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Investgating the Impact of Leadership Styles of Multicultural Collaborations Projects on Achieving Projects Success(MCCP)

A Literature Review

Sama Raouf

a

, Laila Khodeir

b

AbstractDue to the industry pressure and the current economic situation, the expansion of the multicultural collaboration project is inevitable. Such type of projects are characterized with high degree of interaction between diverse culture stakeholders which consequently leads to a number of problems and conflicts, and in turn, risks. From the above it is clear that the project structures needs to flatter and leadership styles at multiple levels. The aim of is paper is to investigate through literature review, the different types of leadership styles, and to assess the impact of each leadership styles on achieving success of MCCP projects. The findings of this study took the form of a preliminary frame work which indicates which leadership style would beat be used to handle specific project problem or conflict situation. The results of the paper emphasized that in order to achieve MCCP success multiple levels of conflicts should be managed. In addition to adopting a leadership style that keeps balance between the administrative process and leadership process. It was obvious through literature discussed that the model of Complexity Leadership should be tailored in order to include both the relation between the construction project manager’s leadership and the ability to solve the different dimensions and levels of project conflicts complexity. Eventually this paper underscores the importance of the role played by the leadership in mitigating conflicts in MCCP. The limitation of this paper is that the results only illustrate key constructs, and it will be tested in the next phases of the research study.

Keywords:

Leadership

Styles

Collaborations; Egypt

I.

Introduction

;Conflict;

Multi-cultural

Leadership in the construction industry considered as the most important factor leading the project to success. A well-qualified leader can save a 10 % of the project total budget [1]

The successful delivery of multi culture collaboration projects is very critical, because of they are mostly public funds financed them also, hence, contend for the priority of different critical social services. The multi culture collaboration projects performance attracts socio political interest that affects the repute of the involved organizations.

a Sama Raouf Senior Student, Dept. of Architecture Faculty of Engineering, British University in Egypt Cairo Egypt

b Laila Khodeir Associate Professor, Dept. of Architecture British University in Egypt Cairo Egypt Laila.khodeir@bue.edu.eg

Multi culture collaboration projects are complex systems, which can neither be facilely understood throughout straightforward linear approaches, nor efficiently managed throughout controlling the measures of time, and cost [2].

The nature of this type of projects consist of many stakeholders with divers people have different experiences, perspective, cultures and skills [3]. Recent studies have focused on the positive impacts of utilizing multicultural groups. But this expansion of the globalization world’s construction projects does not completely understand the impact of this diverse in the projects and how it effects the project negatively which leads to a number of conflicts[4], that leads to flatter project structures, and need for leadership at multiple levels [1].

The aim of this paper shows the importance of leadership in multi culture collaboration projects and investigate the failure factors such as conflicts and the role played by leadership in mitigating it.

II.

Methodology

This study is considered as the first stage for under progress research dissertation, this methodology involves an integrative review of existing pertinent literature. This is critical to recognize the essential constructs that reaches the research objectives. The framework guiding this literature review consisted of leadership theories and conflicts theory. The main approach consist of critiquing, synthesizing and re-conceptualizing the findings of literature since the under study elements are not new. The integrated review of literature procedure consists of two key levels. Starting with the dealing relevant journals with project management, leadership. Then, articles published between the year 2000 and 2016, focus on project management, leadership and conflicts.

III.

Leadership

A. The concept of Leadership

The leadership is the process of leading or mange a group

members in ore to satisfy the organization goal. Leadership

in the construction industry is the most important factor that

lead the project to success. A well-qualified leader can save

a 10 % of the project total budget [5]. The low level of

leadership studies in the construction industries is due to the

lack of understating the knowledge of social science [6]. Leadership it is should considered that it is most important side leading the success of construction organizations. According to Grisham (2006), leadership issues in business schools have been expanded widely but there is a leakage in the studies of leadership styles and its importance in mega construction projects. Few studies carried out this point out that construction manager they are not observed as leaders

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especially regarding to the fact of managers are participatory only with the daily fulfillment of work in site [10]. Widely leadership is knowledge to set each of vision, trend, goals, and the influence of every facet of culture [11].Leadership is consider of the transfer key direction of failing of the successful project. It is very important to notes this factors:

Leadership can be defined as the influence of the team member, Leadership involve mangers skills and Leadership is the significance for the project in success or failure.

B. Differences between manger and leader

From the studying of the leadership styles, it should consider the different between the mangers of the project and the leaders as shown in table (1), mangers only focus on completing the required task with the budget an time. In spite of leaders who are interest in how the task completed [7]. For more understanding what is leadership, should exposed to the leadership characteristics. Leaders to be able to control teams should have many of skills such as be influenced not control, leader should be followed by people while mangers focuses on the maintenance systems. Leaders able to improve while mangers able to maintain directions and cannot change it. Another skill in the leaders is listing unlike mangers giving orders and directions. Also leader are navigator listeners to what people say and making analysis based on facts before taking decisions. Leaders always have their point of view which no one else sees from it [8]. Since all these previous important issues about the leadership nowadays all constriction firms are searching about leaders have professional skills [9]. The fact of leakage of skills of leaders is regarding to the educational associations which in charge with preparing them are graduate mangers not leaders [8].

Table 1: leader VS. mangers [1].

mangers not leaders [8]. Table 1: leader VS. mangers [1]. C. Katz’s Three -Skills Approach According

C. Katz’s Three-Skills Approach

According to Katz’s (1974) seminal research on the leadership skills, it is consists of three main skills which are technical human and conceptual. [16]

1. Technical Skills

Technical skill is mainly, depending on particular knowledge, in a specific area of work. Having this skill means that a person is respective and knowledgeable with esteem to the activities particular to an organization, the organization’s policies and standard operation procedures, in addition to the organization’s services and products (Katz, 1974; Yukl, 2006). Technical skill is the most important at supervisory stage of management, for middle managers it is less important, and for top managers it is the least important such as senior managers and CEOs. Generally, technical skills is dexterity in working with issues [16].

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2. Human skills

In variance with technical skill, human or interpersonal skills are dexterity in dealing with people based on the person’s knowledge that concern people in addition to how they behave, operate in teams, communicate effectively with them also their attitudes, motives, and feelings. Leaders are the skills required to efficiently influence peers, superiors, and subordinates in accomplish the organizational goals. This skill enable the leader to influence the group members to cooperate together to achieve the goals. These leaders are more empathetic and sensitive to how motivates others also creates a trust atmosphere for their followers [22].

3. Conceptual skills

Conceptual skill let you to work with creative ideas. The Leader how have high levels of this skills is good at thinking throughout the ideas that take the form an organization and its future vision, in addition to understanding and expressing the principles of economic underlying their organization’s productivity [22].

D. Leadership styles

Human factors were highlighted as the main determinants of projects performance. In this part of literature will investigate the types of leadership styles and which one are more suitable than the others in the construction industries. There are five main styles of leadership in construction, the Autocratic leadership, democratic leadership, participative leadership or goal oriented leadership and situational leadership [17].

1. Autocratic leadership

The autocratic leaders gives orders to the members of the team and expecting fulfill it. This type of leadership may be work effectively only in the short term and logically do not work effectively on the long run. In addition to most of people thought that autocratic leadership style always have a negative effect on the team member, actually this true in the case of the team member have a good awareness of struggles and do not care about the hierarchy of positions and challenge the team leader, this make the team member create an predictability, safety and security power make the autocratic leader fail to manage them [18]. According to questionnaire off 225 team member and there leaders , the autocratic style have a positive effect in the case of the members of the team do not have struggles In the other hand the autocratic leadership style have a positive effect in between themselves, here the autocratic leader can success to manage them in the want direction. [18].

2. Democratic leadership

The Democratic leader decision making deepened on the opinion of the all team member. This type of leader create a mood of belonging in between the team members. This due to contribution of the decision process. Also from the benefits of this type of leadership is increasing the goals satisfaction from involving team members. In addition to help they develop their own skills. And from psychology point of view the team member will feel that they ca control

their destinies, also motivating the hard working. Generally this type of leadership take long time but its results are great. [19].On the other hand their id a slightly different point of view which say according [7], the critics of Democratic leadership shows that not every time of popular decisions making always is the best to be considered and may be lead to the failure.

3. Participative leadership

Participative leadership is depended on the decisions which making by the team members. But this decisions according to collective information and analysis about the issue to develop their own goals and control the dissection. Also they taking full responsibilities regarding their own decisions making. This may consuming the time but in the other hand the team members will be committed the best benefit of organizations goals [19]. This type of leaders are mainly depended on specified orders to the team members which focused only on the near goal. On the other hand there are opponents of this type of leaders’ shows that this is a narrow side of view because not always the focused goal is the right corner which will return with success [7].

4. Situational leadership

Leaders of situation or contingency leaders are flexible leaders which mean according to the situation they choose a leadership style and use it that is of course depended on the current situation and its needs. Moreover this type of leadership may be work only in the short time.

E. Leadership theories

This part will include leadership theories from different points of view. In 1862 Jomini (a military strategist who is a pioneer in the strategic military thinking) said that the most important skill which lead the leader to success is to be brave. Also he believe in the leader how have the martial spirit may be make mistakes but also can communicate with soldiers and achieve the victories by the abilities of communicate, power and transformation [1].

In 1944 the journal of the fighting man psychology which was readied by a team of psychologists it is notes that the better leader understand how to deal with the team members. In addition to the manual notes that it is impossible to handle or deal with the team member if the leader cannot handle with themselves. Leader good experience always inspire confidence, respect and loyalty in each one of the group members. All of this enable the group members give the high performance to accomplish the goals. So from previous the leaders should command skills such as transformation, empathy and power.

In 1975 Waltts and Huang responds that the language of china people has hold over the same sustainability form along 2500 years ago, and whatever who speaks it now days could understand it. For English, there is a direction to utilize leadership and management to exchange with the meaning of managerial. This consequently show the true meaning or definition of leadership will vary between each culture. This is similar to the Chinese time of view is different to the west time of view. Also Huang and Watts

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underline in English the wide and interchangeable application of management and leadership. By (1982), Wofford said that the “Leader Environment Follower Interaction (LEFI)” the spread of the theory of Path-Goal, that is available for value-based and transformational leader. In (1986) Tichy and Devanna attempted to distribute an arrangement of theory identifying with authority [1]. The creators begin by indicating the monetary and good weights on leaders in the changing worldwide construction sector, incorporating pluralistic workforces with rare assets. Transitional leaders must individuals overcome three explanations behind imperviousness to change:

1. Habit and inertia

2. Fear of the unknown

3. Sunk costs transformation, trust

In 1989 Roberts summed up study on leadership principles exercised by Attila the Hun as “desire, loyalty, empathy, courage, decisiveness, credibility, timing, competitiveness, dependability, and anticipation between others transformation, power and empathy”. In 1989 Yukl expresses a comprehensive review of the study on leadership, also concludes that: “several thousand empirical studies have been conducted on leadership effectiveness, but many of the results are inconsistent and inconclusive.” This is side of the main purpose for the shortage of regulate leadership skills for Project Managers. Beside of classify the Dimensions of leadership into characteristics of the follower, leader, and situation as shown table 2.

Table 2: leadership dimensions by yukl 1989 [1]

characteristics of the follower, leader, and situation as shown table 2. Table 2: leadership dimensions by
F. Conflict Management Conflict defined as a dispute is defined as an argument about an

F. Conflict Management

Conflict defined as a dispute is defined as an argument about an issue concerning project operations, usually resulting from a debate over differences in two or more parties Conflict is a complete section of human connection between people, world, teams, cultures, denomination, firms, organizations and countries. Conflict enable, if planned, be sanitary and productive. In addition to, if ignored might lead to calamitous consequences, and also the retro gradation of long-range relationships. However in the world of marketplace, the possibility for conflict is quite high as cultural tenet and tradition meet with harmony. Subsequently, cross-cultural leadership should present to the inevitability of the conflict with direction, knowledge, aloe, and a show of diversity.

IV. Cross culture leadership and conflicts

There are essential leadership dimensions which is worldwide affect in any case of the countries which are culture, economic environment, structure of the organization, and the complexity of the project program. According to Mead 1955 the definition of culture is suited to universal discussion of leadership. So the adapted definition for the cross culture in leadership is: “a body of learned behavior, a collection of beliefs, habits and traditions, shared by a group of people and successively learned by people who enter the society”. The efficiently leading in the environment of cross-cultural it is require the procuration of basic human such as social, emotional, business, and culture skills [1]. The cross-cultural leadership brilliance XLQ, is the ability of managing conflicts. A powerful leader will avoid conflicts, and will pigment this position in followers [1]. To lead efficiently in a cross cultural environment demand the gaining and cultivation of human (social, emotional, and cultural), and cultural skills. Most of the authors states in that leadership is a learned combination of skills that could be efficiently translated into other cultures. The nature culture of the organizations and countries on a one project may be diverse. Taking in consideration a global matrix organization with branches in 50 countries (which are completely staffed with a considerable number of nationals), binary with a small project firm that has branches in a 51st country, those in charge of doing a political bureaucracy project. [1] Suppose that the project is mange 50% virtually on line with no face to face communication. Bass and Stogdill (1990) propose that when implementing the following leadership styles appropriate sensitivity to cultural differences are required:

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Autocratic or democratic

Participative or directive

Relations oriented or task oriented

Considerate or structuring

Active or laissez-faire.

V. Conflicts theory

In 1990, Bass & Stogdill examine conflict in a section along with legality. They observes that leaders confront many conflicts such as roles, resource, comprehension, and others. Studies mentions the conflict as a daily fact in the world marketplace and involve the cultural, racial, elemental, managerial issues and gender. Leaders should have the ability of confronting and managing or fix conflicts efficiently. Conflicts resolved or managed in graceful way, leaving side intact for the entrant, is a skill place that is fundamental for leaders. Conflict management requires many skills, moreover studies shows that in the statutory and

argue resolution industries, and communication skill are the most critical and essential [1].

In 1983 Rahim a research about the conflict of interpersonal “strong methodology” borrow the theory of Blake and Mouton in 1964 that classifies methods of resolve interpersonal conflicts. The point of view that belongs to Blake & Mouton is one of interest for the others “people who in the context”, also the attention for performance of the team. In Blake & Mouton’s book, the gird of Managerial, supply a grid to evaluate and train the management skills, taking in consideration one thing is how of managing conflict. Rahim model provide builds through the studies of Blake & Mouton via looking in the case of conflict by self-concern lens and the concern of others. So this popularize version became more suitable for the use of this discussion because it is provide good reflects that take in consideration the culture and society in conflicts. The Blake & Mouton research occupy additional western point of view of performance or the success of corporation. Also Rahim’s research express an opinion of these approach based on a conceptual two-dimensional model of conflicts shown in figure (1) as a concern for self and also a concern for others. In addition to the researches emphasize the test confirm the acceptability [1].

to the researches emphasize the test confirm the acceptability [1] . Figure 1: two dimensional model

Figure 1: two dimensional model of conflict [1]

VI. Conflict in Construction Industry

The conflicts in the multicultural construction projects appear to be inescapable and are expanding in the construction industry because of its instability, many-sided quality nature, and inclusion of various classifications of undertaking members. Struggle brings breakdown of connections between task members and results to extend defers, claims which are the fundamental weaknesses in consummation of the projects of destinations and objective. The past studies have investigated the reasons for clashes and endeavored on administration of contentions in undertaking; however the contentions still happens in construction projects [20] Numerous management approaches have been connected into development to lessen clashes. For example [21]. distinguished a few components and classifications of conflicts. They quantified the impression of contentions from the field experienced experts. The study has uncovered 6 classifications of contentions taking into account member's exercises and 43 elements of conflicts. The elements, for example, change of site conditions, interferences from open, assessment of progress request, outline blunders inordinate varieties in amounts and detail issues have been seen as the basic elements having more impact on development ventures. Besides, Stanslaus (2011) had attempted to gauge impression of proprietors, temporary workers and advisors in building ventures in Tanzania through polls review.

They have recognized 11 regions of contention, for example, outline blunders, contractual cases, numerous significance of details, and defer in installments, poor correspondence, over the top contract varieties, contrast in assessment, varying site conditions and impediments, mistakes in venture archives, open intrusions and social distinction. The outcome has demonstrated in light of their mean worth measure that the deferral in installment zone was the initially positioned. The study secured in various periods of venture life cycles and uncovered amid development stage has the most elevated power of contentions more than 55% contrasting with different stages.

Another study had identified the connection of variable in different phases of construction project life cycle. The research also have identified clashes in between of members and measured the frequencies and earnestness. The research has found that the temporary worker confront most successive (66%) clashes with the client and consultant. This outcome has been examined taking into account the importance level of 95% certainty on chi-square investigation. Likewise, the exploration has focused on why the contentions happen and at what phase of the venture does it happen. Also, they have found that the contention occurs for the most part amid development stage with recurrence of 76% and reality of 74%. The least studies of conflicts in construction projects has seen amid preparatory design-phase (44% and 45%) among alternate design phase- (57% and 59%) and the post of construction (56% and 56%). Both the recurrence and earnestness of contentions have been overwhelmed by the distinction in undertaking needs a reason and venture time a source and venture needs and objectives with the expense as

the second positioning. The relationship between task time and the social distinction has been watched not all that imperative in their study. Although of the past studies might have contributed extraordinary help, however conflicts still happens and it is trying to lessen in construction projects [20]. The fundamental reasons are that past investigates have not concentrated on particular clash issues. Rather past scientists have concentrated on distinguishing proof of reasons and variable. Studies were centered on conflicts determination and evasion approaches straightforwardly in attempting to diminish clashes. Indeed, past examination needs clear classifications of reasons, components and regions of contentions. This implies causes and components may be only the issues and not struggle. Besides, the past examination has not assessed particular clash issues identified with time, cost, quality and wellbeing in development. No past exploration was found to have investigated on assessment of any peace promotion thinks about on development. This demonstrates particular clash issues should be engaged and assessed to decrease the contentions with the system of contention estimation. [21]

VII. Wilson Bridge as an example in mange conflicts:

A.

Introduction

The location of Woodrow Wilson Bridge over interstate 95 crosses the Potomac-River in Washington, had all the components needful for extended and litigious conflict. The budget are huge, one of the most U.S. costly highway construction projects, at $2.5 billion overall. The bridge tacked thirteen years of construction, this is consequently leads to a plenty of time for matters to develop and relationships to tension. The interfaces consists of: twenty one construction contracts major, each with possibility to delay the others or on the other hand cost some existence money. Wilson Bridge is complex technical structure with a quantity of notable elements, involving the world’s largest eight leaf draw-span supported by graceful V piers. The Woodrow Wilson Bridge consider as a huge success; the construction has been less conflicts than circumstances may have predicted. The credit of this success could be distributed to three factors: (1) leadership awareness of the project in the massive public; (2) the responds of leadership to political and public rudiments; and (3) leadership that utilize the prevention of conflict and the philosophy of management, process and tools in efficiently and effectively way.

B.

The

Management of Conflicts in Wilson Bridge.

Leadership

insights

and

the

Effective

According to Anderson JR and Polkinghorn (2008) the data of the bridge were summarized into “lessons learned” Microsoft database that currently numbers 374 distinct lessons. The lessons have been summarized into ten Meta categories as shown in Figure 2.

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Figure 2: the ten Meta categories This categories fit particularly fully within communication and the

Figure 2: the ten Meta categories

This categories fit particularly fully within communication and the resolution of conflict literature practice, also found to some of the extent of needs based and based theories identity. Certainly, the superposition between the ten leadership insights emerging from the literature of conflict resolution and 374 lessons. Taking in consideration a few essentials principles from four famous books investigate the parallels between the conflict resolution of mainstream practice and the findings issues in the Woodrow Wilson Project [23]. The improvement in prevention and intervention of conflict have taken place largely outgoing the mainstream, the researches states these parallels are more impressive. A number of principles identified by leading practitioners in the eld of conflict resolution. This table will be used in making comparisons to the learned lessons.

VIII.

Findings

Through the review of literature, the study has established the need of leadership inorder to mitigating conflicts in multi cultural collabration projects and to adresses the aim of the research. In addition to the integration between conflict resoultion and effiancy leadership. The following table shows the top ten journales and it’s puplications regarding to leadership from 2000 to 2012, which came up with 725 as a total number of articels.

Table 3: top 10 journals and number of leadership researches

Journal

Numbers of articles

Academy of Management Journal

45

Academy of Management Review

8

Administrative Science Quarterly

30

American Psychologist

13

Journal of Applied Psychology

125

Journal of Management

30

Organizational Behavior & Human Decision Processes

30

Organizational Science

7

Personnel Psychology

22

The Leadership Quarterly

442

Total number of articles

725

Table 4 acording to Bass and Stogdill [1] shows many of leadership factors, it’s nubmer of studies and pioneers aothers.

Table 4: leadership factors Bass & Stogdill

of leadership factors, it’s nubmer of studies and pioneers aothers. Table 4: leadership factors Bass &

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Leadership in the construction industry is the most important factor that lead the project to success. A well-qualified leader can save a 10 % of the project total budget.

Mangers only focus on completing the required task with the budget a time leaders who are interest in how the task completed.

Constriction firms are searching about leaders have professional skills.

Leadership is consider of the transfer key direction of failing of the successful project.

The technical skill is the most important for the majority of position.

Human skill and leadership skill have a link to manage the ability of giving the direction and the effort.

Leadership involve mangers skills.

For leading efficiently in the environment of cross- cultural it is require the procuration of basic human such as social, emotional, business, and culture skills.

Leadership principles “desire, loyalty, empathy, courage, decisiveness, credibility, timing, competitiveness, dependability, and anticipation between others transformation, power and empathy.

Classify the Dimensions of leadership into characteristics of the follower, leader, and situation.

involves

Leadership

many factors shows in

figure(3)

involves Leadership many factors shows in figure(3) Figure 3: leadership involved factors The essentials

Figure 3: leadership involved factors

The essentials principles from four famous well known books investigate the parallels between the conflict resolution of mainstream practice and leading issues [23]. The improvement in prevention and intervention of conflict have taken place largely outgoing the mainstream, the researches states these parallels are more impressive. A number of principles identified by leading practitioners in the field of conflict resolution. Table 5 as shown it will be used in making comparisons to the learned lessons.

Table 5 “Sampling of Basic Conflict Analysis, Prevention, and Intervention Principles”

Fisher and Ury

Carpenter and

Susskind and

Constantino and

Kennedy

Field

Merchant

Getting to Yes

Managing

Dealing with an Angry Public

Design the

Public Disputes

Conflict

 

Management

Systems

Focus on

Intervener

Approach to

Process, System,

Framing

missions,

Parties and

and Program

Conflict

Strategy and

Processes

Coordination

Intervention

Processes

Considerations

Basics of

1) Conflicts are a hybrid from steps, relationships, and materials

1) Acknowledge

1) Put the focus on interests (support the use of interest based ways such as negotiation and of interest based ways such as mediation)

Principled

Negotiation

the concerns of the other side

the Principles

2) To find a suitable solution, you have to understand the issue

 

2) Provide “loop- backs” (make the procedures available this is allows the parties return to a lower cost, such as negotiation)

of Practice

2) Encourage joint fact nding

1) Don’t deal over position

3) Take time to a strategic plan and follow it through

3) Offer

3) Provide non expensive cost rights and power “backups”

conditional

 

commitments to

reduce impacts

2) split up the people from the problem

4) Progress

4) Accept all responsibilities, refuse mistakes, and share power

4) Build in dissection before and evaluate after (notify before taking any decision

requires

positive

 

working

relationship

3) Focus on interests, not position

5) Negotiation begins with a deductive problem definition

5) Act in a dependable fashion at all times

5) Arrange the tasks from low to high cost

4) Invent

6) Parties

6) Focus on building long term relationship

6) Provide the motivation, and resources

options for

should help

again

designing the

processes and

 

solution

The following table shows conflicts style and how leader deal with each style.

Table 6: conflict styles model

Conflict Style

where appropriate

Situations where

Situations

inappropriate

IN Integrating

1.

Conflicts are complex.

1.

Task or issues is

2.

composition of ideas is necessary to come up with the best solutions

2.

simple. Immediate decision is

3.

Commitment is necessary from other sections for successful implementation

demanded.

 

3.

Other combination are unconcerned about the outcome

 

4.

Time is available for problem solving

4.

Other combination does not have the

5.

One part alone cannot solve the problem

skills of problem solving

OB Obliging

1.

You think that you may be wrong.

1.

Issue is important to you.

2.

Problems is important to the other participate.

2.

You think that you are right

7

 

3.

You are interested to give up something in interchange for something from the other participate in the future.

1. The other

 

participate is

wrong or

unethical.

 

4.

You are dealing from a position of weakness.

5.

Preserve the relationship is important

DO

1.

Issue is fiddling.

1. problems is

Dominating

2.

Speed decision is important.

complex

 

2. Problems is not

 

3.

Un-popular course of action is implemented.

important to you.

 

3. Both combination

 

4.

It’s important to overcome assertive assistants

are equally powerful

 

4. Decisions do not

 

5.

Disapproving decision by the other participate may be costly.

have to be quickly.

 

5. Assistants possesses high

 

6.

Assistants lack proficiency to make technical decisions.

degree of capability.

7.

Problem is important to you.

AV Avoiding

1.

Problem is trivial.

1. Problem is

2.

Possible dysfunctional effect of challenging the other participate outweighs benefits of resolution.

important to you.

 

2. It is your charge to make decision

3. Participates are unwilling to defer,

 

3.

Cooling off period is required.

problem must be resolved.

 

4. Prompt attention

is required.

CO

1.

Objectives of participates are mutually exclusive.

1. One participate is more powerful.

Compromising

2. Problem is

 

2.

Participates are equally powerful.

complex enough requiring Problem-

3.

Agreement cannot be reached.

solving approach.

4.

Assimilating or directing style is not successful.

5.

Provisional solution to a

complex problem is needed.

IX. Conclusion:

It is very common in the construction industry to find on the

multi-cultural collaboration projects teams from different

countries around the world. Also it is popular to manage by

a project manager with different nationality. However the

stress of the industry to boost the productivity and minimizes the cost is very important now days and this is consequently leads to conflicts which take place in multicultural collaboration projects. So, it is clear that the market needs a multi-culture leadership style or model that have the ability to improve the leadership skills in multi- national projects. This paper has investigated from literature point of view leadership in construction management and its impact on solving the conflicts of the project. In addition to Conflict management abilities are turning out to be critical because of the fast changes that are take place in the present construction industry environment.

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X. References List

[1]

T.,

and

How

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[21]

N.K

Y.D

Lee

and

J.K

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[23] Individual approaches to principled negotiation (Fisher and Ury, 1981 [herein, F&U], pp. 398)

The various means of preparing for and running effective problemsolving meetings in public disputes (Carpenter and Kennedy, 2001 [C&K], pp. 5265)

Approaches to dealing with sometimes hostile parties, especially in public disputes (Susskind and Field, 1996 [S&F], pp. 3742)

How to effectively design conflict management systems for organizations (Constantino and Merchant, 1996 [C&M], pp. 46,

117133)

and Merchant, 1996 [C&M], pp. 46, 117 – 133) a Sama Raouf Senior Student, Dept. of

a Sama Raouf Senior Student, Dept. of Architecture Faculty of Engineering, British University in Egypt Cairo Egypt

University in Egypt Cairo Egypt sama114309@bue.edu.eg b Laila Khodeir Associate Professor, Dept. of

b Laila Khodeir Associate Professor, Dept. of Architecture British University in Egypt Cairo Egypt Laila.khodeir@bue.edu.eg

9

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