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23/10/2013

School of Civil Engineering


FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

Introduction

Local buckling

Classification

Class 4

Local buckling and


cross-section
classification

Conclusions

Dr Konstantinos D. Tsavdaridis
k.tsavdaridis@leeds.ac.uk
Room: 2.06
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Dr KD Tsavdaridis

CIVE2107 (2013-14)

School of Civil Engineering


FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

Introduction

Contents

Local buckling

Classification

Class 4

Conclusions

1. Introduction
2. Parameters affecting local buckling
3. Cross-section classification
4. Class 4 cross-sections
5. Conclusions
6. Worked examples
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Dr KD Tsavdaridis

CIVE2107 (2013-14)

Objectives
Introduction

Following this sessions, the student


should:

Local buckling

Understand what local buckling is


Classification

Class 4

Conclusions

Be able to identify the factors affecting


buckling behaviour
Appreciate the distinction between the
four classes of cross-section
Be able to apply the EC3 rules to
classify cross-sections

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Dr KD Tsavdaridis

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Background
Introduction

Local buckling

Classification

Class 4

Conclusions

Background:
For efficiency, structural members are
generally composed of relatively thin
elements (i.e. thicknesses substantially
less than other cross-sectional
dimensions)
Although favourable in terms of overall
structural efficiency, the slender nature of
these thin elements results in
susceptibility to local instabilities
(buckling) under compressive stress,
which must be considered in design.

Dr KD Tsavdaridis

CIVE2107 (2013-14)

Local buckling
Introduction

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HUQp9vDtCM&list=PLDt8zHZf8oCC9hhjBE3uIV
x9KGp2NknEc

Local buckling

Local buckling

Classification

Class 4

Conclusions

Cross-section
deformation

Local buckling in structural components


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Dr KD Tsavdaridis

Local buckling
Introduction

Local buckling

Classification

Class 4

Conclusions

23/10/2013

Cross-section classification
Introduction

Whether in the elastic or inelastic (plastic)

Classification

material range, cross-sectional resistance and


rotation capacity are limited by the effects of
local buckling.

Class 4

Eurocode 3 accounts for the effects of local

Local buckling

buckling through cross-section classification.


Conclusions

The classifications from in Eurocode 3 with


Class 1, Class 2, Class 3 and Class 4,
respectively.

Dr KD Tsavdaridis

CIVE2107 (2013-14)

Factors affecting local


buckling
Introduction

Local buckling

The factors that affect local buckling (and


therefore the cross-section classification) are:

Classification

Width/thickness ratios of plate components


Class 4

Conclusions

Element support conditions


Material strength, fy
Fabrication process (welded plates/rolled
sections)
Applied stress system

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Dr KD Tsavdaridis

Buckling and post- buckling


of plates
Introduction

Local buckling

Classification

Class 4

Conclusions

CIVE2107 (2013-14)

Dr KD Tsavdaridis

23/10/2013

Cross-section classification
Introduction

Local buckling

Classification is made by comparing actual


width-to-thickness ratios of the plate elements
with a set of limiting values, given in Table 5.2
of EN 1993-1-1).

Classification

Class 4

A plate element is Class 4 (slender) if it fails to


meet the limiting values for a class 3 element.

Conclusions

The classification of the overall cross-section


is taken as the least favourable of the
constituent elements (for example, a crosssection with a class 3 flange and class 1 web
has an overall classification of Class 3).
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Dr KD Tsavdaridis

CIVE2107 (2013-14)

Definition of 4 classes
Introduction

The Eurocode 3 definitions of the four


classes are as follows (clause 5.5.2(1)):

Local buckling

Classification

Class 4

Class 1 cross-sections are those which can


form a plastic hinge with the rotation capacity
required from plastic analysis without
reduction of the resistance.

Conclusions

Class 2 cross-sections are those which can


develop their plastic moment resistance, but
have limited rotation capacity because of
local buckling.
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Dr KD Tsavdaridis

CIVE2107 (2013-14)

Definition of 4 classes
Introduction

Local buckling

Classification

Class 4

Conclusions

CIVE2107 (2013-14)

Class 3 cross-sections are those in which the


elastically calculated extreme fibre stress can
reach the yield strength, but local buckling is
liable to prevent development of the plastic
moment resistance.
Class 4 cross-sections are those in which
local buckling will occur before the
attainment of yield stress in one or more
parts of the cross-section.

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Dr KD Tsavdaridis

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Definition of 4 classes
Introduction

Eurocode 3 defines four classes of cross-section:

Local buckling

Moment
Class 1
Classification

Mpl
Mel

Class 4

Class 2

Conclusions

Class 3

Class 4
Deformation

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Dr KD Tsavdaridis

CIVE2107 (2013-14)

Compression
Introduction

Local buckling

Cross-section resistance in
compression Nc,Rd:

Classification

Class 4

Nc ,Rd

Class 1, 2 and 3:

Afy

Conclusions

Class 4:

Nc ,Rd

M0

A eff fy
M0
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CIVE2107 (2013-14)

Bending
Introduction

Local buckling

Classification

Class 4

Conclusions

Cross-section resistance
in bending Mc,Rd:

Class 1 & 2 cross-sections:

Mc,Rd Mpl

Wplfy
M0

Class 3 cross-sections:

Mc,Rd Mel
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Wel,m infy
M0

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Dr KD Tsavdaridis

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Bending
Introduction

Local buckling

Class 4 cross-sections:

Classification

Class 4

Mc,Rd

Conclusions

We ff,m infy
M0

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Dr KD Tsavdaridis

CIVE2107 (2013-14)

Compressed widths, c
Introduction

Definition of compressed widths flat widths:


c

Local buckling
Rolled

Welded

Rolled

Classification

Class 4

Conclusions

(a) Outstand flanges

Welded

(b) Internal compression


parts

Limits on slenderness e.g. c/t 9e


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235 / fy

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Dr KD Tsavdaridis

Compressed widths, c
Introduction

Internal members (i.e. web)

Local buckling

Classification

Class 4

Conclusions

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Outstand flange member of an I-section: c = (B t w -2r ) /2

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Internal compression parts


Introduction

Local buckling

Classification

Class 4

Conclusions

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Dr KD Tsavdaridis

Outstand flanges
Introduction

Local buckling

Classification

Class 4

Conclusions

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Angles and tubular sections


Introduction

Local buckling

Classification

Class 4

Conclusions

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Class 4 cross-sections
Introduction

Local buckling

Classification

Class 4

Conclusions

For class 4 (slender) cross-sections, a


reduced (effective) cross-sectional area
must be calculated to account for the
effects of local buckling.
This should be done in accordance with
Eurocode 3 Part 1.5 (EN 1993-1-5) for hotrolled and welded sections, EN 1993-1-3 for
cold-formed sections and EN 1993-1-6 for
shells.

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Dr KD Tsavdaridis

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Elastic critical buckling


of plates
Introduction

The elastic critical buckling stress scr of a


compressed flat plate is:

Local buckling

Classification

Class 4

Conclusions

cr

k E t

12(1 2 ) b
2

Boundary and
loading conditions

Geometric
proportions

E is Youngs modulus
n is Poissons ratio
t is plate thickness
b is plate width
k is the buckling coefficient
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Dr KD Tsavdaridis

CIVE2107 (2013-14)

Buckling and post- buckling


of plates
Introduction

Local buckling

Buckling and post-buckling of plates:


Stress

Class 4

Conclusions

Post-buckling
Perfect
elastic
plate

Classification

smax

Buckling
stress scr
Real
plate
Lateral deflection

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Class 4 cross-sections
Introduction

Class 4 cross-sections:

Local buckling

Contain slender plate elements

Classification

Local buckling in elastic range


Effective width concept

Class 4

Conclusions

Channel in pure
compression

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Dr KD Tsavdaridis

CIVE2107 (2013-14)

Effective areas
Introduction

Local buckling

Classification

Class 4

The effective area of a flat compression


element Ac,eff is defined in clause 4.4 of EN
1993-1-5 as the gross area of the compression
element Ac multiplied by a reduction factor r
(where r must be less than or equal to unity),
as given below:

Conclusions

A c ,eff A c
or

beff b

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Table 4.1 & 4.2 for


internal and outstand
compression elements,
respectively
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Dr KD Tsavdaridis

Reduction factors, r
Introduction

For internal compression elements:


Based on the properties
of the gross crosssectional area

Local buckling

Classification

0.055(3 )
2 p

Class 4

Conclusions

And for outstand compression elements:

CIVE2107 (2013-14)

but 1.0

Obtained using stress distribution


based on the effective area of flange
and gross area of web

p 0.188
2p

but 1.0
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Dr KD Tsavdaridis

23/10/2013

Reduction factors, r
Introduction

Element slenderness is defined as:

Local buckling

fy

Classification

cr

b/t
28.4 k

Class 4

b is the compressed plate width


Conclusions

235 / fy
k is the buckling factor, which depends on the
stress distribution in the compression element
and on the boundary conditions
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Dr KD Tsavdaridis

CIVE2107 (2013-14)

Effective widths
Introduction
1.2

Local buckling

Class 4

Conclusions

Reduction factor r

1.0

Classification

Internal element

0.8

Internal

0.6

Outstand
0.4

Outstand element

0.2

0.0
0

20

40

b/t

60

80

100

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Dr KD Tsavdaridis

CIVE2107 (2013-14)

Buckling factor, ks
Introduction

Step 1

Local buckling

Classification

Class 4

Conclusions

CIVE2107 (2013-14)

The first step to determine ks is to consider


the boundary conditions of the element under
consideration (i.e. whether it is an internal or
an outstand compression element).
For internal compression elements ks should
be found from Table 4.1 of EN 1993-1-5 and
for outstand compression elements ks should
be found from Table 4.2 of EN 1993-1-5.

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Buckling factor, ks
Introduction

Local buckling

Classification

Class 4

Conclusions

Step 2
Secondly, consideration has to be given to
the stress distribution within the element,
defined by y, which is the ratio of the end
stresses s2/s1.
The most common cases are that of pure
compression, where the end stresses are
equal (i.e. s2=s1), and hence y = 1.0, and that
or pure bending, where the end stresses are
equal in magnitude but of opposite sign (i.e.
s2= -s1), and hence y = -1.0.
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Buckling factor, ks
Introduction

Internal compression elements:

Local buckling

Classification

Class 4

Conclusions

Table 4.1 of EN 1993-1-5


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Dr KD Tsavdaridis

CIVE2107 (2013-14)

Buckling factor, ks
Introduction

Outstand compression elements:

Local buckling

Classification

Class 4

Conclusions

Table 4.2 of EN 1993-1-5


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Conclusions
Introduction

Local buckling and cross-section classification:


Local buckling

Classification

Local buckling accounted for through crosssection classification

Class 4

4 Classes of cross-section

Conclusions

Classification influences resistance


Effective widths for Class 4 sections

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