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FUNDAMENTALS OF

NGL

GRAMMAR
Third Edition

with Answer Key

Betty Schrampfer Azar

Fundament& of English Grammsr,Third Edition

WithAnawerKey

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Copyright O 2003,1992,1985 by Betty Schrampfer Azar


All rights reserved.

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No part of this publication may be reproduced,


stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording, or otherwise,
without the prior penniesion of the publisher.

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Azar Associates
Shelley Hanle, Editor&&
SusanVan Etten, Menage
Pcmon Education, 10 Bank Street,White Plains, lyy 1
Vice president, director of publishing: Allen As
- -Editorial manager: Pam Fishman
Proien manager: Margo Grant
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Development editor: Janet Johnston
Vice president, director of design and production: Rhea Banker
Director of electronic production:
Executive managing edi~or:Linda
Production manager: Ray Keating
Production editor: Robert Ruvo
Director of manufacturing: Pauice Fraccio
Senior manufacturing buyer: Edie Pullman
Cover design: Monika Popowitz
Illustrations: Don Martinetti
Text composition: Carlisle Communications, Ltd.
Text font 10.5112 Plantin

Library of Congx-esshas cataloged the student book as follows:


Azar, Betty Schrampfer, 1941/ Betty SchrampferAzar.-3rd ed.
Fundamentals of English
- grammar
.
p. cm.
.;* .?yy$
, -.; .r.., .ign speakers. 2. English
l a n g u a g m a r - P r o b l e m s , exercises, etc. I. Title.
PE1128 .A965 2002 , - : :
.

ISBN: 0-13-049447-X(with Answer Key)


Printed in the United States of America
567891O-CRK-060504

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Preface to the Third Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiil


Acknowledgments . . . . . . . .
Chapter 1

PRESENT TlME
1-1
1-2
1-3
1-4
1-5
1-6
1-7

Chapter 2

The simple present and the present progressive ...................... 4


Forms of the simple present and the present progressive ................4
Frequencyadverbs ............................................ 9
Final-8 ................................................... 12
Spelling of final -81-es . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Non-action verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Present verbs: short answers to yestno questions ..................... 19

PAST TlME
Expressing past time: the simple past . . . . . . .
...............25
Forms of the simple past: regular verbs ............................ 26
Forms of the simple past: be .................................... 26
Regular verbs: pronunciation of -ed endings ........................ 28
Spelling of -ing and -ed forms .................................. 29
The principal parts of a verb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
Irregular verbs: a reference list .................................. 33
The simple past and the past progressive .......................... 39
Forms of the past progressive ................................... 39
Expressing past time: using time clauses ........................... 48
Expressing past habit: used to ............
52

Chapter 3

FUTURE TlME
Expressing future time: be going to and will ....................... 56
Formswithbsgoingto ....................................... 56
FormswithwiU ............................................. 59
Sureness about the future ...................................... 60
Bsgoingtovs.wil1 .......................................... 63
Expressing the future in time clauses and $-clauses .................. 65
Using the present progressive to express future time .................. 70
Using the simple present to express future time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73
Immediate future: using be about to ............................. 74
Parallelverbs ............................................... 76

Chapter 4

4-1
4-2
4-3
4-4
4-5
4-6
4-7
4-8

49

chapter 5

.: . .+ . . . . . .
Past participle ............................................... 84
Forms of the present perfect ....................................
85
Meanings of the present perfect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Simple past vs. present perfect .................................. 87
U ~ i n g ~ m e a n d f o...................
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Present perfect progressive .....................................
98
kesent perfect progressive vs.present perfect ...................... 100

THE PRESENT PERFECT AND THE PAST PERFECT

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Using already, yet, still, and anymore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102


Pastperfect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
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ASKING QUESTIONS
Yedno questions and short answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Yedno questions and information questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Whore. why. when. and what time ............................ 124
Questions with who. who(m). and what . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Spoken and written contractions with question words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Usingwhat + aformofdo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Using what kind of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Usingwhich . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133
Usingwhose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Usinghow ................................................ 138
Usinghowofin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Usinghowjkr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Length of time: it + ta&e and how long . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
More questions with how . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Using how about and what about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Tagquestions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

Chapter 6

NOUNS AND PRONOUNS

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6-1
6-2
6-3
6-4
6-5
6-6
6-7
6-8
6-9
6-10
6-1 1
6- 12
6-13
6-14
6-15
6-16

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Vlll CONTENTS

Pronunciation of final -s/-es ................................... 157


Plural forms of nouns ........................................ 158
Subjects. verbs. and objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Objects of prepositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Prepositions of time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Word order: place and time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Subject-verb agreement ...................................... 165
Using adjectives to describe nouns ............................... 166
Using nouns as adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Personal pronouns: subjects and objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Possessive nouns ............................................ 173
Possessive pronouns and adjectives .............................. 176
Reflexivepmnouns ..........................................178
Singular forms of other: another vs. the other .................... 181
Plural forms of other: other(s) vs. the other(s) ................... 183
Summary of forms of other .............................
. . 186

Chapter 7

MODAL AUXILIARIES
7-1
7-2
7-3
7-4
7-5
7-6
7-7
7-8
7-9
7-10

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7-11
7-12
7-13
7-14

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Chapter 8
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Chapter 9

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Chapter 10

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The form of modal auxiliaries


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
Expressing ability: can and could . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Expressing possibility: may and might
Expressing permission: may and can . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Using could to express possibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Polite questions: may I. could I. can I
197
Polite questions: wouldyou. couldyou. willyou. can you
199
Expressing advice: should and ought to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
Expressing advice: had better ................................. 203
Expressing necessity: have to. haw got to. must
206
Expressing lack of necessity: do not haw to
Expressing prohibition: must not . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Making logical conclusions: must . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
Giving instructions: imperative sentences
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Making suggestions: let's and why don't
215
Stating preferences: prefer. lliko
better. would rather . . . . . . . . . . . . 218

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CONNECTING IDEAS
8-1
8-2
8-3
8-4
8-5
8-6
8-7

Connecting ideas with and . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226


Connecting ideas with but and or . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Connecting ideas with so . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Using auxiliary verbs after but and and . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Using and + too. so. either. noifher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Connecting ideas with because . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Connecting ideas with men thoughlalthough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241

COMPARISONS
9-1
9-2
9-3
9-4
9-5
. 9-6
. 9-7
9-8
9-9
9-10
9-11
9-12

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Making comparisons with as


as . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .248
Comparative and superlative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
Comparative and superlative forms of adjectives and adverbs . . . . . . . . . . 253
Completing a comparative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
Modifying comparatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
Comparisons with less
than and not as
as . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
Unclear comparisons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
Using more with nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
Repeating a comparative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
Using double comparatives .................................... 263
Using superlatives ........................................... 265
Using the same. similar. d#-t.
like. alike
271

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THE PASSIVE
10-1 Active sentences and passive sentences ........................... 276
10-2 Form of the passive ......................................... 277
10-3 Transitive and intransitive verbs ................................ 280
10-4 Using the by-phrase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
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10-5 The passive forms of the present and past progressive

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287