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Megha Sevalia

Period 2
Annotated Source List
ABC News. [ABC News]. (June 29, 2009). Does Acetaminophen Cause Liver Damage
[Video File]. Retrieved from
Summary: Video
This video is a news article which briefly discusses a problem about acetaminophen,a
common ingredient in painkillers, and its ability to cause severe harm to the liver. The video
discusses a safety review that a government organization is completing over this issue. They
discuss the different brands that have this, such as tylenol. They discuss combination of
medicines and its effect. They also talk about the effects of labeling. They then go into specifics
about the recommended dosage -4g a day. Finally, they discuss medicines where it is not labelled
clearly, but in the fine print. This is especially applicable when in combinations of medicines,
people often accidentally take high effects without realizing they are taking multiple doses of the
same drug. They tie in various tips on how to be safe with the drug throughout the video.
Application to Research:
This video is helpful to me mainly because of all of the tips that are present as to how to
avoid this. This will be very useful for my final presentation when I appeal to a persons
misconceptions and try to change them. However, I might need to find other sources to back
these tips.
Diener, H., & Limmroth, V. (2004, August 3). Medication-overuse headache: A
worldwide problem. Retrieved October 20, 2016, from disableCoverPage=true
Summary: Article
This article is about an occurrence called medication-overuse headache, which is a
consequence of the overuse of certain drugs. These drugs are generally analgesics and other
painkiller drugs, and they are frequently used to fight headaches such as migraines as well. This
article has details on such various drugs, unknown chemicals in our daily foods, factors that are
causes of it, such as genetic disposition, psychological and behavioural mechanisms, different
methods of diagnosing this, different intensities of it, treatment of it, prevention of it, and various
other similar aspects of the topic. This article also uses actual studies and cases of it to relate the
scientific knowledge prevented. At certain times, it compares the history of what this used to be
considered in comparison to the current understanding. In the prevention section, there are tips
on how to not get it. There are other sections as well, but these are the ones most applicable to
the angle that my research is taking.
Application to Research:
This article is useful because it provides a lot of medical research about this phenomena,
which i could use as one of the medical result of medication overuse. It also has a section on
prevention that could tie into my tips section of my presentation. It also has a long list of
references at the end which I could look at to find additional research.

Farley, E. J., & J, O. D. (2006). Prescription Drugs (Vol. 3). Tarrytown, NY: Marshall Cavendish
Summary: Reference Book
This passage from a reference book discusses the types of prescription drugs that exist
and their true causes, and then how many common ones are misused. The passage has some
firsthand stories of people that became unintentionally addicted to medicines due to their misuse
of them. The passage then has a category for prescription drug abuse, giving common names of
drugs and the effects that they produce, which explains factors as to why a person might misuse
them. The passage then discusses how widespread this problem is, listing results from a survey
that gives statistics as to how many people participated in common misuse leading behaviors,
and how many actually misused. Then, there is a section about these issues in regards
specifically to the elderly, and a sidebar about this issue with people who go doctor shopping.
Finally, there is a section about prevention and treatment, which gives common methods that
people can use to stop themselves and others from misusing medicine.
Application to Research:
This passage will be useful as I can use all of the statistics from the report in the body of
my paper. I can also use the prevention tips in my final presentation. Finally, it introduced a new
topic that I will look into, doctor shopping.
Harsanyi, D. (2016, May 9). The aspirin eaters. Retrieved from
Summary: Article
This article is a narrative about the authors experience with over-using Excedrin pills
and other pain relievers to treat his migraines. He discusses his routine with taking medicines,
which is in the morning and repeatedly throughout the day and at night on an almost daily basis.
He discusses his mentality and feelings about why he does this, which is related to him not being
able to find any solvable cases and this being the easiest fix. He characterizes migraines, and
how they influence his actions. Finally, the author discusses a medical effect of his practice,
which is that he gets rebound headaches, or medication-overuse headaches. There is also
other nonessential parts in the article, such as quotes from people doubting the pain of migraines
and discovering the reality, as well as the mental revelations that the author has had as a result of
having migraines, such as being able to empathize with pain and developing an interest in
pharmaceutical advertisements.
Application to Research:
This article was short and did not contain many scientific details about the authors
condition, but it was a good case about the psychological causes and standing of a person who
may misuse drugs. This article will be useful to me as an example to use when characterizing
reasons why people may do this and could be used in connection to the results from the survey
that I will use to examine this in the future.

Leise, M. D., Poterucha, J. J., & Talwalkar, J. A. (2014, January). Drug-induced liver
injury. Retrieved from
Summary: Article
This article discusses drug hepatotoxicity in terms of it idiosyncratic (unpredictable)
injury as opposed to nonidiosyncratic (predictable). The author discusses many statistics about
the frequency and details behind this occurrence. The passage includes a detailed and thorough
definition of drug induced liver injury and discusses every aspect needed for this classification
and also details that help rate the severity of this condition. There are also different categories of
of this, with different liver related problems associated with each category and the drugs that lead
to them. The author also discusses other external factors which could play into this as well, such
as gender, genetics, etc. There is a section on the risk factors of DILI and a section for how it is
diagnosed. There is also a subsection that describes biological details about the condition and
effects. Additionally, there is a section for treatment about DII and who/ how different levels of it
should be treated. Finally, there is a section for prognosis which describes the different outcomes
that could result and the chances that each could occur.
Application to Research:
This article will be helpful for the medicinal science section of my research as it has
reliable scientific information and explanations about causes, effects, treatments, etc. This article
is also easier to read then many other medical journals so it can act as a baseline to help me look
into other sources.
McKay, C. (2001, August). Acetaminophen: Hidden complexities of a simple overdose.
Retrieved September 22, 2016, from
earchFormtPosition=5&docId=GALE|A265023749&docType=Cover story&sor
Summary: Article
This article focuses on the hepatotoxicity and other negative affects of one specific drug,
acetaminophen. This is a common pain reliever that many people unintentionally misuse, causing
their body risks and damage. There is an included set of percentages to show the reasoning
behind why people do this as well. There are also notations of measures taken by various
administration to prevent this from happening, such as the FDA administering the print of labels
on the bottles of these drugs. There is a study which shows how much of the drug is absorbed
into the body or isnt, showing how majority of the does stays within people. Lastly, there is a
description of of the different methods that hospitals use to determine these effects, and why they
are harder to predict as opposed to find after the damage.
Application to Research:
This article is interesting in that it talks about various different medical causes and
processes that occur within the topic of drug induced hepatotoxicity. I can definitely use the
information for background research to show the importance of m y topic. While this is usable,
there are also a list of other references that I can utilize to find more relevant sources.

A prescription for change. (1992, November 7). Retrieved from
Summary: Article
This article discusses how many countries around the world are switching prescription
drugs to over the counter drugs, freeing them up significantly for use by the public. The article
discusses many of the benefits that this decision has, such as the easier access to life-saving
medicine and the cheaper cost. However, it also discusses the negative consequences, such as the
dangers of drug abuse and misuses, and the potential for recklessness when taking medicine
unsupervised. However, within each of these categories, good and bad, the article discusses the
types of regulations that many countries do or should keep in order to best balance this new
Application to Research:
This article will help me develop an idea for a blame factor that I have, which is the legal
ease to many medicines. I plan to further research how many more drugs have become available
to the general public compared to when they were first released so I can argue that part of the
reason might be that government regulations are too loose.
Tarkan, L. (2001, August 14). F.D.A. Increases efforts to avert drug-induced liver damage. New
York Times. Retrieved September 15, 2016, from
Summary: Article
This article focuses on the important, but often ignored warning that come with many
medicines, which is that the misuse or overuse of them can cause organ damage, especially to the
liver. One subtopic discussed is the impact of many medicines on liver failure during liver
transplants. The article lists a few of the reasons why medicine might be overused in this
situation, and percentages of cases which are negatively affected by this. Another aspect
discussed is the overuse of over the counter drugs that can cause the same effects, such as
medicines which contain acetaminophen (ex/ Tylenol). A third focus point was on the reasoning
behind why it is difficult to determine a certain medicines effect on the liver, and subsequently
how often released medicines have to be recalled after the results emerge. Lastly, the article
listed some other substances that are not medicines which cause the same effects and should be
carefully taken.
Application to Research:
This article is not really one which give me much scientific information that I could use
to support a claim, but it provides good background information on the topic. It is a wholesome
source as it gives introductory information about the medical aspects of this topic, as well as the
nonmedical parts. However, I could find more useful parts from the sources that the authors of
this article used.

Previous Topic
Biever, C. (2003, April 5). A kinder way to kill cancer: Ultrathin X-rays can starve tumors
without seriously harming healthy cells. Retrieved from
Summary: Article
This article discussed a new method that can be used to fight cancer called microbeam
radiation therapy. It basically means that one hundred micrometre wide beams would cut through
the cells lining a capillary and kill them while sparing the cells between the beams. The article
claims that this is an important factor because currently cells are elongating dramatically to make
up for the numerous damaged cells in traditional treatments, causing other problems as well. For
example, some commonly known side effects are nausea and hair loss, which could be reduced
through this therapy. In addition, this therapy is found most effective in a one time use of one
millisecond, as opposed to the weeks of therapy other treatments used. The article finally
discusses the actual method used to deliver this treatment, which is through the use of a
synchrotron and magnetic tube.
Application to Research:
If researching the most effective cancer treatments, than this article could be used as a
source of background information for one of the therapies. There is not really any cited
information in this as it is the author explaining an experimenter's process, so it would have to be
used as a stand alone article.
Cell phones and cancer risk. (2016, May 27). Retrieved September 14, 2016, from
Summary: Article
This article was based off of the findings of various medical experiments and focused on
examining the results to determine a relationship between cellphone use and brain cancer.
Although they finalized their findings as inconclusive, they cover a few biological factors that
are affected by cell phones. The main focus of theirs was with radiofrequency energy. Although
this can be absorbed by human tissue, it was not found to do much other than heat the tissue, and
that revelation invalidated much of the findings. Many other factors were similarly discredited
and there was a strong emphasis on the two factors not being related. However, the article
included summaries of some of the studies that were used, and within them there were details
about discrepancies with specific types of tumors where slight deviations were shown in the data,
indicating a possible connection between cell phone use and brain cancer. Within the article
were also many national organizations standpoints on this issue, and many of them stated that
there was possible a risk which could not be determined due to the lack of research. The reading
discussed that this was due to many issues with studying this topic as many patients could not be
used as they were being treated and were not in a controlled environment, or died during the
study. There were also some details about possible future studies.

Applications to Research
Although this article was pretty indefinite in its perspective, it was useful in that it
provided some information as to how this topic could be specified to areas where there might be
more conclusive information possible. It also had many surveys which could be looked at
individually and in detail for more specific versions of this topic.
Ezzell, C. (1992, June 6). Gene therapy: Brain cancer yes, AIDS no. Retrieved from
Summary: Article
This article is about a type of treatment for cancer called gene therapy and focuses on its
application to brain cancer. The article briefly discusses the history of how this therapy became
permitted as a legal therapy and in what circumstances it was made, including the place, team,
etc. It then explains the process of how gene therapy is developed and used on patients, such as
how the genetically infect viruses made from mice cells are then used in humans. It also
mentions the types of viruses used when creating the therapy and how they are different from the
actual virus itself. The article then discusses other types of gene therapy and how they compare
to this one. Finally, the article proposes and supports different variations of this same therapy and
mentions in detail down to the biological level how they work and why they would be effective.
Application to Research:
This article, like the other one, could be used as a source of background knowledge for
this specific therapy. It also it discussing a procedure, so it does not refer to other sources.
However, the vocabulary from this article may help me find other similar articles. This article is
also old, so newer versions of this topic almost certainly exist.
Lichtenstein, P., Holm, N. V., Verkasalo, P. K., Iliadou, A., Kaprio, J., M.D.,Ph.D, Koskenvuo,
M., . . . Hemminki, K.(2000, July 13). Environmental and Heritable Factors in the
Causation of Cancer - Analyses of Cohorts of Twins from Sweden, Denmark, and Finland
NEJM. Retrieved September 14, 2016, from
Summary: Article
This article was a study on numerous group of twins over the course of multiple years in
order to determine different environmental and heritable factors within the causes of cancer. An
underlying goal of theirs was also to see if one was more prominent than the other. The full study
described the testing, observations, results, and analysis for each group of twins, and although
the results were different from each, some general trends appeared. They found that certain types
of cancer are more commonly hereditary, such as through passed along gene mutations (breast,
colon, etc). Other types of cancer were genetic but frequently caused by a first generation
mutation rather than being passed along. However, there was also some correlation between
environmental conditions and cancers as well, some of which were obvious (smoking). There
was also a trend which showed that certain environmental conditions would increase the
susceptibility of a person getting a cancer they might have been hereditarily inclined to get.
Overall, however, they had to conclude that they could not determine which factor was more

prominent due to many problems with their testing. Many of these were similar to the previous
articles problems, which were that the sick patients were not reliable surveyors, and many
people could not accurately recall all of the environmental factors they were questioned about
from the past.
Applications to Research
This article was advanced and I would need to ask someone better versed in this field for
clarification on some of these topics, but this article was interesting because it gave me an idea
about a more specific topic that I could research. The findings were useful for a different topic,
but ineffective for the research question I was originally aiming to find support for.
Pelletier, G., Verhoef, M. J., Khatri, N., & Hagen, N. (2002, March). Quality of life in
brain tumor patients: The relative contributions of depression, fatigue, emotional distress,
and existential issues. Retrieved September 29, 2016, from
Summary: Article (Study)
This article about a study contains information about various neuropsychiatric problems
that result as the process of being diagnosed and treated for brain cancer. These conditions can
range from physical to mental or emotional issues. The ones that this article focused on
specifically include depression, fatigue, emotional distress, and other existential issues. The
study used survey techniques to determine how a variety of patients who had suffered from brain
cancer scored in relation to level of each problem. The results showed that the majority of the
patients scored to show that they nos suffered from one or more of these problems. This study
centered around the effects of malignant brain tumors and shared useful background information
on why these issues are more prevalent in patients of these sorts, as opposed to other people.
There was also a link to the full study, structured as a lab report.
Application to Research:
This article would be useful to my research as a study that could be used for metaanalysis when developing my argument. There was useful background information and primary
experimental information that could be utilized as support as well. FInally, there was a long list
of other references listed at the bottom that I could use as well.
Zebrack, B. J., Gurney, J. G., Oeffinger, K., Whitton, J., Packer, R. J., Mertens, A., . . .
And, L. L. (2004). Psychological outcomes in long-term survivors of childhood brain
cancer: a report from the childhood cancer survivor study. Retrieved September 29, 2016,
Summary: Article
This article focused on the different psychological outcomes that manifested in numerous
long-term survivors of pediatric brain cancer. The study used as primary support also
incorporated data from siblings of childhood cancer survivors. The experimenters had a large
sample size and performed their experiments through survey methods that assessed the presence
of various symptoms linked to the psychological issues in questions. These include, depression,
somatization, anxiety, etc. The results showed that only a few of the people assessed showed
symptoms of psychological distress. However, there was some correlation between other external
factors that influenced the presence of these issues, including treatment types and severity of
cancer. However, the entity as its own factor showed minimal correlation. The article also

discusses many reasons why this study may not accurately represent the results and mentions
different questions that were brought up and could be addressed by other researchers.
Application to Research:
This article seemed interesting to me because although it itself was not very useful due to
the neutral results, it brought up a variety of questions that I could research on. Some of these
could help me narrow my topic down as well. If any of them relate to this, there are a list of
sources at the end that I could use as sources. However, this article itself, may not be the best
source to use for my research project.