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ENGL172

contents of the index


Unit-1 : Communication (VocabularyReview (Grammar))

Language

3-9

Unit-2 : Communication (Reading- Communication


Skills)

10-12

Unit-3 : International
Marketing
Language Review (Grammar))

13-18

(Vocabulary-

Unit-4 : International Marketing (Reading- Writing)

19-22

Unit-5 : Building relationships (VocabularyLanguage Review (Grammar))

23-27

Unit-6 : Building
relationships
Communication Skills)

(Reading-

28-31

Review

32-38

Unit-7 : Success
(Vocabulary-Language
(Grammar))

Unit-8 : Success (Reading-Communication Skills)

39-45

Unit-9 : Job
satisfaction
Review (Grammar))

(Vocabulary-Language

46-47

Unit-10 : Job satisfaction (Reading-Communication


Skills)

48-51

Unit-11 : Risk
(Vocabulary-Language
(Grammar))

52-58

Review

Unit-12 : Risk (Reading-Communication Skills)

59-63

Unit-13 : e-commerce (Vocabulary-Language Review


(Grammar))

64-68

Unit-14 : e-commerce (Reading-Communication Skills)

69-72

Topic 1: Communication
Introduction:
Communication is very important to businesses. Communication can be
in the form of presentations, emails, a phone call or a meeting. Having a
good communicator can motivate staff and improve business
performance.

Unit 1 - Vocabulary:
In all types of businesses, managerial, educational etc, there are good
communicators and bad communicators, whether they are teachers,
sales people or secretaries.
Exercise A: These words apply to a good communicator.
Articulate
Coherent
Eloquent
Fluent
Focused
Responsive
Succinct
Persuasive
For example:
- The meeting went well. He was very articulate in the meeting!
- She was really coherent when she gave the presentation.

- Our manager is really responsive to our needs


1

Exercise B: These words apply to a bad communicator.

Hesitant
Sensitive
Reserved
Rambling
Inhibited

For example:
- The meeting was really boring. The presenter just kept rambling.

- I felt she was too hesitant. I couldnt understand what she wanted to
say!

- Our sales manager easily gets upset. Hes too sensitive!

Exercise B:
Match the words from Exercise A to their meanings below:

Articulate

Rambling

Reserved

Persuasive

Eloquent Succinct

1. Concise =
2. Reluctant to speak =
3. Able to express ideas well =
4. Talking in a confused way =
5. Good at influencing people =
6. Clear and easy to understand =

Now check your answers below:


1. Concise =

succinct

2. Reluctant to speak =

reserved

3. Able to express ideas well =

eloquent

4. Talking in a confused way =

rambling

5. Good at influencing people =

persuasive

6. Clear and easy to understand = articulate

Unit 1 - Grammar (Language Review):

Idioms
Idioms are words, phrases or expressions that have a meaning
other than their literal meaning. Every language has its own idioms.
Learning them and using them makes language fun and easy!

For example:
- Break a leg = Actually means do your best.
- Out of the blue = Actually means something just happened
unexpectedly.
- Its raining cats and dogs = Actually means it is raining very hard or
there is a lot of rain just now.

Exercise A:
Complete these idioms with the missing words from the box

purposes

picture

point

wavelength

nutshell

wires

bush

tail

1. To put it in a
2. To get straight to the
3. To put you in the
4. To be on the same..
5. Cant make heads or of it.
6. To beat about the ..
7. To get our wires..

Exercise B: Now check your answers below


1. To put it in a nutshell.
2. To get straight to the point.
3. To put you in the picture.
4. To be on the same wavelength.
5. Cant make heads or tails of it.
6. To beat about the bush.
7. To get our wires crossed.
5

Exercise C:
Which of the following idioms in Exercise A mean the following?
1. To fail to understand anything
2. To share similar ideas and opinions
3. To summarise briefly
4. To misunderstand
5. To delay talking about something
6. To talk about the most important thing
Exercise D: Now check your answers below:
1. To fail to understand anything
Cant make heads or tails of it.
2. To share similar ideas and opinions
To be on the same wavelength.
3. To summarise briefly
To put it in a nutshell.
4. To misunderstand
To get our wires crossed.
5. To delay talking about something
To beat about the bush.
6. To talk about the most important thing
To get straight to the point.
6

Exercise E:
Complete these sentences with the idioms in Exercise A

1. OK, Ill .., Im afraid were going to let you go.

2. He never gives you a straight answer. He always..

3. This report makes no sense at all. I cant ..

Exercise F:
Now check your answers below:

1. OK, Ill get straight to the point, Im afraid were going to let
you go.

2. He never gives you a straight answer. He always beats about


the bush.

3. This report makes no sense at all. I cant make heads or tails


of it.

Unit 2 - Reading:
Communication its much easier said than done.
See the article below.
Communication - it's much easier said than done
Getting staff to talk to each other ought to be the least of your problems, but internal communication can
be one of the hardest nuts to crack in business.
"Communication comes up in every department. The repercussions of not communicating are vast," says
Theo Theobald, co-author of "Shut up and Listen! The truth about how to communicate at work". Poor
communication can be a purely practical problem.
Gearbulk, a global shipping business with branches around the world, faced language and geographical
difficulties, as well as a huge amount of paperwork. With up to 60 documents per cargo, it was a logistical
nightmare to track and monitor jobs, while tighter security regulations after 9/11 meant customs
documents had to be ready before a ship was allowed to sail. Installing an automated system means data
is now entered only once but can be accessed by anyone in the company, wherever they are.
"Reporting is faster by a matter of months," says Ramon Ferrer, Vice President of Global IT at Gearbulk.
"An operational team carrying a voyage all the way across the world doesn't always have to be talking to
each other - and we don't waste time duplicating the same information."
Given today's variety of communication tools, it seems strange that we still have a problem
communicating. But the brave new world of high-tech can create barriers - senior managers hide behind
their computers, staff use voice mail to screen calls, and employees sitting next to each other will send
emails rather than speak.
"Managers should get up, walk round the office and talk to people," says Matt Rogan, Head of Marketing
at Lane4, a leadership and communication consultancy. "Face to face communication can't be beaten."
Theobold recommends checking e-mail only three times a day, allocating a set period of time to deal with
it. "If you leave the sound on, the temptation is as great as a ringing phone. People will interrupt meetings
to check their e-mails."
Another problem is simply hitting the "reply all" button, bombarding people with information. "We had
unstructured data coming at staff from left, right and centre, leaving it up to individuals to sort out," says
Gearbulk's Ferrer. "Our new system has reduced e-mails and changed the way people work. It will remind
you about work flow."
Information overload also means people stop listening. But there may be a deeper reason why a message
fails to get through, according to Alex Haslam, Professor of Psychology at Exeter University.
"Everyone thinks a failure to communicate is just an individual's error of judgment, but it's not about the
person: it's about the group and the group dynamics" he says."Just training people to be good
communicators isn't the issue." The problem is that employees develop common loyalties that are far
stronger than the need to share information. This can even extend to questions of safety. In the mid-1960s
there were a lot of light air crashes in Australia because the two government departments responsible for
air safety weren't communicating," says Haslam. "The government was trying to save money and both
groups felt threatened. The individuals were highly identified with their own organisation and unwilling to
communicate with the other department."
A company is particularly at risk when cost-cutting is in the air. Individuals withdraw into departmental
loyalties out of fear. Sending such people on yet another "how to communicate" course will be pointless.
Instead, Haslam believes that identifying the sub-groups within an organisation and making sure each
group feels valued and respected can do far more to encourage the sharing of information. The key to
communication, he says, is trust.
From the Financial Times

Reading Summary:
The article is talking about how important communication is in
organisations.

The article gave an example of a shipping company

called Gearbulk and how it had problems with language and a lot of
paperwork and how it overcame its problems.

Exercise A:
1. What communication problems did Gearbulk have?

2. How did Gearbulk solve its problems?


3. Why werent

the

two air

safety government

departments

communicating?
4. Who is the author of the article?

Exercise B: Now check your answers.


1. What communication problems did Gearbulk have?
Language, administrative and geographic difficulties.
2. How did Gearbulk solve its problems?
By introducing a new computer system and training staff.
3. Why werent

the

two air

safety government

departments

communicating?
The government was trying to save money and both felt
threatened and so staff identified with their own departments.
4. Who is the author of the article? Clare Gascoigne
2

Unit 2 - Communication Skills (Useful Language):

Exercise A:
What would you say when asking for clarification?
- What do you mean by?
- Sorry, I dont follow you.
- Could you clarify that?
- Could you be more specific please?
- Could you explain that in more detail?

Exercise B:
What would you say asking for repetition?
- Sorry, could you repeat that?
- I didnt (quite) catch that.
- Could you say that again please?

Exercise C:
What would you say when summarising a call?
- Let me just summarise..
- To summarise
- Let me go over what weve agreed.

Topic 2: International marketing

Introduction:
Marketing is very important to organisations. It helps them sell their
products and services.

Many big organisations have international

marketing strategies to help sell their products and services worldwide.


However, when starting business in another country, organisations must
be aware of many things. These will be explored now.

Unit 3 - Vocabulary:
When it comes to international marketing, there are some statements
that must be understood. These are shown in the box.

Buying habits

Monetary regulations

political stability

government bureaucracy

economic situation

income distribution

Exercise A:
Complete the statements with suitable expressions from the box.
1. The country is attractive to exporters because it has enjoyed
.for the last 50 years.
2. Because of tight. company profits could not be taken
out of the country.

3. The..is improving, leading to a rise in employment.

4. .is a term used by economists to describe how


wealth is shared in a country.

5. Red tape and other examples of hinder a companys entry


into a market.

6. The purchasing behaviour of consumers can be described as


their.

Exercise B:
Now check your answers:

Complete the statements with suitable expressions from the box.


1. The country is attractive to exporters because it has enjoyed
political stability for the last 50 years.
2. Because of tight monetary regulations company profits could not
be taken out of the country.

3. The economic situation is improving, leading to a rise in


employment.

4. Income distribution is a term used by economists to describe how


wealth is shared in a country.

5. Red tape and other examples of government bureaucracy hinder a


companys entry into a market.

6. The purchasing behaviour of consumers can be described as their


buying habits.

Exercise C:
Look at the words and phrases below. Underline the odd one out.

1. a) growing market

c) expanding market

b) developing market

d) declining market

2. a) retailer
c) distributor

c) wholesaler
d) manufacturer

3. a) slogan
c) free sample

c) discount
d) special offer

4. a) launch a product
c) withdraw a product

c) introduce a product
d) bring out a product

5. a) market segment
c) market niche

c) market research
d) market sector

6. a) worldwide market
c) domestic market

c) international market
d) overseas market
3

Exercise D:
Now check your answers:

1. a) growing market

c) expanding market

b) developing market

d) declining market

2. a) retailer
c) distributor

c) wholesaler
d) manufacturer

3. a) slogan
c) free sample

c) discount
d) special offer

4. a) launch a product
c) withdraw a product

c) introduce a product
d) bring out a product

5. a) market segment
c) market niche

c) market research
d) market sector

6. a) worldwide market
c) domestic market

c) international market
d) overseas market

Unit 3 - Grammar (Language Review):


Noun compounds
A compound noun is when we join two nouns together.

Compound

nouns are popularly used in business because they are shorter and more
convenient to use than noun phrases.

Exercise A:
One word in each group does not make a compound noun with the word
in bold. Can you find the wrong word?

1. Product

market / manager / features / range

2. Marketing

campaign

3. Brand

loyalty / image / awareness / contract

4. Advertising

agency / slogan / campaign / exchange

5. Sales

figures / conditions / targets / forecast

6. Price

range / product / rise / promotion

/ budget / leader / strategy

Exercise B:
Now check your answers:

1. Product

market / manager / features / range

2. Marketing

campaign

3. Brand

loyalty / image / awareness / contract

4. Advertising

agency / slogan / campaign / exchange

5. Sales

figures / conditions / targets / forecast

6. Price

range / product / rise / promotion

/ budget / leader / strategy

Unit 4 - Reading: Coffee culture comes to coffee-growers


Read the article below
COFFEE CULTURE COMES TO COFFEE-GROWERS
By John Authers and Mark Mulligan
In Chile, they prefer tea to coffee and instant rather than freshly brewed. In Argentina, by contrast, breakfast
is with a frothy cappuccino, a heart-starting espresso, or a caffe latte. In Brazil, after-dinner coffee is served
free at any self-respecting restaurant.
That Latin America is not one great homogeneous culture often surprises travelers. However, even the most
subtle differences in the consumer profile of a Columbian and a Venezuelan will not have been lost on
Starbucks, one of the fastest-growing global brands. After searches for local partners, and a successful trial
run in Mexico City, Starbucks arrived in South America. With no conventional advertising, the Seattle-based
company opened stores in Lima and Santiago within 24 hours of each other. Neither Peru nor Chile has a
mass-market cafe culture, although European and US-style coffee houses have been springing up in the upmarket districts of both capitals.
Despite this cultural peculiarity, a Starbucks survey found that Chileans on average drink only 150 cups of
coffee a year, compared with 345 in the US and more than twice that number in many European countries.
Of the 800g of coffee per capita bought in supermarkets and from speciality shops each year, 90 % of it is
instant. In Argentina, per capita consumption is about 4kg a year, mostly in whole or ground coffee beans.
Despite being a coffee-grower, Peru has a similar pattern of coffee consumption. The irony is not lost on
Hulio Gutierrez, head of Latin America at Starbucks Coffee International. "We've been doing business in Latin
America for decades," he says. "We haven't had any stores but we've been buying Latin American coffee
since the beginning. Expansion will depend entirely on how long it takes to find the right partner in each of
those countries. If we don't find anyone, we may think about going in ourselves".
Anyone who knows the Starbucks story can already visualise potential outlets in the most fashionable
neighborhoods of the region's capital cities. From a single store in Seattle's Pike Place Market in 1971,
Starbucks today owns 3907 stores in North America and licences a further 1378. They also own 437 and
franchise 1180 outlets in the rest of the world. It first expanded from its home market to Japan in 1996 and is
now present in more than 30 countries. Last year alone, the Starbucks' living-room-in-a-coffee-house format
was introduced to Mexico, Germany, Spain, Austria, Puerto Rico, Greece, Oman, Indonesia and China.
Starbucks "corners", or mini-outlets, are found in airline offices, sports stadiums, airports, hotels and
bookshops. Copy-cat coffee-bar chains have emerged, only to be swallowed by Starbucks or forced to merge
with competitors. Fortune and fame, however, have not come without their critics. Some analysts say the
company was forced to globalise because it had saturated its home market. Others say the Japanese
experience has not been a happy one.
In aspiring societies such as Chile and Mexico, American companies are generally well-regarded and any
novelty from abroad is guaranteed to arouse curiosity. Both the Lima and Santiago Starbucks stores have
been packed since opening their doors and the company has rolled out 15 stores in Mexico City since
launching its first - cleverly located beside the US embassy - a year ago.
Roman Perez-Miranda, head of Latin America for Interbrand, agrees. "Mexico is the closest Latin America
gets to the US, both geographically and culturally. It was an obvious starting point for Starbucks in the
region."

From the Financial Times

Reading Summary:
The article is talking about the culture of drinking coffee around the
world, where coffee usually comes from and discusses the success of
Starbucks.

Exercise A:
1. People in Chile would rather drink tea than coffee.
2. In contrast, people in Argentina would prefer a Cappuccino.
3. In Brazil, coffee is usually free after dinner in restaurants.
4. In the US, on average, people drink 345 cups of coffee a year.
5. When did Starbucks open? In 1971.
6. Where did they first open? In Pike Place Market, Seattle.
7. How many stores does it own in North America? 3,907.
8. When did it open a store in Japan? In 1996.
9. In how many countries does Starbuck have a presence in? More
than 30 countries.
10. In general what is this article discussing? Coffee and the success
of Starbucks.

Unit 4 Writing:
Exercise A:
Choose the correct answer to complete the letter from CEIMD.
Sincerely
To

From
forward

Dear
contact

Date
grateful

Central European Institute for Management Development (CEIMD)


120 Rue Due Rouge, Paris, France.
: (1)

13th June 2014

: (2)
: (3)

CEMID
whom it may concern.

.(4) Sir / Madam,


I have pleasure in enclosing five copies of our new brochure, detailing the Strategic
Leadership Programme and the Advanced Management Programme available here at
CEIMD.
I would be .. (5) if you could please .(6) the brochure within your
organisation so that it available to all employees.
Should you .(7) further information, please .(8) me by email on
layla.badri@ceimd.org.

Finally, I hope you and your staff find the brochure .(9).

Yours (10),

Professor Layla Badri


CEIMD Head

Now check your answers:

1. Date
2. From
3. To
4. Dear
5. grateful
6. forward
7. require
8. contact
9. interesting
10. sincerely

Topic 3: Building relationships

Introduction:
Building business contacts or professional relationships in business is
very important. Sometimes it can mean winning a contract or getting that
dream job.

Unit 5 - Vocabulary:
Words related to (company) relations:

break off
develop

build up

cut off

disrupt

improve

establish

strengthen

promote

damage
endanger
resume

Exercise A:
Use the verbs in the box to describe whether they have a positive (
+ / good) meaning or a negative ( - / bad ) meaning.

Positive meaning

Negative meaning

Exercise B:
Now check your answers:

Positive meaning

Negative meaning

Build up

Break off

Promote

Cut off

Develop

Disrupt

Establish

Endanger

Resume

Damage

Improve
Strengthen

Exercise C:
Now choose the correct word in each sentence.
1. Sales staff who are impolite to customers disrupt
reputation of a company.

2. We are planning to promote


Singapore.

/ damage the

/ establish branch offices in

3. Thanks to the new communications system, we are improving /


damaging relations with suppliers.
4. In order to gain market share in China, we are building up
cutting off a sales network there.

5. A strike at our factory developed


several weeks.
2

/ disrupted production for

Exercise D:
Now check your answers:

1. Sales staff who are impolite to customers disrupt


the reputation of a company.

/ damage

/ establish branch offices in

2. We are planning to promote


Singapore.

3. Thanks to the new communications system, we are improving


/ damaging relations with suppliers.
4. In order to gain market share in China, we are building up
cutting off a sales network there.

5. A strike at our factory developed


several weeks.

/ disrupted production for

Unit 5 - Grammar (Language Review):


Multi-word verbs

The use of multi-word verbs are very common in spoken English.


They are usually formed when with a verb and a particle such as off,
up, away, down and in.

For example:
1. Layla, please set up the computer system.

2. You need to finish up the reports tonight!

3. Mohammad, you cant call off the meeting.

4. Dont get carried away with the presentation.

Exercise A:
Underline the multi-word verb in each sentence.

1. I have to draw up a contract with our customers.


2. We need to build up market share in Saudi Arabia.
3. We get on really well when working together.
4. Can we set up a meeting on Friday?
5. Dont forget to clean up the meeting hall.
6. Please hold on to my business card.
4

Exercise B:
Now check your answers.

1. I have to draw up a contract with our customers.


2. We need to build up market share in Saudi Arabia.
3. We get on really well when working together.
4. Can we set up a meeting on Friday?
5. Dont forget to clean up the meeting hall.
6. Please hold on to my business card.

Unit 6 - Reading: AIG Knows everyone in Asia


Read the article below:

AIG knows everyone in Asia.


By Shawn Donnan et al.

AIG, American International Group, has grown from a small Shanghai-based underwriting
agency into the world's largest insurer by market value. It has a capitalisation of $166bn., and
is firmly embedded in Asia's corporate culture. Indeed, with roots dating back more than half a
century, and the constant focus on the region by Maurice Greenberg, its chairman, AIG has an
unrivalled scale of operations and a wealth of political and business connections.
For other US and European insurers, the company is both a benchmark and a powerful
competitor. "They know anyone who is anyone in Asia". However, in order to prosper, AIG will
have to succeed in China - probably the insurance market with the biggest untapped potential
in the world.
After 17 years of lobbying by Mr. Greenberg, AIG was the first foreign insurer to be allowed
into China in 1992. It now operates in eight cities but admits making only "a small profit" in the
country. Today, turning its pioneering presence into a commercial success is AIG's biggest
challenge. In China as with the rest of Asia, AIG's main advantage over its competitors is its
long-standing presence. The group was founded in Shanghai in 1919 by Cornelius Starr, a 27year-old American entrepreneur . That historical accident, and Mr Starr's quest to expand to
the rest of Asia in the ensuing 10 years, are still benefiting the company. Over the past nine
decades, AIG built on those foundations through endlessly pursuing close relationships with
Asia's governments, regulators and powerful businessmen.
Edmund Tse, who runs the Asian operations and life assurance worldwide, says AIG's policy
is to build relationships with as many influential people as possible. "If you want to do
business, you have to be friends with senior leaders," he says. "You need to be friends with
the head of the state, the minister of finance, the minister of trade, the central bank governor
and the
insurance regulator."
AIG believes its three decades spent courting China will be rewarded with unrestricted access
to its vast insurance market. "The Chinese always remember good friends," says Mr Tse. But
if its "friendship" with China is not enough to tap the country's potential, AIG may lose its main
growth engine. And without a strong Asia, AIG would be a much weaker company. AIG may
be a company of 80000 employees and 350000 affiliated agents in 130 countries but much of
its success is down to individual relationships. Many of those relationships have been forged
by Maurice Greenberg, the company's chairman and chief executive. Mr. Greenberg says that
playing the long game has given AIG an edge, particularly in terms of investing in emerging
markets. He courted the Chinese for 17 years before being granted a licence in 1992.
Mr Greenberg knows quite a few people. His style has always been to discuss big issues corporate, political and economic - with anyone he meets. One analyst refers to AIG as a
"sovereign corporate nation" as Mr Greenberg insists on representing the company in highlevel discussions. "If you are dealing with the premier or president of a country, he is not
thrilled to have a deputy come and see him. Even if a country is not one of the leading nations
in the world, that country is important. It's important to him and its important to us."
1
From the Financial Times

Reading Summary:
In general, this article is discussing AIG insurance company. It discusses
how AIG came to be a very successful organisation in Asia, what they
did and what their strategy was to break into the Asian market. They
later became the first foreign insurance company to enter China in 1992.

Exercise A:
Answer the following questions

1.

What does AIG stand for?

2.

AIG is the worlds. insurer by market value.

3.

Who founded the company?

4.

When was the company founded?

5.

Who is the company chairman?

6.

It took Mr. Greenberg of lobbying to be allowed to open


an office in China.

7.

When did AIG open its first office in China?

8.

How did AIG become successful in China?

9.

AIG has over ..employees in countries.

10.

Who wrote the article?

Exercise B:
Now check your answers:
1. What does AIG stand for?
American International Group.
2. AIG is the worlds. insurer by market value. largest
3. Who founded the company?
A 27 year old American entrepreneur called Cornelius Vander Starr.
4. When was the company founded?
In 1919.
5. Who is the company chairman?
Maurice Greenberg
6. It took Mr. Greenberg of lobbying to be allowed to open an
office in China.
17 years
7. When did AIG open its first office in China?
In 1992
8. How did AIG become successful in China?
By pursuing relationships with governments, regulators and
powerful business men.
9. AIG has over ..employees in countries.
10 . Who wrote the article? Shawn Donnan et al.
3

Unit 6 - Communication Skills (Useful Language):

Exercise A:
What would you say when giving advice?
- I suggest you call her.
- You could check your email.
- You should start work on time, everytime.

What would you say when mentioning people you know?


- Ahmad suggested I call you.
- I was given your name by Layla Al Ahmadi.

What would you say when referring to previous meetings?


- Havent we met before?
- You look familiar, have we met?
- Your name sounds familiar, havent we met before?

Answer: Yes, we met in the London sales conference last year.

Topic 4: Success
Introduction:
There are many things that define success. Success can be defined by
educational achievement, the size of our house, the amount of money
we have, the type of job, the salary we earn or the way in which we live
our lives.

Unit 7 - Vocabulary:
Exercise A:
Below are prefixes which were taken from the reading article on Steve
Jobs. Match the common prefixes from the box with the correct meaning
below

underselling

ex-president
overproduce

ultra-sophisticated
renamed

1. Former
2. With
3. Better / more than

4. Too much
5. Too little

6. Again
7. Extremely
1

out-vote

co-founder

Exercise B:
Now check your answers:

underselling

ex-president
overproduce

ultra-sophisticated
renamed

1. Former = ex
2. With = co

3. Better / more than = out


4. Too much = over

5. Too little = under


6. Again = re
7. Extremely = ultra

out-vote

co-founder

Exercise C:
Now underline the odd one (the wrong word) out in each group

1.

Under

efficient / cautious / big / modern

2.

Ex

director / worker / author / boss

3.

Over

lose / supply / estimate / spend

4.

Under

efficient / cautious / big / modern

5.

Co

worker / producer / author / boss

6.

Out

perform / bid / win / class

7.

Ultra

big / small / modern / profit

Exercise D:
Now check your answers:

1.

Under

efficient / cautious / big / modern

2.

Ex

look / worker / author / boss

3.

Over

lose / supply / estimate / spend

4.

Under

efficient / cautious / big / modern

5.

Co

worker / producer / author / boss

6.

Out

perform / bid / boss / class

7.

Ultra

big / small / modern / profit


3

Exercise E:
Now complete the sentences with the appropriate words from the
choices below:

1. Mr. Harbi and Miss Rahaili were the twoof the report.
co-authors / co-producer / co-bosses

2. My .was impossible to work with so I left the company.

ex-worker / ex-author / ex-boss

3. Our .office has state-of-the-art computers.

ultra-small / ultra-modern / ultra-profit

4. They had to..their competitors to win the contract.


out-perform / out-charge / out-boss

Exercise F:
Now check your answers:

1. Mr. Harbi and Miss Rahaili were the twoof the report.
co-authors / co-producer / co-bosses

2. My .was impossible to work with so I left the company.


ex-worker / ex-author / ex-boss

3. Our .office has state-of-the-art computers.

ultra-small / ultra-modern / ultra-profit

4. They had to..their competitors to win the contract.


out-perform / out-charge / out-manage

Unit 7 - Grammar (Language Review):


Present simple, present continuous and past simple

In English:
1. We use the present simple to describe actions and situations
which are generally true. We work in advertising, Saudi Arabia
is an oil producing country and Taibah University is in Medina,
Saudi Arabia.
2. We use the past simple to describe finished actions at a particular
point in the past. He sent the fax yesterday, She went to the
conference in Jeddah and Dr. Sara reorganized the department.
3. We use the present continuous to describe events that are
current or temporary situations. We are travelling to the sales
conference tonight, They are working on the project and Mr. AlHarbi is checking the plan.

Exercise A:
1. Which statement is an example of the past simple tense?
a. I met the client in Singapore.
b. Sara and Layla are meeting the client in Singapore.
c. We meet clients in Singapore

2. Which statement is an example of the present continuous tense?


a. They wrote the financial report last night.
b. He is writing the report for his boss.
c. As she is the secretary, she writes reports for her boss.
6

3. Which statement is an example of the present simple tense?


a. They produced good quality products for the Saudi market.
b. She is producing good quality products for the Saudi market.
c. We produce good quality products for the Saudi market.

Exercise B:
Now check your answers:

1. Which statement is an example of the past simple tense?


a. I met the client in Singapore.
b. Sara and Layla are meeting the client in Singapore.
c. We meet clients in Singapore

2. Which statement is an example of the present continuous tense?


a. They wrote the financial report last night.
b. He is writing the report for his boss.
c. As she is the secretary, she writes reports for her boss.

3. Which statement is an example of the present simple tense?


a. They produced good quality products for the Saudi market.
b. She is producing good quality products for the Saudi market.
c. We produce good quality products for the Saudi market.

Unit 8 - Reading: The Guardian profile: Steve Jobs


Read the article below:

Reading Summary:
This article is a profile of Steve Jobs, the co-founder of Apple and the
success behind Pixar, the creators of movies like Toy Story and Finding
Nemo. It discusses his education, early success with the Apple I and his
continued success working with other companies.

Exercise A:
Answer the following questions
1. Jobs was.of Apple.
2. Steve Jobs grew up in ..
3. Steve Jobs only studied .term at Reed College.
4. Steve Jobs met Steve Wozniak in a computer club called
5. Jobs and Wozniak started Apple in.
6. They started the business in Steve Jobs family.
7. The first Apple computers were called..
8. When Jobs was 25 he was worth..
9. Jobs left Apple in ..and went back in
10. Jobs started an animation company called Pixar which made Toy
Story and ..

11. Pixar made Jobs a ..


2

Exercise B:
Now check your answers:

1. Jobs was.of Apple.


co-founder
2. Steve Jobs grew up in ..
California
3. Steve Jobs only studied .term at Reed College.
One term
4. Steve Jobs met Steve Wozniak in a computer club called
Homebrew Computer Club
5. Jobs and Wozniak started Apple in.
1976
6. They started the business in Steve Jobs family.
garage
7. The first Apple computers were called..
Apple I and Apple II
8. When jobs was 25 he was worth..
$165m
9. Jobs left Apple in ..and went back in
1985 / 1997
10. Jobs started an animation company called Pixar which made Toy
Story and ..
Finding Nemo

11. Pixar made Jobs a .


billionaire
3

Unit 8 - Communication Skills (Useful Language):

Exercise A:
What would you say when giving signaling?
- I would like to ask a question.
- Excuse me, Id like to make a suggestion.
- I think we should leave this point and come back to it later.

What would you say when checking understanding?


- Sorry, could you repeat that?
- What youre trying to say is .
- Am I correct in saying that.

What would you say when summarising?


- Can we summarise the points weve agreed on?
- OK, so were in agreement.

Youll pay for delivery and get

everything to us by the end of August.


- Your name sounds familiar, havent we met before?

Topic 5: Job satisfaction


Introduction:
Job satisfaction is important for both staff and companies.
Having satisfaction in ones job makes employees more productive and
contributes to a successful company.
Job satisfaction can be associated with salary, working hours, the
availability of training, bonus schemes and so on. Below are further
words associated with job satisfaction.

Unit 9 - Vocabulary:
Exercise A:
bureaucracy

autonomy

appraisal

burnout

pay

golden handshake

perks

Now match these words to the items which have a similar meaning:
1. bureaucracy

a) independence

2. autonomy

b) red tape

3. burnout

c) breakdown

4. pay

d) severance package

5. appraisal

e) fringe benefits

6. golden handshake

f) remuneration

7. perks

g) assessment

Exercise B:
Now check your answers:

1. bureaucracy

a) independence

2. autonomy

b) red tape

3. burnout

c) breakdown

4. pay

d) severance package

5. appraisal

e) fringe benefits

6. golden handshake

f) remuneration

7. perks

g) assessment

Exercise C:
Complete the sentences with words from Exercise A.
1. Overwork can lead to..

2. Dealing with .. can be very time consuming and unproductive.


3. She received a very generouswhen she left the company.

4. Most people like to have control over their work, so ..is a


motivating factor in their job satisfaction.
5. High is not the only motivating factor for job satisfaction.

Exercise D:
Now check your answers.

1. Overwork can lead to burnout.


2. Dealing with bureaucracy can be very time consuming and
unproductive.

3. She received a very generous golden handshake when she left the
company.

4. Most people like to have control over their work, so autonomy is a


motivating factor in their job satisfaction.
5. High pay is not the only motivating factor for job satisfaction.

Unit 9 - Grammar (Language Review):


Passives
We use passives when we are not interested who did an action or when
it is not really necessary important to know who performed the action.

We use passives more to describe procedures and processes because


we are interested in the action itself.

For example:

1. The fax has been sent to the client.


2. The packages are packaged and delivered to the supplier.
3. It has been agreed that the sale of the company will go ahead.

Exercise A:
Complete the following sentences with words from the box:

product

The presentation

The office

was taken

1. . was reorganized last night.


2. The client .to the airport.
3. The .was well made.
4. .. was well conducted.

Exercise B:
Now check your answers:

product

The presentation

The office

1.

was taken

The office was reorganized last night.

2. The client was taken to the airport.


3. The product was well made.
4. The presentation was well conducted.

Unit 10 - Reading: Perks that work


Read the article below

Perks that work


By Robert Burke
Keeping people happy is an increasingly tough trick. With unemployment at record lows, "companies are
trying just about anything" to retain employees, says Jerry Doherty of the New York-based humanresources consulting firm William M. Mercer Inc. Not only are employees being pampered , they're
getting more money, better benefits and help with personal problems such as child care and financial
planning. Bosses once shunned such intervention. Retention "is no longer a human resource issue, it's a
business issue," says Doherty.
Because technology companies face the tightest labour markets, they have been the most aggressive in
devising ways to keep workers. Herrndon-based Net2000 Communications, for example, puts top
performers behind the wheel of a luxury cars like a BMW. MicroStrategy, a Vienna-based data miner,
goes a step further and has hosted all of its employees on Caribbean cruises.
Such perks are great for the employee, but do they make sense for the company? Maybe. Doherty says
all companies - including technology firms -"have to be careful they don't create a business model that's
not profitable. Don't throw money at workers who want to leave because pay raises don't always work.
Perks and benefits can be effective, but they have to be custom-fit to the company and the business
sector. Don't add new perks just because they seem like hot trends. Too often there's a desperation
sometimes to just try anything, and it's very expensive." MicroStrategy, which reported lower earnings
earlier this year, has been rethinking its cruises, for example.
Yet companies still face labor crunches that can really hurt. How do you keep workers? Start by making
them feel they're part of a special place with a unique culture. "We want to hire people that are totally
aligned with our values," says Tim Huval, general manager for South Dacota - based Gateway's 2200employee call center and manufacturing facility in Hampton. "Honesty, efficiency, aggressiveness,
respect, teamwork, caring, common sense and fun. Those are the values we live by." Richmond-based
Xperts also lives by the value system. Founder and CEO William Tylor pushes pairing quality of life with a
sence of social responsibility. Workers can designate which non-profit groups Xperts contributes to, for
example. A strong culture makes it hard for people to leave, Tyler says. "They don't have an urge to
leave because they have found a home. They are happy."
Notice this corporate stuff doesn't say much about shareholders or profit. It's a decidedly employeecentric approach. "If you ask any of them, they're all going to say, Pay me more money. But that's not
the truth," Tyler says. "What people are looking for is a place that's looking out for me." What that means
is helping employees cope with problems they face outside the office. "That is where companies can
build employee loyalty," says Barbara Bailey of William M. Mercer's Richmond office. One popular tool is
revamping leave policies to create "flexible leave banks" that put all employee leave into a single
category. Employees take time off when they need it and don't have to call it a sick day or vacation.
"Work-life issues are huge," says Bailey. "You make them feel as though they are not interested in
looking elsewhere, because they are very happy with their life."

From Virginia Business Online

Reading Summary:
The article is generally discussing the perks that two companies offer its
employees to perform well at work and to increase job satisfaction rates.
It discusses the point that cars, holidays and money are not the only
motivating factors for employees. It notes that employees also find other
non-monetary factors important like assistance with solving problems
that may not be work relates, help with child care and financial planning
etc.
Exercise A:
Sample questions:
1. In general, what topic is the article discussing?
2. Who does Jay Doherty work for?

3. What does Net2000 give its top performers?


4. What did MicroStrategy give all its employees?

5. What does Doherty advise?


6. Perks and benefits can be effective but they have to be..?

7. Gateways values are.?


8. CEO William Tyler believes in quality of life with a sense of..?

9. Job satisfaction also includes helping employees cope with..?

Exercise B: Now check your answers.

1. In general, what topic is the article discussing?


Job satisfaction.
2. Who does Jay Doherty work for?
William M. Mercer Inc.
3. What does Net2000 give its top performers?
BMW 323i or a BMW Z3.

4. What did MicroStrategy give all its employees?


Caribbean cruises.

5. What does Doherty advise?


Not to throw money at employees who want to leave.
6. Perks and benefits can be effective but they have to be..?
custom-fit to the company and business sector.

7. Gateways values are.?


honesty, efficiency, aggressiveness and respect.

8. CEO William Tyler believes in quality of life with a sense of..?


social responsibility.
9. Job satisfaction also includes helping employees cope with..?
Problems they face outside of the office

Unit 10 - Communication Skills (Useful Language):

Exercise A:
What would you say when saying no politely?
- Its very kind of you, but.
- Its very nice of you, but
- Im very sorry, but

Exercise B:
What would you say when apologising?
- I must apologise.
- Im terribly sorry, but

Exercise C:
What would you say showing sympathy?
- I quite understand
- I know how you feel

Exercise D:
What would you say when ending a conversation?
- Please excuse me, I really have to leave.
- Sorry, I really must be off.

Topic 6: Risk
Introduction:
An individuals and organisations, risk is everywhere whether
is it when we do business, sign a contract, buying online or
buying property, sell products etc.

There are many words that are associated with the term risk. These
words are used to analyse risk.

Below are words used to describe risk. Check their meaning.

Unit 11 - Vocabulary:

Exercise A:

face
eliminate

reduce
encounter

minimise
estimate

prioritise
calculate

foresee

Now arrange these words under the appropriate headings.

Predict

Manage

Assess

Meet

Exercise B:
Now check your answers:

face
eliminate

Predict
foresee

reduce
encounter

minimise
estimate

Manage

prioritise
calculate

Assess

foresee

Meet

prioritise

estimate

face

minimise

calculate

encounter

eliminate

reduce

Exercise C:
Now match these incomplete sentences with an appropriate ending.

a) is an important part of
business strategy.

1. Internet business

2. We can reduce risk.

b) face increasing risk of


running out of money.

3. Trying to minimize risk

c) by spreading our lending to


more businesses.

4. It is impossible to..

d) eliminate all risk when


entering a new market.

5. It is difficult to foresee

6. It is important to consider the..

e) risks involved when


sending staff to work in
remote and dangerous
locations.
f) involved in setting up a
new business.

Exercise D:
Now check your answers.

a) is an important part of
business strategy.
1. Internet business
b) face increasing risk of
running out of money.

2. We can reduce risk.

c) by spreading our lending to


more businesses.

3. Trying to minimize risk.

d) eliminate all risk when


entering a new market.

4. It is impossible to..

e) risks involved when


sending staff to work in
remote and dangerous
locations.

5. It is difficult to foresee

6. It is important to consider the..


f) involved in setting up a
new business.

Exercise E:

The following words describe a high level of risk:


-

Great

- Substantial
- Huge
- Serious
- Terrible
- Significant
-

Tremendous

The following words describe a low level of risk:


-

Faint

- Slight
- Remote
- Minuscule

Unit 11 - Grammar (Language Review):


Adverbs of degree
We use adverbs to strengthen the meaning of adjectives.
For example:
-

Entering the stock market and not being fully prepared is a risk.

It is increasingly difficult to find funding when starting a new


business.

We can also use adverbs to soften the meaning of adjectives.

For example:
- The manager of slightly critical of the sales meeting.
- The sales figures were fairly good.

Exercise A:
From the words in the box, which adverbs are the strongest (S) and
which are the weakest (W)?

a bit
highly

entirely
quite

extremely
rather

fairly
totally

very
slightly

Exercise B:
Now check your answers:

a bit (W)

entirely (S)

highly (S)

quite (W)

extremely (S)
rather (W)

fairly (W)
totally (S)

very (S)
slightly (W)

Unit 12 - Reading: The dangers of not looking ahead


Read the article below

The dangers of not looking ahead


By Andrew Bolger
Risk management has undoubtedly moved up the corporate agenda in recent years with fears of wars and
terrorism being added to the usual list of business worries.
Shivan Subramaniam, the Chairman and Chief Executive of FM Global, a commercial and industrial property
insurer, says: "Corporations are operating in a turbulent world where businesses are seeking growth through
globalisation, outsourcing, consolidation, just-in-time delivery and cross-border supply, further increasing their
potential exposure to risk.
Add regulatory, legal and labour considerations and you begin to understand the complex nature of business
risk in the 21st century. While acts of terrorism receive the most coverage, it's the more traditional events such as
fires, floods, explosions, power failures or natural disasters that have the biggest impact.
FM Global believes the majority of all loss can be prevented or minimised and that should be the first part of any
disaster recovery plan. It also argues that prevention is better than the cure and says there's a lot companies can
do to stop such events from becoming a disaster in the first place.
However, research shows that more than one-third of the world's leading companies are not sufficiently prepared
to protect their main revenue sources and have room for improvement.
Ken Davey, a managing director with FM Global, says: "To best protect cash flow, competitive position and profit,
companies need to assess the potential risks that can impact top revenue sources and make sure there is
business continuity planning."
Lord Levene, chairman of the Lloyd's insurance market, said recently that companies must be prepared for
business interruptions, which accounted for 25 % of the $40bn lost as a result of the September 11 terrorist
attacks. It was estimated that 90 % of medium to large companies that could not resume near-normal operations
within five days of an emergency would go out of business.
"Looking ahead 10 years I firmly believe that the most successful, least crisis-prone businesses will be those
whose boards have shown firm resolve and taken decisive action," Lord Levene said. "Effective, integrated
strategies for dealing with tomorrow's risks require a change in culture at board level now."
A new research report from Marsh, the world's biggest insurance broker, found that half of European companies
did not know how to manage the most significant risks to their businesses. Most of Europe's senior executives
surveyed admitted that they did not have procedures in place to manage properly operational and strategic risks,
which were responsible for most company failures in the 21st century. The survey found that the three most
significant risks and those that businesses felt least able to manage were:
- Increased competition
- Adverse changes in customer demand
- Reduced productivity because of staff absenteeism and turnover
Mr Irwin says: "Risk is dynamic, it changes with the environment. Unless businesses accept this and review risk
regularly, they could eventually find themselves in a state of crisis, struggling to survive rather than focused on
growth. Business leaders have an obligation to their employees, shareholders and other stakeholders to properly
protect themselves against risk. Businesses that do attempt to manage these risks will boost their bottom lines."
(edited)
From the Financial Times

Reading Summary:
The article is generally discussing the risk involved in 21st business. It
points out to the complex nature of risk and how companies are in
constant battle with risk. The article point highlights that most loss can
be prevented or minimised through a disaster recovery plan.

Exercise A:
Sample questions:
1. In general, what topic is the article discussing?
2. Who is Shivan Subaramaniam?
3. Who or what is FM Global?
4. What increases risk?
5. FM Global believes most of risk can be.
6. Research shows that .of the worlds leading companies are not
prepared enough to protect their revenues.
7. Lord Levene says that there needs to be a change in. at the board
level now.
8. , the worlds largest insurance broker found that 50% of
European companies did not know how to manage risk to their
businesses.

Exercise B: Now check your answers.


1. In general, what topic is the article discussing?
The importance of planning and controlling risk.
2. Who is Shivan Subaramaniam?
The chairman and Chief Executive of FM Global.
3. Who or what is FM Global?
It is an industrial property insurer.
4. What increases risk?
Globalisation, out-sourcing, consolidation and just-in-time delivery
5. FM Global believes most of risk can be.
prevented or minimised.
6. Research shows that .of the worlds leading companies are not
prepared enough to protect their revenues.
one third
7. Lord Levene says that there needs to be a change in. at the board
level now.
culture
8. , the worlds largest insurance broker found that 50% of
European companies did not know how to manage risk to their
businesses.
Marsh

Unit 12 - Communication Skills (Useful Language):

Exercise A:
What would you say when saying asking for opinions?
- What do you think about..?
- Whats your opinion about the..?
- Does anyone have any strong feelings about.?

What would you say when giving opinions?


- I think we should..
- Well, it may be better to

What would you say when adding a condition?


- Well agree if you..
- We can do that on condition...
- Sure, provided that.

What would you say when summarising a conversation?


- So, in summary, we have agreed on.
- To sum up..

Topic 7: e-commerce

Introduction:
e-commerce means any business transaction that is done over the
internet. This could mean buying and selling goods over the internet,
agreeing a contract or a business deal on the internet. E-commerce
companies include:

www.haraj.com
www.ebay.com
www.amazon.com

However, there may be problems when buying over the internet.


Problems include security and piracy.

There are many words that are associated with the term e-commerce.
These words are used to talk about e-commerce.

Unit 13 - Vocabulary:

Below are words used to describe e-commerce.


Use a dictionary or go online to help you understand their meaning..

Exercise A:

Internet terms

search
search engines

Net

surfers
site

browse

hits
locate

online
traffic

keyword
directories

Taibah.net is an online service that helps companies improve their


e-commerce business. Now use the words in the box above to complete
the promotional content from its website:

Taibah.net
Has your company started doing business on the ..? (1)

Have you spent thousands on a website, more money to register it with all the major ....
, (2) and .. (3) but youre still getting little or no? (4)

If the answer is yes, then you need Taibah.net


The Taibah.net service places your (5) at the very top of major search engine
listings. So when people do a ..(6) for a (7) related to your business or
product, your site automatically receives many more..(8).

Whats more, Taibah.net delivers targeted customers. These are not .(9) who shop
.(10) but are people who actually searched for your business. So when your
potential customers.(11) the Internet, we make sure they can ..(12) your
website.

Exercise B:
Now check your answers:
Exercise A:

Internet terms

search
search engines

Net

surfers
site

browse

hits
locate

online
traffic

keyword
directories

Taibah.net
Has your company started doing business on the Net? (1)

Have you spent thousands on a website, more money to register it with all the major
.... search engines (2) and directories (3) but youre still getting little or no
traffic? (4)

If the answer is yes, then you need Taibah.net


The Taibah.net service places your site (5) at the very top of major search engine
listings. So when people do a search (6) for a keyword (7) related to your business
or product, your site automatically receives many more hits (8).

Whats more, Taibah.net delivers targeted customers. These are not surfers (9) who
shop online (10) but are people who actually searched for your business. So when
your potential customers browse (11) the Internet, we make sure they can locate
(12) your website.

Unit 13 - Grammar (Language Review):


Conditionals
There are many types of conditional sentences and we use then in
many ways.

For example:

The first conditional:


If we get that designer, well have a winning team.
The second conditional:
If we launched our website, wed get better results
The third conditional:
If wed prepared properly, we wouldnt have lost the contract.
Zero conditional:
When markets crash, everyone suffers.
Exercise A:
Now match the 10 sentences to the 6 headings below

Heading 1: Promise
Heading 2: Bargaining
Heading 3: Invitation / request
Heading 4: Reflecting on the past
Heading 5: Speculating about the future
Heading 6: advice / warning / threat

Sentences 1 10:

1. If I were you, I would re-think your business plan.

2. Well deliver within 24 hours if you pay cash.

3. I wouldnt do that if I were you.

4. Your money back if you are not 100% satisfied.

5. If I had a better marketing strategy, I would have sold more goods.

6. If you would like to apply to be a teacher, complete the online


Taibah University application form.

7. If you order in bulk, well give you a discount.

8. If you put in a CD player in the car, we have a deal.

9. They would have gone bankrupt if they didnt take her advice.

10. Passengers mustnt some anywhere on the plane.

Exercise B:
Now check your answers:

Sentences 1 10:

1. If I were you, I would re-think your business plan.


Advice
2. Well deliver within 24 hours if you order online.
Promise / speculating about the future
3. I wouldnt do that if I were you.
Warning
4. Your money back if you are not 100% satisfied.
Promise
5. If I had a better marketing strategy, I would have sold more goods.
Reflecting on the past.
6. If you would like to apply to be a teacher, complete the online
Taibah University application form.
Invitation / request
7. If you order in bulk, well give you a discount.
Promise / bargaining

8. If you put in a CD player in the car, we have a deal.


Bargaining
9. They would have gone bankrupt if they didnt take her advice.
Reflecting on the past
10. Passengers mustnt some anywhere on the plane.
Advice / warning

Unit 14 - Reading: Internet shopping the sequel


Read the article below

Internet shopping the sequel


By Neil Buckley
Pets.com; Webvan; Boo.com. The road to the online retailing future is littered with the wrecks of
Internet start-ups once seen as the pioneers of a retailing revolution.
The shape of e-tail is very different from what was predicted a few years ago. Apart from Amazon and
eBay - the web's biggest forum for buying and selling, though it is an auction house, not a retailer - most
of the biggest online retailers are not Internet start-ups but traditional shop or mail-order groups.
Retailers have brought their investment capacity and trusted brand names to bear on Internet shopping
- thus boosting public confidence. Many have integrated online sales into a multichannel strategy that
may link a website, shops and a mail-order catalogue.
A prime example of the fusion of the online and so-called offline retail worlds is the Amazon itself. The
company has expanded well beyond its roots as a seller of books and CDs, acting as an online mall
selling everything from gourmet food to clothing. Evolving from pure retailer to "retail platform", it now
conducts its online commerce in partnership with bricks-and-mortar retailers such as target, Nordstrom,
Borders and Circuit City.
That blending of online and offline is offering consumers new ways to shop. They may research and
order their purchase online, but have it delivered to a nearby shop - a service offered by retailers such
as Sears Roebuck and Circuit City - so as to avoid delivery charges and to allow them to see it or try it
on first. Some of the biggest US retailers are developing integrated operations. JC Penney, the centuryold department store chain, saw its Internet sales reach $600m last year. It offers 200,000 items that
can be delivered to customers' homes or any of its 1020 shops.
Steve Riordan, a consultant at AT Kearney says traditional retailers that have not yet embraced the
online world face heavy investment and some tough choices. Tesco, the British supermarket chain,
has the world's biggest online grocery business. It has helped Safeway, the third-largest US
supermarket chain, set up its Internet operations. The biggest e-commerce site in Japan is Rakuten, a
home-grown online shopping mall that began life in 1997 with just 13 shops. Today, it has more than
10,000 and a share of the e-commerce market three times bigger than second-ranking Yahoo-Japan,
according to a report by JP Morgan.
Some pure Internet retailers are also continuing to grow. Yoox.com - which sells end-of-season and
exclusive goods from designers such as Armani, Prada and Dolce & Gabbana - has proved that
designer labels will sell online and that European e-tailers can succeed internationally. It chose to
launch in Europe first, close to the designers whose goods it sells. Yoox now sells in seven languages
to 25 countries in Europe, North America and Japan. Its stylish site - which it calls an e-concept store enables shoppers to zoom in on clothes and see them from different angles, and includes video and
music.
Federico Marchetti, the Italian former investment banker who is Yoox's founder and chief executive,
says that anyone selling online does not just have to get the technology and orders right; they also have
to provide fun and entertainment. What we have been trying to do Yoox is to build a very nice
customer experience, he says. "The online retailer always has to be doing something interesting and
different."

Reading Summary:
(edited) From the Financial Times

Reading Summary:
The article is generally discussing businesses on the internet and how
important it is to have an online presence. It has offered new ways for
customers to shop and at times, with better prices. It shows how much
revenue can be made from having an online presence and gives
examples of popular supermarket companies and both in the UK and
Japan.

Exercise A:
Sample questions:
1. In general, what topic is the article discussing?

2. JC Penning saw its internet sales reach last year.

3. JC Penning also offers over products online.

4. According to Federico Marchettin, what do internet businesses


need to do to be successful?

5. ., the British supermarket has the worlds online


grocery.

6. While the biggest e-commerce site in Japan is.

Exercise B: Now check your answers.

1. In general, what topic is the article discussing?


e-commerce.
2. JC Penning saw its internet sales reach last year.
$600m
3. JC Penning also offers over products online.
200,000
4. According to Federico Marchettin, what do internet businesses
need to do to be successful?
They have to do something interesting and different.
5. ., the British supermarket has the worlds online
grocery.
Tesco / biggest
6. While the biggest e-commerce site in Japan is.
Rakuten.

Unit 14 - Communication Skills (Useful Language):

Exercise A:
What would you say when saying changing the subject?

- Right. Moving on..


- Turning now to

What would you say when involving the audience?

- OK, what is Taibah.net?


- How many of you have heard of
- How can tell me..

What would you say when emphasising?

- Id just like to emphasise..


- I want to stress the importance of..
- Wed like to illustrate that

What would you say when referring to visuals?

- As you can see from the diagram..


- Lets look at the chart.
- Id like to draw your attention to the table.