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# A Psychrometric Chart is an important tool for HVAC engineers to carry out heat load or cooling load

calculations and find solutions to various air condition related problems. Read an overview of the
components included in a psychrometric chart.

The series of articles on properties of air discussed important properties of air like
relative humidity, dry bulb temperature, wet bulb temperature, dew point temperature, sensible heat
and latent heat. We shall now see how the air behaves when it is subjected to changes in temperature
and humidity to suit the various applications for which the air conditioning is meant. The behavior of
the air can be studied very conveniently and accurately by using a psychrometric chart.

## What is Psychrometric Chart?

Psychrometric charts are graphic representations of the psychrometric properties of air. By using
psychrometric charts HVAC engineers can graphically analyze different types of psychrometric
processes and find solution to many practical problems without having to carry out long and tedious
mathematical calculations.
The psychrometric chart looks complicated with vast numbers of lines and curves in it, but is very easy
to understand if you know the basic properties of air. You will also understand its worth when you
actually use it considering the fact that you wont have to use any formulae to find the properties of air
in different conditions, all you will have to know is two parameters of air and the rest are easily found
on the chart.
Using a psychrometric chart is quite easy if you know the properties of air. This article describes
various lines and curves in a psychrometric chart and how to use the them.

## Various Lines and Curves in the Psychrometric Chart

All the properties of air indicated in the psychrometric chart are calculated at standard atmospheric
pressure. For other pressures, relevant corrections have to be applied. The psychrometric chart looks
like a shoe. The various lines shown in the chart are as follows (please refer the fig). In the first part of
this series we saw representation of DB, WB, DP temperature and moisture content on the
pschrometric chart. Now we'll explore some more parameters.

## 1) Dry Bulb (DB) Temperature Lines:

The dry bulb temperature scale is shown along the base of the shoe shaped psychrometric chart
forming the sole. The DB temperature increases from the left to the right. The vertical lines shown in
the chart are the constant DB temperature lines and all the points located along a particular vertical
line have same DB temperature.

2) Moisture Content:
Moisture content is the water vapor present in the air and is measured in gram per kg of dry air (gm/kg
of dry air). The moisture present within the air is indicated by the vertical scale located towards the
extreme right. The horizontal lines starting from this vertical scale are constant moisture lines.

## 3) Wet Bulb (WB) Temperature Lines:

The outermost curve along the left side indicates the Wet Bulb (WB) temperature scale. The constant
WB temperature lines are the diagonal lines extending from WB temperature curved scale downwards

towards the right hand side of the chart. All the points located along the constant WB temperature line
have the same temperature.

## 4) Dew Point (DP) Temperature Lines:

Since the dew point temperature of the air depends on the moisture content of the air, constant
moisture lines are also constant DP temperature lines. The scale of the DP and WB temperature is the
same, however, while the constant WB temperature lines are diagonal lines extending downwards, the
constant DP temperature lines are horizontal lines. Thus the constant DP and WB temperature lines are
different.
Sensible cooling and sensible heating are basic psychrometric processes used for various applications.
Let us see what these processes are and how they are represented on the psychrometric chart.

## 5) Relative Humidity (RH) Lines:

The RH lines are the curves extending from the lower left to the upper right part of the psychrometric
chart. The different curves of RH indicate different values of humidity measured in percentage. The
value of RH reduces from left towards right. The extreme left curve along the shoe indicates RH of
100% and is also called the saturation curve because the condition of air along this line is fully
saturated no matter what the DB and WB temperatures are. Along the saturation curve all the three
temperatures, the DB, WB and DP are same.

## 6) Total Enthalpy of the Air:

The total enthalpy of the air comprises of the sensible heat and the latent heat. The enthalpy scale in
the psychrometric chart is located outside the main body. The constant enthalpy lines extend from the
enthalpy scale down toward the right side of the chart. To find the value of the enthalpy of the any
given air, one should know its WB temperature. The constant enthalpy line passing through the given
value of the WB temperature indicates the enthalpy of the air.

## 7) Specific Volume of the Air:

The specific volume of air is an important parameter since one has to consider the amount of air to be
handled by the cooling coil, cooling fan, etc and accordingly the rating of cooling coil and fan has to be
found out. From the psychrometric chart we can find out the specific volume of the required air and
find the total volume of the required air by multiplying it with the total weight of the air required. The
constant specific lines start from the saturation curve and drop down with the slight angle to the
vertical lines. They indicate the value in either m3/kg or ft3/lb.

## Example Showing How to Use Psychrometric Chart

Consider an example of air where the given values of DB and WB temperature are 78 degrees F and 65
degrees F respectively. We will find out various values from these given values of DB and WB
temperatures.
1) On the psychrometric chart locate value 78oF on the DB temperature scale located at the bottom of
the chart.
2) Locate WB temperature of 65oF on the saturation curve scale.

3) Extend the vertical line (constant DB temperature line) from 78o and the diagonal line (constant WB
temperature line) from 65oF and get the point of intersection of the two lines, which indicates the
condition of the given air.
4) Find out the values of various parameters at this point. The relative humidity line passing though
this point indicates RH of 50%. The horizontal line passing though this point and meeting the
saturation curve indicates DP temperature of 58oF. The specific volume of this air is 13.7 ft 3/lb and the
enthalpy of air is 30 Btu/lb.

1) If all the values are calculated manually using the formulae, it takes lots of time, but with a
psychrometric chart these values can be found within seconds or minutes.
2) With a psychrometric chart we can easily find out the present and the final condition of the air. Say
if the air is cooled from 100oF to 75oF, all we have to do is draw the horizontal line to locate the initial
and final condition of the air.
3) A psychrometric chart is very useful in carrying out heat load or cooling load calculations.

Can anyone tell me why psychrometric charts are made in second quadrants ??
The Dew Point curve ends the chart on the left. So to save space the y
axis is shifted to the right of the curve.
most of the people on this earth are right handed and want to be on top
of things.
I know this is not a scientific answer, but the choice of quatrants is
arbitrary, and so you must make some kind of guess on why that
quadrant is so much more attractive to the inventor.
how to use enthalpy deviation line
i did not remember PH Chart, kindly help me to Remember Ph Chart.
For a basic look at the psychrometric chart, go to my
Cocktailmetrics"
this is very informative, however I wasn't able to find the answer to my question,
how do you compute for the exact value, say for example, the amount of
enthalpy deviation, where your point is located between two lines?like this: ( '( is
there a standard equation for it? thank you. :)
HI, i'M ENGR. ALBERTO P. GARCIA FROM PHILIPPINES INVOLVE IN CHICKEN
HATCHERY

## OPERATION, THIS IS VERY USEFUL FOR MY JOB AS TECHNICAL HATCHERY MGR.

THANK YOU FOR YOUR CLEAR EXPLANATION.
how to get the values of intersecting points ca anyone help me out
take the difference between first point and 2nd point. then divide this
difference upon 10. you will get a value multiply it with the difference.
for example
initial point = 10
final point = 30
(30-10)/10= 2
initial point - 2(30-10)= point of intersection
hope you will understand
Intersecting points? Mixing Point?
thanks for u explanation, at first i was finding it difficult to
bit informative
o iam mechanical engineer iam working as a hvac engineer in uae i
from this chart
great job Haresh. keep it up coz it is much helping to people like us.....
o the information is very useful , even an unprofessional person can
bcm pro.
o Thank you very much for the article
I would appreciate if some one can answer my question:
Will the RH ne lower or higher after turning on the Air Conditioner ?
Thanks
Dovik
RH will be higher when you turn on your Air Conditioner if the room that
is being
envelope.
thanx ..the discription had solved many problem and clear lot of concepts
I am a chemical engineering student of ABUZaria,Nigeria Iapreciate reading your
article thanks
Thanks John, I don't really know where these charts are available in the other
parts of the world. Why don't you try Google search. Else you can simply convert
Fahrenheit scale to Celsius scale and use the Celsius charts.
Your articles on psychrometry are easy to follow and make the subject really
clear. Many thanks.

Where can I buy paper Psycho charts in the temperature range100 to 1000
degrees fahrenheit ?
Thanks again.
I am student of mechanical engineering in the University of Ado Ekiti . As i was
going through this write up, i got to a point where i'd to devout my time my
time, sensibly studying point to point the definitions and the terms made used
as far as air-conditioning is concerned. You' ve done a great job. Keep it glowing
The chances of moisture removal in the HEPA filter are very less. This is because
the moisture will separate only if the temperature of the filter is less than the
dew point temperature of the moisturized air.
When the steam is injected in the duct before the filter, the moisture does not
remains in the air in the form of the hanging particles, rather it becomes one
important component of the air, which can be separated only if the comes in
contact with the surface that has temperature lower than the dew point
temperature of the humidified air.
Steam is injucted in the duct from humidifier before HEPA filters into Operation
Theater of an Hospital. Will the fabric of HEPA filter not absorb the moisture and
the RH inside OT affected?
I am a retired Civil Engineer from Chile involved in Solar Air Heating. In this
articles I have learned more than many years of studying Thermodinamics.
Congratulations for the clear explanitions.

Psychrometric Processes
In the domestic and industrial air conditioning applications some psychrometric processes have to be
performed on the air to change the psychrometric properties of air so as to obtain certain values of
temperature and humidity of air within the enclosed space. Some of the common psychrometric
processes carried out on air are: sensible heating and cooling of air, humidification and
dehumidification of air, mixing of various streams of air, or there may be combinations of the various
processes.
Illustrating and analyzing the psychrometric properties and psychrometric processes by using the
psychrometric chart is very easy, convenient and time saving. In the next few paragraphs we shall see
some of the most commonly employed psychrometric processes in the field of HVAC and how they are
represented on the psychrometric chart.

## Sensible Cooling of the Air

Cooling of the air is one of the most common psychrometric processes in the air conditioning systems.
The basic function of the air-conditioners is to cool the air absorbed from the room or the atmosphere,
which is at higher temperatures. The sensible cooling of air is the process in which only the sensible
heat of the air is removed so as to reduce its temperature, and there is no change in the moisture

content (kg/kg of dry air) of the air. During sensible cooling process the dry bulb (DB) temperature and
wet bulb (WB) temperature of the air reduces, while the latent heat of the air, and the dew point (DP)
temperature of the air remains constant. There is overall reduction in the enthalpy of the air.
In the ordinary window or the split air conditioner the cooling of air is carried out by passing it over the
evaporator coil, also called as the cooling coil. The room air or the atmospheric air passes over this coil
carrying the refrigerant at extremely low temperatures, and gets cooled and passes to the space which
is to be maintained at the comfort conditions.
In general the sensible cooling process is carried out by passing the air over the coil. In the unitary air
conditioners these coils are cooled by the refrigerant passing through them and are called also called
evaporator coils. In central air conditioners these coils are cooled by the chilled water, which is chilled
by its passage through the evaporator of the large air conditioning system. In certain cases the coil is
also cooled by the some gas passing inside it.

The sensible cooling process is represented by a straight horizontal line on the psychrometric chart.
The line starts from the initial DB temperature of the air and ends at the final DB temperature of the air
extending towards the left side from high temperature to the low temperature (see the figure below).
The sensible cooling line is also the constant DP temperature line since the moisture content of the air
remains constant. The initial and final points on the psychrometric chart give all the properties of the
air.

## Sensible Heating of the Air

Sensible heating process is opposite to sensible cooling process. In sensible heating process the
temperature of air is increased without changing its moisture content. During this process the sensible
heat, DB and WB temperature of the air increases while latent of air, and the DP point temperature of
the air remains constant.
Sensible heating of the air is important when the air conditioner is used as the heat pump to heat the
air. In the heat pump the air is heated by passing it over the condenser coil or the heating coil that
carry the high temperature refrigerant. In some cases the heating of air is also done to suit different
industrial and comfort air-conditioning applications where large air conditioning systems are used.
In general the sensible heating process is carried out by passing the air over the heating coil. This coil
may be heated by passing the refrigerant, the hot water, the steam or by electric resistance heating
coil. The hot water and steam are used for the industrial applications.
Like the sensible cooling, the sensible heating process is also represented by a straight horizontal line
on the psychrometric chart. The line starts from the initial DB temperature of air and ends at the final
temperature extending towards the right (see the figure). The sensible heating line is also the constant
DP temperature line.

describes psychrometric processes like humidification, cooling and humidification, and heating and
humidification. The article describes how these processes are achieved and how they are represented
on the psychrometric chart.

## What is Humidification Process?

The process in which the moisture or water vapor or humidity is added to the air without changing its
dry bulb (DB) temperature is called as humidification process. This process is represented by a straight
vertical line on the psychrometric chart starting from the initial value of relative humidity, extending
upwards and ending at the final value of the relative humidity. In actual practice the pure
humidification process is not possible, since the humidification is always accompanied by cooling or
heating of the air. Humidification process along with cooling or heating is used in number of air
conditioning applications. Let us see how these processes are obtained and how they are represented
on the psychrometric chart.
heating and humidification. The article describes how these processes are achieved and how they are
represented on the psychrometric chart.

## Cooling and Humidification Process

Cooling and humidification process is one of the most commonly used air conditioning application for
the cooling purposes. In this process the moisture is added to the air by passing it over the stream or
spray of water which is at temperature lower than the dry bulb temperature of the air. When the
ordinary air passes over the stream of water, the particles of water present within the stream tend to
get evaporated by giving up the heat to the stream. The evaporated water is absorbed by the air so its
moisture content, thus the humidity increases. At the same time, since the temperature of the
absorbed moisture is less than the DB bulb temperature of the air, there is reduction in the overall
temperature of the air. Since the heat is released in the stream or spray of water, its temperature
increases.
One of the most popular applications of cooling and humidification is the evaporative cooler, also
called as the desert cooler. The evaporative cooler is the sort of big box inside which is a small water
tank, small water pump and the fan. The water from the tank is circulated by the pump and is also
sprayed inside the box. The fan blows strong currents of air over the water sprays, thus cooling the air
and humidifying it simultaneously. The evaporative cooler is highly effective cooling devise having very
low initial and running cost compared to the unitary air conditioners. For cooling purposes, the cooling
and humidification process can be used only in dry and hot climates like desert areas, countries like
India, China, Africa etc. This cooling process cannot be used in hot and high humidity climates.

The cooling and humidification process is also used in various industries like textile, where certain level
of temperature and moisture content has to be maintained. In such cases large quantity of water is
sprayed, and large blowers are used to blow the air over the spray of water.
During the cooling and humidification process the dry bulb of the air reduces, its wet bulb and the dew
point temperature increases, while its moisture content and thus the relative humidity also increases.
Also, the sensible heat of the air reduces, while the latent heat of the air increases resulting in the
overall increase in the enthalpy of the air.
Cooling and humidification process is represented by an angular line on the psychrometric chart
starting from the given value of the dry bulb temperature and the relative humidity and extending
upwards toward left.

## Heating and Humidification Process

In heating and humidification psychrometric process of the air, the dry bulb temperature as well as the
humidity of the air increases. The heating and humidification process is carried out by passing the air
over spray of water, which is maintained at temperature higher than the dry bulb temperature of air or
by mixing air and the steam.
When the ordinary air is passed over the spray of water maintained at temperature higher than the dry
bulb temperature of the air, the moisture particles from the spray tend to get evaporated and get
absorbed in the air due to which the moisture content of the air increase. At the same time, since the
temperature of the moisture is greater than the dry bulb temperature of the air, there is overall
increase in its temperature.
During heating and humidification process the dry bulb, wet bulb, and dew point temperature of the air
increases along with its relative humidity. The heating and humidification process is represented on the
psychrometric chart by an angular line that starts from the given value of the dry bulb temperature
and extends upwards towards right (see the figure below).

heating and dehumidification. The article describes how these processes are achieved and how they
are represented on the psychrometric chart.

What is Dehumidification?
The process in which the moisture or water vapor or the humidity is removed from the air keeping its
dry bulb (DB) temperature constant is called as the dehumidification process. This process is
represented by a straight vertical line on the psychrometric chart starting from the initial value of
relative humidity, extending downwards and ending at the final value of the relative humidity. Like the
pure humidification process, in actual practice the pure dehumidification process is not possible, since
the dehumidification is always accompanied by cooling or heating of the air. Dehumidification process
along with cooling or heating is used in number of air conditioning applications. Let us see how these
processes are obtained and how they are represented on the psychrometric chart.
heating and dehumidification. The article describes how these processes are achieved and how they
are represented on the psychrometric chart.

## Cooling and Dehumidification Process

The process in which the air is cooled sensibly and at the same time the moisture is removed from it is
called as cooling and dehumidification process. Cooling and dehumidification process is obtained when
the air at the given dry bulb and dew point (DP) temperature is cooled below the dew point
temperature.
Let us understand the cooling and dehumidification process in more details. When the air comes in
contact with the cooling coil that is maintained at the temperature below its dew point temperature, its
DB temperature starts reducing. The process of cooling continues and at some point it reaches the
value of dew point temperature of the air. At this point the water vapor within the air starts getting
converted into the dew particles due to which the dew is formed on the surface of the cooling and the
moisture content of the air reduces thereby reducing its humidity level. Thus when the air is cooled
below its dew point temperature, there is cooling as well as dehumidification of air.
The cooling and dehumidification process is most widely used air conditioning application. It is used in
all types of window, split, packaged and central air conditioning systems for producing the comfort
conditions inside the space to be cooled. In the window and split air conditioners the evaporator coil or
cooling coil is maintained at temperature lower than the dew point temperature of the room air or the
atmospheric air by the cool refrigerant passing through it. When the room air passes over this coil its
DB temperature reduces and at the same time moisture is also removed since the air is cooled below
its DP temperature. The dew formed on the cooling coil is removed out by small tubing. In the central
air conditioning systems the cooling coil is cooled by the refrigerant or the chilled water. When the
room air passes over this coil, it gets cooled and dehumidified.

In the general the cooling and dehumidification process is obtained by passing the air over coil through
which the cool refrigerant, chilled water or cooled gas is passed.
During the cooling and dehumidification process the dry bulb, wet bulb and the dew point temperature
of air reduces. Similarly, the sensible heat and the latent heat of the air also reduce leading to overall
reduction in the enthalpy of the air. The cooling and dehumidification process is represented by a
straight angular line on the psychrometric chart. The line starts from the given value of the DB
temperature and extends downwards towards left.

## Heating and Dehumidification Process

The process in which the air is heated and at the same time moisture is removed from it is called as
heating and dehumidification process. This process is obtained by passing the air over certain
chemicals like alumina and molecular sieves. These elements have inherent properties due to which
they keep on releasing the heat and also have the tendency to absorb the moisture. These are called
as the hygroscopic chemicals.
In actual practice the hygroscopic elements are enclosed in the large vessel and the high pressure air
is passed inside the vessel through one opening. When the air comes in contact with the chemicals the
moisture from the air is absorbed and since the chemicals emit heat, the DB temperature of the air
increases. The hot and dehumidified air comes out from the vessel through other opening in the
vessel. The inlet and outlet openings of the vessel are controlled by the valve.
The heating and humidification process is commonly used for reducing the dew point temperature of
air. There are number of automatic valves in the chemical plants that are operated by the compressed
air at high pressure. If the dew point temperature of this air is high, there are chances of formation of
dew inside the valves which can lead to their corrosion and also faulty their operation. Thus it is very
important that the air passing to such automatic valves have very low dew point temperature. The

heating and dehumidification process by using hygroscopic materials is used often in the air drying
units.
During the heating and dehumidification process dry bulb temperature of the air increases while its
dew point and wet bulb temperature reduces. On the psychrometric chart, this process is represented
by a straight angular line starting from the given DB temperature conditions and extending downwards
towards right to the final DB temperature conditions.

Hi Haresh,
I have a question.If you heat humid air to 140F/18%RH/DewP 81F in the enclosed thermal
solar panel and then run it through aluminum coil which has 78F constant loop which is
below dew point.Will it dehumidify the air? Another words.Can you dehumidify air at higher
temperatures? Or you have to always go with below zero temp. to achieve
dehumidification?