Sie sind auf Seite 1von 4

5.

0 PROCEDURES
5.1

The surface of the specimen was cleaned using cleaner liquid. The specimen was left
to dry

5.2

Penetration liquid was sprayed on the same surface. The specimen was left for 2-10
minutes so the liquid can dry.

5.3

Cleaner liquid was sprayed for the second time to clean excess penetration liquid on
the surface of the specimen. It was left to dry.

5.4

After that, Developer liquid was sprayed on the specimen and was dryed.

5.5

Defects was seen on the surface of the specimen

6.0 RESULTS
There are many types of defects that can be seen on the surface of the specimen. These are the
welding defects Shown in the figure below :

Crack

Porosit
y
Underc
ut

Lack Of
Fusion

7.0 CONCLUSION
Advantages and Disadvantages of Penetrant Testing
Like all nondestructive inspection methods, liquid penetrant inspection has both advantages
and disadvantages. The primary advantages and disadvantages when compared to other NDE
methods are summarized below.
Primary Advantages

The method has high sensitivity to small surface discontinuities.


The method has few material limitations, i.e. metallic and nonmetallic, magnetic and
nonmagnetic, and conductive and nonconductive materials may be inspected.
Large areas and large volumes of parts/materials can be inspected rapidly and at low cost.
Parts with complex geometric shapes are routinely inspected.
Indications are produced directly on the surface of the part and constitute a visual
representation of the flaw.
Aerosol spray cans make penetrant materials very portable.
Penetrant materials and associated equipment are relatively inexpensive.
Primary Disadvantages
Only surface breaking defects can be detected.
Only materials with a relatively nonporous surface can be inspected.
Precleaning is critical since contaminants can mask defects.
Metal smearing from machining, grinding, and grit or vapor blasting must be removed prior
to LPI.
The inspector must have direct access to the surface being inspected.
Surface finish and roughness can affect inspection sensitivity.
Multiple process operations must be performed and controlled.
Post cleaning of acceptable parts or materials is required.
Chemical handling and proper disposal is required.

Liquid penetrant inspection (LPI) is one of the most widely used nondestructive evaluation (NDE)
methods. Its popularity can be attributed to two main factors: its relative ease of use and its flexibility.
LPI can be used to inspect almost any material provided that its surface is not extremely rough or
porous. Materials that are commonly inspected using LPI include the following:

Metals (aluminum, copper, steel, titanium, etc.)


Glass
Many ceramic materials
Rubber
Plastics
LPI offers flexibility in performing inspections because it can be applied in a large variety of
applications ranging from automotive spark plugs to critical aircraft components. Penetrant materials
can be applied with a spray can or a cotton swab to inspect for flaws known to occur in a specific area
or it can be applied by dipping or spraying to quickly inspect large areas.

8.0 Reference
1. https://www.ndeed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Principles/commonuses.htm
2.https://www.google.com/url?
sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjbxrGS2aj
RAhXGGJQKHY-LBHEQjxwIAw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.daroproducts.co.uk
%2Fmakes-good-weld
%2F&psig=AFQjCNGKGsCeCImt1BCPaisRiPJYziIV8w&ust=1483623341986494