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Chapter 7

Solid Waste
The municipal solid waste problem can be separated into three steps:
1) Collection and transportation of household, commercial, and industrial solid
2) Recovery of useful fractions from this material
3) Disposal of the residues into the environment
Collection of Refuse

Is the collection of garbage that are bagged by trucks with some equipped with
hydraulic rams to compress and reduce the volume of loads to carry more load.
Operated by two men: a loader and a driver.
The problem route optimization was first addressed in 1736 by a Swiss
mathematician Leonard Euler (1707 1783)
Was asked to design a parade route for Koningsberg such that the parade would
not cross any bridge over the River Pregel more than once and would return to
its starting place.

General of Use
The science of ecology teaches us that, if dynamic ecosystems are to remain
healthy, they must reuse and recycle materials.
The flow of materials through the human ecosystem is not unlike the flow of nutrients
or energy through natural ecosystems and can be similarly analysed.
In an ecosystem, nutrients are extracted from earth, use by living organisms, and
then re-deposited on earth.

Reuse and Recycling of Materials from Refuse

The exercise for public of reuse, recycling and disposal.

Recycling or material recovery on the other hand involves the collection of
waste and subsequent processing of that waste into new products.
A central processing facility is known as a material recovery facility (MRF)
The main feature of MRF is that recovered materials are produced from
mixed or source separated domestic waste and are then reintroduced into
industrial use.

Processing of Refuse

In both methods, reuse and recycling, the primary goal is purity.

In recycling, the code is usually simple and visual.

The most difficult operation in recycling is the identification and separation

of plastic.
Mixed plastic has few economical uses, plastic recycling is economical
only if the different plastic has few economical uses, and plastic recycling
is economical only if the different types of plastic are separated from each

Combustion of Refuse

One product that a market always has is energy.

Refuse is about 80% combustible material, it can be burned as is, or it
can be processed to produce a refuse derived fuel (RDF).
Solid waste can be combusted as is and because it can also be
processed in many ways before combustion, there might be confusion
as to what exactly is being burned.

The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) developed a

scheme for classifying Solid Waste Destined for combustion:
RDF-1 unprocessed MSW
RDF-2 shredded MSW (but no separation of materials)
RDF -3 organic fraction of shredded MSW (usually produced in a MRF or
from separated organics, such as newsprint)
RDF 4 organic waste produced by a MRF that has been densified by a
RDF 5 organic waste produced by MRF that has been densified by a
pelletizer or a similar device.
RDF 6 organic fraction of the waste that has been further processed into
a liquid fuel, such as oil
RDF 7 organic waste processed into a gaseous fuel.
Ultimate of Refuse: Sanitary Landfills
The disposal of solid wastes is a misnomer. Our present practices amount
to nothing more than hiding the waste well enough so it cannot be readily
found. The only two realistic options for disposal are in the oceans and on
land. The sanitary landfill differs markedly from open dumps in that the
latter are simply places to dump wastes while sanitary landfills are
engineered operations, designed and operated according to accepted
Synthetic landfill liners are useful in capturing most of the leachate, bt
they cannot be perfect.

Integrated Solid Waste management

The EPA developed a new strategy for the management of solid waste
called integrated solid waste management (ISWM).

Source reduction

That is, when an ISWM plan is implemented for a community, the first
means of attacking of the problem should be by source reduction.
The third level of the ISWM plans is solid waste combustion, which really
should mean all methods of treatment.
Finally landfilling.

Chapter 8
Hazardous Waste
Any substance that because of its quantity, concentration or physical, chemical or
infectious characteristics may cause, or significantly contribute to, an increase in
morality; and is divided into two criteria the identified hazardous and from laboratory

Bioconcentration is the ability of a material to be retained in animal tissue to extent

that organisms higher up trophic level will have increasingly higher concentrations of
this chemical.
LD50 is a measure of the amount of a chemical that is needed to kill half of a group test
specimens such as mice.
Phytotoxicity toxicity of plants

Hazardous Waste Management in the Philippines

A coordinated program to deal with hazardous wastes has not yet been implemented.

The most serious shortcomings dealing with the hazardous waste problems in the
Philippines are:
1. Lack of integrated strategy for the management
2. Inadequate facilities and equipment and severe shortages of properly trained
3. Lack of an adequate inventory of the generation and disposition of hazardous
4. Lack of interagency coordination and operational specifics in the regulations to
be enforced;
5. Lack of emphasis given to regulation and enforcement.
6. The lack of awareness of workers and general public about hazard.

Socioeconomic Factors
The quality of the environment in the Philippines urban and industrial sectors is in large
measure linked to the structure and performance of the economy. Their effects are
manifested in rapid urbanization, mushrooming congested communities and increasing
abuse of the natural environment by uncontrolled waste disposal.
Public Sector

DENR is tasked with four fold mission of: sustainable development of forest resources,
optimal utilization of land and minerals, social equity and efficiency in resource use;
effective environmental management.
Private Sector
Competent technicians for operating and servicing equipment are available locally
US Presence
The local and engineering firms are expecting to team up with foreign firms for projects
to deal with domestic hazardous problems when needs arise.
Technology Transfer
The environmental and enforcement activities in the Philippines appear to be ineffective
due to lack of money and staff. Most of the limited amount of money actually spent for
environmental management comes from foreign development agencies.
Government Industry Cooperation
DENRs programs encourage the active participation of Philippine industrial firms and
citizens in the formulation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of pollution
control policy.
Treatment of Hazardous Waste
The treatment of materials deemed hazardous is obviously specific to the material and
the situation.
Chemical Treatment
Is commonly used for organic wastes. Other Physical chemical methods employed in
industry include reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, solvent extraction and ion exchange.
Most often the least expensive and dependable treatment in organic and biodegradable.
To treat chemicals that were once considered biologically nonbiodegradable.
One of the most widely used treatment techniques for organic wastes.
Disposal of Hazardous Waste
The disposal of hazardous waste is similar in many ways to the disposal of nonhazardous solid waste.
Deep well Injection

Method of choice in petrochemical industry. Once deep in the ground it is impossible to

tell where its final destination will be and what groundwater it will eventually
Spread the waste on Land
A second method of land disposal and allow the soil microorganism to metabolized the
Secure Landfill
Most hazardous waste engineers agree that there is no such thing as landfill and that
eventually all the material will once again find its way into the water or air.
Sustainable Materials
Materials matter, Kenneth Geiser identifies two strategies to support sustainable
Reducing the amount of material in a product without decreasing the quality of the
service provides.
Green Chemistry
Is the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and
generation of hazardous substances. It addresses risk from a different angle than
conventional practices.


(CEAB 3312)
(7 AND 8)

Jonnard D. Catchuela
Mr. Danilo Aureada
November 10, 2016