 2 y e x

Solution:

m 1 (or ) m 1 i
Complementary function Ae x e x B cos x C sin x

1
ex
D 3D 4 D 2
1
3
ex
2
1

3
1

4
1

2

3

Replacing D by 1

ej

P.I

1
1
ex ex
1 3 4 2
0
x

ex
2
3D 6 D 4
1

e x Replacing D by 1
36 4
xe x
G.S: y C.F . P.I
Ae x e x B cos x C sin x xe x .

w
w

.R

## Problem 14 Solve the equation

d2y
dy
4 4 y e 2 x
2
dx
dx

Solution:
Given D 2 4 D 4 y e 2 x
The A.E is m 2 4m 4 0
m2 2 m 2 0
7

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Unit. 1 Ordinary Differential Equations

m 2, 2

C.F.: Ax B e2 x
1
e 2 x
D 4D 4
1

e 2 x
2
2 4 2 4
2

Replacing D by - 2

om

P.I

1
e2 x Dr is 0
4 8 4
x

e2 x Replacing D by -2
2D 4
x

e 2 x
2 2 4
x 2 2 x
e
2

Dr is 0

G.S is y Ax B e 2 x

in
pa
ul

.c

x 2 2 x
e .
2

## Problem 15 Solve the equation D 2 2 D 1 y e x 3

Solution:
Given D 2 2 D 1 y e x 3

m 1, 1

.R

C.F.: Ax B e x

ej

The A.E is m 2 2m 1 0
m 1 m 1 0

Replacing D by -1

w
w

## P.I = P.I1 P.I 2

1
P.I1 2
e x
D 2D 1
1

e x
2
1 2 1 1

1
e x
1 2 1
x

e x Dr is 0
2D 2
x

e x Replacing D by -1
2 1 2

PI 2

1
3e0 x
D 2D 1
2

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Unit. 1 Ordinary Differential Equations

2 0 1

Replacing D by 0

3e0 x

G.S is y Ax B e x

x2 x
e 3.
2

om

Part-B
Problem 1 Solve D 2 2 D 8 y 4 cosh x sinh 3 x e2 x e x 1 .
Solution:
2

in
pa
ul

m 4 m 2 0
m 2, 4
C.F.: Ae 2 x Be 4 x

.c

The A.E. is m 2 2m 8 0

## R.H.S 4 cosh x sin 3 x e 2 x e x 1

2

e x e x e3 x e 3 x
x 2
2x
4

e e 1
2
2

4x
2 x
2x
4 x
e e e e e 4 x 2e3 x e 2 x 1

ej

e 2 x e 4 x 2e3 x 1e0 x
1
1
P.I.
e2 x

e4 x 2e3x e0 x
D 4 D 2
D 4 D 2

1
e 4 x
2e3 x
1

e 2 x
2 4 D 2
8 2 1 5 4 2

.R

xe2 x e4 x 2e3 x 1

6
16
5
8
2 x
xe
e4 x 2e3 x 1
G.S is y Ae 2 x Be 4 x

.
6
16
5
8

w
w

## Problem 2 Solve y y sin 2 x cos x cos 2 x cos 3x

Solution:
The A.E is m 2 1 0 m 2 1 m i
C.F.: A cos x B sin x
cos x 2 cos 2 x cos 3 x cos x
R.H.S

cos 5 x cos x
2
2
1
2 cos x cos 5 x 2 cos 2 x
4

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Unit. 1 Ordinary Differential Equations

1
cos 6 x cos 4 x 1 cos 2 x
4
2 cos A cos B cos A B cos A B A 3 x, B 2 x

1
sin 2 x cos x cos 2 x cos 3 x
D 1
2

## 1 e0 x cos 2 x cos 6 x cos 4 x cos 2 x e0 x

D 2 1 2
2
4
4
4
4

1
cos 2 x
cos 6 x
cos 4 x
cos 2 x
1

2
2 4 1 4 36 1 4 16 1 4 4 1 4

## 3 cos 2 x cos 6 x cos 4 x cos 6 x 3

.
4
6
140
60
140
4
cos 2 x cos 4 x cos 6 x 3
G.S. is y A cos x B sin x

.
12
60
140
4

Problem 3 Solve

in
pa
ul

.c

om

P.I.

d 2x
10 x cos8 y.
dy 2

Solution:

.R

ej

## Here y is independent and x is dependent variable

d
Let D
.
dy
The A.E is m 2 10 0
m 2 10
m 10i
C.F.: A cos 10 y B sin 10 y
1
cos 8 y
cos8 y
P.I 2
cos8 y

64 10
54
D 10

w
w

## G.S. is x A cos 10 y B sin 10 y

Problem 4 Solve

cos8 y
54

d2y
dy
6 9 y sin x cos 2 x .
2
dx
dx

Solution:

The A.E is m 2 6m 9 0

m 3

m 3, 3.
C.F.: A Bx e 3x
R.H.S

2sin x cos 2 x 1
sin 3x sin x
2
2

10

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Unit. 1 Ordinary Differential Equations

1
sin 3x sin x
2
2sin A cos B sin A B sin A B A x, B 2 x

1
1
1
1
sin 3x
sin x
2
2
2 D 6D 9
2 D 6D 9
1
1
1
1
P.I.
sin 3 x
sin x
2 9 6 D 9
2 1 6 D 9
1 1
1
1
sin 3x
sin x
12 D
2 8 6D
4 3D sin x
cos 3x

12 3 4 4 3D 4 3D

in
pa
ul

om

1
1
1
1
sin 3 x
sin x
2
2 D 3
2 D 3 2

.c

P.I.

1
1
1
cos 3x
4sin x 3cos x
36
4 16 9 D 2
1
1 4sin x 3cos x
cos 3x
36
4
16 9
cos 3x sin x 3cos x

36
25
100

ej

## Problem 5 Solve D 2 4 y x 4 cos2 x

Solution:

w
w

.R

The A.E. is m 2 4 0
m 2i
C.F.: A cos 2 x B sin 2 x
1
1 1 cos 2 x
P.I 2
x4 2

D 4
D 4
2

1
1
1
1
1 1

x4
e0 x
cos 2 x
2
2
4 D
2 D 4
2 D2 4
1

x sin 2 x
1 D2 4
1
1

x
4
4
2 4 2 2 2
1

1 D 2 D 4 4 1 x sin 2 x
1

x
4
4 16
8
8
x 4 12 x 2 4.3.2.1 1 x sin 2 x

4
16
64
8
8

11

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Unit. 1 Ordinary Differential Equations

## G.S. is y A cos 2 x B sin 2 x

4 3 x 2 x 4 x sin 2 x

8 4
4
8

## Problem 6 Solve D 2 2 D 1 y x e x cos 2 x cosh x .

Solution:
2

om

The A.E is m 2 2m 1 0
2 4 4
m
1 2
2
1 2 x
1 2 x
C.F.: Ae
Be

x 2 4 x 5 2

in
pa
ul

1
1
x2
x2
2

2
D

1 2 D D
2
1 2 D D 2 2 D D 2 .... x 2

2
2
2
2
1 2 D D 4 D x x
2

.c

e x e x

1
1
2
x
x
P.I. 2
x 2 xe e D 2 2D 1 cos 2 x 2

D 2 D 1

1
x 2 x 2 4 x 10
D 2D 1

2
2e x
x
xe

x
2
2
D 1 2 D 1 1
D 2D 1

1
2e x 2
x
D 2D 1 2D 2 1
2e x
2
x
D 4D 2
2e x
1

x
2
D2
1 2 D

w
w

.R

ej

D2
e 1 2 D
x
2

x

D2
e x 1 2 D
... x
2

x
e 1 2 D x

2
xe x e x x 2 x 2 e x
D 2 D 1
2

12

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Unit. 1 Ordinary Differential Equations

1
1
e2 x
2x
2x
e

D 2 2D 1
7
4 4 1

ex
1
e x cos 2 x

2.2sin
2
x

cos
2
x

2 2 4 D 2 1
12
e x 4sin 2 x cos 2 x e x cos 2 x

4
12
16 1

in
pa
ul

.c

ex
1
e x 1

cos 2 x
cos 2 x
2 D2 2D 1 2D 2 1
2 4 2
e x 2 D 1 cos 2 x
e x

cos 2 x
2 2 2 D 1 2 D 1 12

om

1
e x cos 2 x
1
e x cos 2 x

D 2 2D 1
2
D2 2D 1
2
x
e
e x
1
1
cos
2
x
cos 2 x

2
2
2 D 1 2 D 1 1
2 D 1 2 D 1 1

e x cos 2 x 4sin 2 x

e x cos 2 x
12

ej

17
The General Solution is
e2 x
1 2 x
1 2 x
2
y Ae
Be
10 4 x x
x 2 ex
7
x
x
e
e
cos 2 x
cos 2 x 4sin 2 x
17
12

.R

## Problem 7 Solve D 2 4 y x 2 cos 2 x

Solution:

w
w

The A.E is m 2 4 0
m 2 4
m 2 i
C.F.: A cos 2 x B sin 2 x
1
P.I 2
x 2 cos 2 x
D 4
1
R.P of 2
x 2ei 2 x R.P. of
D 4

e2ix

D 2i

x2

1
x2
D 4iD 4 4
1
1
R.P of e 2ix 2
x 2 R.P of e2ix
x2
D 4iD
D D 4i

13

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Unit. 1 Ordinary Differential Equations

R.P of e2ix

1
D

1
D
4i 1
4i

x2

e 2ix 1 D 2
1 x
4i D 4i
e2ix 1 D D 2 2
R.P of
1
x
4i D 4i 16

om

R.P of

ie 2ix x3 x 2 x
R.P of

4 3 4i 8

in
pa
ul

R.P of

.c

ie2ix x3 ix 2 x
R.P of

4 8
4 3
e 2ix x3i x 2 ix
R.P of

4 8
4 3

4

4
4
3
8
P.I.

4
4
3
8

.
16
12
32

ej

.R

## Problem 8 Solve D 2 a 2 y sec a x .

Solution:

w
w

The A.E. is m 2 a 2 0
m2 a 2
m ai
C.F.: A cos ax B sin a x
1
P.I
sec a x 1
D ai D ai
Using partial fractions
1
C2
C
1
2
2
D a
D ai D ai
1 C1 D ai C2 D ai
C1

1
1
, C2
2ia
2ia

14

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Unit. 1 Ordinary Differential Equations

P.I.

1
1
1
1
sec ax
sec a x
2ia D ai
2ia D ai

in
pa
ul

.c

e aix aix
e aix aix

e sec a x dx
e sec a x dx
2ia
2ia
e aix cos ax i sin ax
eaix cos ax i sin ax
P.I.
dx

dx
2ia
cos ax
2ia
cos ax
e aix
eaix
P.I.
1
i
tan
ax
dx

1 i tan ax dx
2ia
2ia
aix
e aix
i
i
e

log
sec
ax

x log sec ax

2ia
a
a
2ia

aix
aix
aix
aix
e e
2 x e e 2i

log sec ax

2
2a
2i
2
2ia

om

1
1
eaix aix

sec ax
e sec a x dx
2ia D ai
2ia

x
1
sin ax 2 log sec ax cos ax
a
a
1
2 ax sin ax cos ax log cos ax
a
G.S. is y C.F P.I .

ej

## Problem 9 Solve D 2 4 D 3 y e x sin x xe3 x .

Solution:

.R

The A.E is m 2 4m 3 0
m 1 m 3 0

m 1, 3
C.F.: Ae x Be 3 x
1
1
P.I
e x sin x
xe3 x
D

3
D

1
D

1
D

e x
e3 x
sin x
x
D 1 3 D 1 1
D 3 1 D 3 3

w
w

e x

1
1
sin x e3 x
x
D 2 D
D 4 D 6

e x

D2
1
x
cos x e3 x 2
D 10 D 24
D 2 D 2

e x

1
e3 x
sin
x
2
cos
x

24
D2 4

1
x
10 D D 2
1

24 24

15

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Unit. 1 Ordinary Differential Equations

1
e3 x 5 D D 2
sin
x

2
cos
x

x
P.I. e

24 12 24
D2 4
x

e x
e3 x
5

sin x 2 cos x x
5
24 12
5
e x
e3 x
sin x 2 cos x x .
5
24 12

## Problem 10 Solve the Legendres linear equation

3 x 2 2 D 2 3 3 x 2 D 36 y 3 x 2 4 x 1

in
pa
ul

Solution:

.c

G.S. is y Ae x Be 3 x

om

e x sin x 2 cos x e3 x 5 D

x
1
24 12
1 4

2
Let 3 x 2 D 2 3 3 x 2 D 36 y 3x 2 4 x 1

t
Let 3x 2 e or t log 3 x 2

dt
3

dx
3x 2
z
3x e 2
1
2
x ez
3
3
Let 3x 2 D 3D

3x 2

ej

D 2 9 D D 1

w
w

.R

2
2
1
1
9 D D 1 3 3D 36 y 3 e z 4 e z 1
3
3
3
3
1 2z 4 4 z 4 z 8
2
9 D 9 D 9 D 36 y 3 9 e 9 9 e 3 e 3 1

1
4 4
4
8
9 D2 36 y e2 z e z e z 1
3
3 3
3
3
1 2z 1
e
3
3
2
A.E is 9m 36 0
9m 2 36
m2 4
m 2
C.F Ae 2 z Be 2 z
2
2
A 3x 2 B 3x 2

16

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Unit. 1 Ordinary Differential Equations

1
e2 z
9 D2 36 3
1
1
.
e2 z
3 36 36
1
1 2z
z
e
3 18D
1 e2 z

z
54 2
1

ze2 z
108
1
2

log 3x 2 3x 2
108
e0 z
1
P.I 2
9 D12 36 3
1 1 0z
1
.
e
3 36
108
y C.F P.I1 PI 2

in
pa
ul

.c

om

P.I1

1
1
2
3x 2 log 3x 2
108
108
1
2
2
2
A 3x 2 B 3x 2
3x 2 log 3x 2 1 .
108
A 3x 2 B 3 x 2
2

Solution:

ej

## Problem 11 Solve D 2 5D 4 e x sin 2 x x 2 1where D

d
.
dx

.R

The A.E m2 5m 4 0
m 4 or m 1

w
w

C.F Ae 4 x Be x
1
P.I 2
e x sin 2 x 2 x 2 1

D 5D 4
1
1
e3 x
sin 2 x
x 2 1

2
2

D 5D
D 1 5 D 1 4
4 1

2
1
1 5D 5D 2
e3 x 2
sin 2 x 1

x 1
D 3D
4
4
16

e x
1
5
13

2sin 2 x 3cos 2 x x 2 x
26
4
2
8
G.S : y C.F . P.I

17

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Unit. 1 Ordinary Differential Equations

e x
1
5
13
2sin 2 x 3cos 2 x x2 x .
26
4
2
8
2
d y
dy
Solve x 2 2 4 x 6 y sin log x .
dx
dx

y Ae 4 x Be x

Problem 12
Solution:

d2y
dy
Given equation is x
4 x 6 y sin log x .
2
dx
dx
2 2
x D 4 xD 6 y sin log x 1

xD D 2
d
dz

in
pa
ul

x 2 D 2 D D 1 3 Where D denotes

.c

Put x e z or z log x

om

## Sub (2) & (3) in (1) we get

D D 1 4D 2 y sin z

i.e D2 D 4 D 2 y sin z
D2 3D 2 y sin z 4

The A.E is m2 3m 2 0

m 1 m 2 0
m 1, 2

w
w

.R

ej

C.F.: Ae z Be 2 z
1
P.I.= 2
sin z
D 3 D 2
1

sin z
1 3 D 2
1

sin z
3D 1
3D 1

sin z
9 D 2 1
3D 1 sin z Replace D2 by 1

9 1 1

3D sin z sin z
10
3cos z sin z

10
The solution of (4) is
3cos z sin z
y Ae z Be 2 z
10

18

## Sub z log x or x e z , we get

3cos log x sin log x
y Ae log x Be 2log x
10
3cos
log
x

sin

log x
y Ax 1 Bx 2
10
3cos
log
x

sin

log x
A B
y 2
x x
10
This gives the solution of the given differential equation.

om

## Problem 13 Solve the simultaneous ordinary differential equation

2 x D 5 y e2t

.c

D 4 x 3 y t ,

Solution:

2 x D 5 y e 2t 2
2 1 D 4 2

in
pa
ul

Given D 4 x 3 y t 1

6 y D 4 D 5 y 2t D 4 e 2t
6 D 2 9 D 20 y 2t 2e 2t 4e zt
D 2 9D 14 y 6e2t 2t

The A.E. is m2 9m 14 0
m 7 m 2 0

6e 2t
2

4 18 14 14

.R

ej

m 2, 7
C.F.: Ae 2t Be 7 t
6
2
P.I. 2
e 2t 2
t
D 9 D 14 D 9D 14
1
t
9D D2
1

14 14
1

w
w

6e 2t 1 9 D D 2

t
36 7 14 14
e2t 1 9 D
e 2t 1
9

1
t

t

6 7 14
6 7 14
2t
e
t 9
G.S. is y Ae 2 t Be 7 t

6 7 98
To Calculate x
2e 2 t 1
Dy 2 Ae 2t 7 Be 7 t

6
7

19

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Unit. 1 Ordinary Differential Equations

5e 2t 5t 45

6
7 98
7e2t 5t 1 45

D 5 y 3 Ae2t 2 Be7 t
6
7 7 98
2t
2 2 x D 5 y e

in
pa
ul

Problem 14 Solve:

.c

7e2t 5t 31 2t
e
6
7 98
3 A 2t
7
5t 31
x
e Be 7 t e 2 t
2
72
14 196
The General solution is
e2t 5t 31
3 A 2t
x
e Be7t

2
12 14 196
e 2t t 9
y Ae2t Be 7 t
.
6 7 98
3 Ae2t 2 Be7t

om

5 y 5 Ae 2t 5 Be 7 t

d2y
y tan x by method of variation of parameters
dx 2

Solution:
A.E is m 2 1 0
m i
C.F = c1 cos x c2 sin x
P.I PI1 PI 2

.R

ej

f1 cos x ; f 2 sin x

f1 sin x ; f 2 cos x
f 2 f1 f1f 2 1
f2 X
Now, P
dx

f f ff
1 2

## = sin x tan xdx

s in 2 x
(1 co s 2 x )
dx
dx
cos x
co s x
= sec xdx cos xdx

w
w

f1 X
dx
f1 f 2 f1 f 2

= cos x

20

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Unit. 1 Ordinary Differential Equations

## = c1 cos x c2 sin x + [ log sec x tan x sin x]cos x cos x sin x

= c1 cos x c2 sin x log(sec x tan x) cos cos x .

d2y
4 y sec 2 x
dx 2

Solution:

.c

Now, P

f2 X
dx

f1 f 2 f1 f 2

## = sin 2 x sec 2 xdx

in
pa
ul

om

The A.E is m 2 4 0
m 2i
C.F = c1 cos 2 x c2 sin 2 x
P.I = Pf1 + Qf2
f1 = cos 2x;
f2 = sin 2x

f1 2sin 2 x ; f 2 2 cos 2 x
f f ff 2

2
1
= tan 2 xdx 1 log cos 2 x
2
4

f1 X
dx
f1 f 2 f1 f 2

2

ej

.R

2

w
w

21

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

UNIT II

VECTOR CALCULUS
Part-A

## Problem 1 Prove that div( grad ) 2

Solution:

.c

2 2 2

x 2 y 2 z 2

in
pa
ul

om

i
j
k

y
z
x

i j k i
j
k

y
z x
y
z
x

2
2
2
2 2 2
x y z
2 .

Problem 2 Find a, b, c, if F x 2 y az i bx 3 y z j (4 x cy 2 z )k is
irrotational.

Solution:

w
w

.R

ej

F is irrotational if F 0

i
j
k

F
x
y
z
x 2 y az bx 3 y z 4 x cy 2 z

i 4 x cy 2 z bx 3 y z j 4 x cy 2 z x 2 y az
z
z
x

k bx 3 y 2 z x 2 y az
y
x

i c 1 j a 4 k b 2

F 0 0i 0 j 0k i c 1 j a 4 k b 2
c 1 0, a 4 0, b 2 0
c 1, a 4, b 2.

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

Solution:

Let r xi y j zk
By Gauss divergence theorem

F n ds FdV Here F .r

ds
r

rdV

om

i j k . xi y j zk dV
x
y
z
V

1 1 1 dV

r n ds 3V .
S

.c

dr

r
n ab
dt

in
pa
ul

Solution:

## Given r a cos nt b sin nt

dr
na sin nt nb cos nt
dt

dr

r
a cos nt b sin nt na sin nt nb cos nt
dt

n a b cos 2 nt b a sin 2 nt

n a b cos 2 nt a b sin 2 nt a b b a

n a b 1 n a b

.R

ej

## Problem 5 Prove that div curl A 0

w
w

Solution:

x
A1

y
A2

z
A3

i 3 2 j 3 1 k 2 1
z x
z
y
x
y

3 2 3 1 2 1
x y
z y x
z z x
y
2

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

2 3 2 2 2 1 2 3 2 2 2 1

xy xz yz yx zx zy

div curl A 0

in
pa
ul

.c

Let xy 3 z 2 4

y 3 z 2 i 3 xy 2 z 2 j 2 xy 3 zk

3
2
2
2
3
1,1,2 1 2 i 3 1 1 2 j 2 1 1 2 k

4i 12 j 4k

4i 12 j 4k

16 144 16

4 i 3 j k

176

4 i 3 j k
i3j k

.
16 11
11

om

## Problem 6 Find the unit normal to surface xy 3 z 2 4 at 1, 1, 2

Solution:

closed curve C is

ej

Problem 7 Applying Greens theorem in plane show that area enclosed by a simple
1
xdy ydx
2

.R

Solution:

Pdx Qdy x y dx dy

w
w

P y, Q x
P
Q
1,
1
y
x

x dy ydx 1 1 dxdy 2 dx dy
R

= 2 Area enclosed by C
1
Area enclosed by C = xdy ydx .
2

## Problem 8 If A and B are irrotational show that A B is solenoidal

Solution:

Given A is irrotational i.e., A 0

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

B is irrotational i.e., B 0

. A B B. A A. B

B 0 A0 0

A B is solenoidal.

## Problem 9 If F grad x3 y 3 z 3 3xyz find curl F

Solution:

in
pa
ul

F x 3 y 3 z 3 3xyz

3x 2 3 yz l 3 y 2 3 xz j 3 z 2 3xy k

i
j
k

F
x
y
z
2
2
2
3 x 3 yz 3 y 3 xz 3 z 3 xy

om

.c

i 3 z 2 3 xy 3 y 2 3 xz j 3 z 2 3xy 3x 2 3 yz
z
z
x

k 3 y 2 3 xz 3 x 2 3 yz
y
x

i 3x 3x j 3 y 3 y k 3 z 3 z

i 0 j0 k 0 0 .

to 1,1 .

.R

0,0

If F x 2 i y 2 j , evaluate F d r along the straight line y x from

ej

Problem 10
Solution:

F .d r x 2 i y 2 j dxi dy

w
w

x 2 dx y 2 dy
Given y x
dy dx
1
F d r x 2 dx y 2 dy
C

x3
2
x dx x dx 2 x dx 2
3 0 3
0
0
1

Solution:
4

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

n
.

Solution:

om

.F divF 0

## Problem 13 If a is a constant vector what is a ?

Solution:

a
x
a1

j k

0
y z
a2 a3

.c

a a1 i a 2 j a 3 k

in
pa
ul

Let

## Problem 14 Find grad at 2, 2, 2 when x 2 y 2 z 2 2

Solution:

ej

i x 2 y 2 x 2 2 j x2 y 2 z 2 2 k x2 y2 z 2 2
x
y
z

2 x i 2 y j 2 zk

2,2,2 4i 4 j 4k

.R

## Problem 15 State Gauss Divergence Theorem

Solution:

The surface integral of the normal component of a vector function F over a closed

w
w

Part B

Problem 1

Solution:
x 2 yz 4 xz 2
5

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

.c

om

2 xyz 4 z 2 i x 2 z j x 2 y 8 xz k

2
2
2
1, 2, 1 2 1 2 1 4 1 i 1 1 j 1 2 8 1 1 k

4 4 i j 2 8 k

8i j 10k

.a
Directional derivative a is

8i j 10k . 2i j 2k

4 1 4
16 1 20 37

.
3
3

in
pa
ul

## Problem 2 Find the maximum directional derivative of xyz 2 at 1, 0,3 .

Solution:
Given xyz 2

yz 2 i xz 2 j 2 xyzk

2
2
1,0,3 0 3 i 1 3 j 2 1 0 3 k 9 j

point 2, 1, 2 .

.R

Solution:

ej

## Problem 3 Find the angle between the surfaces x 2 y 2 z 2 9 and x 2 y 2 z 3 at the

Let 1 x 2 y 2 z 2 9

1 2 xi 2 y j 2 zk

1 2,1,2 2(2)i 2 1 j 2 2 k 4i 2 j 4k

w
w

2 x 2 y 2 z 3

2 2 xi 2 y j k

2 2, 1,2 4i 2 j 2k

## If is the angle between the surfaces then

1.2
cos
| 1 || 2 |

4i 2 j 4k . 4i 2 j 2k

16 4 16 16 4 4

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

16 4 8
36 24
12
1

6 2 6
6
1
cos 1
.
6

om

## Problem 4 Find the work done, when a force F x 2 y 2 x i 2 xy y j moves a

particle from the origin to the point 1,1 along y 2 x .

Solution:

in
pa
ul

.c

Given F x 2 y 2 x i 2 xy y j

d r dxi dy j dzk

F . d r x 2 y 2 x dx 2 xy y dy

Given y 2 x
2 ydy dx

F .d r x 2 x x dx 2 y 3 y dy
x 2 dx 2 y 3 y dy

1
1 2
3
F dr x dx 2 y y dy

x 2 y4 y2

2 0
3 0 4

1
2 1
0 0 0
3
4 2

.R

ej

w
w

1 1 1

3 2 2
1
2
1
3
3
2
Work done F .dr
3
C

Problem 5

Solution:

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

x
y
z
2
3
y cos x z 2 y sin x 4 3xz 2

i 0 0 j 3 z 2 3 z 2 k 2 y cos x 2 y cos

0i 0 j 0k 0

.R

ej

in
pa
ul

F 0
Hence F is irrotational

## y 2 cos x z 3 i 2 y sin x 4 j 3xz 2 k i x j y yz

Equating the coefficient i, j , k

y 2 cos x z 3 y 2 cos x z 3 dx
x
1 y 2 sin x z 3 x C1

2 y sin x 4 2 y sin x 4 dy
x
y2
2 2 sin x 4 y C2
2

3xz 2 3 xz 2 dy
x
z3
3 3 x C3
3
y 2 sin x xz 3 4 y C

om

.c

Problem 6

If F 3 xyi y 2 j evaluate

## when C is curve in the xy plane

y 2 x 2 , from 0, 0 to 1, 2

F .dr

Solution:

w
w

F 3 xyi y 2 j

dr dxi dy j dzk

F .dr 3 xydx y 2 dy
Given y 2 x 2
dy 4 xdx

2
F .d r 3 x(2 x 2 )dx 2 x 2 4 x dx
6 x3dx 4 x 4 (4 x)dx

6 x3dx 16 x5 dx
8

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

1
3
5
Fd r 6 x 16 x dx

Problem 7

2
2
F
.
d
r
when
2
F

y
i

xy
j where the cure C is the

Find

## rectangle in the xy plane bounded by x 0, x a, y b, y 0 .

Solution:

OA

AB

BC

in
pa
ul

.c

Given F x 2 y 2 i 2 xy j

d r dxi dy j dzk

Fd r ( x 2 y 2 )dx 2 xy dy
C is the rectangle OABC and C consists of four different paths.
OA (y = 0)
AB (x = a)
BC (y = b)
CO (x = 0)

F .d r
C

om

x 4 16 x 6
6
6 0
4
6 16
7
.
4 6
6

CO

.R

ej

Along
OA,
y 0,
dy 0
AB,
x a,
dx 0
BC ,
y b,
dy 0
CO,
x 0,
dx 0

C F .d r x 2 dx 2aydy
OA

AB
b

b 2 dx

BC

CO

x 2 dx 2a ydy x 2 b 2 dx
0

x
y x3

2a b 2 x
3 0
2 o 3
a
3
2
a

b

a3

0 2a 0 0 0 ab 2 2ab 2 .
3

2

3

2 2
2
3
Problem 8 If F 4 xy 3x z i 2 x j 2 x zk check whether the integral
2

w
w

F .d r is

Solution:
Given
9

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

F 4 xy 3 x 2 z 2 i 2 x 2 j 2 x 3 zk

d r dxi dy j dzk

2 2
2
3
F .d r 4 xy 3x z dx 2 x dy 2 x zdz
C

in
pa
ul

.c

om

## This integral is independent of path of integration if

F F 0

i
j
k

F
x
y
z
4 xy 3x 2 z 2 2 x 2 2 x3 z

i 0, 0 j 6 x 2 z 6 x 2 z k 4 x 4 x

0i 0i 0 j 0k 0.
Hence the line integral is independent of path.

Problem 9

x (1 y)dx ( y
2

x3 )dy where

## C is the square bounded x a , y a

Solution:

.R

ej

Let P x 2 (1 y )
P
x2
y
Q y 3 x3
Q
3x 2
x
By greens theorem in a plane
Q P
C Pdx Qdy C x y dxdy
Now

x y dx dy
R

a a

3x

w
w

x 2 dx dy

a a
a
a

dy 2 x dx

2 x3
y a

3 a
2
a a a3 a3
3
a

10

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

8a 4
(1)
3
Now Pdx Qdy

AB

BC

CD

DA

Pdx Qdy x 1 y dx x
a

y 3 dy

AB

x 2 (1 a )dx 0
a

in
pa
ul

.c

x3
1 a
3 a
2a 3 2a 4
1 a 3
3

a a
3
3
3
Along BC
x a, dx 0
Y varies from a to a

om

Along AB, y a, dy 0
X varies from a to a

2
3
3
Pdx Qdy x 1 y dx x y dy
a

BC

(a 3 y 3 )dy
a

.R

ej

3
y4
a y
4 a

a4
a4
a 4 a 4 2a 4
4
4

Along CD
y a, dy 0
X varies from a to a
a

Pdx Qdy x 1 y dx x

w
w

CD

y 3 dy

x 2 (1 a )dx
a

x3
1 a dx
3 a

a 3 a 3
1 a

11

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

2a 3 2a 4

3
3

Pdx Qdy x 1 y dx x
2

DA

y 3 dy

a 2 1 y dx y 3 a 3 dy
a

in
pa
ul

Pdx Qdy

.c

y4

a3 y
4
a
4
a
a4

a 4 a 4 2a 4
4
4

om

Along DA ,
x a, dx 0
Y Varies from a to a

2a 3 2a 4
2 a 3 2a 4

2a 4

2a 4
3
3
3
3

.R

ej

4
4a 4 a 4
3
4
8a

......(2)
3
From (1) and (2)
Q P
8a 4
Pdx

Qdy

dxdy

R x y
3
C
Hence Greens theorem verified.

3x

x y2 , y x2 .

Solution:

w
w

## Greens theorem states that

v u
C udx vdy R x y dxdy
Q

## Pdx Qdy x y dxdy

Given

3x

8 y 2 dx 4 y 6 xy dy

P 3x 8 y 2
2

12

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

Pdx Qdy

(i) Along OA
y x 2 dy 2 xdx

Pdx Qdy 3x

OA

8 x 4 dx 4 x 2 6 x 3 2 xdx

OA

.c

3x 2 8 x 4 8 x 3 12 x 4 dx

om

P
16 y
y
Q 4 y 6 xy
Q
6 y
x
Evaluation of

0
1

in
pa
ul

20 x 4 8 x3 3 x 2 dx
0

x5
x 4 3x3
20 8
5
4
3 0

20 8 3

5
5 3
4 2 1 1
Along AO
y 2 x 2 ydy dx
Ao

Ao

(6 y

16 y 3 4 y 6 y 3 )dy

.R

8 y 2 2 y dy 4 y 6 y 3 dy

ej

Pdx Qdy 3 y
AO
0

6 y 5 22 y 3 4 y dy

w
w

y6
y4 4 y2
6 22
4
2 1
6
0

11
5

y6 y4 2 y2
2

1 2
5 3
Pdx Qdy 1 (1)
2 2
C
OA AO

Evaluation of

x y dx dy
R

x y dxdy 6 y 16 y dxdy
R

13

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

0 y2

10 y dx dy 10 xy x y dy
1

10 y

x y

y y 2 dy

32

10 y y 3 dy

om

in
pa
ul

.c

y 2 y4
10
5
4

2
0
2 1
10
5 4
8 5
10
20
30 3

(2)
20 2
For (1) and (2)
Hence Greens theorem is verified.

## Problem 11 Verify Gauss divergence theorem for F yi x j z 2 k over the cylindrical

region bounded by x 2 y 2 9, Z 0 and Z 2 .

ej

Solution:

Gauss
divergencetheorem is

F .n
S

ds

div F dV
V

.R

div F y x z 2 2 z
x
y
z
3

div F dV

9 x2 2

2 z dzdy dx

3 9 x 2 0

9 x2

w
w

3
3

z2
2
2 2 dydx
0
9 x
9 x2

3 9 x

dydx
2

## = 4 (Area of the circular region)

4 3

36 .................(1)

14

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

F .n ds
S

S1

S2

S3

S1 is the bottom of the circular region, S2 is the top of the circular region and S3 is the
cylindrical region

On S1 , n k , ds dxdy , z 0

2
F . n ds z dxdy 0

om

On S 2 , n k , ds dxdy, z 2

2
F .n ds z dx dy
S1

s2

.c

4 dxdy

4 3

36

in
pa
ul

## 4 (Area of circular region)

On S3 , x 2 y 2 9

2
xi

2
y
j
n

4 x2 y 2

xi y j

3

2 xi y j
S F .n ds yi x j z k 3 ds

3
yx yx
2

ds xy ds
3
3 S
Let x 3cos , y 3sin
ds 3 d dy
varies from 0 to 2
z varies from 0 to 2
2 2
2
9sin cos 3 d dz
30 0

.R

ej

2 2

w
w

18
sin 2 d dz
2 0 0
2

cos 2
9
dz
2 0
0
2

9
1 1 dz 0
2 0

F .n ds 0 36 0 36 ...............(2)
S

15

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

## from (1) and (2)

F
.
n
ds

div

FdV
C

Problem
12
Verify Stokes theorem for the vector field defined by

## F x 2 y 2 i 2 xy j in the rectangular region in the xy plane bounded by the lines

om

x 0, x a, y 0, y b.

Solution:

F x 2 y 2 i 2 xy j

By Stokes theorem F . d r curl F .n ds

curl F

.c

in
pa
ul

x
y
z
2
2
x y 2 xy 0

i 0 0 j 0 0 k 2 y 2 y 4 yk

As the region is in the xy plane we can take n k and ds dxdy

curl F .n ds 4 yk.k dx dy
S

b a

4 y dx dy
b

ej

0 0

F .dr

.R

y2
a
4 x 0
2 0
2ab 2 ..............(1)

OA

AB

BC

CO

Along OA
y 0 dy 0,
x varies from 0 to a
a

w
w

x 2 y 2 dx 2 xy dy
OA

x3
a3
x dx
3 0 3
0
a

Along AB
x a dx o, y varies from 0 to b

16

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

AB

a 2 y 2 .0 2ay dy
0

BC

om

y2
2a ab 2
2 0
Along BC
y b, dy 0
x varies from a to 0
b 2 dx 0

a3
ab 2
3

Along CO
x 0, dx 0,
y varies from b to 0

CO

0 y 2 0 0 0
b

in
pa
ul

.c

x3

b2 x
3
a

a 3
a3
2
F . d r ab ab 2 0
3
3
c

.R

ej

2ab 2 .........(2)
For (1) and (2)

F
.
d
r

curl

F . nds

## Here Stokes theorem is verified.

Find

Problem 13

2
F
.
nds
if
where S is the surface in
F

y
i

2
x
j

2
yzk

w
w

Solution:

## Let 2 x y 2 z 6 be the given surface

Then 2i j 2k

2i j 2k 2i j 2k

3
4 1 4

1
The unit outward normal n to the surface S is n 2i j 2k
3
Let R be the projection of S on the xy plane

17

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

dx dy
F .n ds F .n
n.k
S
R1
1
2
n.k 2i j 2k .k
3
3

F .n x y 2 i 2 x j 2 yzk . 2i j 2k
3

om

2
2
4
x y 2 x yz

3
3
3
2
y 2 2 yz
3
2
y y 2z
3
2
y y 6 y 2 x
3
2
y 6 2 x
3
4
y 3 x
3

dx dy
F .n ds F .n
n.k
S
S

3 x dx dy

.R

ej

R1

3 6 2 x

in
pa
ul

4
dxdy
y 3 x
3
2/3
2 3 x dx dy

.c

62 x

y2
2 3 x
2 0
0

dx

4 3 x d x
3

w
w

(3 x)4
4

4 0
81 units.
Problem 14
Evaluate

x y dx 2 x 3xy

Solution:

18

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

## where S is the surface of the triangle and n is

Stokes theorem is F .dr curl F .nds

om

in
pa
ul

.c

## the unit vector normal to surface S .

Given F .dr x y dx 2 x z dy y z dz

F x y i 2x z j y z k

dr i dx jdy k dz

i
j
k

curl F
x
y
z
x y 2x z y z

i 1 1 j 0 0 k 2 1

curl F 2i k
Equation of the plane ABC is
x y z
1
2 3 6
3x 2 y z 6
Let 3x 2 y z 6

3i 2 j k

.R

ej

## Unit normal vector to the surface ABC or is

n 3i 2 j k

14

3i 2 j k 6 1
7
curl F . n 2i k .

14
14
14

7

Hence curl F . nds
ds

14
S
S
7
dxdy

14 R nk
dxdy
R 1
14
7 dxdy

7
14

w
w

3i 2 j k
1
n k

.k
14
14

7 Area of le OAB
7 3 21.

19

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

Problem 15

## surface bounded by the planes x 0, x 1, y 0, y 1, z 0 and z 1 above the

XOY plane.

Solution:

F
.
d
r

F .nds

F y z i yz j xzk

i
j
k

F
x
y z
y z yz xz

yi z 1 j k

F .n ds

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

is not applicable, since the given condition is above the XOY plane.

S6

S1

om

.c

in
pa
ul

Stoke's theorem is

AEGD

yi z 1 j k .idydz

ydy dz

AEGD

y2
y dy dz dz
2 0
0 0
0
1 1
1
z 0
2
2

yi z 1 j k . i dydz

S2

.R

ej

1 1

OBFC

y2
1
y dy dz dz
2 0
2
0 0
0

yi z 1 j k jdxdz

1 1

w
w

S3

EBFG

1 1

z 1 dx dz xz x 0 dz
1

0 0

z
1
1
z 1
2
2
0 2

yi z 1 j k j dxdz
2

S4

20

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

1 1

z 1 dx dz
0 0
1

xz x 0 z 1 dz
1

S5

om

z2
1
1

z
1
2
2
0 2

yi z 1 j k .kdxdy

DGFC

1 1

1dxdy x 0 dy
1

.c

0 0
1

1 dy y 0 1
1

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

in
pa
ul

1 1 1 1
1 1
2 2 2 2
L.H .S F .dr
C

OA

AE

EB

BO

y z dx yzdy xzdz

OA

OA

y 0, z 0, dy 0, dz 0

0 0

ej

OA

y z dx yzdy xzdz
AE

x 1,

0 0

.R

AE

z 0, dx 0, dz 0

AE

y z dx yzdy xzdz

EB

EB

1 dx

y 1,

z 0,

x 1 0 1 1

w
w

y z dx yzdy xzdz

BO

BO

x 0,

00

z 0

BO

0

C

OA

AE

EB

BO

0 0 1 0 1

21

om

.c

in
pa
ul

ej

.R

w
w

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Unit.3 Analytic Functions

UNIT III

ANALYTIC FUNCTIONS
Part-A

## Problem 1 State Cauchy Riemann equation in Cartesian and Polar coordinates.

Solution:

.c

om

Cartesian form:
u v u
v
,

x y y
x
Polar form:
u 1 v v
1 u

r r r
r

in
pa
ul

Problem 2 State the sufficient condition for the function f(z) to be analytic.
Solution:

## The sufficient conditions for a function f z u iv to be analytic at all the points in a

region R are
(1) u x v y , u y vx
(2) u x , u y , vx , v y are continuous functions of x and y in region R .

f z u iv e z

ej

## Problem 3 Show that f z e z is an analytic Function.

Solution:

.R

e x iy
e x eiy
e x cos y i sin y

u e x cos y, v e x sin y
u x e x cosy, vx e x siny

u y e x siny, vy e x cosy

w
w

i.e., u x v y , u y vx
Hence C-R equations are satisfied.
f z e z is analytic.

Solution:
Given f z z x iy
i.e., u x , v y
1

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u
v
1,
0
x
x
u
v
0,
1
y
y
ux vy
C-R equations are not satisfied anywhere.
Hence f z z is not analytic.

Solution:

om

## Unit.3 Analytic Functions

.c

(i) Both real and imaginary parts of any analytic function satisfy Laplace equation.
2u 2u
2v 2v
i.e., 2 2 0 or 2 2 0 .
x y
x y

in
pa
ul

## (ii) If w u iv is an analytic function, then the curves of the family u x, y c, cut

orthogonally the curves of the family v x, y c .

Problem 6
Solution:

## Show that f z z is differentiable at z 0 but not analytic at z 0 .

2

ej

z
f ( z ) f (0)
zz
Lim
Lim
Lim Lim z 0
z 0
z 0 z
z 0 z
z 0
z 0
f z is differentiable at z 0 .
Let z x iy
z x iy
2

.R

z z z x iy x iy x 2 y 2

f z x2 y 2 i0

u x2 y2 , v 0
u x 2 x, v x 0
u y 2 y, v y 0

w
w

The C-R equation u x v y and u y vx are not satisfied at points other than z = 0.

Therefore f z is not analytic at points other than z 0 . But a function can not be
analytic at a single point only. Therefore f z is not analytic at z = 0 also.

## Problem 7 Determine whether the function 2 xy i ( x 2 y 2 ) is analytic.

Solution:
Given f z 2 xy i x 2 y 2
i.e., u 2 xy

, v x2 y2
2

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u
v
2 y,
2x
x
x
u
v
2 x,
2 y
y
y
u x v y and u y vx
C-R equations are not satisfied.
Hence f z is not analytic function.

Problem 8
Solution:

.c

v sinhxcosy
v
v
coshxcosy,
sinhxsiny
x
y

om

## Unit.3 Analytic Functions

in
pa
ul

2v
2v

sinhxcosy
,
sinhycosy
x 2
y 2
2v 2v

sinhxcosy sinhycosy 0
x 2 y 2
Hence v is a harmonic function.

Problem 9 Construct the analytic function f ( z ) for which the real part is e x cosy .
Solution:

.R

ej

u e x cos y
u
e x cos y
x
u
Assume
x, y 1 z, 0
x

1 z,0 e z

u
e x siny
y

u x, y
2 z, 0
y

w
w
Assume

2 z,0 0

f z f ' z dz 1 z , 0 dz i 2 z , 0 dz
e z dz i 0

f z ez C .

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Unit.3 Analytic Functions

Problem 10 Prove that an analytic function whose real part is constant must itself be a
constant.

Solution:

## Let f z u iv be an analytic function

om

u x v y , u y vx .............(1)
Given
u c a constant

ux 0 , u y 0

vy 0 & vx 0 by 1

.c

We know that f z u iv

f z ux ivx

in
pa
ul

f z 0 i0

f z 0

## Integrating with respect to z , f z C

Hence an analytic function with constant real part is constant.

Solution:

ej

## A transformation that preserves angle between every pair of curves through a

point both in magnitude and sense is said to be conformal at that point.

## Problem 12 If w f ( z ) is analytic prove that

.R

2w
0
z z

dw w
w

i
where w u iv and
dz x
y

prove that

Solution:

w u x, y iv x, y is an analytic function of z .

As f z is analytic we have u x v y , u y vx
dw
f ' z u x ivx v y iu y i u y iv y
dz
u
u
v
v

i
i
i

x x
y y

w
w

Now

u iv i u iv
x
y
w
w

i
x
y

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Unit.3 Analytic Functions

w
0
z

W.K.T.

2w
0
z z

Problem 13

## Define bilinear transformation. What is the condition for this to be

om

conformal?

Solution:

az b
, a d bc 0 where a, b, c, d
cz d
numbers is called a bilinear transformation.
dw
The condition for the function to be conformal is
0.
dz

are complex

.c

The transformation w

2
z

Solution:

in
pa
ul

## Problem 14 Find the invariant points or fixed points of the transformation w 2 .

The invariant points are given by z 2
i.e., z 2

2
z

z 2 2z 2
z2 2z 2 0

2 4 4 1 2
2 1

ej

2
z

.R

2 4 8 2 2i

2
2
1 i
The invariant points are z 1 i, 1 i

## Problem 15 Find the critical points of (i) w z

1
(ii) w z 3 .
z

w
w

Solution:

1
z
dw
For critical point
0
dz
dw
1
1 2 0
dz
z
z i are the critical points

(i). Given w z

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Unit.3 Analytic Functions

Part-B
Problem 1

## Determine the analytic function whose real part is

u x 3xy 3x 2 3 y 2 1 .
3

.c

Solution:

u
6 xy 6 y
y

2 z,0 0

in
pa
ul

Given u x3 3xy 2 3x 2 3 y 2 1
u
1 x, y
3x 2 3 y 2 6 x
x
1 z,0 3z 2 6 z

2 x , y

om

(ii). Given w z 3
dw
3z 2 0
dz
z 0
z 0 is the critical point.

## By Milne Thomason method

f z 1 z , 0 dz i 2 z , 0 dz

z
z
6 C z 3 3z 2 C
3
2

.R

ej

3 z 2 6 z dz 0

## Problem 2 Find the regular function f z whose imaginary part is

v e x x cos y y sin y

Solution:

v e x x cos y y sin y

v
e x cos y x cos y y sin y e x
x
2 z , 0 e z z e z e z ze z e z 1 z

w
w

2 x , y

1 x, y

u
e x x sin y y cos y sin y 1
y

1 z,0 e z 0 0 0 0

## By Milnes Thomson Method

f z 1 z , 0 dz i 2 z , 0 dz
6

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Unit.3 Analytic Functions

0 dz i 1 z e z dz

i e z ze z e z C i ze z C

## Problem 3 Determine the analytic function whose real part is

Solution:

sin 2 x
.
cosh 2 y cos 2 x

.c

sin 2 x
cosh 2 y cos 2 x
u cosh 2 y cos 2 x 2 cos 2 x sin 2 x 2sin 2 x
1 x, y

2
x
cosh 2 y cos 2 x

om

e z
e z
i 1 z 1
C
2

1
1
i 1 z e z e z C

in
pa
ul

Given u

## 1 cos 2 z 2 cos 2 z 2sin 2 2 z

2
1 cos 2 z
1 cos 2 z 2 cos 2 z 2 1 cos 2 2 z

2
1 cos 2 z
1 cos 2 z 2 cos 2 z 2 1 cos 2 z 1 cos 2 z

2
1 cos 2 z
2 cos 2 z 2 1 cos 2 z 2 cos 2 z 2 2 cos 2 z

ej

1 z , 0

.R

1 cos 2 z

1 cos 2 z

2
1

1 cos 2 z
1 cos 2 z

1
2 cos ec 2 z
sin z
u cosh 2 y cos 2 x 0 sin 2 x 2sinh 2 y
2 x , y

2
y
cosh 2 y cos 2 x

w
w

2 sin 2 x sinh 2 y

cosh 2 y cos 2 x

2 z, 0 0

## By Milnes Thomson method

f z 1 z , 0 dz i 2 z , 0 dz

cosec 2 z dz 0 cot z C

w u iv

## satisfy Laplace equation in two dimensions viz u 0 and v 0 .

2

Solution:

Given: f z is analytic

in
pa
ul

u v
.. (1)

x y
u
v
and
.. (2)
y
x

.c

## To Prove: u and v satisfy the Laplace equation.

2u 2u
2v 2v
i.e., To prove: 2 2 0 and 2 2 0
x
y
x y

om

Let f z w u iv be analytic

2u 2 v
.. (3)

x 2 xy
2u
2v
.. (4)
Diff. (2) p.w.r. to y we get 2
y
yx
The second order mixed partial derivatives are equal
2v
2v
i.e.,

xy yx
2u 2 u 2 v
2v
(3) + (4) 2 2

0
x
y
xy yx
u satisfies Laplace equation

ej

## Diff. (1) p.w.r to x we get

.R

2u 2 v
(5)

yx y 2
2u
2v
Diff. (2) p.w.r. to x we get
2 (6)
xy
x
2
2
2
2
v v v
v
(5) + (6) 2 2

0
x
y
yx xy

w
w

## Diff. (1) p.w.r to y we get

2 v 2 v

0
x 2 y 2
v Satisfies Laplace equation

i.e.,

2
2
2
2

## Problem 5 If f(z) is analytic, prove that 2 2 f (z) 4. f (z)

x y

Solution:
Let f(z) = u + iv be analytic.

## | f (z) | 2 2u.u x 2v.v x

x
2
and
| f (z) | 2 2 u 2x u.u xx v 2x v.v xx
x 2
2
Similarly
| f (z) | 2 2 u 2y u.u yy v 2y v.v yy
y 2
2
2
2 2 | f (z) | 2 2 u 2x u 2y u (u xx u yy ) v 2x v 2y v( v xx v yy )
y
x

2
x

v 2x u (0) v 2x u 2x v(0)

2
x

v 2x

4. f (z)

Re f z u 2

ej

## Problem 6 Prove that 2 Re f z 2 f z

Solution:
Let f z u iv

(4)

in
pa
ul

2u
4u

om

(3)

.c

.R

2
u 2uux
x
2 2

u 2uux
2
x
x
2 uuxx uxux

2 uu xx u x 2

w
w

2 2
u 2 uu yy u 2y
2
y

2
2
2 2 u 2 2 u u xx u yy u x2 u y2
x y
2 u 0 u x2 u 2y
2 f z

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Unit.3 Analytic Functions

## Problem 7 Find the analytic function f z u iv given that

2u v e x cos y sin y

Solution:

## Given 2u v e x cos y sin y

1 2 2 f z 2u i 2v...........(3)
3 2 (2 i) f z 2u v i 2v u ............(4)
F z U iV
2u v U e x cos y sin y

in
pa
ul

U
e x cos y e x sin y
x
1 z, o e z

1 x, y

.c

if z iu v............... 2

om

f z u iv............... 1

u
e x sin y e x cos y
x
2 z, o e z
By Milne Thomson method
F z 1 z, o i2 z, o

2 x, y

F z dz e dz i e dz
z

.R

ej

F z 1 i e z C (5)
From (4) & (5)
1 i e z C 2 i f z
1 i z
C
e
2i
2i
1 3i z
C
f z
e
5
2i

f z

w
w

Problem 8 Find the Bilinear transformation that maps the points 1 i, i, 2 i of the
z-plane into the points 0, 1, i of the w-plane.
Solution:
Given z1 1 i, w1 0

z2 i, w2 1
z3 2 i, w3 i
Cross-ratio
w w1 w2 w3 z z1 z2 z3
w1 w2 w3 w z1 z2 z3 z
10

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Unit.3 Analytic Functions

w
w

.R

ej

in
pa
ul

.c

om

w 0 1 i z 1 i i 2 i

0 1 i w 1 i i 2 i z
w 1 i
z 1 i i 2 i

1 i w 1 i i 2 i z
w 1 i
z 1 i 2

w i 1 2i 2 i z
w 1 i
2 z 1 i

w i 1 2i 2 i z
2
z 1 i
w

w i 1 2i 1 i 2 i z
2
z 1 i
w

w i 1 i 2i 2 2 i z
2 z 1 i
w

w i 3 i 2 i z
w i 3 i 2 i z

w
2 z 1 i
i 3 i 2 i z
1
w
2 z 1 i
i
3 i 2 i z
1
w
2 z 1 i
i
3 i 2 i z
1
w
2 z 1 i
i 2 z 1 i 3 i 2 i z

w
2 z 1 i
2 z 1 i
w

i 2 z 1 i 3 i 2 i z
2i z 1 i
w
2 z 1 i 3 i 2 i z
2i z 1 i
w

2 z 2 2i 6 3i 3z 2i 1 zi
2i z 1 i
w
.
z 5 3i zi

## Problem 9 Prove that an analytic function with constant modulus is constant.

Solution:
Let f z u iv be analytic

11

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Unit.3 Analytic Functions

## By C.R equations satisfied

i.e., u x v y , u y vx

f z u iv
f z u 2 v2 C

f z u 2 v2 C 2

.c
in
pa
ul

u 2 v 2 C 2 ...............(1)
Diff (1) with respect to x
u
v
2u
2v 0
x
x
uu x vvx 0.............(2)
Diff (1) with respect to y
u
v
2u 2v 0
y
y
uvx vu x 0............(3)

om

(2) u (3) v u 2 v 2 u x 0

ux 0

(2) v (3) u u 2 v 2 v x 0

vx 0

.R

f z 0
Integrate w.r.to z
f z C

ej

W.K.T f z ux ivx 0

## Problem 10 When the function f z u iv is analytic show that u x, y C1 and

v x, y C2 are Orthogonal.

Solution:

## If f z u iv is an analytic function of z , then it satisfies C-R equations

w
w

u x v y , u y vx

Given u x, y C1.............(1)

v x, y C2 .............(2)
By total differentiation
u
u
du dx dy
x
y
v
v
dv dx dy
x
y
12

.c

## Differentiate equation (1) & (2) we get du 0 , dv 0

u
u
dx dy 0
x
y
v
v
dx dy 0
x
y
dy u / x

m1 ( say )
dx u / y
dy v / x

m2 ( say )
dx v / y
u / x v / x
m1 m2

( u x v y u y vx )
u / y v / y
m1 m2 1

om

in
pa
ul

## The curves u x, y C1 and v x, y C2 cut orthogonally.

Problem 11 Show that the function u log x 2 y 2 is harmonic and determine its
1
2

conjugate.

Solution:

1
log x 2 y 2
2
1
1
x
. 2
2x 2
2
2 x y
x y2
y
1
1
. 2
2y 2
2
2 x y
x y2

u
x
u
y

ej

Given u

.R

2
2
2u x y x 2 x
y 2 x2

2
2
x 2
x2 y2
x2 y 2

2
2
2
2u x y 1 2 y
x2 y 2

2
2
x 2
x2 y 2
x2 y2

2 u 2u y 2 x 2 x 2 y 2

0
2
x 2 y 2
x2 y 2

w
w

## Hence u is harmonic function

To find conjugate of u
u
x
1 x, y
2
x x y 2
1
1 z , o
z

13

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Unit.3 Analytic Functions

2 x , y

u
y
2
y x y 2

2 z, o 0
By Milne Thomson Methods
f z 1 z, o i2 z, o
1

om

f z dz z dz 0
log z c

f z log rei

.c

f z u iv log r i
u log r , v

2
2
2
1 y
r x y , tan x

y
y
v tan 1 Conjugate of u is tan 1 .
x
x
1
1
Problem 12 Find the image of the infinite strips y under the
4
2
1
transformation w .
z
1
1
Solution: w z
z
w
1
u iv
z
2 2
u iv u v
u
x 2 2 ........(1)
u v
v
y 2 2 ........(2)
u v
1
1
1
Given strip is y when y
4
2
4
1
v
2 2 (by 2)
4
u v
2
u (v 2)2 4..........(3)
which is a circle whose centre is at 0, 2 in the w -plane and radius 2.

w
w

.R

ej

in
pa
ul

u log x 2 y 2

When y

1
2

1
v
2 2 (by 2)
2 u v
u 2 v 2 2v 0
u 2 (v 1)2 1..........(4)

14

om

.c

in
pa
ul

ej

.R

w
w

om

.c

in
pa
ul

ej

.R

w
w

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Unit.3 Analytic Functions

## Problem 15 Prove that w

z
maps the upper half of the z-plane onto the upper half
1 z

of the w-plane.

Solution:
z
w(1 z ) z
1 z
w wz z
w w 1 z
w ( w 1) z
w
z
w 1
Put z x iy, w u iv
u iv
x iy
u iv 1
u iv u 1 iv

u iv 1 u 1 iv

.c

in
pa
ul

om

u u 1 iuv iv u 1 v 2

u 1

v2

v 2 u iv

u 1

v2
Equating real and imaginary parts
u 2 v2 u
v
x
, y
2
2
2
u 1 v
u 1 v 2

ej

u 1

v2

v2

u 1

0 v0

y 0

.R

y 0

w
w

Thus the upper half of the z plane is mapped onto the upper half of the w plane.

17

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Unit. 4 Complex Integration

UNIT IV

COMPLEX INTEGRATION
Part-A

Problem 1

Evaluate

z 1

om

Solution:
Given

z 1

dz

z 1

2 i
f 1
2!

i 0 f 1 0

zdz

z 1

0.

Problem 2

.c

zdz

in
pa
ul

Solution:

ej

## connected region R and if ' a ' is any point in R , then f a

f z
1
dz .

2 i C z a

Evaluate e z dz where C is z 2 1 .

.R

Problem 3

Solution:
1

w
w

Problem 4

1
z

z a

Solution:

2

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Unit. 4 Complex Integration

The principal part of the Laurents expansion of e1/ z about z = 0 contains infinite number
terms. Therefore there is an essential singularity at z = 0.

Problem 5

## Calculate the residue of f z

1 e2 z
at the poles.
z3

in
pa
ul

Solution:

Evaluate

cos z
dz if C is z 2 .
z 1
C

ej

Problem 6

.c

1 e2 z
z3
Here z 0 is a pole of order 3
2z
Lt 1 d 2
3 1 e
0
z
Re s f z z 0

3
z 0 2! dz 2
z
2
1 Lt d
1 e 2 z

2
2! z 0 dz
1 Lt d
2e2 z

2! z 0 dz
1 Lt

4e 2 z
2! z 0
1
4 2 .
2

Given f z

om

Solution:

.R

f z

za

## dz 2 if a if ' a ' lies inside C

cos z
dz , Here f z cos z
z 1
C
z 1 lies inside C
f 1 cos 1 1.

cos z
dz 2 i 1 2 i .
z 1
C

w
w

Problem 7
Solution:

Lt
z z0

f z exists

finitely

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Unit. 4 Complex Integration

Example: For f z

Problem 8

Lt
sin z
, z = 0 is a removable singularity since
f z 1
z 0
z

## Test for singularity of

1
and hence find corresponding residues.
z 1
2

1
1

z 1 z i z i
Here z i is a simple pole
z i is a simple pole
Lt
1
Res z i
z i
z i
z i z i
Lt
1
1

z i z i 2i
Lt
1
1
Res z i
.

z i
z i
z i z i 2i
Let f z

om

Solution:

in
pa
ul

Problem 9

.c

## What is the value of e z dz where C is z 1 .

C

Solution:
Put z ei
dz iei d
C

e
i
e ie d ........... 1

ej

z
e dz

Put t e dt ei d
When 0, t 1 , 2 , ssss t 1

.R

(1) e dz e dt e 0
z

w
w

Problem 10

Evaluate

3z 2 7 z 1
1
C z 1 dz , where z 2 .

Solution:
Given

3z 2 7 z 1
z 1 dz
C

Here f z 3 z 2 7 z 1

z 1 lies outside z

1
2

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Unit. 4 Complex Integration

3 z 2 72 1
dz 0 .(By Cauchy Theorem)
z 1
C

Here

Problem 11

## State Cauchys residue theorem

Solution:
a

finite

number

of

isolated

om

If f z be analytic at all points inside and on a simple closed curve C , except for
singularities

z1 , z2 ,..., zn

inside

## then f z dz 2 i sum of the residue of f z at z1 , z2 ,..., zn .

Calculate the residue of f z

Solution:
Given f z

e2 z

z 1

e2 z

z 1

at its pole.

in
pa
ul

Problem 12

.c

Lt 1 d
e2 z
2
z
Resf z z 1

1

2
z 11! dz
z 1
Lt
2e 2 z 2e 2 .
z 1

3
2

## Using Cauchy integral formula evaluate

.R

Problem 13

ej

cos z 2
C z 1 z 2 dz, where

Solution:

cos z 2
cos z 2
cos z 2
dz
dz

z 1 z 2 C z 1
z 2 dz
C
C

w
w

1
A
B

, A 1 B 1

z 1 z 2 z 1 z 2

2
Here f z cos z
z 1 lies inside z

3
2

3
2
Hence by Cauchy integral formula

z 2 lies outside z

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Unit. 4 Complex Integration

cos z 2
z 1 z 2 dz 2 i f z
C

2 i 1

[ f z cos z , f 1 cos 1]

2 i

Problem 14

om

## State Laurents series

Solution:

If C1 and C2 are two concentric circles with centres at z a and radii r1 and r2

## and if f z is analytic on C1 and C2 and throughout the annular region R

between them, then at each point z in R ,

bn
n
,
f z an z a
n
n 0
n 1 z a

.c

r1 r2

f z dz
f z dz
1
1
, n 0,1, 2,... , bn
, n 1, 2,3,...
n 1

2 i C z a
2 i C z a n 1

Problem 15

in
pa
ul

where an

Solution:

z3 1
.
z3 1

## The zeros of f z are given by f z 0 ,

1

ej

i.e., z 3 1 0, z (1) 3

z3 1
0
z3 1

.R

Problem 1

Part-B
2

where C the

3
.
2

w
w

circle z

dz

z 1 z 2

Solution:

## Here z 1 is a pole lies inside the circle

z 2 is a pole lies out side the circle
1
dz

z 2 2 dz
2
z 1
C z 1 z 2
Here f z

1
z2

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Unit. 4 Complex Integration

1
( z 2)2
Hence by Cauchy integral formula
f z
2 i n
C z a n1 dz n ! f a
f z

1
C z 12 z 2 C [ z z (21)]2 dz
2 i
f (1)
1!
1
2 i
2
1 2
1
2 i
9
2
i .
9

om

dz

Evaluate

z2

z ( z 1) dz where C

W.K.T f a

.c

f z
1
dz

2 i C z a

z2

## z ( z 1) dz Here z 0 , z 1 lies inside the circle

.R

Given

is the circle z 3 .

ej

Solution:

in
pa
ul

Problem 2

1
f z

z 2

Also f z z 2

1
A
B

z ( z 1) z z 1
Put z 0 A 1
z 1 B 1
1
1
1

z ( z 1)
z z 1
z2
z2
z2
C z( z 1) dz C z dz C z 1 dz

w
w

Now

2 i f 0 2 i f 1
2 i f (1) f (0)

2 i 1 (2)

2 i 2 1 2 i .

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Unit. 4 Complex Integration

Problem 3

## Find the Laurents Series expansion of the function

z 1
, valid
z 2 z 3

in the region 2 z 3 .

z 1
A
B

z 2 z 3 z 2 z 3
z 1 A( z 3) B ( z 2)
Put z 2
2 1 A( 2 3) 0
A3
Put z 3
3 1 A 0 B 3 2
4 B
B4

3
4

z2 z3
Given region is 2 z 3
f z

2 z and z 3

om

z 1
z 2 z 3

.c

Let f z

in
pa
ul

Solution:

.R

ej

2
z
1 and
1
z
3
3
4
f z

2
z
z 1 3 1
z
3
1

w
w

3 2
4 z
1 1
z z
3 3
2
4 z z 2

3 2 2

1 .... 1 ...
z z z
3 3 3

Problem 4

Solution:

Given f z

f z

Expand f z

7z 2
valid in 1 z 1 3
z z 2 z 1

7z 2
z z 2 z 1

7z 2
A
B
C

z z 2 z 1 z z 2 z 1

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7 z 2 A z 2 z 1 Bz z 1 Cz z 2
Put z 2
B2
Put z 0
A 1
Put z 1
C 3
1
2
3
f z

z z 2 z 1
Given region is 1 z 1 3

Let u z 1 1 u 3
1
u
1 &
1
u
3

in
pa
ul

.c

z u 1 1 u & u 3

om

## Unit. 4 Complex Integration

1
2
3

u 1 u 3 u
1
2
3

1
u
u (1 ) 3(1 ) u
u
3

f z

.R

ej

1 1
2 u
3
1 1
u u
3 3
u
2
2 u u 2
3
1 1 1
1 ... 1 ...

u u u
3 3 3
u
2
2 z 1 z 1 2

1
1
3
1

...
1
1

...
z 1 z 1 z 1
z 1
3 3 3

2
1
2 z 1
.
f z

z 1 n 2 z 1 n 3 n 0 3n

w
w

Problem 5

Expand

f z

z2 1
as a Taylor series valid in the
z 2 z 3

region z 2 .

Solution:

Given f z

z2 1
z 2 z 3

Now z 2 z 3 z 2 5 z 6
z2 1
5 z 7

1
z 2 z 3
z 2 z 3
8

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Unit. 4 Complex Integration

Now

5 z 7
A
B

z 2 z 3 z 2 z 3

3
z
2 1
2

8
z
3 1
3
1

in
pa
ul

3 z
8 z
1 1 1
2 2
3 3
2
8 z z 2

3 z z
1 1 ... 1 ...

2 2 2
3 3 3

ej

3
8
n z
n z
1 1 1
2 n0
2 3 n 0
3

8
n 3
f z 1 1 n1 n 1 z n .
3
2
n 0

## Using Cauchy Integral formula Evaluate

.R

Problem 6

.c

f z 1

om

5 z 7 A z 3 B z 2
Put z 2
A3
Put z 3
B 8
3
8
f z 1

z2 z3
Given z 2

sin 6 z

z
6

dz where C is

circle z 1 .

Solution:

Here f z sin 6 z

f z 6sin 5 cos z

w
w

## , clearly a lies inside the circle z 1

6
6
By Cauchy integral formula
f z
2 i
C z a 3 2! f a
Here a

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Unit. 4 Complex Integration

z
6

2 i
f
2!
6

i 6 sin 6 5cos 2 sin 4
6
6
6

1 5 3
6 i
64 16 4
1 15
6 i
64 64
15 1 21 i

6 i
16
64

## Expand f z sin z into a Taylors series about z

Solution:

Given f z sin z

f z cos z
f z sin z

f z cos z
Here a

.
4

in
pa
ul

Problem 7

om

sin 6 z

.c

w
w

.R

ej

1
f sin
2
4
4

1
f cos
2
4
4
1

f sin
2
4
4
1

f cos
2
4
4
W.K.T Taylors series of f z at z a is

z a f a ...
za
f z f a
f a

1!
2!
2

4

4 f
f z f
f ...

1!
2!
4
4
4
2

10

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Unit. 4 Complex Integration

Evaluate

z sec z

1 z dz where
2

om

Problem 8

1

...
2

## Cauchys residue theorem.

Solution:
Equation of ellipse is
4x2 9 y 2 9

in
pa
ul

x2
y2

1
9/4 1
x2
y2
i.e.,

1
2
1
3
2
3
Major axis is , Minor axis is 1.
2
3
The ellipse meets the x axis at and the y axis at 1
2
z sec z
Given f z
1 z2
z

1 z 1 z cos z

.c

1
1 z 4

4 2 2
2

ej

.R

w
w

## z , 3 lies outside the ellipse

4
4
Lt
z
Re s f z z 1
z 1
z 1
1 z 1 z cos z
Lt
z
1

z 1 1 z cos z 2 cos1
Lt
z
Re s f z z 1
z 1
z 1
1 z 1 z cos z

Lt

z 1 1 z cos z

11

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Unit. 4 Complex Integration

1
1

2 cos1 2 cos1
z sec z

1 z2
C

1
1
2 i

2 cos1 2 cos1
2 i sec1 .

Problem 9

## Using Cauchy integral formula evaluate (i)

z4
dz , where C is
2z 5

4 3z
3
dz , C is the circle z .
z ( z 1)( z 2)
2

.c

## the circle z 1 i 2 (ii)

om

Solution:

in
pa
ul

(i) Given z 1 i 2

## i.e., centre 1,1 and radius 2

z 2 2 z 5 z 1 2i z ( 1 2i

.R

ej

4 20
, z 1 2i
z 2 z 5 0 z 2
2

z4

dz
C
z 1 2i z 1 2i

z 1 2i

dz

z4
z 1 2i

w
w

Hence f z

z4
z 1 2i

f z
z a dz 2 i f a
C

z4
2 i f 1 2i
2z 5

1 2i 4
2 i

1 2i 1 2i
12

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Unit. 4 Complex Integration

3 2i
2 i
3 2i .
4i 2

(ii)

4 3z

z ( z 1)( z 2) dz

n 1

2 i n
f 0
n!

ej

f z

z a

in
pa
ul

## z 2 lies outside the circle

4 3z
A
B
C

z ( z 1)( z 2) z z 1 z 2
4 3 z A( z 1)( z 2) B ( z )( z 2) C ( z )( z 1)
Put z 0
4 4A
A 1
Put z 1
B 1
Put z 2
C 1
4 3z
2
1
1

z ( z 1)( z 2) z z 1 z 2
4 3z
2
1
1
C z ( z 1)( z 2) dz C z dz C z 1 dz C z 2 dz

om

3
2

.c

## z 0, z 1 lie inside the circle z

2 [2 i f 0 ] 2 i f 1 0

.R

4 i f (0) 2 i f 1

4 i (1) 2 i 1

f 0 1 f 1 1

2 i

w
w

Problem 10

## Using Cauchys integral formula evaluate

dz
2

where C is circle

z i 2

Solution:

Given z i

z 2i z 2i
2 , centre 0,1 , radius 2
2

## z 2 i lies outside the circle

z 2i lies inside the circle

13

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Unit. 4 Complex Integration

z 2 4

Here f z
f z

dz

z 2i

z 2i

f 2i

om

z 2i

2
c z 2i

dz

2i 2i

4i

2i
i

64
32
Hence by Cauchy Integral Formula
f z
2 i n
C z a n1 dz n ! f a

2 i
f 2i .
1!
16

Problem 11
z

z 1 z 2

## Find the Laurents series which represents the function

in (i) z 2 (ii) z 1 1

Solution:

z 1 z 2

.R

(i). Let f z
Now

in
pa
ul

f z

ej

.c

A
B

z 1 z 2

z 1 z 2
z A z 2 B z 1

w
w

Put z 1
A 1
Put z 2
B 1
f z

1
2

z 1 z 2

Given z 2, 2 z i.e.,

f z

2
1
1 1
z
z

1
2

z 1 z 2

14

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Unit. 4 Complex Integration

1
z 1
z

2
2
z 1
z

1 1
2 2
1 1
z z
z z
(ii). z 1 1

om

Let u z 1
i.e., u 1

1
2

z 1 z 2
1
2

u 1 u
1
1

2 1 u
u
1

2(1 u u 2 ...)
u
1

2 1 (1 z ) (1 z ) 2 ...
1 z
2
2

## Problem 12 Prove that 2 d

, given a2 < 1.
2
0 a 2a cos 1 1 a

Put z = ei

0 a

d
2a cos 1

dz
1
1
and cos = z
iz
2
z

.R

Then d

ej

Solution: Let I

in
pa
ul

.c

f z

iz

a a z 1z 1
2

where C is |z| = 1.

dz

1
dz

1
ai C a a z z 2 1

w
w

i
dz

2
a C z a 1a z 1

1
i
f (z)dz where f (z) 2
a z a 1a z 1
C
1
i

a z a z 1a
1
1
The singularities of f(z) are simple poles at a and . a2 < 1 implies |a| < 1 and
1
a
a
15

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Unit. 4 Complex Integration

## The pole that lies inside C is z = a.

1
i
Res[f(z); a] Lim (z a ).
z a
a z a z 1a

cos 2.d

0 5 4 cos 6

.c

Show that

cos 2.d

0 5 4 cos

Solution: Let I

in
pa
ul

Problem 13

om

i 1

a a 1a
i
2
a 1
i
2
Hence I 2i. 2

a 1 1 a 2

Put z = ei

dz
1
1
and cos = z
iz
2
z
2
i 2
e .d
I Re al Part of
0 5 4 cos

Then d

z 2 . dz iz
C 5 2z 1z where C is |z| = 1.

ej

Re al Part of

1
z 2 .dz
2i C z 2 52 z 1

.R

Re al Part of
Re al Part of

1
2i

z 2 .dz

z 1 z 2
C

C

1
z2
.
2i z 12 z 2

w
w

## z = - and z = -2 are simple poles of f(z).

z = - lies inside C.
Resf(z); - 1 2 Lim (z 1 2 ).
z - 12

1
z2
.
2i z 12 z 2

1 14
1
.
3
2i 2 12i
1
I = Real Part of 2i.
12i

16

om

.c

in
pa
ul

ej

.R

w
w

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Unit. 4 Complex Integration

z 2 1 z i z i

om

Lt 1
1
2

z i 2 2
z i 1!
z 1

Lt 1 d 1

z i 1! dz ( z i ) 2
Lt
2

z i z i 3

2
2
1

3
i i 2i
4i

.c

## z dz 2 i Sum of residues of z at its poles which lies in C

C

in
pa
ul

1
2 i ..........(2)
4i 2
Let R , then z so that z 0
Lt

z dz 0.........(3)
z
Sub (2) and (3) in (1)

z dz x dx

dx

2
0

dx
2

dx
2

.
4

.R

ej

w
w

Problem 15

Evaluate

x sin x
dx
2
a2

x
0

Solution:

x sin x
x sin x
2 2
dx 2
dx
2
x a
x a2
0

x sin x
1 x sin x
0 x 2 a 2 dx 2 x 2 a 2 dx

1 z sin z
2
dz
2 z a 2
18

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Unit. 4 Complex Integration

1
I ........(1)
2
Now z sin z is the imaginary part of zeiz

z sin z
2
dz
z a2

z eiz
zeiz

z 2 a 2 z ia z ia
The poles are z ia , z ia
Now the poles z ia lies in the upper half plane
But z ia lies in the lower half plane.
Hence
Lt
zeiz
Res z z ia
z ia
z ia
z ia z ia

zeiz
z ia z ia

iae a e a

2ia
2

Lt

in
pa
ul

Let z

.c

zeiz
dz
z2 a2

om

..

zeiz
dz 2 i Sum of the residues at each poles in the upper half plane
z 2 a2

.R

ej

ea
2 i
2
ie a

zeiz
I=I.P. of 2
dz
z a2

= I.P. of ie a

w
w

e a ...........(2)
Sub (2) in (1)

x sin x
1
1 a
0 x 2 a 2 dx 2 x 2 e

19

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Unit. 5 Laplace Transform

UNIT V

LAPLACE TRANSFORM
Part A

## Problem 1 State the conditions under which Laplace transform of f t exists

Solution:

om

(i) f t must be piecewise continuous in the given closed interval a, b where a 0 and

Solution:

in
pa
ul

n 1
L t n
s n 1

.c

## (ii) f t should be of exponential order.

.R

ej

3 3 3
1

2
2 2
L t n / 3 3
n 1 n n
5/ 2
1
s
s2
3 1
1
2 2

s5 / 2
3 1 1
.
2 2 2

S 5/ 2
3
5/ 2 1/ 2
4s
ii)
L e at cos bt L cos bt s s a

w
w

s
2
2
s b s s a

sa

2
2
s a b

Solution:

## L sin 8t cos 4t cos3 4t 5 L sin 8t cos 4t L cos3 4t L 5

sin12t sin 4t
L sin 8t cos 4t L

sin( A B) sin( A B)

sin A cos B

2
1

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Unit. 5 Laplace Transform

1
L sin12t L sin 4t
2
1 12
4
2
2

2 s 144 s 16
cos 3 3cos
cos12t 3cos 4t
cos3
L cos3 4t L

4
4

1
L cos12t 3L cos 4t
4
1
3s
s
2
2
4 s 144 s 16
1 5
L 5 5L 1 5 .
s s
1 12
4 1 s
3s 5
L sin 8t cos 4t cos3 4t 5 2
2
2
2
.
2 s 144 s 16 4 s 144 s 16 s

in
pa
ul

.c

om

0 ; when 0 t 2
.
t2
3 ; when

## Problem 4 Find L f (t ) where f t

Solution:

W.K.T L f t e st f t dt
0

st

f t dt e st f t dt
2

ej

0
2

e st 0.dt e st 3dt
2

.R

e st
3 e dt 3

s 2
2
e e 2 s 3e 2 s
3
s .
s

w
w

st

a a
1

(OR)

## State and prove change of scale property.

Solution:

W.K.T L f t e st f t dt
0

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Unit. 5 Laplace Transform

L f at e st f at dt
0

Put at x when t 0 , x 0
adt dx when t , x
x
s
a

f x

dx
a

om

L f at e

1 t
e a f t dt x is a dummy variable
a0
1 s
F .
a a

cos at
exist? Justify
t

in
pa
ul

## Problem 6 Does Laplace transform of

.c

Solution:

1
f (t )
If L f (t ) F ( s ) and f (t ) has a limit as t 0 then L
F s ds .
t
t S
cos at 1
Here tLim

0
t
0
cos at
L
does not exist.
t

Solution:

.R

ej

## Problem 7 Using Laplace transform evaluate te 3t sin 2t dt

W.K.T L f t e st f t dt
0

0

w
w

d 2
d

L sin 2t 2

ds
s 3 ds s 4 s 3

4 s

s 2 4 2
s 3

4s
12
.

2
s 2 4
169
s 3

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Unit. 5 Laplace Transform

t sin u

du
Problem 8 Find L
u
0

Solution:

.c

1
1

tan 1 s tan 1 s
s
s
s2

1
cot 1 s
s

om

t
1
By Transform of integrals, L f x dx L f t
0
s
t

sin u 1 sin t 1
1
1
L
du L
L sin t ds 2
ds

s s s 1
0 u
s t ss

in
pa
ul

## Problem 9 Find the Laplace transform of the unit step function.

Solution:
The unit step function (Heavisides) is defined as
0 ; t a
U a (t )
, where a 0
1 ; t a

L f (t ) e st f (t ) dt

W.K.T

L U a (t ) e st U a t dt
0

ej

e st 0 dt e st 1 dt
a

.R

e st dt
a

w
w

e st
e e as e as

s
s a s
e as
Thus L U a t
s

1
(s a)n

Solution:
L t n

n!
s n 1

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Unit. 5 Laplace Transform

n 1!

om

sn
n 1!
(n 1)!

L e at t n 1 n
n
s s s a ( s a )
n 1 !
e at t n1 L1
n
( s a)
1
e at t n 1 n 1 ! L1
n
s a
1
1
e at t n 1
L1

n
1
!
n

s a

1
s s a2

in
pa
ul

## Problem 11 Find the inverse Laplace Transform of

.c

L t n 1

Solution:

W.K.T L1 F s L1 F ( s ) dt
s
0
t

ej

t
1
1
L1 2
L1
dt
2
2
2
s a
s s a 0
t
1
a
L1 2
dt
2
a
s a
0
t

1
sin at dt
a 0

.R

w
w

1 cos at

a a 0
1
2 cos at 1
a
1
2 1 cos at .
a

s 2

Problem 12 Find L1

Solution:

s
d
L1
L1 sF ( s )
2
dt
s 2

L1 F ( s )

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Unit. 5 Laplace Transform

Where F ( s )

s 2

n!
, L t n n 1
s

om

1
1
L1 F s L1
, L t 2
2
s
( s 2)
1
L1 F s e2t L1 2 e2t t
s
s d 2 t
L1
e t t 2e 2t e 2t
2
(
2)
s

dt

.c

s 2 t
L1
e 1 2t
2
( s 2)

s2

.
Problem 13 Find L
s 2 4 s 5 2

Solution:

in
pa
ul

s2
2

1
L
L
2

2
2
s 4s 5
s 2 1

.R

ej

s
.......(1)
e 2 t L1
s 2 1 2

s
s
1
1

t L
L
ds
2
2
2
2
s 1
s s 1

du
2u 2
t
1
L1
2 u

t L1

t 1 1
L

2 s 2 12 s

w
w

let u s 2 1, du 2 sds

t 1 1
L

2 s2 1
t
sin t........(2)
2
Using (2) in (1)

s2
e 2t . t sin t 1 te 2t sin t.
L1
s 2 4s 52
2
2

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Unit. 5 Laplace Transform

Problem 14

## Find the inverse Laplace transform of

100
s s 100
2

Solution:
Consider

100
A
Bs
2
s s 100 s s 100
2

om

100 A s 2 100 Bs C ( s )
Put s 0, 100 A 100

in
pa
ul

.c

A 1
s 1, 100 A(101) B C
B C 1
Equating s 2 term
0 A B
B 1
B C 1 i.e., 1 C 1
C0
100

s
1

L1 2
L1 2

s s 100
s ( s 100)

1
s
L1 L1 2
s
s 100
1 cos10t

dx
dy
2 x sin 2t given x (0) 1; y (0) 0
2 y cos 2t and
dy
dt

ej

Problem 15 Solve

.R

Solution:

w
w

x 2 y cos 2t
y 2 x sin 2t given x (0) 1; y (0) 0
Taking Laplace Transform we get
s
sL x x (0) 2 L y L cos 2t 2
s 4
s
sL x 2 L y 2
1..........(1)
s 4
2
sL y y (0) 2 L x L sin 2t 2
s 4
2
2 L x sL y 2
........(2)
s 4
1 2 s 2 gives,
s2 4 L y

2
s 4
2

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Unit. 5 Laplace Transform

om

2
y L1 2
s 4
sin 2t
dy
2 x sin 2t
dt
sin 2t 2 cos 2t
1
x cos 2t sin 2t
2

Part-B
sin t
dt
t
0

t sin t 1 sin t
L
dt L

0 t
s t

sin t
L

L sin t ds
t s

1
ds
s 1
2

tan 1 ( s )

ej

tan 1 s
2
co t 1 s

in
pa
ul

Solution:

.c

w
w

.R

t sin t 1
L
dt co t 1 s
t
0
s
t sin t 1

L e t
dt co t 1 s
s s 1
0 t
s
1
co t s 1

.
s 1

## Problem 2 Find te 2t sin 3t dt using Laplace transforms.

0

3
s 9
d 1
6s
L t sin 3t 2
2
ds s 9 s 9 2

Solution: L sin 3t

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Unit. 5 Laplace Transform

## e t sin 3t dt L t sin 3t by definition

st

6s
2

i.e., te st sin 3t dt
0

Putting s 2 we get

6s
2

te

2 t

sin 3t dt

12
169
t

in
pa
ul

Solution:

sin 5t
dt
t

.c

## Problem 3 Find the Laplace transform of t te4t cos 3t dt

om

t
t 4 t

d 4t
L t e cos 3t dt L e cos 3t dt
ds 0
0

d 1

L e 4t cos 3t
ds s

d 1

L cos 3t s s 4
ds s

d 1 s

ds s s 9 s s 4

d 1
s4

ds s ( s 4) 2 9

ej

s 4
d 1

2
ds s ( s 8s 25)

d
s4

ds s 8s 2 25s

.R

w
w

s 3 8s 2 25s 1 s 4 3s 3 16 s 25

2
3
2

8
s

25
s

## s 8s 2 25s 3s 3 16s 2 25s 12 s 2 64 s 100

2
3
2

8
s

25
s

2 s 3 20 s 2 64s 100

s 3 8s 2 25s 2

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Unit. 5 Laplace Transform

5
ds
s 25
2

1
s
5. tan 1
5 s
5

2 s 3 10 s 2 32 s 50

8s 25s
2

s
cot 1
5

ej

in
pa
ul

.c

s
tan 1
5 s

s
tan 1
2
5
s
co t 1
5
t

t 4 t

sin 5t
sin 5t
L t e 4t cos 3t dt

t e cos 3t dt L
t
t
0
0

om

s 10 s 2 32 s 50

2
s 3 8s 2 25s 2

sin 5t
L
L sin 5t ds
t s

.R

## Problem 4 Find L t 2e 2t cos 2t .

Solution:

2
2 d
2 2t

L t e cos 2t 1
L e 2t cos 2 t
2
ds
2

d s
2 2

ds s 4 s s 2

s 2

2
s 2 4
d2 s 2
2 2
ds s 4s 8
d2
ds 2

w
w

d s 4s 8 1 s 2 2 s 4

ds
s 2 4s 8

10

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Unit. 5 Laplace Transform

4s 8 2 s 4 s 2 4s 2 s 2 4 s 8 2 s 4

4s 8

4 s 8 2s 4 s 2 4s 2s 4

4s 8

.c

2s 3 8s 2 16 s 4 s 2 16s 32 4 s3 8s 2 16 s 2 32 s

2 s 3 12s 2 32

4s 8

4s 8

in
pa
ul

om

d s 2 4s 8 2s 2 4 s 4s 8

ds
s 2 4s 8

s 2 4s
d

ds s 2 4 s 8 2

Problem 5 Verify the initial and final value theorems for the function
f t 1 e t sin t cos t

## Solution: Given f t 1 e t sin t cos t

ej

L f t L 1 e t sin t e t cos t

L 1 L e t sin t L e t cos t

.R

1
1
s 1

2
s s 1 1 s 12 1

1
s2

s s 12 1

w
w

Lt
Lt
t 0 f t s sF s

RHS sLt sF s

1
s2
Lts s

2
s s 1 1

s 2 2s
sLt 1 2

s 2s 2
11

LHS tLt f t

## tLt 1 e t sin t e t cos t 1

RHS sLt0 sF s

in
pa
ul

1
s 1
1
Lts0 s

2
2
s s 1 1 s 1 1

s 2 2s
sLt0 1
1
2
s 1 1
LHS RHS
Hence final value theorem is verified.

.c

2s 2 4 s 2
Lts 2

s 2s 2
2 4 / s 2 / s2
Lt
s
2
2
1 2 / s 2 / s
LHS RHS
Hence initial value theorem is verified.
Final value theorem:
Lt
Lt
t f t s 0 sF s

om

s 2 1

ej

## Problem 6 Find L1 log 2 .

s
Solution:

.R

1
L1 F s L1 F s .......(1)
t
2
s 1
F s log 2
s
d
log s 2 1 log s 2
ds
2s
2s
2
2
s 1 s
2s
2s
L1 F s L1 2
2
s 1 s
1
s
2 L1 2

s 1 s
2 cos t 1

w
w

Fs

s 2 1
1
L1 log 2 2 cos t 1
t
s

12

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Unit. 5 Laplace Transform

## Problem 7 Find the inverse Laplace transform of

Solution:

s3
s 1 s 2 2s 3

s 3
A
Bs C

2
....(1)
2
s 1 s 2s 3 s 1 s 2s 3

s 3 A s 2 2 s 3 Bs c s 1

s 1
2=2A
A=1
Equating the coefficients of s 2
0 = A+B B = -1
Put s = 0
3 = 3A+C
C=0
s3
s
1

2
1
2
s 1 s 2s 3
s 1 s 2s 3

in
pa
ul

Put

om

2 1 cos t

.c

1
s

s 1 s 12 2

1
s 1
1

2
s 1 s 1 2 s 1 2 2

.R

ej

s 1 1

1
s 3
1 1
1

L1

2
2
2
s 1
s 1 s 2 s 3
s 1 2
s 1 2
s t 1 1
e t e t L1 2
e L 2
2
s 2
s 2

e t e t cos 2t e t sin 2t
e t 1 cos 2t sin 2t .

s 1

w
w

## Problem 8 Find L1 s log

2
s 1

Solution:

s 1
L1 s log
2 f t
s 1

s 1
L f t s log
2
s 1
s log s 1 s log s 1 2

13

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Unit. 5 Laplace Transform

L t f t

s 1 s s 1 s s 1
log

s2 1
s 1

2
2
s 1 s s s s
log

s2 1
s 1

.c

2s
s 1
log
2
s 1 s 1
s
s 1
1
tf t L1 log
2L 2
s 1
s 1

om

d
s log s 1 s log s 1 2
ds
s
s

log s 1
log s 1
s 1
s 1

in
pa
ul

s 1
L1 log
2 cosh t....(1)
s 1
s 1
To find L1 log

s 1
s 1
Let f t L1 log

s 1

w
w

.R

ej

s 1
L f t log

s 1
d
L t f t log s 1 log s 1
ds
1
1
2

2
s 1 s 1 s 1
1
t f t 2 L1 2 2sinh t
s 1
2sinh t
f t
.....(2)
t
Using (2) in (1)
2sinh t
tf t
2 cosh t
t
2sinh t 2 cosh t
f t

t2
t
sinh
t

t cosh t

2
2
.
t

14

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Unit. 5 Laplace Transform

## Problem 9 Using convolution theorem find L

s 2 a 2 2

Solution:

.c

in
pa
ul

s
L1 s * L1 1
L1
2
s 2 a 2
s 2 a 2
s2 a2

s 1 1 a
L1 2
* L 2
2
2
s a a
s a
1
cos at* sin at
a
1
cos at*sin at
a
t
1
cos a u sin a t u du
a0

om

L1 F s G s L1 F s * L1 G s

1
sin at au cos a u du
a 0

1 sin at au au sin at au au
du
a 0
2

1
sin at sin a t 2u du
2a 0

ej

cos a t 2u
1

sin at u

2a
2 a
0

.R

1
cos at cos at
t sin at

2a
2a
2a
t sin at

.
2a

w
w

## Problem 10 Find the Laplace inverse of

1
using convolution theorem.
s 1 s 2 9

Solution:

L1 F s .G s L1 F s * L1 G s

1
1
1
1

L1

L
.
2
2
s 1 s 9
s 1 s 9

15

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Unit. 5 Laplace Transform

om

1 1 1

L1
*L 2
s 9
s 1
1
et * sin 3t
3
t
1
e u sin 3 t u du
30
t

1 u
e sin 3t 3u du
3 0

1 u
e sin 3t cos 3u cos 3t sin 3u du
3 0
t

in
pa
ul

1
1
sin 3t e u cos 3u du cos 3t e u sin 3u du
3
3
0
0

.c

cos 3t e u

sin 3t e u

cos
3
u

3sin
3
u

sin 3u 3cos 3u

3 10
3 10
0
0

sin 3t e u
1
cos 3t 3sin 3t 1

3 10
10

sin 3t e u
1

sin 3t 3cos 3t 3

3 10
10

## using convolution theorem

2
2
2
2
s a s b

.R

Solution:

s2

ej

Problem 11 Find L1

L1 F s .G s L1 F s * L1 G s

s
s
s 1 s
L1 2
. 2
L1 2
*L 2
2
2
2
2
s a s b
s a
s b

w
w

1 sin a b u bt sin a b u bt

2
ab
a b

2
a b
ab
a b a b

## 1 sin at sin at sin bt sin bt

2 a b a b a b a b
1 2a sin at 2b sin bt
2
2 2
2 a b2
a b

16

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Unit. 5 Laplace Transform

1 2a sin at 2b sin bt

2
a2 b2
a sin at b sin bt

.
a2 b2

Problem 12
2

Solution:

L1 F s .G s L1 F s * L1 G s

L1 1 * L1 1
L
2
s 2 a 2
s 2 a 2
s2 a2

sin at sin at

*
a
a
t
1
2 sin au sin a t u du
a 0

in
pa
ul

om

a2

.c

## Using convolution theorem find the inverse Laplace transform of

1
cos 2au at cos at du
2a 2 0

## 2sin A sin B cos A B cos A B

1 sin 2au at
2
cos at u
2a
2a
0
1 sin at
sin at
2
t cos at

2a 2a
2a

ej

.R

1 2sin at

t cos at
2
2a 2a

1
3 sin at at cos at
2a

w
w

## Problem 13 Solve the equation y 9 y cos 2t; y 0 1and y / 2 1

Solution:

Given y 9 y cos 2t
L y t 9 y t L cos 2t

L y t 9 L y t L cos 2t

s
s 2 L y t sy 0 y 0 9 L y t 2
s 4

17

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Unit. 5 Laplace Transform

## As y 0 is not given, it will be assumed as a constant, which will be evaluated at the

end. y 0 A.
L y t s 2 9 s A

s
s 4
2

s
s A
s 4
s
s
A
L y t 2
2
2
.
2
s 4 s 9 s 9 s 9

4 s 9
2

As B Cs D
2
s2 4
s 9

s As B s 2 9 Cs B s 2 4
As 3 9 As Bs 2 9 B Cs 3 4 s 1 s 2 4

w
w

.R

ej

in
pa
ul

Equating coefficient of s 3
A + C = 0 .(1)
2
B + D = 0 .(2)
Equating coefficient of s
Equating coefficient of s
9A+ 4C = 1 .(3)
Equating coefficient of constant
9B +4D = 0 .(4)
Solving (1) & (3)
4 A 4C 0
9 A 4C 1
5 A 1
1
A
5
1
C 0
5
1
C
5
Solving (2) & (4)
9B 9D 0
D0
B 0& D 0 .
s
1 s
s
2

2
2
2
s 4 s 9 5 s 4 5 s 9

om

Consider

.c

L y t s 2 9

1 s
s
s
A
L y t 2
2
2
2
5 s 4 s 9 s 9 s 4
1
1
A
y t cos 2t cos 3t cos 3t sin 3t
5
5
3
1
4
A
cos 2t cos 3t sin 3t
5
5
3
18

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Unit. 5 Laplace Transform

## Problem 14 Using Laplace transform solve

d 2 y 3dy

2 y 4 given
dx 2 dx

Solution:

in
pa
ul

L y t 3L y t 2 L y t L 4

s 2 L y t sy 0 y 0 3sL y t 3 y 0 2 L y t

3s 2 L y t 2 s 3 6
3s 2 L y t

that

.c

y 0 2, y 0 3

om

Given y 1
2
1 A
1
5 5
12
A
5
1
4
4
y t cos 2t cos 3t sin 3t
5
5
5

4
5

4
s

4
2s 3
s
2 s 2 3s 4
L f t
s s 2 3s 2

ej

2 s 2 3s 4
L f t
s s 1 s 2

.R

2 s 2 3s 4
A
B
C

s s 1 s 2 s s 1 s 2

w
w

2s 2 3s 4 A s 1 s 2 Bs s 2 Cs s 1
Put s = 0
4 = 2A => A = 2
s=1
3 B B 3
s2
6 2c C 3
2
3
3
L y t

s s 1 s 2
t
y t 2 3e 3e 2t

Problem 15 Solve

dx
dy
y sin t ; x cos t with x 2 and y 0 when t 0
dy
dt

Solution:

Given x t y t sin t
19

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Unit. 5 Laplace Transform

x t y t cos t
L x t L y t L sin t

sL x t x 0 L y t

1
s 1
2

1
2.........(1)
s 1
L x t L y t L cos 2t
2

L x t sL y t y 0

om

sL x t L y t

1
....(2)
s 1
2

## Solving (1) & (2)

.c

1 s2
1 s L y t 2 s 2 1
2
2
1 s 2 L y t 2s s22 11 s
2s 2 3
L y t 2
s 11 s 2

in
pa
ul

s2 3
As B Cs D
2

2
2
s 11 s s 1 1 s 2

s 2 3 As B 1 s 2 Cs D s 2 1

w
w

.R

ej

## Equating s 3 on both sides

0 A C
put s 0
Ac
3 BD
A0 C 0
Equating s 2 on both sides
1 B D
D2
B 1
Equation son both sides 0 = A + B
1
1
y t L1 2 2 L1 2
s 1
s 1
sin t 2sinh t
To find x t we have x t y t cos t , x t cos t y t , y t sin t 2sinh t
dy
cos t 2 cosh t
dt
x t cos t cos t 2 cosh t

2 cosh t
Hence x t 2 cosh t
y t sin t 2sinh t

20