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# What is moment of resistance in case of

a structure?
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Abhi
Studied at Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee
Lived in Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India

Abhi
Studied at Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee
Lived in Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India
Abhi, Structural Engineer, Android Developer
Written Jul 31

To understand the term Moment of Resistance first we have to understand what is bending
moment and to understand that we have to understand what is moment of force.
Force:
The basic definition of force that we have learned is that force is push and pull. Force when
applied to an object tends to change its motion or its shape.

In structural engineering we have well defined cross sections and the members have a
longitudinal axis and a lateral axis.

A force applied in the longitudinal axis of the member would tend to elongate (Tensile
Force) or compress (Compressive Force) the member.

A force applied in the lateral axis would try to slice off the member (Shear force) or would
try to bend the member (Bending Moment).

How and why is bending moment different from the other three?
The amount of elongation, compression or shearing is directly dependent on the
magnitude of the force applied.
More is the force more is it effect.
But same is not the case with rotation. The same amount of force if applied at a greater
distance would produce greater rotation.

In the above figure with the same magnitude of force(F) the rotation would be more in the
second case since the lever arm is more and thus the moment is more.
Thus its not the magnitude of the force but also the distance at which it is applied that tells
us about its effect. So we multiplied the two quantities and gave it a name as the moment
of force.
The turning effect of a force is known as the moment. Moment of force is the product of
force and the distance of the force from the point of interest.
If this moment of force tries to twist the member then we call it twisting moment or torsional
moment and if this moment of force tries to bend the member then we call it bending
moment.
Moment of Resistance

When a body is strained it tries to resist that by generating internal stresses. Stress is the
resistance offered by a body to external force.
When a beam bends the concave face of the beam is under compression and the convex
face is under tension. These compressive and tensile strains produce compressive and
tensile stresses (resistance) in the beam respectively. The couple formed by these
resistive forces is termed as moment of resistance.
Ultimate Moment of Resistance
If we consider the compressive and tensile stress in the beam to be equal to the tensile and
compressive strength of the material then the couple formed by them is termed as ultimate
moment of resistance or the Ultimate Bending Moment since the beam cannot take bending
moment more than that.

Civil Engineering: What is the difference between bending moment and moment of
resistance from flexure formula; is the max. BM only the moment...

## Neeraj Krishnan, Design Engineer

Written May 1, 2015

Definition :
The moment of resistance of the concrete section is the moment of couple formed
by the total tensile force (T) in the steel acting at the centre of gravity of
reinforcement and the total compressive force (C) in the concrete acting at the centre
of gravity (c.g.) of the compressive stress diagram.
( Civil Engineering Projects)

## Satish Annigeri, Practicing structural engineer and I teach structural engineering

Written Aug 1

Moment of resistance applies to individual cross sections of beams, not an entire section. It
is the resultant of normal stress distribution across the depth of a section and depends on
the strain distribution across the depth, which in turn depends on the amount of deformation
to external loads. For equilibrium, moment of resistance of a section must be equal to the
bending moment at the section.

## Sachin Agarwal, Structural Engineer

Written May 1, 2015

If the question is about Moment of resistance of individual elements like Beams, columns
etc. it can be easily calculated but if it regarding entire structure, it should be safety factor for
overturning in case of lateral forces. It is the ratio of Moment at base due to lateral force and

Ritesh Shah
Written May 1, 2015

## Moment of resistance, usually denoted as W is a term in structural engineering. It is found

from the moment of inertia I and the distance from the outside of the object concerned to its
major axis.
It is used in structural calculations since the stress can be written as stress=moment/W
in simple moment of resistance means couple produce when a beam subjected to bending

Structural design
The selection of materials and member type, size, and configuration to carry loads in a safe and
serviceable fashion.

Structural design is the methodical investigation of the stability, strength and rigidity of
structures. The basic objective in structural analysis and design is to produce a structure
capable of resisting all applied loads without failure during its intended life.

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Does internal bending moment cause a beam to deform?

## Satish AnnigeriTeacher, Structural engineer, FOSS and cycling enthusiast

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## Satish AnnigeriTeacher, Structural engineer, FOSS and cycling enthusiast

Works at B.V.B. College of Engineering & Technology
Studied at Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee
Lives in Hubli, Karnataka, India
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Satish Annigeri, Practicing structural engineer and I teach structural engineering
Written Dec 19
External loads cause bending of a section, and we call this the moment at the
section. This results in displacements, which in turn results in an internal resistance
that can establish an equilibrium with the external moment and further
displacements come to a stop. This is how we can visualize the phenomenon of
flexure. But truly speaking, this sequence of events cannot be separated from each
other.
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What is the essential programming languages a civil engineer should know?

## Satish Annigeri, Working with varied programming languages since 1987.

Written Dec 20
Microsoft Excel VBA and scientific Python. Try Excel Scientific and Engineering
Cookbook and Part 1: Programming in Python
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Which are the best books for RCC structures?

## Satish Annigeri, Practicing structural engineer and I teach structural engineering

Written Dec 20
Limit State Design 7th Edition: Amazon.in: Ashok K. Jain: Books
Er.Jagdish
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What is the essential programming languages a civil engineer should know?

## Satish Annigeri, Working with varied programming languages since 1987.

Written Dec 20
Microsoft Excel VBA and scientific Python. Try Excel Scientific and Engineering
Cookbook and Part 1: Programming in Python
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Which are the best books for RCC structures?

## Satish Annigeri, Practicing structural engineer and I teach structural engineering

Written Dec 20
Limit State Design 7th Edition: Amazon.in: Ashok K. Jain: Books

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Does internal bending moment cause a beam to deform?

## Satish Annigeri, Practicing structural engineer and I teach structural engineering

Written Dec 19
External loads cause bending of a section, and we call this the moment at the
section. This results in displacements, which in turn results in an internal resistance
that can establish an equilibri...
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What is importance of structural engineering in architecture?

## Satish Annigeri, Practicing structural engineer and I teach structural engineering

Written Dec 17
Structural engineering deals with materials, members and loads and the associated
body of knowledge that make it possible to fabricate geometries and forms an
architect conceives so that the struct...
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What does a "fixed end moment" mean, practically?

## Satish Annigeri, Practicing structural engineer and I teach structural engineering

Written Dec 16
Fixed end moment is the moment required to be applied at the end of the beam to
make the slope at the end of the beam zero (that is what is meant by a fixed end).
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If you have a program, how would you make it object-oriented?

## Satish Annigeri, Working with varied programming languages since 1987.

Written Dec 15
The way I understand it (although I now dont remember where I read it) is to write
a comprehensive problem description for the program you want to develop. Then
read it again and identify the noun...
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Is it possible to learn Etabs without any knowledge of Staad Pro?

## Satish Annigeri, Practicing structural engineer and I teach structural engineering

Written Dec 15
Yes, certainly. Knowing Staad | Staad is not a pre-requisite to learn ETABS. But
remember that ETABS can analyse only building like structures while Staad | Staad
can analyse general civil engineer...
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Is there a way to retrieve the manual page for a Python function or a package like
there is in R (with a ? <function name)?

## Satish Annigeri, Switched to Python from Scilab in 2012

Written Dec 14
Try the IPython REPL. Type the name of the function and end with a ? and press
enter to get inline help. IPython also autocompletion - type first few letters of a
function name and press tab key to...
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Which one is the best book to understand structural Dynamics?

## Satish Annigeri, Practicing structural engineer and I teach structural engineering

Written Dec 14
It's never easy to define the best book. However, you may find the following to be
good books for a first introduction to dynamics:
Rao, S.S., Mechanical Vibrations
A good introduction to structural ...
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What is the different between p-delta effect and push over analysis?

## Satish Annigeri, Practicing structural engineer and I teach structural engineering

Written Dec 12
P-Delta is a static linear elastic analysis for secondary effects when an axially
loaded member undergoes significant lateral displacement of one of its ends with
respect to another.
Push over analy...
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What does unstable mean in Linux distributions?

## Satish Annigeri, Teacher, Structural engineer, FOSS and cycling enthusiast

Written Dec 8
See here for one definition of an unstable release:
https://wiki.debian.org/DebianUn...
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What do you mean by plane section before bending remains plane after bending?

## Satish Annigeri, Practicing structural engineer and I teach structural engineering

Written Dec 7
Imagine a cross section normal to the centroidal axis of a straight beam before
application of bending moment (imagine a straight line etched on the surface of a
beam normal to the straight centroi...
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Is the area under stress strain curve and area under load deformation curve equal?

Satish Annigeri, Have been teaching mechanics and structural engineering for over
30 years
Written Dec 7
The unit for area under a stress strain curve is (force/unit area) because strain is
dimensionless. Unit of area under load deformation curve is (force into linear
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Is there a way to convert a MS Excel macro (in VBA) to Python?

## Satish Annigeri, Switched to Python from Scilab in 2012

Written Dec 6
This suggestion is not about converting VBA to Python, rather rewriting the
algorithm currently in VBA in Python. The advantage, if any, is that you can retain
the input and output in MS Excel. If ...
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Material is subjected to tensile force. first it undergoes (develops) stress or it
deforms (strain)?

Satish Annigeri, Have been teaching mechanics and structural engineering for over
30 years
Written Dec 5
Stress and strain are inseparable. One is the cause and the other is the effect. One
way to understand this is to imagine solids to be made of molecules each
maintaining its fixed place in space be...
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Works at B.V.B. College of Engineering & Technology
Studied at Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee
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## What is the different between p-delta effect and

push over analysis?
Satish Annigeri, Practicing structural engineer and I teach structural engineering
Written Dec 12

P-Delta is a static linear elastic analysis for secondary effects when an axially loaded
member undergoes significant lateral displacement of one of its ends with respect to
another.
Push over analysis is a static nonlinear analysis with the load adopted incrementally. The
purpose of a push over analysis is to determine the capacity of a structure. Using provisions
of ATC40 and FEMA356 documents it is possible to use the results of push over analysis to
carry out performance evaluation and performance based design.

## What do you mean by plane section

before bending remains plane after
bending?
What do you mean by plane section before bending remains plane after bending?
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## Abhi, Structural Engineer, Android Developer

Written Dec 7

This statement is particularly used for beams that are analysed by Euler-Bernoulli beam
theory. Consider the following cantilever beam, fixed at one end and acted upon by load L at
other.

As per the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, the plane P1 that is perpendicular to the neutral
axis before bending will remain perpendicular to the neutral axis after bending.

## Why is this important?

Let us consider the beam as a series of cubes as shown in the figure below.

If we make the assumption of plane section before bending remains plane after bending,
that would imply that there would be no shear distortion of the cube (i.e. it would not change
its shape and all the sides would be perpendicular) as shown in the figure above.
Since there is no shear strain (as all the sides are perpendicular to each other) there would
be no shear stress and thus we could greatly simplify the theory by not considering shear
stress in the formulation.
It is important to note that this theory is applicable only to small deformation of beams. If the
deformations are large we have to consider the shear strains developed. This phenomena is
covered in Timoshenko beam theory which is for large deformations.

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## Satish Annigeri, Practicing structural engineer and I teach structural engineering

Written Dec 7

Imagine a cross section normal to the centroidal axis of a straight beam before application
of bending moment (imagine a straight line etched on the surface of a beam normal to the
straight centroidal axis). After subjecting this beam to bending, this cross section (and the
line drawn on the surface will undergo displacement). As it experiences these
displacements this section (and the line on the beams surface) remains plane (straight).
Instead, it could have become curved or zig-zag if you want to let your imagination run wild.
But it does not, it remains plane (straight).
This means that if you were to join all the points of the cross section after bending, it would
still form a plane (and not a curved surface). This implies that we can express the amount of
elongation of a point on the cross section as a linear function of its distance from the neutral
axis (which also means that the point at the neutral axis undergoes neither elongation nor
compression as its distance from neutral axis is zero. Since the section is plane before
bending, it means original length of all fibers is the same and after bending, change in
length varies linearly with the distance from NA and so strain varies linearly with distance
from NA (since original length of all fibers is the same).
It is fortunate that this assumption is true for almost all engineering materials, not just within
yield strain but also well beyond. This is based on experimental observations. As to why this
is so, I dont know. May be someone who understands material science can explain this
aspect.
The above statement is true only for straight beams. This assumption does not apply beams
with a curved centroidal axis, and equations for strain and consequently stress in such
beams are derived differently.

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Ali Al-Hammoud, Lead Design Structural Engineer
Written Dec 7

Say you have an element and you draw a line along its side perpendicular to the longitudinal
direction. Now bend the element and look at the line. If it remains straight at some angle,
then beam theory applies. If it becomes warped, the beam theory doesn't apply and other
options have to be considered (thin plates, shear deformation, )

## Satish AnnigeriTeacher, Structural engineer, FOSS and cycling enthusiast

Works at B.V.B. College of Engineering & Technology
Studied at Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee
Lives in Hubli, Karnataka, India
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## Satish AnnigeriTeacher, Structural engineer, FOSS and cycling enthusiast

Works at B.V.B. College of Engineering & Technology

## Studied at Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee

Lives in Hubli, Karnataka, India
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Satish Annigeri, Practicing structural engineer and I teach structural engineering
Written Nov 29

Concrete is brittle and once it reaches its yield point, it has very little reserve strength
remaining (yield strain is 0.002 and rupture is at 0.0035) compared to steel (yield is at 0.87
f_y / Es for mild steel and a little early for cold worked deformed bars) but is assumed to
have no breaking point (another way of saying it fails at a very large value of strain
compared to the yield strain).
Thus concrete in a column loses all its strength very soon after concrete yields, leading to
non-ductile behaviour. Providing lateral ties at the proper spacing confines concrete (like
gripping the concrete enclosed between the lateral ties) thereby preventing pieces of failed
concrete from falling away. Thus, even when it is no longer able to generate additional
resistance to increase in external loads, it can undergo further deformations thereby making
the column ductile.
Ductility is the ability of a section or a member to undergo large deformation beyond yield up
to the point of failure. This gives adequate time for occupants of a structure to vacate the
structure with their life. The structure may not be repairable, but it reduces loss of life. It is
one of the three important properties (stiffness, strength and ductility) of a structure that a
structural engineer must understand and control.

## What is the main difference between square

column and circular column? Which one is more
used and why?

## Satish AnnigeriTeacher, Structural engineer, FOSS and cycling enthusiast

Works at B.V.B. College of Engineering & Technology
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Satish Annigeri, Practicing structural engineer and I teach structural engineering
Written Nov 27

## Here are some thoughts:

1.
2.

3.
4.
5.

Circular columns are symmetric about any centroidal axis. Square columns have
only 4 axes of symmetry.
If you compare a square column with a circular column having the same diameter as
the side of the square column, circular column has a smaller cross section area (0.785
times the square column) but larger second moment of area (1.178 times the square
column). Thus is less prone to buckling and may require slightly more reinforcement to carry
the same load as a square column.
Minimum number of bars required in a square column is 4 while for circular columns,
it is 6.
Form work for square columns is simpler (due to the straight sides) compared to
circular columns.
Circular columns are considered aesthetically pleasing compared to square columns
(but that is subjective).
Nikhil Meghani
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## Slab can bear more shear stress than

beams?
Slab can bear more shear stress than beams?
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## Satish AnnigeriTeacher, Structural engineer, FOSS and cycling enthusiast

Works at B.V.B. College of Engineering & Technology
Studied at Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee
Lives in Hubli, Karnataka, India
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## Satish AnnigeriTeacher, Structural engineer, FOSS and cycling enthusiast

Works at B.V.B. College of Engineering & Technology
Studied at Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee
Lives in Hubli, Karnataka, India
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## Satish Annigeri, Practicing structural engineer and I teach structural engineering

Written Nov 26

The question is not well formed. It is the concrete and shear reinforcement, if present, that
bear shear stress. It is the same whether the concrete is in a beam or a slab. Note that it is
difficult to fabricate a slab with shear reinforcement.
Concrete without shear reinforcement has a certain capacity to resist shear stress and
depends on the characteristic strength of concrete and percentage of tension reinforcement
(refer Table 19 of IS456:2000). If the average shear stress exceeds this allowable shear
stress, shear reinforcement must be provided. Since we dont provide shear reinforcement
in slabs, concrete alone must resist shear. If shear stress happens to be high, the only way
to make a slab safe in shear is to increase its effective depth.
Note that presence of torsion in beams adds to the shear at a section. Slabs may have to be
checked for two way shear in case of flat slabs.