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Eco+Bamboo House (Eco-Plastered-Bamboo House) for Sustainable and Affordable Homes in Indonesia

would be presented in SEMINAR SERIES ON TROPICAL ECO-SETTLEMENTS Held by Research Institute for Human Settlements (RIHS), Ministry of Public Works, Indonesia, in Denpasar Bali 3-5 November 2010

Written by:

Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan 1 ; Mustakim. 2 ; Widyowijatnoko, Andry. 3 ; Faisal, Budi 4 ; Tallar, Robby Yussac. 5 Maman Hidayat. 6

1 MSc. Environmental Management (NUS), S.T. (ITB) Urban Planner & Researcher Green Impact Indonesia Integrated Urban, Drainage and Environmental Planning and Design Email: gunteitb@yahoo.com http://greenimpactindo.wordpress.com/;

2. ST. (ITB), Architect, Staff of Planning Agency of Jakarta Province (Bappeda DKI Jakarta) Email: desainmustakim@yahoo.com;

3. Dr. Ing (Cand), MT. (ITB), ST. (ITB), Sustainable Bamboo Technology Expert, Lecturer of ITB;

4. PhD (Melbourne), MLA, MAUD (Colorado), Ir. (ITB), Sustainable Landscape and Architecture Expert, Lecturer of ITB;

5. Dr. (Cand, NCKU), MT. (UI), Dipl-IWRM. (AIT), ST. (Maranatha), Lecturer of Maranatha University.

6. BE. (Winaya Mukti/ ATPU), Community Based Development Specialists and Environmental Engineer.

Abstract :

Housing problems in Developing Countries, like Indonesia, needed the sustainable - integrated - residential planning – design - construction – operation and management. This was supported by the International Union of Architect statement in Climate Change Conference of Parties in Copenhagen 2009, where potentially 50% of climate change could be tackled with Green Building Strategy.

All these facts inspired us to prepare the paper of Eco-Plastered-Bamboo House for International Seminar Series of Eco-Settlement. Further, Eco-Plastered- Bamboo House was selected because of abundant and cheap raw material, more sustainable bamboo construction, adequate skill for bamboo construction, economic potential for local economies and dangerous geological challenges in Indonesia.

This Eco-Plus-Bamboo House was proposed with green building approach with low cost, low technology and low negative impact development concept. This house would answer most of low-cost housing issues in sub-urban area. The Eco-Plastered-Bamboo House also would reduce the enormous amount of wood, brick and steel consumptions. And it would achieve the sustainable or green home requirement.

Further, in the economical aspect, the Eco-Plastered-Bamboo House would answer the low-cost housing needs in Indonesia. It was predicted to answer the 800 thousands of housing backlogs and 30.000 – 180.000 units of low-cost apartment backlogs. We also believed that the Eco-Low-Cost-Bamboo-Plastered Apartments could be planned, designed and researched further.

In conclusion, we believed that competitive economic aspect as well as integrated planning – design – construction - operation and maintenance approach could answer the challenging task of providing sustainable and affordable housing in the Developing Countries. Further, collaboration and cooperation from all stakeholders would be needed to ensure the sustainable eco-settlements in Mega-cities of Developing Countries like Indonesia.

Keywords:

Housing problems in developing countries, Sustainable - integrated - residential planning – design - construction – operation and management, sustainable architecture, green building, Eco-Plastered-Bamboo House, earthquake- resistance, low cost, low technology and low negative impact development, 800 thousands of housing backlogs, 30.000 – 180.000 unit of low-cost apartment backlogs, sustainable eco-settlements in Mega-cities.

Introduction

The world faced extreme environmental problems such as: resource depletion, global climate change, extinction of plants and animals, loss of wildlife habitats, increasing pollution, and poverty (Miller, 2003). This was caused by the exponential population growth and unsustainable development. Further, urban sprawling and inadequate housing supply existed as the derivation of unsustainable urban development. 1

Understanding the limited earth’s resources, we believed that wise resource utilisation need to be done with the local condition. In the developing countries, additional challenges must be faced such as poverty, limited government capacity, limited amount of investments and capable human resources.

Housing problems in Developing Countries, like Indonesia, needed the sustainable - integrated - residential planning – design - construction – operation and management. This was supported by the International Union of Architect statement in Climate Change Conference of Parties (COP) in Copenhagen 2009. And It stated that potentially 50% of climate change could be tackled with Green Building Strategy. Further, United States and World Green Building Council declared the importance of multidisciplinary and scientific approaches in sustainable building construction especially residential. 2

All these facts inspired us to prepare the paper of Eco-Plastered-Bamboo House

for International Seminar Series of Eco-Settlement. This paper was prepared based on previous works of Dr. Andry, Dr. Budi and Mr. Mustakim. 3 Sustainable building concept and eco-settlement adopted from US Green Building Council were introduced such as in: 4

  • 1. Innovation and Design Process (ID)

  • 2. Location and Linkages (LL)

  • 3. Sustainable Sites (SS)

  • 4. Water Efficiency (WE)

  • 5. Energy and Atmosphere (EA)

  • 6. Materials and Resources (MR)

  • 7. Indoor Environmental Quality (EQ)

  • 8. Awareness & Education (AE)

Eco-Plastered-Bamboo-House Concept

Bamboo was recognised as a high-yield renewable resource. It could be harvested in 3-5 years versus 10-20 years for most softwood. It was found abundance in the world. And because of that, bamboo was widely used for wall panelling; floor tiles; paper-making; fuel; housing construction; and rebar for reinforced concrete beams. And all these supported our choice for developing the Eco-Plastered-Bamboo House Concept. 5

Further, Eco-Plastered-Bamboo House was developed due to the sustainable material characteristics in the Bamboo, such as:

6

  • - Abundant and cheap raw material which give economic competitiveness

  • - More sustainable bamboo construction

  • - Adequate skill for bamboo construction in Indonesia

  • - Economic potential in the development of local economies

- Geological challenges in Indonesia (earthquake, landslides etc) that could be mitigated by earthquake-resistance bamboo construction.

The plastered-bamboo application was observed by Dr. Andry in 1999 in several the Netherlands-Indies’ houses developed in 1900’s in several areas in Java (Jatiroto, Central Java; and Gempol, Bandung, West Java). He found that the structures of these houses were durable due to excellent structures and preservation method. 7

Further, Dr. Andry, Dr Budi and Mr. Mustakim constructed several Plastered- Bamboo Houses in Indonesia. They were:

The Prototype House in di PasirImpun, Bandung, West Java; The Earthquake Refugee’s House in Sukabumi West Java; The Plastered-Bamboo Wall Prototype in Environmental Bamboo Foundation, Bali; The Community Learning Centre (Pusat Kegiatan Belajar Masyarakat/ PKBM) in Jatinangor, Sumedang, West Java; And the Community Centre in Nagalawan, North Sumatera. 8

Figure 1 – 4. Construction Process of Insitu Plastered-Bamboo House
Figure 1 – 4. Construction Process of Insitu Plastered-Bamboo House

Other bamboo plastered concept was developed by Research Institute for Human Settlements (RIHS), but with wood frame and treated bamboo-ply. And a prototype of low-cost-house was also prescribed. 9 And we found that this signified the potential of developing plastered-bamboo house concept.

Other related researches to bamboo technologies and houses were identified such as: Prof. Dr. Ir Morisco 10 , Environmental Bamboo Foundation 11 , LIPI 12 , Muhammadiyah University 13 , Ir. Haryoto 14 , and Mr. Heinz Frick 15 . They have implemented plastered bamboo construction method for prefab panel, clean- water storage, roof structures. On the other hand, the previous researches

adapted less integrated and single disciplinary production-treatment-construction approach.

The Eco-Plastered-Bamboo House Concept proposed adapted the integrated prefabricated production-treatment-construction method. The integrated process consisted of:

  • 1. Bamboo planting (conducted by local farmers);

  • 2. Integrated Land Evaluation, Impact Assessment, Site Planning and Residential and Environmental Design;

  • 3. Community Participation;

  • 4. Cost Estimation;

  • 5. Bamboo selection and harvesting;

  • 6. Bamboo treatment;

  • 7. Bamboo splitting;

  • 8. Bamboo weaving;

  • 9. Moulding form preparation;

    • 10. Steel and bamboo reinforcement;

    • 11. Casting process;

    • 12. Transportation to the field;

    • 13. Landfill and foundation construction;

    • 14. Panel, column and beam fixing;

    • 15. Roof construction;

    • 16. Other Architectural, Sanitation, Landscape works (including eco-sanitation, rainwater collection, rainwater garden, etc).

For preservation and casting or plastering process, we were approaching a Major Chemical Company that produced protein-based additive and Major Cement Company producing excellent cement. We hope to be able to continue this effort to create the perfect mixture of plaster for the prefab plastered-bamboo panel. 16

We proposed a 36 sq m Eco-Plastered-Bamboo House unit. It was decided considering the existing typology of low-cost housing unit and typical activities of small Indonesian family. The 36-sqm-Eco-Plastered-Bamboo House was developed with prefabricated concept that was similar to the 25-sqm-Prefab- Plastered-Bamboo House prototype developed by Dr. Andry in ITB Research.

17

Figure 5 – 8. Construction Process of Prefab Plastered-Bamboo House

Figure 5 – 8. Construction Process of Prefab Plastered-Bamboo House
Figure 5 – 8. Construction Process of Prefab Plastered-Bamboo House
Figure 5 – 8. Construction Process of Prefab Plastered-Bamboo House
Figure 5 – 8. Construction Process of Prefab Plastered-Bamboo House

On the other hand, this Eco-Plastered-Bamboo House was proposed with more integrated green building approach with low cost, low technology and low negative impact development concept. This house would answer most of low- cost housing issues in sub-urban area. The Eco-Plastered-Bamboo House also would reduce the enormous amount of wood, brick and steel consumptions. And it would achieve the sustainable or green home requirement.

Further, in the economical aspect, the Eco-Plastered-Bamboo House would answer the low-cost housing needs in Indonesia. It was predicted to answer the 800 thousands of housing backlogs reported by Ministry of Housing which ideally had to be sustainable and affordable. 18

Besides that, the Eco-Plastered-Bamboo Prefab Panel could cater the 30.000 – 180.000 unit of low-cost apartment in urban areas in Indonesia. We also saw its potential in reducing the urban-sprawling issues in most major cities of Indonesia.
19

We also believed that the Eco-Low-Cost-Bamboo-Plastered Apartments could be planned, designed and researched further. Our previous work in this field was presented in Tanuwidjaja, G. et all. (2009). 20

Further, we found that generally the Eco-Plastered-Bamboo Prefab Panel as well as Insitu-Plastered-Bamboo Wall were cheaper compared to other wall component prices. This could be observed in the following table.

Table 1. Cost Comparison of Wall Construction 21

Wall Construction Types

Cost Comparison per sqm (Rupiah)*

Properties

Bricks Wall

170.500

Mortar 1:5** and Plaster 1:2***

Hollow Concrete Wall

87.600

Mortar 1:5** and Plaster 1:2***

Light Concrete Wall

137.600

Plaster 1:2***

Plastered-Bamboo Prefab Panel or Insitu-Plastered-Bamboo Wall

86.500

Plaster 1:2***

* Price was based on 2008’s building material price in Bandung, West Java area. Price would vary depending on the resources availability, manpower and tool costs. ** 1 pc : 5 sand *** 1 pc : 2 sand

The table described the economic advantages for developing the insitu- plastered-bamboo wall. It proved the competitive advantage to develop this sustainable wall construction. Although, the cost of Plastered-Bamboo Wall would vary depending on the resources availability, manpower and tool costs. But, we believed with sustainable construction practice, we could produce sustainable and affordable homes in Indonesia.

The sustainable features of Eco-Plastered-Bamboo House were described as follow:

1. Innovation and Design Process (ID)

  • a. The process would be conducted in multidisciplinary approach involving architect, urban planner, environmentalist as well as local community leaders and people.

  • b. The orientation of the houses mostly faced North-South responding humid tropical condition of the site.

  • c. Durable materials and features with lower cost were proposed.

  • d. Innovation of construction materials could be achieved due to economic competitiveness.

  • e. Contribution in the local economic would be achieved with creating home-industry for plastered-bamboo panel.

2. Location and Linkages (LL)

  • a. Unfortunately, the site was located in the low-lying land which commonly used by the less-fortunate community in mega cities of Indonesia. So the house typology chosen was the pole house. This would allow the inundation occurred but would not greatly impact the interior of the houses.

  • b. Location was proposed in the existing urban slums.

  • c. The strategic location was selected to answer the housing needs for the less fortunate people in the urban area.

  • d. Existing water lines and sewer lines present in the location prepared by the Ministry of Public Works and local community with Community Based Infrastructure Provision Program in 1996.

  • e. Community facilities provided in the neighbourhood are mosque,, community multifunction-hall, stores, and school.

  • f. Unfortunately, public transport available in the area is the motorcycle taxi and tricycle. Public transportation buses and cars served the major roads approximately 500 m from the village.

  • g. Open spaces were available but diminishing because of private land use conversion.

  • 3. Sustainable Sites (SS)

    • a. Swales and rain water garden, erosion control measures and integrated drainage system were proposed. Simple bio-filter/ bio-drainage had been researched by Dr. Robby and showed great effectiveness of reducing the pollutant level. 22

    • b. The drought-tolerant plants and landscape proposed were native plants

and could support local economy such as: fruits, vegetables, and medicinal trees.

  • c. Trees also would be proposed to shade the sidewalks, patios and open spaces.

  • d. Permeable paving and swales would be proposed to reduce the run-off from the house.

  • e. Rain-water collection system and rain barrel would be proposed in every home to provide additional clean-water supply.

  • f. Compact development concept would be suggested with combination of high-rise low-cost apartment and low-rise eco-plastered-bamboo houses.

  • 4. Water Efficiency (WE)

    • a. Rain-water collection system and rain barrel would be proposed in every home to provide additional clean-water supply.

    • b. Gray water treatment would be use to provide additional supply for irrigation and non-primary water-use.

    • c. Water-efficient fixtures and fittings were proposed.

  • 5. Energy and Atmosphere (EA)

    • a. Low-cost insulation was proposed in the house roof.

    • b. Natural air ventilation promoted, while additional energy-efficient fan could be proposed to help the flow.

    • c. Due to cost, only fan was proposed for indoor cooling.

    • d. Energy-efficient lighting, home appliances was proposed.

    • e. Micro-hydro plant and simple wind turbine were proposed for generating power for community’s facilities.

  • 6. Materials and Resources (MR)

    • a. Low-cost framing was proposed using certain adaptive module.

    • b. Recycled materials and low-cost but environmental friendly-products would be encouraged.

    • c. Solid waste reduction, waste separation, organic composting and waste recycling existed in the location and would be improved.

  • 7. Indoor Environmental Quality (EQ)

    • a. Combustion venting would be proposed, or minimised with open-air

  • kitchen concept.

    • b. Appropriate ventilation and fan was proposed to reduce the indoor moisture.

    • c. Garage pollution would be minimised with separated parking facility.

    8. Awareness & Education (AE)

    • a. Community awareness in the operation and maintenance of Eco- settlement concept would be conducted with the assistance of the Local community organisation.

    • b. The tenant awareness also would be improved with similar method.

    Further the design of Eco-Plastered-Bamboo House was proposed in a location in Bandung, West Java in the Proposal for Urban Slum Revitalisation. The detail of location could not be disclosed due to potential land conflict.

    Figure 9.The Eco-Plus-Bamboo Village (Eco-Plastered-Bamboo Village) Master Plan in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia
    Figure 9.The Eco-Plus-Bamboo Village (Eco-Plastered-Bamboo Village) Master Plan in Bandung,
    West Java, Indonesia
    Figure 10. The Eco-Plus-Bamboo Village Urban Design Plan in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia Figure 11. The
    Figure 10. The Eco-Plus-Bamboo Village Urban Design Plan in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia
    Figure 11. The Eco-Plus-Bamboo House Plan and Section
    Figure 12. The Eco-Plus-Bamboo House Elevation Figure 13.The Eco-Plus-Bamboo House Axonometric Drawing Figure 14.The Eco-Plus-Bamboo Village
    Figure 12. The Eco-Plus-Bamboo House Elevation
    Figure 13.The Eco-Plus-Bamboo House Axonometric Drawing
    Figure 14.The Eco-Plus-Bamboo Village Environmental Plan (Water Management)
    Figure 15.The Eco-Plus-Bamboo Village Environmental Plan (Solid Waste Management)
    Figure 15.The Eco-Plus-Bamboo Village Environmental Plan (Solid Waste Management)

    Figure 16 – 23. Infrastructure of LID 23

    Figure 16 – 23. Infrastructure of LID Rain Barrel Bioretention “Rain Water Garden” “Swales”
    Figure 16 – 23. Infrastructure of LID Rain Barrel Bioretention “Rain Water Garden” “Swales”

    Rain Barrel

    Bioretention

    Figure 16 – 23. Infrastructure of LID Rain Barrel Bioretention “Rain Water Garden” “Swales”
    Figure 16 – 23. Infrastructure of LID Rain Barrel Bioretention “Rain Water Garden” “Swales”

    “Rain Water Garden”

    “Swales”

    Multi-function Car Park “Pervious Pavement” Recharging Well Biopores
    Multi-function Car Park “Pervious Pavement” Recharging Well Biopores

    Multi-function Car Park

    “Pervious Pavement”

    Multi-function Car Park “Pervious Pavement” Recharging Well Biopores
    Multi-function Car Park “Pervious Pavement” Recharging Well Biopores

    Recharging Well

    Biopores

    And we proposed to convert some of the open spaces in the area for bamboo plantation and home industry (with 30 cm-raised platform). The bamboo industry eventually would provide job for most of the residents in the village, which mostly were skilled construction builders. On the other hand, sustainable village development would be ensured with the sustainable framework as described in the following schemes.

    Figure 24. Sustainable Eco-Plus-Bamboo Village Development Concept
    Figure 24. Sustainable Eco-Plus-Bamboo Village Development Concept

    Conclusion

    In conclusion, we believed that competitive economic aspect as well as integrated planning – design – construction - operation and maintenance approach could answer the challenging task of providing sustainable and affordable housing in the Developing Countries. Further, collaboration and cooperation from all stakeholders would be needed to ensure the sustainable eco-settlements in Mega-cities of Developing Countries like Indonesia.

    Acknowledgement

    • - Ir. Imam Santoso Ernawi, MCM, M.Sc., Director General of Spatial Planning, Public Works Department.

    • - Ir. Sri Apriatini Soekardi, MM., Director of Spatial Planning Directorate II.

    • - Dr. Ir. Doni Janarto Widiantono M.Eng.Sc., Head of Sub-Directorate Inter- Regional Cooperation, Spatial Planning Directorate II.

    • - Dr. Ir. I.F. Poernomosidhi Poerwo M.Sc, MCIT. MIHT., Scientific Officer and Ex- Director of Spatial Planning Directorate II, Ministry of Public Works, Indonesia.

    • - Mr. Ir. Dodo Juliman, UN-HABITAT Indonesia Program Manager.

    • - Dr. Ir. Woerjantari Soedarsono MT., Ms. Ade Tinamel ST. MT. from Urban Design Lab, ITB.

    • - Dr. Ir. Bambang Panudju, MPhil., Mr. Ir. Tjuk Kuswartojo, Mr. Ir. Eko Purwono MSAS. Department of Architecture, ITB.

    • - Mr Yuen Heng Mun, Mr Allister Yong Winston, Mr Loh Kwok Pheng, Mrs Noorliza from Jurong Consultants Pte Ltd.

    • - Mrs Joyce Martha Widjaya, Senior Researcher of Research Institute of Socio- Economic and Community Development, Public Works Department.

    • - Green Impact Indonesia Team: Dwi Sugiarto ST., Septian Lumeno ST., Yansen ST., Yulius, Roni Kurniawan, Agus Sudarman, Cepy, Surya, Adi Afriana;

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    • 1 Miller G.T. (2003), Environmental Science, Working With Earth, 10th edition, Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning USA.

    • 2 http://www.uia-architectes.org/image/PDF/COP15/COP15_Declaration_EN.pdf

    http://www.usgbc.org/

    • 3 Widyowijatnoko, A, (1999), Kajian Konstruksi Bambu Plester dan Konsep Pengembangannya, Departement Teknik Arsitektur ITB. http://www.bamboocentral.org/PDF_files/MODUL_PELATIHAN_MABUTER.pdf

    http://www.ar.itb.ac.id/andry/wp-

    content/uploads/2006/03/BamBU%20PLAster%20untuk%20Aceh.pdf

    • 4 http://www.usgbc.org/

    • 5 http://www.bamboocentral.org/

    http://www.bsn.go.id/files/@LItbang/PPIS%202008/PPIS%20Jakarta/14%20-

    %20STANDARISASI%20BAMBU%20SEBAGAI%20BAHAN%20BANGUNAN%20ALTERNATI

    F%20PENGGANTI%20KAYU.pdf

    • 6 Ibid.

    • 7 Op.Cit.3

    • 8 Op.Cit.3

    • 9 http://balitbang.pu.go.id/webbal_search_iptek.asp?page=2

    10

    11

    12

    http://lib.ugm.ac.id/digitasi/upload/1223_RD1002001.pdf

    http://www.bamboocentral.org/

    http://puspiptek.info/?q=id/node/781

    13

    14

    http://www.bic.web.id/en/others/211-kembali-ke-alam-dengan-bambu.html

    http://etd.eprints.ums.ac.id/1713/

    http://www.kanisiusmedia.com/katalog.php?cari=&kategori=&tipe=&keyword=&page=154

    15

    16

    Frick, Heinz, (2004), Ilmu Konstruksi Bangunan Bambu, Penerbit Kanisius

    Wacker Chemie AG, www.wacker.com PT. ADIWISESA MANDIRI BUILDING PRODUCT INDONESIA, http://www.ambpi.com/

    Widyowijatnoko, A, 2008, Prefabricated Low Cost Housing Bamboo Reinforcement and Appropriate Technology, in Modern Bamboo Structures – Xiao et al. (eds), Taylor Francis Group. London, ISBN 978-0-415-47587-6

    18

    17

    Kuswartojo T et.al. (2005), Perumahan dan Permukiman Indonesia, Peneribit ITB, Bandung. Kementerian Negara Perumahan Rakyat (2007), Presentasi Kebijakan Strategi dan Program Percepatan Pembangunan Rumah Susun Sederhana (Apartemen Rakyat) di Kawasan Perkotaan.

    19

    Ibid.

    21

    Tanuwidjaja, G. Mustakim, Maman Hidayat, Sudarman, A. (2009, Integration of Sustainable Planning Policy and Design of Low-Cost Apartment, in the Context of Sustainable Urban Development, National Seminar of Low-Cost Apartment, Maranatha University, Bandung, Indonesia, 2009.

    20

    Tanuwidjaja, G. Mustakim, Widyowijatnoko, A, Faisal, B. Bamboos as Sustainable and Affordable Material for Housing as One of Alternative Material of Low-Cost Apartment, National Seminar of Low-Cost Apartment, Maranatha University, Bandung, Indonesia, 2009.

    22

    23

    Tallar, R.Y., (2008) “Study of Low Impact Development Concept Design to Reduce Surface Runoff” in proceeding of National Seminar of Technology IV ”Applying Technology for Our Sustainable Life” held by University of Technology Yogyakarta (UTY) (Indonesia version)

    Illustration adopted from http://www.lowimpactdevelopment.org/ http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/lid/ http://www.lid-stormwater.net/ Directorate of Spatial Planning, Ministry of Public Works(2009), Sustainable Urban Spatial Improvement Program (SUSIP) - Executive Presentation assisted by Green Impact Indonesia