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# 23/10/2013

## School of Civil Engineering

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

Introduction

Local buckling

Classification

Class 4

## Local buckling and

cross-section
classification

Conclusions

Dr Konstantinos D. Tsavdaridis
k.tsavdaridis@leeds.ac.uk
Room: 2.06
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Dr KD Tsavdaridis

CIVE2107 (2013-14)

## School of Civil Engineering

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

Introduction

Contents

Local buckling

Classification

Class 4

Conclusions

1. Introduction
2. Parameters affecting local buckling
3. Cross-section classification
4. Class 4 cross-sections
5. Conclusions
6. Worked examples
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Objectives
Introduction

should:

Local buckling

Classification

Class 4

Conclusions

## Be able to identify the factors affecting

buckling behaviour
Appreciate the distinction between the
four classes of cross-section
Be able to apply the EC3 rules to
classify cross-sections

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23/10/2013

Background
Introduction

Local buckling

Classification

Class 4

Conclusions

Background:
For efficiency, structural members are
generally composed of relatively thin
elements (i.e. thicknesses substantially
less than other cross-sectional
dimensions)
Although favourable in terms of overall
structural efficiency, the slender nature of
these thin elements results in
susceptibility to local instabilities
(buckling) under compressive stress,
which must be considered in design.

Dr KD Tsavdaridis

CIVE2107 (2013-14)

Local buckling
Introduction

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HUQp9vDtCM&list=PLDt8zHZf8oCC9hhjBE3uIV
x9KGp2NknEc

Local buckling

Local buckling

Classification

Class 4

Conclusions

Cross-section
deformation

## Local buckling in structural components

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Dr KD Tsavdaridis

Local buckling
Introduction

Local buckling

Classification

Class 4

Conclusions

23/10/2013

Cross-section classification
Introduction

Classification

## material range, cross-sectional resistance and

rotation capacity are limited by the effects of
local buckling.

Class 4

Local buckling

Conclusions

## The classifications from in Eurocode 3 with

Class 1, Class 2, Class 3 and Class 4,
respectively.

Dr KD Tsavdaridis

CIVE2107 (2013-14)

buckling
Introduction

Local buckling

## The factors that affect local buckling (and

therefore the cross-section classification) are:

Classification

Class 4

Conclusions

## Element support conditions

Material strength, fy
Fabrication process (welded plates/rolled
sections)
Applied stress system

CIVE2107 (2013-14)

Dr KD Tsavdaridis

## Buckling and post- buckling

of plates
Introduction

Local buckling

Classification

Class 4

Conclusions

CIVE2107 (2013-14)

Dr KD Tsavdaridis

23/10/2013

Cross-section classification
Introduction

Local buckling

## Classification is made by comparing actual

width-to-thickness ratios of the plate elements
with a set of limiting values, given in Table 5.2
of EN 1993-1-1).

Classification

Class 4

## A plate element is Class 4 (slender) if it fails to

meet the limiting values for a class 3 element.

Conclusions

## The classification of the overall cross-section

is taken as the least favourable of the
constituent elements (for example, a crosssection with a class 3 flange and class 1 web
has an overall classification of Class 3).
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Definition of 4 classes
Introduction

## The Eurocode 3 definitions of the four

classes are as follows (clause 5.5.2(1)):

Local buckling

Classification

Class 4

## Class 1 cross-sections are those which can

form a plastic hinge with the rotation capacity
required from plastic analysis without
reduction of the resistance.

Conclusions

## Class 2 cross-sections are those which can

develop their plastic moment resistance, but
have limited rotation capacity because of
local buckling.
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Dr KD Tsavdaridis

CIVE2107 (2013-14)

Definition of 4 classes
Introduction

Local buckling

Classification

Class 4

Conclusions

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## Class 3 cross-sections are those in which the

elastically calculated extreme fibre stress can
reach the yield strength, but local buckling is
liable to prevent development of the plastic
moment resistance.
Class 4 cross-sections are those in which
local buckling will occur before the
attainment of yield stress in one or more
parts of the cross-section.

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Definition of 4 classes
Introduction

## Eurocode 3 defines four classes of cross-section:

Local buckling

Moment
Class 1
Classification

Mpl
Mel

Class 4

Class 2

Conclusions

Class 3

Class 4
Deformation

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Compression
Introduction

Local buckling

Cross-section resistance in
compression Nc,Rd:

Classification

Class 4

Nc ,Rd

Class 1, 2 and 3:

Afy

Conclusions

Class 4:

Nc ,Rd

M0

A eff fy
M0
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Bending
Introduction

Local buckling

Classification

Class 4

Conclusions

Cross-section resistance
in bending Mc,Rd:

## Class 1 & 2 cross-sections:

Mc,Rd Mpl

Wplfy
M0

Class 3 cross-sections:

Mc,Rd Mel
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Wel,m infy
M0

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Bending
Introduction

Local buckling

Class 4 cross-sections:

Classification

Class 4

Mc,Rd

Conclusions

We ff,m infy
M0

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Compressed widths, c
Introduction

c

Local buckling
Rolled

Welded

Rolled

Classification

Class 4

Conclusions

Welded

parts

## Limits on slenderness e.g. c/t 9e

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235 / fy

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Compressed widths, c
Introduction

## Internal members (i.e. web)

Local buckling

Classification

Class 4

Conclusions

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## Outstand flange member of an I-section: c = (B t w -2r ) /2

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## Internal compression parts

Introduction

Local buckling

Classification

Class 4

Conclusions

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Outstand flanges
Introduction

Local buckling

Classification

Class 4

Conclusions

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## Angles and tubular sections

Introduction

Local buckling

Classification

Class 4

Conclusions

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Class 4 cross-sections
Introduction

Local buckling

Classification

Class 4

Conclusions

## For class 4 (slender) cross-sections, a

reduced (effective) cross-sectional area
must be calculated to account for the
effects of local buckling.
This should be done in accordance with
Eurocode 3 Part 1.5 (EN 1993-1-5) for hotrolled and welded sections, EN 1993-1-3 for
cold-formed sections and EN 1993-1-6 for
shells.

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of plates
Introduction

## The elastic critical buckling stress scr of a

compressed flat plate is:

Local buckling

Classification

Class 4

Conclusions

cr

k E t

12(1 2 ) b
2

Boundary and
loading conditions

Geometric
proportions

E is Youngs modulus
n is Poissons ratio
t is plate thickness
b is plate width
k is the buckling coefficient
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of plates
Introduction

Local buckling

## Buckling and post-buckling of plates:

Stress

Class 4

Conclusions

Post-buckling
Perfect
elastic
plate

Classification

smax

Buckling
stress scr
Real
plate
Lateral deflection

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Class 4 cross-sections
Introduction

Class 4 cross-sections:

Local buckling

Classification

## Local buckling in elastic range

Effective width concept

Class 4

Conclusions

Channel in pure
compression

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Effective areas
Introduction

Local buckling

Classification

Class 4

## The effective area of a flat compression

element Ac,eff is defined in clause 4.4 of EN
1993-1-5 as the gross area of the compression
element Ac multiplied by a reduction factor r
(where r must be less than or equal to unity),
as given below:

Conclusions

A c ,eff A c
or

beff b

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## Table 4.1 & 4.2 for

internal and outstand
compression elements,
respectively
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Dr KD Tsavdaridis

Reduction factors, r
Introduction

## For internal compression elements:

Based on the properties
of the gross crosssectional area

Local buckling

Classification

0.055(3 )
2 p

Class 4

Conclusions

## And for outstand compression elements:

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but 1.0

## Obtained using stress distribution

based on the effective area of flange
and gross area of web

p 0.188
2p

but 1.0
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Reduction factors, r
Introduction

Local buckling

fy

Classification

cr

b/t
28.4 k

Class 4

## b is the compressed plate width

Conclusions

235 / fy
k is the buckling factor, which depends on the
stress distribution in the compression element
and on the boundary conditions
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Dr KD Tsavdaridis

CIVE2107 (2013-14)

Effective widths
Introduction
1.2

Local buckling

Class 4

Conclusions

Reduction factor r

1.0

Classification

Internal element

0.8

Internal

0.6

Outstand
0.4

Outstand element

0.2

0.0
0

20

40

b/t

60

80

100

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Dr KD Tsavdaridis

CIVE2107 (2013-14)

Buckling factor, ks
Introduction

Step 1

Local buckling

Classification

Class 4

Conclusions

CIVE2107 (2013-14)

## The first step to determine ks is to consider

the boundary conditions of the element under
consideration (i.e. whether it is an internal or
an outstand compression element).
For internal compression elements ks should
be found from Table 4.1 of EN 1993-1-5 and
for outstand compression elements ks should
be found from Table 4.2 of EN 1993-1-5.

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Buckling factor, ks
Introduction

Local buckling

Classification

Class 4

Conclusions

Step 2
Secondly, consideration has to be given to
the stress distribution within the element,
defined by y, which is the ratio of the end
stresses s2/s1.
The most common cases are that of pure
compression, where the end stresses are
equal (i.e. s2=s1), and hence y = 1.0, and that
or pure bending, where the end stresses are
equal in magnitude but of opposite sign (i.e.
s2= -s1), and hence y = -1.0.
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Buckling factor, ks
Introduction

Local buckling

Classification

Class 4

Conclusions

## Table 4.1 of EN 1993-1-5

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Dr KD Tsavdaridis

CIVE2107 (2013-14)

Buckling factor, ks
Introduction

Local buckling

Classification

Class 4

Conclusions

## Table 4.2 of EN 1993-1-5

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Conclusions
Introduction

Local buckling

Classification

## Local buckling accounted for through crosssection classification

Class 4

4 Classes of cross-section

Conclusions

## Classification influences resistance

Effective widths for Class 4 sections

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