You are on page 1of 129

HUMAN ANATOMY AND

PHYSIOLOGY LAB
WORKBOOK
SEMESTER I

Contents
Anatomy Academy _______________________________________2
Microscope _____________________________________________3
The Cell ________________________________________________6
The Cell Cycle ___________________________________________ 9
Appendicular skeleton ____________________________________ 16
Axial Skeleton ___________________________________________35
Skull ___________________________________________________47
Muscular System _________________________________________56
Head and Torso Muscles ______________________________61
Upper Limb Muscles _________________________________65
Lower Limb Muscles __________________________________70
The Nervous System ______________________________________78
Spinal Nerves ________________________________________81
Spinal Cord __________________________________________93
Brain _______________________________________________98
Eye ________________________________________________ 109
Ear ________________________________________________122

Human Anatomy and Physiology


Lab workbook Semester I
2nd Edition

Somerset Community College Biology Faculty


Elaine Kohrman Editor
Shawn Stratmann, Clint Hayes Photos
Rose Kohrman Design

INTERACTIVE ACTIVITIES FOR THIS LAB BOOK CAN BE


FOUND ON BLACKBOARD IN THE ANATOMY ACADEMY
ECOMMUNITY.
Log in to BlackBoard.
Click on the eCommunity tab at the top of the page.
Search for Anatomy Academy using the Organization
Search Module.
Enroll yourself in the Anatomy Academy by clicking
enroll in the drop box by the organization ID.

MICROSCOPE CARE AND USE




Know the names of the parts of the microscope.

Be able to calculate the total magnification based on the lens used.

USE OF MICROSCOPES
1.

CARE OF MICROSCOPES

Before plugging in the microscope, make sure the light is turned


off.

Always carry microscopes upright with one hand on neck and

2.

Plug in the microscope and turn the light source all the way up.

other hand under base.

3.

Start with the scanning power (4X) objective lens.

Only use lens cleaner paper to clean lenses and slides.

4.

Put a slide on the stage and secure it with the holder. Do NOT

Before putting away the microscope,

Remember to remove the slide.

Reset the lens to scanning power.

Turn off the light.

Unplug the microscope by pulling on the plug, not the

push the slide UNDER the holder.


5.

controls next to the right side of the stage.


6.

Always place the dust cover back on the microscope.

Put the microscope in the cabinet with the ocular lens

7.

Adjust the light level using the light source dial, the iris
diaphragm, and raising and lowering the condenser lens.

8.

going in first.

Focus using the knobs on the side of the base. Start with course
focus and then fine focus.

cord.

Center the slide under the light using the mechanical stage

Higher magnification requires more light which increases


resolution.
Recenter the slide on the point of interest.

Put the power cord away in one of the top drawers next

9.

to your seat.

10. Increase magnification to low power (10X).


11. Focus and recenter.

MAGNIFICATION

12. Increase magnification to high power (40X or 45X). Under high

Total magnification is the magnification of the ocular lens (10X)

power, use the fine focus knob only, course focus adjustment can

multiplied by the objective lens in use. At low power, total magnification is

break the slide.

100X (10X x 10X).

CELL STRUCTURE MODULE


BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY THE MAJOR STRUCTURES AND ORGANELLES OF THE CELL

Plasma/cell membrane- outer phospholipid bilayer membrane


of the cell

Rough endoplasmic reticulum- located near nucleus, contains


ribosomes

Cilia- hair like processes

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum- located further from nucleus,


does NOT contain ribosomes

Flagella- tail-like process


Golgi apparatus- the Shipping and Distribution Center of
the cell (UPS Warehouse)

Cytoplasm- all cellular components inside the membrane, but


outside the nucleus

Lysosomes- vesicles with digestive enzymes


Nucleus
Mitochondria- small bean shaped organelles that produce
ATP

Nuclear envelope (membrane)


Nucleolus
Nucleoplasm
Centrioles- rod-shaped bodies
Spindle fibers- formed by centrioles at beginning of
mitosis
Ribosomes- small organelles, function in protein synthesis

mitochondrion

Plasma
membrane

Golgi apparatus

vacoule

Smooth
endoplasmic
reticulum

centriole

cytoplasm

nucleolus

Rough
endoplasmic
reticulum

Nuclear
membrane

ribosome

lysosome
8

chromatin, which are long strands like a bowl


of spaghetti. When the DNA is replicated,
copies are kept together by structures called
centromeres.

CELL DIVISION
INTRODUCTION

o Mitotic phase cell is divided into two


identical daughter cells in 2 steps, Mitosis and
Cytokinesis.

All living things are made up of one or more cells.


Humans begin life as a single cell (fertilized egg) and
grow to be made of trillions of cells. Two adult humans
can then produce a new human. This is called the
Human Life cycle.
In order to grow larger and repair damage, an organism
must increase the number of its cells.
To produce another human (reproduce), humans must
make a reproductive cell (sperm or egg) that can
combine with another humans reproductive cell.
Every human cell contains the entire instruction manual
(46 strands of DNA) necessary to make a fully grown
human.

o Mitosis cells nucleus and DNA is divided


into two identical nuclei. This occurs in 4
phases: Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and
Telophase.
o Prophase

Chromatin condenses into


chromosomes which can now be seen
with a microscope. Each chromosome
consists of the 2 identical copies of a
DNA strand, called sister chromatids,
held together at the centromere.

The nuclear membrane begins to


disintegrate.

Spindle fibers begin to form from the


centrosomes which are at either end of
the cell. The spindle fibers grow and
some attach to kinetochores (attachment
points) on each sister chromatid.

THE CELL CYCLE

Cells, like humans, increase in number by going


through a life cycle called the Cell Cycle. The cell
cycle consists of 2 stages:
o Interphase cell grows and performs normal
functions. If a cell is not going to divide it stays
in G1 of Interphase. Otherwise, it continues to S
phase where the DNA is replicated (copied).
The DNA in the nucleus is in a form called

10

o Telophase

Metaphase

The nuclear membrane disappears.

The nuclear membrane reappears.

Spindle fibers continue to grow pushing


the cell ends apart and pushing the
chromosomes to an area in the middle of
the cell called the metaphase plate.

The chromosomes uncoil to return to the


chromatin form.

The mitotic spindle fibers are


disassembled.

Normal nuclear (DNA) activity resumes.

The kinetochore of each sister chromatid


faces the opposite pole (centromere) of
the cell.

o Anaphase

o Cytokinesis usually occurs while telophase is in


progress.

Spindle fibers shorten pulling on the


kinetochore of each sister chromatid and
pulling the centromere apart.

Each sister chromatid is now considered


its own chromosome.

The chromosomes are pulled to opposite


poles of the cell. Because identical sister
chromatids were split, each cell contains
an identical and complete copy of the
DNA.

Cytokinesis - cells cytoplasm and organelles are


divided in two.

o Cytokinesis begins with a cleavage furrow in


the cell membrane that pinches the two cells
apart.
o The resulting two daughter cells are identical
clones of the original cell, each with a nucleus
and the full set of 46 chromosomes.

11

There are three different types of cells


regarding the cell cycle.

Permanent cells that do not go


through cell division once the tissue
is mature.
Stable - cells that only go through
cell division to replace damaged
cells
Labile - cells that are constantly
going through cell division.

Because these cells have only half the normal DNA


they are called haploid. Normal human cells with 46
chromosomes are called diploid.

The creation of gametes is called meiosis. The joining


of two gametes is called fertilization.

Fertilization and meiosis offset each other to maintain


chromosome number from generation to generation.

Meiosis
o Reduces the chromosomes number from diploid
to haploid.
o Meiosis, like mitosis, is preceded by
chromosome replication.

MEIOSIS

o Meiosis involves 2 consecutive cell divisions,


called meiosis I and meiosis II, resulting in 4
haploid daughter cells.

The 46 chromosomes in each human cell are actually 2


sets of 23 chromosomes. One set is inherited from the
father and one set from the mother. The 2 sets are not
identical, but they are homologous. Homologous
means that the chromosomes carry the same genes,
such as for hair color, but the genes are not identical.
Mom may have a black hair gene, while dads is
blonde.

o Meiosis I segregates the two chromosomes of


each homologous pair packaging them into
separate daughter cells. The centromeres do not
divide.

In order to create a new human with the correct 2 sets


of 23 chromosomes, humans must make gametes.
Gametes are cells like sperm and eggs (more properly
called oocytes) that only have 1 set of 23 chromosomes.

12

Prophase I - In order for homologous


chromosomes to be separated, they must
first be paired together in a tetrad.

Metaphase I Tetrads line up on the


Metaphase plate.

WORD PARTS

Anaphase I Tetrads are pulled to


opposite poles of the cell. Sister
chromatids are still connected at
centromeres.
Telophase I and cytokinesis The cell
is pinched into two cells. The nuclear
membrane does not reform before
Meiosis II.

o Meiosis II separates the two sister chromatids


of each chromosome (centromeres divide)
which is similar to mitosis.

The final result of meiosis is 4 haploid gametes. Two


gametes can then combine in fertilization to form a
diploid cell that will become a new unique individual.

13

chroma, chromo = colored

cyto = cell

di = two

hap = half

homo = same

kin = move

some, soma = body

tetra = four

14

15

16

THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON

ANATOMIC BONE FEATURES

Appendicular skeleton - all the bones of the body that make


up the limbs and the shoulder and pelvic girdles
Girdles
Pectoral or shoulder
Pelvic
Upper Limbs
Arm
Forearm
Wrist
Hand
Lower Limbs
Thigh
Leg
Ankle
Foot

Terms
Body: main part
Head: enlarged end
Neck: constriction between head and body
Margin or border: edge
Angle: bend
Ramus: branch off body
Condyle: smooth rounded articular surface
Facet: small flattened articular surface
Projections
Process: prominent projection
Tubercle: small rounded bump
Tuberosity: knob
Trochanter: tuberosities on proximal femur
Epicondyle: near or above condyle
Ridges
Line or linea: low ridge
Crest or crista: prominent ridge
Spine: very high ridge
Openings
Foramen: hole
Canal or meatus: tunnel
Fissure: cleft
Sinus or labyrinth: cavity
Depressions
Fossa: general term for a depression
Notch: depression in bone margin
Fovea: little pit
Groove or sulcus: deeper, narrow depression

UPPER LIMB:
Shoulder girdle: made up of 2 bones
 Clavicle
Acromial end articulates with acromion
Sternal end articulates with manubrium of
sternum
 Scapula
Acromion process forms protective cover,
attachment for clavicle, attachment for
muscles
Scapular spine divides posterior surface
into supraspinous fossa and infraspinous
fossa

17

Subscapular fossa is the anterior potion of


the blade
Coracoid process is an attachment for
muscles
Glenoid Fossa (cavity) articulates with
humerus

o Arm: made up of 1 bone


 Humerus
Head articulates with pectoral girdle
Greater and Lesser Tubercles are
attachment sites for muscles
Deltoid tuberosity
Condyles
o Capitulum: rounded, articulates
with radius
o Trochlea: spool-shaped, articulates
with ulna
Epicondyles- medial and lateral
Olecranon fossa fits olecranon process of
ulna
Coronoid fossa- fits coronoid process of
ulna

Radius- Lateral (thumb side)


Proximal end
o Head rotates in radial notch of ulna.
o Radial tuberosity: site of muscle
attachment
Distal end articulates with carpals and ulna
o Styloid process

o Wrist: 8 bones of the wrist


 Carpals
 Carpal tunnel: on anterior surface. Enclosed by a
ligament
o Hand: palm and digits


o Forearm: made up of 2 bones


 Ulna-Medial (little finger side)

o Coronoid process fits into coronoid


fossa of humerus
o Radial notch fits the head of the
radius
Distal end
o Head articulates with radius and
with carpals
o Styloid process

Proximal end
o Trochlear notch fits over trochlea
of humerus
o Olecranon process is the point of
elbow

18

Metacarpals- 5 bones of the palm


Labeled: #1-5 starting from thumb
Phalanges- 3 bones making up each finger of the
hand, except the thumb which only has two bones,
named proximal, middle and distal phalanx and
numbered #1 - #5 starting at thumb

LOWER LIMB:

Pelvic Girdle: 2 coxae, sacrum and coccyx (sacrum and


coccyx will be covered with axial skeleton)
 Coxa: each made up of 3 fused bones

Ilium- superior portion of coxa


o Iliac fossa
o Iliac crest
o Anterior superior spine
o Anterior inferior spine
o Posterior superior spine
o Posterior inferior spine

o Patella or kneecap: Inside tendon


o Leg: made up of 2 bones
 Tibia- Larger of 2 and supports most of weight

Ischium- inferior portion of coxa


o Ischial tuberosity
o Ischial spine
o Greater sciatic notch
o Lesser sciatic notch
Pubis- anterior portion
o Obturator foramen (also made by part of
ischium)
o Pubic crest
o Symphysis pubis (pubic symphysis)
Acetabulum- depression made by all 3 bones,
articulates with the head of the femur

o Thigh: made up of 1 bone


 Femur Head articulates with acetabulum
Neck

Greater and lesser Trochanters: attachment for


muscles that fasten lower extremity to hip
Medial and lateral distal condyles: articulate with
tibia
Medial and lateral epicondyles: ligament
attachment sites

Tibial tuberosity: attachment site of muscle


Anterior crest: shin
Medial and lateral condyles articulate with
condyles of femur
Intercondylar eminence
Medial malleolus: medial side of ankle

Fibula Head articulates with tibia not femur


Lateral malleolus: lateral wall of ankle

o Ankle: Tarsals- 7 bones making up the ankle


Talus articulates with Tibia and Fibula
Calcaneus heel bone
o Foot: Metatarsals- 5 bones making up the sole of the foot
Labeled- #1-5 beginning with the big toe


19

Phalanges- 3 bones, except the big toe which only has 2


Labeled- Proximal, Middle and Distal phalanx and
#1-5 beginning with the big toe

WORD PARTS

coraco = birds beak

corono = crows beak

epi = on top of

infra = inferior

oid = looks like

styl = pen, thin and pointed

sub = beneath, under

supra = superior

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

AXIAL SKELETON

Axial skeleton: the bones of the body making up the skull


(covered later), vertebral column, the rib (thoracic) cage, and
the sternum (breastbone).

Intervertebral Disks located between adjacent


vertebrae
Annulus fibrosus: external capsule
Nucleus pulposus: internal and gelatinous
cushion
Disks becomes compressed with age and
height decreases
With age, disks are more susceptible to
herniation - breakage or ballooning of
the annulus fibrosus with a partial or
complete release of the nucleus
pulposus. May push against spinal
nerves impairing function and causing
pain.

VERTEBRAL COLUMN:

Vertebral Curvatures - Four major curvatures found


in adult vertebral column
Cervical: anterior
Thoracic: posterior
Lumbar: anterior
Sacral and coccygeal: posterior
At birth, column is C shaped
When head is raised, cervical curve
appears
When sitting and walking begin, lumbar
curve develops

Vertebral structure
Body main part of vertebra
Transverse process project laterally
Vertebral foramen hole for the spinal cord
Spinous process project posteriorly
Articular processes articulate with other
vertebrae at facets
Spinal nerves exit the vertebral column through
intervertebral foramina.

Abnormal curvatures
Lordosis: Exaggeration of lumbar
curvature
Kyphosis: Exaggeration of thoracic
curvature
Scoliosis: Lateral curvature, often
accompanied by kyphosis

36

Lumbar vertebrae- 5 vertebrae


Large thick bodies
Heavy rectangular transverse and
spinous processes

Vertebral regions
Cervical vertebrae- 7 vertebrae
Have very small bodies, tend to
have bifid (split) spinous
processes, and have transverse
foramina

Sacral vertebrae5 vertebrae fused into 1


bone, the Sacrum
Alae: superior lateral parts of fused
transverse processes
Auricular surface: articulates with
pelvic bone
Median sacral crest: partially fused
spinous processes
Sacral foramina: intervertebral
foramina

Atlas
Name of first cervical vertebrae
Articulates with skull and allows
yes movement
No body and no spinous process
Axis
Name of second cervical
vertebrae
Dens or odontoid process
extends superiorly into the vertebral foramen of the
atlas
Allows rotation of the atlas on
the axis, the no movement

Coccygeal vertebrae- 3-5 vertebrae fused


into 1 bone
the Coccyx or tailbone

Thoracic vertebrae- 12 vertebrae


Long, thin spinous processes directed
inferiorly
Long transverse processes
Articular facets on transverse processes
for ribs (first 10 thoracic vertebrae)
Facets on body for articulation with ribs

37

RIBS

WORD PARTS

12 pair of ribs protects vital organs and forms a semirigid chamber for respiration. The costal groove runs
along the deep inferior surface of each rib.

chondra = cartilage
corn = horn

True or Vertebrosternal: superior seven.


Attach directly to sternum via costal cartilages.
False: inferior five
Vertebrochondral - superior 3 of false
ribs joined by common cartilage to
sternum.
Floating or vertebral - most inferior 2
do not attach to sternum.

costa = rib
inter = between

STERNUM

Manubrium articulates with first rib and clavicle


Body articulates with third through seventh ribs
Xiphisternum or Xiphoid process
HYOID

Floating bone in throat.


Body
Greater cornu
Lesser cornu

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

THE SKULL

FUNCTIONS OF THE SKULL


Protect the brain
Support facial muscles
Entry for respiratory system
Entry for digestive system
Site of sense of smell, taste, sight, hearing and balance
Allow nerves and blood vessels to enter & exit brain
The following is a list of the bones of the skull and their
associated structures which you will be required to be able to
identify for examination purposes.

CRANIAL VAULT

2 Parietal bones
Frontal bone
Sagittal suture
Coronal suture
Sutures become more fused with age
Supraorbital foramen
Occipital bone
Occipital condyle
Foramen magnum-opening where brain
attaches to spinal cord
Lambdoid suture: between parietals
and occipital
2 Temporal bones
External auditory meatus ear canal

48

Mastoid Process
Zygomatic process of the zygomatic arch
(cheekbone)
Styloid process
Carotid canal -carotid artery enters brain
through here
Jugular foramen- jugular vein exits brain
through here
Mandibular fossa articulates with the mandible
Squamous suture: joins the parietal and
temporal bone
Sphenoid bone (greater wing)
Foramen lacerum
Foramen ovale
Optic foramen- optic nerve runs through to
brain
Superior orbital fissure
Sella turcica houses the pituitary gland
Ethmoid bone
Nasal conchae
Crista galli -prominent ridge in center of
anterior fossa
Cribriform plate perforated to allow nerves
from nose through to brain
Perpendicular plate - part of the nasal septum
along with the Vomer
2 Palatine bones

THE FACE

WORD ROOTS

2 Maxilla
Palatine processes- makes up hard palate along
with palatine bones
Infraorbital foramen
Anterior Nasal Spine
Mandible
Mandibular foramen
Mandibular condyle
Mental foramen
Alveolar processes
Coronoid process
2 Lacrimal Bones
Nasolacrimal canal drains tears into nose
2 Nasal Bones
2 Zygomatic bones front part of cheekbone
Vomer part of the nasal septum along with the
Ethmoid

PARANASAL SINUSES

Functions:
Decrease skull weight.
Resonating chambers for speech.
Named for bones in which they are found.
Frontal
Maxillary
Ethmoidal
Sphenoidal

49

alveola = small sac


concha = shell
lacrima = tears
lambda = Greek letter,
magnum = big
mast = breast
oc = back of
orbit = eye socket
palate = roof of mouth
sella = saddle
squamous = fish scale
suture = joint between 2 flat bones
turcica = Turkish

50

51

52

53

54

55

THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

56

MUSCLE ANATOMY
MUSCLE TERMINOLOGY

Orientation: rectus, oblique

Origin or head: muscle end attached to more stationary of


two bones.

Origin and insertion: sternocleidomastoid, carpi radialis

Number of heads: biceps, triceps

Insertion: muscle end attached to bone with greatest


movement.

Function: adductor, masseter, flexor, extensor, supinator,


pronator

Belly: largest portion of the muscle between origin and


insertion.

HEAD AND NECK MUSCLES

Tendons: attach muscles to bones

Agonist: muscle that, when it contracts, causes an action.

Antagonist: a muscle working in opposition to agonist.

Sternocleidomastoid (Rotates to the opposite side and


flexes head)

Splenius capitis (Rotates head)

MUSCLES OF FACIAL EXPRESSION

Example: the biceps brachii can be used to lift


weights and is the agonist, but when you move a
bowling ball back to prepare to bowl, the biceps is
the antagonist.

Origin and insertion of these muscles in the superficial


fascia (connective tissue beneath the skin) rather than
bones.
Move the skin; some act as sphincters.

Synergists: muscles that work together to cause a


movement.

Orbicularis oris (closes lips)

NOMENCLATURE

Orbicularis oculi (closes eye)

Muscles are named according to:

Risorius (laughing)

Location: pectoralis, gluteus, brachial

Zygomaticus (smiling)

Size: maximus, minimus, longus, brevis

Occipitofrontalis (Raises eyebrows and moves scalp)

Shape: deltoid, quadratus, teres, trapezius, orbicularis

57

MUSCLES OF MASTICATION

SCAPULAR MUSCLES
Muscles that attach the upper limb to the body and move or
stabilize the scapula and clavicle.

Mastication: chewing. Involves elevation/ depression/


excursion/ protraction/ retraction of the mandible to
grind the teeth together.

Originate on the axial skeleton.

Muscles of the cheek and tongue aid mastication by


pushing the food under the teeth.

Masseter (Elevates and protracts mandible)

Temporalis (Elevates and retracts mandible)

SHOULDER MOVEMENT MUSCLES


Flexes shoulder:

ABDOMINAL WALL MUSCLES

Aid in forced expiration, vomiting, defecation, urination,


childbirth.

Teres Major, Teres Minor, Latissimus Dorsi

Abducts shoulder:

Crossing pattern of muscles adds strength to abdominal


wall to support organs.

Supraspinatus, Deltoid

Rotates shoulder:

Rectus Abdominis (Flexes vertebral column)

Linea alba in center

Subscapularis, Infraspinatus

ARM MUSCLES (ROTATOR CUFF)

Tendinous intersections divided muscle into


sections

Primary muscles holding humerus in the Glenoid cavity.


Form a cuff or cap over the proximal humerus.

Creates 6 pack abs

Pectoralis Major

Extends shoulder:

Flex and rotate vertebral column, decrease volume of


abdominal and thoracic cavities.

Trapezius, Serratus anterior, Pectoralis major

Involved in flexion, extension, abduction, adduction,


rotation and circumduction.

External and Internal abdominal obliques


(Compresses abdomen and laterally rotate trunk)

58

Infraspinatus, Subscapularis, Supraspinatus,


Teres minor

FOREARM MOVEMENT MUSCLES

THIGH MOVEMENT MUSCLES

Movements at the elbow

Flex the hip

Extends elbow:

Extend the hip

Triceps brachii

Iliopsoas, Sartorius, Rectus Femoris

Flexes elbow:

Abduct the hip

Biceps brachii, Brachioradialis, Brachialis

MUSCLES THAT MOVE THE HAND

Gluteus Maximus

Tensor fascia latae

Supinator (Supination)

Adduct the hip

Pronator teres (Pronation)

Gracilis, Adductor longus

Flexes wrist:

Extend the hip

Flexor Carpi Radialis, Palmaris longus, Flexor


Carpi Ulnaris

Flexes fingers and thumb:

Biceps femoris, Semitendinosus, Semimembranosus


(Hamstrings)

LEG MOVEMENTS
Flex the knee

Flexor digitorum, Flexor pollicis longus

Extends wrist:

Sartorius

Biceps femoris, Semitendinosus, Semimembranosus


(Hamstrings)

Extensor Carpi Radialis, Extensor Carpi Ulnaris

Extends fingers and thumb:

Extend the knee

Extensor digitorum, Extensor pollicis longus

59

Patellar ligament and tendon

Rectus Femoris, Vastus lateralis, Vastus Medialis,


Vastus intermedius (Quadriceps)

FOOT MOVEMENTS

WORD ROOTS
biceps = 2 heads

Tibialis anterior (dorsiflexion)

brevis = short

Soleus (plantar flexion)

cleido = related to the clavicle

Fibularis longus (Plantar flexion and Eversion)

Extensor digitorum longus (Extension of toes)

Gastrocnemius and Calcaneal (Achilles) Tendon


(Plantar flexion and flexion of leg)

orbicularis = circular

Tibialis Posterior (Plantar flexion and Inversion)

rectus = erect (running up and down)

Flexor digitorum longus (Flexion (curling) of toes)

teres = cylindrical

Flexor hallicus longus (Flexion of big toe)

delta = Greek letter delta =


gastro = belly
masticate = chew
quadratus = 4 sided, rectangular

trapezius = trapezoid shaped


triceps = 3 heads

60

61

62

63

64

65

66

67

68

69

70

71

72

73

74

75

76

77

78

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM


FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
Sensory input external and internal stimuli
Integration inputs may produce an immediate
response, stored as memory, or ignored

Homeostasis regulatory and coordinating activities to


maintain constant internal environment

Sympathetic Nervous System Regulates flight or fight response

Enteric Nervous System Regulates digestive functions

Somatic Nervous System voluntary


muscle action

o Sensory or Afferent Division - Action potentials


(APs) from sensory receptors to CNS

Mental activity consciousness, thinking, memory, and


emotions

REFLEX ARC

Control of muscles and glands

Basic functional unit of nervous system.


DIVISIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

Simplest portion capable of receiving a stimulus and


producing a response.

Central Nervous System (CNS) - Brain and spinal


cord

Automatic response to a stimulus that occurs without


conscious thought. Homeostatic.

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) sensory receptors


and nerves

Components of a Reflex Arc


Stimulus Sensory receptors Sensory
neuron Interneuron Motor neuron
Effector organ which responds with a reflex.

o Motor or Efferent Division - APs from CNS to


skeletal muscle

Autonomic Nervous System involuntary


muscle and gland action

Types of Reflexes
Stretch reflex - Muscles contract in response to
a stretching force applied to them.

Parasympathetic Nervous system Regulates resting or vegetative


functions

79

Withdrawal reflex - removes a limb or other


body part from a painful stimulus.

Some integrated within spinal cord; some within


brain.

Reciprocal Innervation - causes relaxation of


extensor muscle when flexor muscle contracts in
stretch and withdrawal reflexes.

Some involve excitatory neurons yielding a


response; some involve inhibitory neurons that
prevent an action.

Crossed Extensor Reflex - when a withdrawal


reflex is initiated in one lower limb, the crossed
extensor reflex causes extension of opposite
lower limb to prevent falling.

Higher brain centers can influence, suppress, or


exaggerate reflex responses.
WORD ROOTS

Golgi Tendon reflex - Prevents contracting


muscles from applying excessive tension to
tendons by producing sudden relaxation of the
muscles.
Relationship of Brain and Spinal Cord Reflexes
Sensory information goes to brain as well as
along the reflex arc (e.g., pain.)
Descending nerves from brain can exaggerate or
suppress reflexes.
Variety of Reflexes

80

arachna = spiders

cauda = tail

epi = above

equine = horse

homeo = same

mater = mother

stasis = remaining the same

sub = beneath

SPINAL NERVES

81

SPINAL NERVES ANATOMY

STRUCTURE OF PERIPHERAL NERVES

Thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves.

o Nerve Axon bundles

o 8 pair cervical

o Myelin made of Schwann cells

o 12 pair thoracic

o Connective tissue

o 5 pair lumbar

o 5 pair sacral

Endoneurium: surrounds individual


neurons.

Perineurium: Surrounds axon groups to


form fascicles.

Epineurium: surrounds the entire nerve.

o 1 pair coccygeal

82

First pair exit vertebral column between skull and


atlas.

Last four pair exit via the sacral foramina.

Others exit through intervertebral foramina.

DIVISIONS OF SPINAL NERVES

Spinal Nerve
Division
Dorsal ramus (pl.
rami)

Further Division or Notes

Spinal nerve
origins

Important Nerves

General Muscles
Innervated

Innervates dorsal trunk


Cervical plexus

Brachial plexus

C1 C4

C5 T1

Ventral ramus

Phrenic nerve

Diaphragm

Axillary nerve

Deltoid muscle

Radial nerve

Upper limb extensor


muscles

Musculocutaneous
nerve

Arm flexor muscles

Ulnar nerve

Forearm flexor muscles

Median nerve

Forearm flexor muscles

Femoral nerve

Anterior thigh muscles

Obturator nerve

Medial thigh muscles


Tibial and

Lumbosacral plexus

Coccygeal plexus
Communicating
ramus

Ischiadic nerve

L1 S4

Common Fibular

S4 Co

Autonomic plexuses; (T1L5)


83

Common fibular nerve

Anterior/lateral leg muscles

Tibial nerve

Posterior thigh/leg muscles

84

85

86

87

88

89

90

91

92

93

SPINAL CORD ANATOMY

GENERAL STRUCTURE OF SPINAL CORD

Gray commissure - Contains axons that cross


from one side of spinal cord to the other

Extends from foramen magnum to second lumbar


vertebra

(included in gray matter)

Conus medullaris conelike region of spinal


cord at L2
Cauda equina conus medullaris plus the
nerve roots at inferior end of spinal cord

commissure that is continuous with fourth


ventricle of brainstem

Segments

Cervical Segment

Thoracic Segment

Lumbar Segment

Sacral Segment

Central canal - Canal in center of gray

White commissure - Contains axons that cross


from one side of spinal cord to the other
(included in white matter)

Spinal nerve

Contains sensory axons, Dorsal root


ganglion (DRG) = cell bodies of

Enlargements of spinal cord

unipolar sensory (afferent) neurons

Cervical
Inferior cervical region
Axons enter and leave that supply upper
limb
Lumbar
Inferior thoracic and superior lumbar
regions
Axons enter and leave that supply lower
limb

Ventral root - Formed from 6-8


rootlets, Contains motor (efferent) axons

Cross Section of Spinal Cord

Dorsal root - Formed from 6-8 rootlets,

Anterior median fissure and Posterior


median sulcus - Deep clefts that partially
divides spinal cord into right and left halves

94

COVERINGS OF SPINAL CORD (MENINGES)

(Superficial Deep)

Periosteum of vertebral canal

Epidural space

Subdural space contains small amount serous fluid

Arachnoid mater thin and wispy like spider webs

Subarachnoid space
o Contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

o Contains blood vessels, loose connective tissue

(CT), and fat

Pia mater
o Tightly bound to spinal cord

o Site of Epidural anesthesia injected during

o Filum terminale

childbirth

Dura mater

Extension of pia mater beyond spinal


cord

o Outermost covering

o Continous with epineurium of spinal nerves

Anchors spinal cord inferiorly to


coccyx

95

96

97

98

BRAIN ANATOMY

Part of CNS contained in cranial cavity.

Control center for many of bodys functions.

Much like a complex computer but much more.

Parts of the brain:

o Cerebellar peduncles connects cerebellum to


brainstem

o Brainstem: connects spinal cord to brain;


integration of reflexes necessary for survival.

Hypothalamus- important in regulation of hormones

o Cerebellum: involved in control of locomotion,


balance, posture.

Mammillary bodies: bulges on dorsal (post.) surface.

o Cerebrum: conscious thought, control.

Olfactory Bulb: site of the detection of smell

Optic Chiasm: crossing of the 2 optic nerves

Corpus Callosum connects the left and right


hemispheres

Pineal body (gland) secretes hormones

Corpora quadrigemina 4 bulges on the posterior


brainstem

BRAINSTEM AND MIDBRAIN


Medulla Oblongata
o Most inferior part, Continuous with spinal cord;
has both ascending and descending nerve tracts.
o Regulates: heart rate, blood vessel diameter,
respiration, swallowing, vomiting, hiccupping,
coughing, and sneezing.

Superior: to midbrain, Middle: to pons,


Inferior: to medulla oblongata

o Cerebral peduncle connects brainstem to


cerebrum

o Midbrain: thalamus and hypothalamus.

Peduncles: fiber tracts that communicate between parts


of brain

o Superior Colliculi visual reflex area

Pons

o Inferior Colliculi auditory reflex area

o Superior to the medulla oblongata, contains


Nerve tracts: ascending and descending

99

o Sulci are depressions


CEREBELLUM

Attached to brainstem posterior to Pons.

Cortex folded in ridges called folia.

Arbor vitae - White matter resembling a tree.

Medulla: center

Nuclei: gray matter within the medulla made of cell


bodies of neurons (like ganglion inside CNS)

MENINGES

Connective tissue membranes

CEREBRUM
o Dura mater: most superficial layer

Largest portion of brain

Composed of right and left hemispheres each of which


has the following lobes:

o Arachnoid mater: middle layer


o Pia mater: bound tightly to brain

o Frontal, Parietal, Occipital, Temporal

Spaces
o Subdural: filled with serous fluid

Sulci and Fissures

o Subarachnoid: filled with CSF

o Longitudinal fissure: separates the two


hemispheres

DURA MATER
o Lateral fissure: separates temporal lobe from
frontal and parietal lobes

Superficial, tightly bound to internal periosteum except:

o Central sulcus: separates frontal and parietal


lobes

o Falx cerebri in longitudinal fissure between the


two cerebral hemispheres

o Transverse fissure: separates the cerebrum


from the cerebellum

o Tentorium cerebelli between cerebellum and


cerebrum
o Falx cerebelli between the two cerebellar
hemispheres.

Cortex: outer surface


o Gyri are folds

o Venous sinuses form at the bases of the three folds.

100

VENTRICLES
ARACHNOID MATER; SUBDURAL SPACE

Filled with CFS

Arachnoid Mater : a thin, wispy layer

Subdural space: between dura and arachnoid; only a


small amount of serous fluid within

Lateral ventricles: within cerebral hemispheres; separated


by septa pellucidum

Third ventricle: within diencephalon

Interventricular foramina join lateral ventricles with third

Fourth ventricle: associated with pons and medulla


oblongata. Connected to third ventricle by the cerebral
aqueduct, continuous with the central canal of the spinal
cord, and connected to the subarachnoid space by the
lateral and medial apertures

PIA MATER AND SUBARACHNOID SPACE

Pia mater: thin, delicate C.T. membrane closely


adhered to brain; follows external contours.

Subarachnoid space: contains web-like strands of


arachnoid, blood vessels, and cerebrospinal fluid.

WORD ROOTS

CEREBROSPINAL FLUID (CSF)

Similar to serous fluid, but without most proteins.

Bathes brain and spinal cord.

Protective cushion around CNS.

Choroid plexuses produce CSF which fills ventricles


and other parts of brain and spinal cord.
Composed of ependymal cells, their support
tissue, and associated blood vessels.

101

arbor = tree

chiasma = cross

corpus = body

folia = leaves

hypo = under, below

medulla = middle

olfactory = smell

vitae = life

102

103

104

105

106

107

108

109

EYE ANATOMY
ACCESSORY STRUCTURES OF THE EYE

LAYERS OF THE EYE

Eyebrows: provide shade; inhibit sweat from entering eye

Three coats or tunics (superficial to deep):

Eyelids: protect the eyes from foreign objects

Fibrous: sclera (whites) and cornea (transparent)

Eyelashes: double/triple row of hairs.

Vascular: choroid, ciliary body, iris

Lacrimal Apparatus

Nervous: retina

Lacrimal gland: produces tears to moisten, lubricate,


wash. Tears pass through ducts and then over eye.
THE LENS

Lacrimal canaliculi: collect excess tears through


openings called puncta.

Held by suspensory ligaments attached to ciliary muscles.

Lacrimal sac leads to Nasolacrimal duct: opens into


nasal cavity

Changes shape as ciliary muscles contract and relax.


Surrounded by a highly elastic, transparent capsule.
Transparent, biconvex.

EXTRINSIC EYE MUSCLES


THE IRIS

Lateral rectus

The size of the pupil is controlled by the Iris which is made of


two muscles.

Medial rectus
Superior rectus

Dilator pupillae which dilates the pupil

Inferior rectus

Sphincter pupillae which constricts the pupil

Inferior oblique
Superior oblique

110

FOCUSING

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE RETINA

Refraction: bending of light.

Pigmented retina: single layer of cells; filled with melanin.

Convergence: light striking a convex surface converges.

With choroid, enhances visual acuity by isolating individual


photoreceptors, reducing light scattering.

Focal point: point where light rays converge and cross.


Focusing: causing light to converge and focus on retina.

Sensory retina: three layers of neurons: photoreceptor,


bipolar, and ganglionic.

Lens changes shape causing adjustment of focal point in front


of the retina.

Nervous signals exit the eye via the Optic nerve.

VASCULAR TUNIC
Ciliary body:

OPTHALMOSCOPIC VIEW OF RETINA

Ciliary muscles: control lens shape.

Macula lutea: dark spot at center of retina.

Ciliary processes: attached to suspensory ligaments


of lens.

Fovea centralis: center of macula lutea. photoreceptor cells


tightly packed.

Choroid: associated with sclera. Very thin, pigmented.

Optic disc: yellow area to the side. Creates a blind spot


because there are no photoreceptors here. Area through which
blood vessels enter eye, where optic nerve exits from eye.

Iris: colored part of the eye. Controls light entering the pupil.

NERVOUS TUNIC
Two layers
Pigmented retina: outer, pigmented layer next to choroid.
Pigment of this layer and choroid help to separate sensory
cells and reduce light scattering
Sensory retina: inner layer of rod and cone cells sensitive
to light.

111

COMPARTMENTS OF THE EYE

WORD ROOTS

Anterior compartment: anterior to lens

aqueous = watery

Filled with aqueous humor.

canaliculi = little canal

Helps maintain intraocular pressure; supplies nutrients


to structures bathed by it; contributes to refraction of
light.

convex = rounded

humor = body fluid

Anterior chamber: between cornea and iris

lacrima = tears

Posterior chamber: between iris and lens

pigment = coloring

vascular = with blood vessels

vitreous = glassy

Posterior compartment: posterior to lens.


Filled with jelly-like vitreous humor.
Helps maintain intraocular pressure, holds lens and
retina in place, refracts light.
Glaucoma: can be caused by an abnormal increase in
intraocular pressure.

112

113

114

115

116

117

118

119

120

121

122

EAR ANATOMY
EXTERNAL EAR

INNER EAR

auricle or pinna- exterior ear structure

Labyrinths (chambers in the temporal bone)

external auditory meatus ear canal leading from the outside


to the tympanic membrane.

Cochlea: spiral labyrinth that detects sound in hearing.


scala tympani labyrinth connected to the oval
window. Transmits sound waves to the cochlear duct.

tympanic membrane (eardrum) vibrates when sound wave


hits it. Separates the external ear from the middle ear.

cochlear duct Contains the spiral organ with


hair cells which detects the tones and volume of the
sound wave. Nerve impulses are sent to the cochlear
nerve.

MIDDLE EAR
Separated from the inner ear by the membranous oval and
round windows.

scala vestibule sound wave exits the cochlear


duct into this labyrinth where it is conducted to the
round window.

Auditory Ossicles: transmit and amplify vibrations from


tympanic membrane to oval window.
malleus (hammer)

helicotrema - at cochlear tip.

incus (anvil)

Vestibule: detects static balance (equilibrium).

stapes (stirrup)

Semicircular canals: detects dynamic balance


(equilibrium).

Auditory or eustachian tube equalizes pressure in middle


ear with the outside.
Oval window: is connected to the stapes and vibrates when the
stapes does.
Round window dampens the sound after it has traveled
through the cochlea.

123

NERVES OF THE EAR


Vestibulocochlear nerve carries nerve signals (A.P.s) from
inner ear to brain.
Vestibular nerve carries nerve signals from the
vestibule and semi-circular canals to the brain.
Cochlear nerve carries nerve signals from the
cochlea to the brain.
WORD PARTS
cochlea = snail
helic (helix) = spiral
labyrinth = maze
ossicle = bone
tympanum = drum
vestibule = entry space

124

125

126