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KILN OPERATIONS

GUIDE LINES

June 2006 / Version 1

Our objectives
To produce more
To produce with regularity
To produce cheaper

Stable kiln operation is key to achieving our


objectives
Rules
R1 - Constant kiln volume load
R2 - Constant cooler clinker bed depth
R3 - Predefined tables for cooler fans
R4 - Constant slightly negative kiln hood pressure
R5 - Constant Oxygen and in excess at kiln back end
R6 - Oxygen in excess at tower exit
R7 - Constant ID fan outlet pressure
R8 - Fuel amount proportional of to kiln feed rate
Production ramp up
R9 - Constant calcination
R10 - Maximize production to minimize heat
consumption
Prerequisites
P1 - Raw mix preparation
P2 - Fuel preparation
P3 - Burner adjustment
P4 - Reliable sensors
P5 - Free lime follow-up
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Rules
R1 - Constant kiln volume load
R2 - Constant cooler clinker bed depth
R3 - Predefined tables for cooler fans
R4 - Constant slightly negative kiln hood
pressure
R5 - Constant Oxygen and in excess at kiln back
end
R6 - Oxygen in excess at tower exit
R7 - Constant ID fan outlet pressure
R8 - Fuel amount proportional of to kiln feed
rate Production ramp up
R9 - Constant calcination
R10 - Maximize production to minimize heat
consumption

R1 Constant kiln load volume


Why?
Because Operating the kiln with an irregular bed depth

Makes the clinker pour irregularly into the cooler


Influences heat exchanges between gases and material
Impacts on the state of combustion in the burning zone
Makes the kiln torque signal to be less representative of the kiln state

Indicators
The kiln speed is proportional to the kiln feed

kiln speed = k kiln feed


The k factor characterizes each kiln
In general, maximum kiln speed is reached at maximum kiln feed

Recommended value
Kiln speed/kiln feed ratio has
to be calculated by the process engineer
 Takes into account kiln dimensions, process, clinker reactivity.

Wet kiln

Grate preheater

Preheater

Precalciner

1.2 rpm

1.2 rpm

2 rpm

3.5 rpm

For process with grate coolers

R2 Constant cooler clinker bed depth


Why?
To maximise & regularise heat recuperation

Indicators
Constant bed depth

=
constant under grate pressure measured in the first chambers

=
Adjust cooler grate speed and never change the fan volume that impacts this
under grate pressure

Recommended values
Cooler bed depth must be maximized.
On new cooler generations, the clinker bed depth measured on the first grate
can range from 500 to 800 mm.

For process with grate coolers

R3 Predefined tables for cooler fans


Why?

To maximise heat recovery


To supply secondary and tertiary air
To cool enough the clinker and avoid clinker transport problems and maintain
cement mills operation efficiency

Indicators
Air flows
Outlet cooler clinker temperature

Recommended values
In the first chambers
fluidized clinker bed
fixed fan volume, air flow density must be constant
Chamber#
Air flow density (Nm3/m2/.s)

1,5

1,3

In the last chambers


non-fluidized bed
cooler fan volume proportional to clinker production rate. Make specific air
flow (Nm3/kg clinker) adjustments in the last chambers to keep a
Airflow/Clinker ratio constant
Average air flow : 1,8 2,5 Nm3/kg clinker
Clinker temperature at the cooler outlet
Good performance = 100C
Unacceptable > 150C (cement false set)
It is best to avoid having too cold clinker; the temperature inside the cement mill
may not be sufficient to form enough semi-hydrates in the cement.
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R4 Constant slightly negative kiln


hood pressure
Why?
Positive pressure

gas/material puffing, spillages (safety issues)

If hood pressure is
too negative

Impact

Risk of

Hood air inleak


(false air)

Discharge end ring

Secondary air

CO

Levers
Controlled by cooler exhaust fan which extracts excess air from the cooler

Recommended values
Kiln hood pressure setting point
2 to 7 mmWG.
depends on its stability: the more stable the pressure, the closer to zero it can
be.

R5 Constant oxygen & in excess


at kiln back end
Why?
To avoid formation of CO which gives less energy where we want it
C + O2
CO2 + 97.6 kcal
C + O2
CO + 29.4 kcal
To minimize volatilization & cyclic operations

To guarantee uniform clinker quality especially


sulfate fluctuations

Levers
Kiln back end O2
Increase Kiln back end O2 set point

If

CO level at kiln back end

> 100 ppm

Hot meal analysis on stage 4


SO3

> 2,5 %

Kiln back end O2 Standard deviation

Recommended values
For Precalciner kiln, the O2 set point ranges from 3 to 5%
Standard deviation measured by 1-minute average values over 24 hours
4,5
4

Very good if

O < 0.2%
2

3,5
3
2,5
2
1

11

13

15

17

mi nutes

Very bad if

O > 0.4%
2

19

21

23

25

27

29

31

4,5
4
3,5
3
2,5
2
1

11

13

15

17

19

21

31

minut es

R6 Oxygen in excess at tower exit


Why?
Too low level of O2 will result in the formation of CO in preheater tower &
possible explosion in the electrostatic precipitator: When the CO produced
finds some oxygen, it burns as follows
CO + O2

CO2 + 68.2 kcal Explosive reaction if there is a spark!

Too high level of O2 will result in possible loss of production

Indicators
Tower exit O2 value
Also Take into account
Carbon included in the raw material
False air

Recommended values

Generally 3% < O2 < 5%

For process with EP fan

R7 Constant ID fan outlet pressure


Why?
Stable pressure will prevent perturbations from raw mill, GCT to the kiln
If ID fan outlet pressure
positive
Circuit head loss
Fan curve
ID fan volumetric flow Qv 
 O2 

Indicators
ID fan outlet pressure must be controlled by the EP fan damper or variable
speed drive.

Recommended values
Depend on stability
ID fan outlet pressure must be slightly negative but as close to zero as possible
(-10 mmWG).

If ID fan at the maximum limit with margin on EP fan, ID fan outlet pressure set
point can be more negative.

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R8 fuel amount proportional to kiln


feed rate Production ramp up
Why?
Kiln feed increase

Fuel t/h
8,00

7,00

more material to be burned

6,00

5,00

4,00

proportional fuel increase


Fuel = A kiln feed + B
B = constant function of heat wall losses

3,00

2,00

1,00

0,00
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Kiln feed t/h

Ratio

Kiln Speed

Feed rate
Ratio

Burner Fuel

Draft

Ratio

Indicators
Kiln specific heat
consumption (SHC)

SHC Specific Heat


Consumption
kcal/k ck

1200
1175
1150
1125
1100
1075
1050

1025
1000
975
950
925
900

875
850
825
800
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Recommended values
Create operation table for kiln feed
to fuel rate taking in consideration
Kiln specific heat consumption
Heat wall losses
Fuel calorific value

23

28

33

38

43

48

53

58

Clinker t/h

Questions to be raised in case of drift


on SHC (A or B)
Calibration of the feeders
Raw mix chemistry
Raw mix uniformity
Fuel Calorific Value
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For process with secondary burner

R9 Constant Calcination
Why?
To avoid a shift of the burning zone.

Ignition point = Start of liquid phase

Calcination 
Calcination 
Indicators
Bottom cyclones and riser duct temperatures
Calcination level of bottom cyclones hot meal

Recommended values
Calcination level is controlled by temperature probe considered as
representative (bottom cyclones, riser duct) with a control loop acting on
secondary burner fuel rate. Set point around 850C
The main burner / secondary burner ratio must be mastered on continuous basis
to detect any drift (probe build-ups). The main burner / secondary burner ratio
does not vary too much (example: Precalciner kiln main burner = 40%, secondary
= 60%)
Type of kiln
% calcination
Preheater AT

55 - 70%

Preheater AS

90 92%
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R10 Maximize production to minimize


Heat consumption
Why?
The maximum production
minimizes the heat
consumption:

SHC Specific Heat


Consumption
kcal/k ck

1200
1175
1150
1125
1100
1075
1050
1025
1000
975
950
925
900
875
850
825
800
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23

28

33

38

43

48

53

58

Indicators
If the ID fan is at nominal ventilation : the only actuator to maintain kiln
condition is the feed rate
If the ID fan is below nominal ventilation, give priority to feed rate and use fuel
and ID fan to control combustion

Recommended values

ID fan draught margin

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Prerequisites
P1 - Raw mix preparation
P2 - Fuel preparation
P3 - Burner adjustment
P4 - Reliable sensors
P5 - Free lime follow-up

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P1 - Raw mix preparation


 Raw mix residues targets

100m

10%

200m

1%

 Lime saturation

100C
LSF =
2.8S + 1.18 A + 0.65 F

Range between 90 and 98


depending on fuel ashes
and quality target

100(2.8S + 1.65 A + 0.35F C )


bc =
S + A+ F +C

Range between 4 and +4


depending on fuel ashes
and quality target

C3S = 4.07C (7.6Ssol + 6.72A+ 1.43F)


C3S is the potential C3S content of clinker when free lime is zero and
calculation LOI=0. (Potential C3S target also depends on the chemical
composition of the ashes generated by the fuel.)
Potential C3S contained in raw mix as target is more
sensitive than bc, LSF but bc, LSF calculations are
more robust since these 2 lime saturation factors are
less influenced by FX drifts.

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P1 - Raw mix preparation


 Effects of fuel ashes
Fuel ashes exhibit a very significant deficit in C in relation to S content (very high lime deficiency)
It must be compensated by using the lime from the raw mix to combine the excess S.
The C3S of the raw mix that have to be designed will be higher than the targeted C3S in clinker.

C3Sclinker = a.C3Sraw mix + b.C3Sashes


 Example

with (a + b) = 1

%Ash fuel
SHC .
100
b=
Ratio (feed/clinker) . PCI fuel
Fuel

when the free lime is zero

Kiln

Calorific Value
(PCI)

ash

Heat Cons.
(SHC)

J/g

J/g kk

24000

20,0

3500

Feed / kk

1,54

b = 0.019 a = 0.981

C3Sclinker b.C3Sashes
C3Sraw mix =
a
65 0.019(-258)
C3Sraw mix =
= 71.2
0.981
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P1 - Raw mix preparation

 Silica ratio

S
A+ F

SR =

SR

SR: 2.3 to 3.0 constant at 0.05

Burning

Liquid phase

Coating

Clinker

Cement
strength

Low

Easy

Excessive,
attack to bricks

Too thick,
unstable

Balling, hard

Low

High

Hard

Low, high
thermal load

No

Dusty, high
free lime

High

 Alumina ratio

AR =
AR

A
F

AR: 1.3 to 2.0 constant at 0.05

Liquid phase

Clinker

Cement strength

Low

Fluid

If AR<0,64 No
C3A in clinker

Low early strength

High

With low F, insufficient


liquid phase is formed
(Viscous liquid phase)

High early strength

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P1 - Raw mix preparation


 Kiln Feed Uniformity Index KFUI < 14
Average of the squared difference between a spot kiln feed sample C3S value and the
C3S target, on a daily basis

KFUI

1
N

i=1

(C 3 S i C 3 S T ) 2

Combustion regularity
Heat consumption
Kiln stability
Brick life
Clinker output
Volatilization of SO3

Effects on
PROCESS

Equipment life
Grindability (kWh/t)
KILN FEED
UNIFORMITY

Cement mill output


Clinker quality
Regular clinker quality
C3S
f-CaO
Strengths
Cost
CC/CK ratio

Effects on
PRODUCT

if KFUI > 30, an emergency action plan must be implemented


High KFUI: Possible reasons

Prehomogenization
Mining

Variable materials quality

KILN FEED
UNIFORMITY

Blockages

Raw mill feeders accuracy


Homogenization

Analyser

Kiln dust management


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P2 - Fuel preparation
 Solid fuel residues
Target

S fuel < 4%

200 m

0%
< (0.5VM*) %

S fuel > 4%

90 m

63 m

*VM: volatile matter


 Liquid fuel
Keep viscosity <25 cST to obtain satisfactory atomization
Viscosity decreases with higher fuel temperature
Fuel heating temperature to achieve required viscosity depends on fuel
oil type
Example: 120C minimum for a bunker C fuel oil (n 6)
Filter at 125 m to protect pumps and nozzles injectors
Fuel atomizer type MY
The flow is adjusted by fuel
pressure and operates adequately
for a flow ranging between 80 and
100% of the fuel scale. If the flow
differs, the orifice plate and
atomizer must be replaced.
On stabilized operations, pressure
nozzle remains around 40 bars
The primary / secondary pressure
differential allows the adjustment of
the divergence angle of the streams
jet (optimization)

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P3 Burner adjustment
 Line up the burner with the kiln axis using laser beam
To avoid that the flame licks:
Either the material in the zone with the risk of local formation of CO and
thus volatilization of sulphates
Either the walls with the risk of destroying coating and refractories

 Flow rate at the burner must be constant at 1%


 Flame must be:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Sharp
Narrow
Strong
Attached to the burner (30 cm black plume)
Such that flame licks neither the bricks nor the clinker bed

 Lafarge burner
Influence of the rotational and Axial air on the flame

Impulse

Swirl

Liquid
fuel

5,0 N.h. GCal-1

0,1

Coal

6,0 N.h. GCal-1

0,1

Coke

7,5 N.h. GCal-1

0,1

Gas

7,5 N.h. GCal-1

0,05

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P4 - Reliable sensors
Sensors

Scales

Comments

O2

0 /10%

Measured inside the kiln (50 to


80 cm in the Kiln), Probe
positioned in the upper quarter
opposite the clinker bed

CO

0 / 3000 ppm

NOx

0 / 2000 ppm

SO2

0 / 30000 ppm

Mandatory if fuel has high S


content

BZ temperature

0 / 2000C

Measured with pyrometric


camera

Calcination
temperature

0 / 1000C

Measured with representative


and well placed thermocouple
probe (far from buildups)

Kiln hood pressure

+ 5 / - 10 mmWG

Measured in 3 points, using


large diameter pipe tubes with
can be easily cleaned

Kiln amps
ID fan outlet
pressure

+ 10 / - 50 mmWG

Cooler under grate


pressure

0 / 100 mbar

Immediate chamber after static


part or 2nd chamber

Clinker temperature

0 / 500C

Measured with pyrometer

Free lime

0 / 5%
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P5 - Qualifiers sensors for free lime


The free lime content is an indicator of the
state of the burning
Setting time is a function of the free
lime content.
Free lime analyzer = the last direct indicator of the quality for clinker burning
Amps

BZT

NOx

F-CaO

GLW

Gamma

Advance 15 mn

NOx
Advance 25 mn
T Zone
Advance 35 mn

Amps

Advance 46 mn

Take into account trends and not only values


Free lime signification for well proportioned raw material
Free CaO > 2.0%
under burning
0.5% < Free CaO < 2.0% well burnt
Free CaO < 0.5%
over burning

Free lime stability

FLUI =

free lime
0.2 free lime + 0.1

<1
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TECHNICAL CENTER EUROPE-AFRICA


Burning Environment Department
95, rue du Montmurier - BP 17
38291 St-Quentin-Fallavier Cedex - France
Tel. + 33 4 74 82 16 16

Writer: Yvan Potier