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Kingdom Fungi
1. The highest number of species in the world
is represented by
(a) fungi
(c) algae

(b) mosses
(d) lichens

2. Which one of the following has haplontic

life cycle?
(a) Funaria
(c) Ustilago

(b) Polytrichum
(d) Wheat

disease and its causal organism?

(a) Late blight of potato
Alternaria solani
(b) Black rust of wheat
Puccinia graminis
(c) Loose smut of wheat
Ustilago nuda
(d) Root-knot of vegetables Meloidogyne sp

4. Trichoderma harzianum has proved a useful

microorganism for

(a) bioremediation of contaminated soils
(b) reclamation of wastelands
(c) gene transfer in higher plants
(d) biological control of soil-borne plant pathogens

5. Cellulose is the major component of cell

(a) Pythium
(c) Pseudomonas

(b) Xanthomonas
(d) Saccharomyces

6. Which of the following is a slime mold?

(a) Rhizopus
(c) Thiobacillus

(b) Physarum
(d) Anabaena


7. Ergot of rye is caused by a species of [2007]

(a) Phytophthora
(c) Ustilago

(b) Uncinula
(d) Claviceps



(a) Birds nest fungi and puff balls

(b) Puff balls and Claviceps
(c) Peziza and stink horns
(d) Morchella and mushrooms

9. The thalloid body of a slime mold

(Myxomycetes) is known as

3. Which one is the wrong pairing for the

walls of

8. Which pair of the following belongs to

(a) Plasmodium
(c) mycelium


(b) fruiting body

(d) protonema

10. Which of the following environmental

conditions are essential for optimum growth
of Mucor on a piece of bread?
(i) Temperature of about 25C
(ii) Temperature of about 5C
(iii) Relative humidity of about 5%
(iv) Relative humidity of about 95%
(v) A shady place
(vi) A brightly illuminated place

Choose the answer from the following options

(a) (i), (iv) and (v) only
(b) (ii), (iv) and (v) only
(c) (ii), (iii) and (vi) only
(d) (i), (iii) and (v) only

11. There exists a close association between the

alga and the fungus within a lichen. The
(a) provides protection, anchorage and
absorption for the alga
(b) provides food for the alga
(c) fixes the atmospheric nitrogen for the alga
(d) release oxygen for the alga


CBSE AIPMT Chapterwise Solutions Biology

12. Lichens are well known combination of an

22. Which one of the following microorganisms

alga and a fungus where fungus has [2004]

is used for production of citric acid in


(a) a saprophytic relationship with the alga

(b) an epiphytic relationship with the alga
(c) a parasitic relationship with the alga
(d) a symbiotic relationship with the alga

13. During the formation of bread it becomes

porous due to the release of CO2 by the
action of
(a) yeast

(b) bacteria (c) virus

(d) protozoans

14. Which fungal disease spreads by seed and



(a) Loose smut of wheat

(b) Corn stunt
(c) Covered smut of barley
(d) Soft rot of potato

15. Plant decomposers are


with the help of


(a) mechanical pressure and enzymes

(b) hooks and suckers
(c) softening by enzymes
(d) only by mechanical pressure

24. Which one of the following is not true about

(a) Their body is composed of both Algal and
fungal cells
(b) Some form food for reindeers in Arctic regions
(c) Some species can be used as pollution
(d) These grow very fast at the rate of about 2 cm
per year

(c) sucrose (d) glucose

18. Black rust of wheat is caused by


(b) Mucor
(d) Rhizopus


(b) pathogen
(d) hormone

(a) Claviceps
(c) Phytophthora

(b) Alternaria
(d) Albugo candida

(a) they parasitise cereals
(b) mycelium is black
(c) they develop sooty masses of spores
(d) affected parts become completely black

29. Decomposers are organisms that

(b) tetracycline
(d) butanol

(a) uredia and aecia on wheat leaves

(b) uredia and telia on wheat leaves
(c) uredia and aecia on barbery leaves
(d) uredia and pycnia on barbery leaves

(a) phytotoxin
(c) phytoalexins

smuts because

20. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is used in

21. Puccinia forms

host plants to protect themselves against

fungal infection is

28. Ustilago caused plant diseases are called

(a) Lichens are not related with pollution

(b) They act as bioindicators of pollution
(c) They treat the polluted water
(d) They promote pollution

the industrial production of

(a) Root knot disease Meloidogyne javanica
(b) Smut of bajra Tolysporium penicillariae
(c) Covered smut of barley Ustilago nuda
(d) Late blight of potato Phytophthora infestans

27. White rust disease is caused by

19. Which of the following is the use of lichens

in case of pollution?


26. The chemical compounds produced by the

17. In fungi stored food material is

(a) citric acid

(c) ethanol


(a) blue-green algae and Basidomycetes

(b) blue-green algae and Ascomycetes
(c) red algae and Ascomycetes
(d) brown algae and Phycomycetes

25. Which of the following is not correctly

16. Adhesive pad of fungi penetrates the host

(a) Puccinia
(c) Aspergillus

23. Most of the lichens consist of


(a) Monera and Fungi

(b) Fungi and Plants
(c) Protista and Animalia
(d) Animalia and Monera

(a) glycogen (b) starch

(a) Penicillium citrinum

(b) Aspergillus niger
(c) Rhizopus nigricans
(d) Lactobacillus bulgaricus


(a) Elaborate chemical substances, causing death
of tissues
(b) operate in living body and simplifying organic
substances of cells step by step
(c) attack and kill plants as well as animals
(d) operate in relay terms, simplifying step by step
the organic constituents of dead body

Kingdom Fungi
30. Mycorrhiza represents
(a) antagonism
(c) symbiosis

31. Absorptive

[1994, 96, 2003]

(b) endemism
(d) parasitism



exhibited by
(a) algae
(c) bryophytes


32. Lichens indicate SO2 pollution because they

[1989, 92]
(a) show association between algae and fungi


(b) grow faster than others


(c) are sensitive to SO 2

(b) fungi
(d) pteridophytes

(d) flourish in SO 2 rich environment

Answer with Explanations


Fungi represent the highest number of species in

the world. Around 100000 species of fungi have
been formally described by taxonomists but the
global biodiversity of kingdom fungi is not fully


Ustilago has haplontic life cycle. In their sexual

phase, only zygospore is diploid structure. All others
are haploid, such a sexual cycle is termed as haploid
or haplontic.


The causative agent of late blight of potato is

fungus Phytophthora infestans, classOomycetes,
orderPeronosporales, familyPythiaceae. In India,
the late blight of potato is a seed borne disease.


Some common fungal inhabitants of soil help to

combat diseases caused by soil borne fungi like.
Trichoderma harzianum which are found in damp
soils. They have an inhibitory effect on the growth of
the mycelium of Pythium. They serve to supress
fungi causing damping off disease of the seedlings
and thereby influence favourably the growth of


Cellulose does occur in cell walls of Oomycetes

(e.g. Pythium) and Hyphochytridiomycetes. Fungal
cell wall contains 8090% carbohydrates, the
remainder being proteins and lipids. The typical
feature of fungal cell wall is presence of chitin.


The genus Physarum with about 100 species is

the largest and best-studied slime mold in the


The fungus Claviceps purpurea is responsible for

ergot disease of rye which lowers the yield of rye plant.


Birds nest fungi (Nidulariales) and puff ball fungi

(Lycoperdales) belongs to Basidiomycetes. The
common example of classBasidiomycetes are smut,
rusts, the mushrooms, the toad stools, the puff balls
and the pore fungi.


The thalloid body of a slime mould is known as

Plasmodium. The members of Myxomycetes are
called slime molds because they contain and
secrete slime. They are included in lower fungi.
Their somatic phase is a multinucleate, diploid
holocarpic Plasmodium (a product of syngamy).

In Plasmodium, propagation occurs through fission

or thick walled cysts or sclerotium like structures.
Reproduction takes place by the formation of
uninucleate, thick walled resting spores which are
produced within minute fruiting bodies like
structures, i.e. the sporangia.
Fruiting bodies and mycelium are absent in lower
fungi. Protonema is not formed in fungi.


Mucor shows the best growth on a piece of

bread at a temperature of about 25C, relative
humidity of about 95% in a moist and shady place.
Mucor is a saprophytic fungus belonging to the
orderMucorales and familyMucoraceae and
grows on decaying dung and on some food stuffs.


Lichen is a symbiotic association between a

fungus and an algae. The fungal partner of lichen
helps in the absorption of water and mineral to algal
partner. It also provides protection and anchorage to
algal partner of lichen. In exchange of this, the
fungal partner absorbs prepared food material from
algal partner. This food material is prepared by the
algal partner of lichen through the process of


Lichen is a symbiotic association between a

fungus and an alga. The fungal part is called
mycobiont while the algal part is called phycobiont.
The fungi absorb mineral and water to algae and the
algae synthesise food by photosynthesis.


Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are

extensively used for leavening of bread. During
fermentation, the yeasts produce alcohol and CO2
which leaves the leavened bread making it


Fungal disease, loose smut of wheat spreads by

seed and flowers. The causal organism of this
disease is Ustilago fungus. It is an internal parasite.
It has a dikaryotic mycelium which remains within
the intercellular spaces of the host tissue.
This fungus infects the ovary of the host flower as a
result of which the masses of teliospores or brand
spores are formed in place of grains. Teliospores are
not surrounded by any wall hence, called loose


CBSE AIPMT Chapterwise Solutions Biology


Decomposers are living components chiefly the

bacteria and fungi that breakdown the complex
compounds of dead protoplasm of producers and
consumers absorb some products and release others.


Cell wall degrading enzymes (cellulolytic,

pectolytic) as well as mechanical pressure of
adhesive pad (appressorium) help the fungus in
penetrating the host.


Glycogen, also known as animal starch, is the

chief polysaccharide store of animal cells and most
of the fungi (though food is also stored as oil
globules in some fungi).
Starch is a complex water insoluble polysaccharide
carbohydrate chiefly found in green plants as their
principal energy (food) source.
Glucose is the most widely distributed hexose
sugar. It is an aldohexose reducing sugar. It is found
in blood muscles and brain and works as energy
Sucrose is a non-reducing disaccharide consists of
one glucose and one fructose molecules. It is one of
the abundant transport sugar in plants.


Black rust of wheat is caused by Puccinia

graminis tritici. This is the potential cause of
enormous economic loss in all wheat growing
regions of the world. Puccinia graminis tritici
usually passes its life cycle on two different hosts,
wheat and barbery.


Growth of lichens on trees is inhibited by air

pollution. Hence, atmospheric pollution causes
decrease in their populations. so, lichens are
biological indicators of pullution.


Yeast contains an enzyme zymase which

catalyse the fermentation of sugar to form ethyl
alcohol (ethanol) and CO2 .


Puccinia graminis tritici (fungus) causes black

rust of wheat. It forms Urediospores (uredia) and
teleutospores (telia) are formed on wheat leaves.


Citric acid is commercially prepared is by

fermentation of sugar with A. niger.
Citric acid has an extraordinary range of uses. It
gives tartness and flavour to the foods. It is an
antioxidant and pH adjuster in many foods and dairy
products, it often serves as an emulsifier.



Lichens consist of the fungal component

mycobiont, mainly Ascomycotina (only a few
Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina), and the
algal component, phycobiont which are mostly
blue-green algae (Nostoc, Scytonema) or green
algae (Trebouxia, Trentophila, etc).
Statement d is incorrect because lichens show
very slow growth. Their size and slow rate of growth
suggest that some lichens in the Arctic are 4000
years ago.


Option c is mismatched because the smuts in

which sori are covered by the membranous covering
or peridium are called covered smuts. In Ustilago
hordei, the sorus or smut ball is covered by a
peridium of host cells, disease known as covered
smut of barley.


Phytoalexins are chemical substances produced

by plants in response to fungal infection and are
toxic to fungi.


Albugo candida (Oomycetes) is an obligate

parasite commonly found a wide range of crucifers.
It causes a disease called white rust or blister rust of
crucifers resulting in economically significant losses
in the yield of turnip, rape and mustard.


The genus Ustilago (L. ustus = burnt) includes

the group of fungi producing black, sooty powder
mass of spores on the host plant parts imparting
them a 'burnt' appearance, hence, the name, the
black dusty masses of spores produced by these
fungi resemble soot or smut, so these are also
known as smut fungi.


Decomposers are the organisms, normally a

fungus or bacterium, that digest organic material by
secreting digestive enzymes into the environment,
in the process liberating nutrients into the
microconsumers, reducers or scavengers, as
converting complex organic constituents of dead
bodies of plants, animals, human wastes into simple
soluble forms.


Mycorrhiza (mykes = mushroom + rhiza = root)

represents a symbiotic association of fungi with the
roots of higher plant. Mycorrhiza meaning fungus
root is an infected root system arising from the
rootlets of a seed plant.
In ectomycorrhiza, the ultimate absorbing rootlets
of the root system are completely surrounded by a
distinct mantle or sheath of fungal tissue. In
endomycorrhiza, there is no such sheath. Most of
the fungus is within the root and may be
intracellular as well as intercellular.


Fungi are heterotrophic, e.g. these require an

organic source of carbon, also require some source
of nitrogen, inorganic ions (K+ , Mg + ), trace
elements (Fe, Zn, Cu) and growth factors like
vitamins. Fungi may act as saprobes and parasites.
They obtain nutrition from host by means of special
structures called haustoria and exhibit absorptive or
holophytic type of nutrition.


Lichens, the composite organisms consist of a

specific fungus living in symbiotic association with
one or sometimes, two species of algae. Lichens are
world-wide in distribution. These are pioneer
colonizers of barren rocks and mountains. Being
extremely sensitive to SO2 , the lichens especially
epiphytic lichens serve as bioindicators air pollution.

and Viruses
1. Archaebacteria differ from eubacteria in
(a) cell membrane structure
(b) mode of nutrition
(c) cell shape
(d) mode of reproduction


2. Which of the following shows coiled RNA

7. Nuclear membrane is absent in

8. Maximum nutritional diversity is found in

strand and capsomeres?

the group

(a) Polio virus

(c) Measles virus

(a) Fungi

(b) Tobacco mosaic virus
(d) Retrovirus

3. Pigment-containing membranous extensions

in some cyanobacteria are

[ 2012]

(a) heterocysts
(b) basal bodies
(c) pneumatophores
(d) chromatophores

present in deep sea water?


(b) Eubacteria
(d) Saprophytic fungi

5. The cyanobacteria are also referred to as

(a) protists
(b) golden algae
(c) slime moulds
(d) blue-green algae

(b) Animalia (c) Monera (d) Plantae

9. In eubacteria, a cellular component that

resembles eukaryotic cells is


(a) nucleus
(b) ribosomes
(c) cell wall
(d) plasma membrane

10. Organisms called methanogens are most

4. Which of the following are likely to be

(a) Archaebacteria
(c) Blue-green algae


(a) Penicillium
(b) Agaricus
(c) Volvox
(d) Nostoc


6. Which statement is wrong for viruses?

(a) All are parasites
(b) All of them have helical symmetry
(c) They have ability to synthesise nucleic acids
and proteins
(d) Antibiotics have no effect on them

abundant in a


(a) cattle yard

(b) polluted stream
(c) hot spring
(d) sulphur rock

11. Virus envelope is known as

(a) capsid
(c) nucleoprotein


(b) virion
(d) core

12. Some hyperthermophilic organisms that

grow in highly acidic habitats belong to the
two groups called
(a) eubacteria and archaea
(b) cyanobacteria and diatoms
(c) protists and mosses
(d) liverworts and yeasts

KingdomMonera and Viruses

13. TO Diener discovered a


14. Consider the following four measures (AD)

that could be taken to successfully grow
chick pea in an area where bacterial blight
disease is common
A. spray with bordeaux mixture
B. control of the insect vector of the disease
C. use of only disease-free seeds
D. use of varieties resistant to the disease

Which two of the above measures can

control the disease?
(b) A and B
(D) A and D

15. Thermococcus,

Methanobacterium exemplify


(a) Xanthomonas
(b) Pseudomonas
(c) Alternaria
(d) Erwinia


(a) both require the environment of a cell to

(b) they require both RNA and DNA
(c) they both need food molecules
(d) they both require oxygen for respiration
(a) Nucleic acid of viruses is known as capsid
(b) Viruses possess their own metabolic system
(c) All viruses contain both RNA and DNA
(d) Viruses are obligate parasites

22. Chromosomes in a bacterial cell can be 1-3

in number and

(a) can be circular as well as linear within the
same cell
(b) are always circular
(c) are always linear
(d) can be either circular or linear, but never both
within the same cell

23. Tobacco mosaic virus is a tubular filament

of size

(b) 300 10 nm
(d) 300 18 nm

24. In bacteria, plasmid is


(a) They are also called PPLO

(b) They are pleomorphic
(c) They are sensitive to penicillin
(d) They cause disease in plants


(a) extra-chromosomal material

(b) main DNA
(c) non-functional DNA
(d) repetitive gene

25. Plasmid is

18. Viruses that infect bacteria, multiply and

cause their lysis are called

chromosomes because

(a) 700 30 nm
(c) 300 5 nm

17. Which one of the following statements

about mycoplasma is wrong?

20. Viruses are no more alive than isolated

about viruses is correct?


16. Bacterial leaf blight of rice is caused by a

species of

(a) DNA is not present at any stage in the life cycle
of retroviruses
(b) Retroviruses carry gene for RNA dependent
DNA polymerase
(c) The genetic material in mature retroviruses is
(d) Retroviruses are causative agents for certain
kinds of cancer in man

21. Which one of the following statements

(a) archaebacteria that contain protein
homologous to eukaryotic core histones
(b) archaebacteria that lack any histones
resembling those found in eukaryotes but
whose DNA is negatively supercoiled
(c) bacteria whose DNA is relaxed or positively
supercoiled but which have a cytoskeleton as
well as mitochondria
(d) bacteria that contain a cytoskeleton and

(a) lysozymes
(b) lytic
(c) lipolytic
(d) lysogenic

19. Which of the following statements is not

true for retroviruses?

(a) free infectious RNA

(b) free infectious DNA
(c) infectious protein
(d) bacteriophage

(a) B and C
(c) C and D


[2000, 01]
(a) fragment of DNA which acts as vector
(b) fragment which joins two genes
(c) mRNA which acts as carrier
(d) autotrophic fragment

26. Interferons are synthesised in response to

(a) mycoplasma
(c) viruses

(b) bacteria
(d) fungi


CBSE AIPMT Chapterwise Solutions Biology

27. What is true for archaebacteria?


(a) All halophiles

(b) All photosynthetic
(c) All fossils
(d) Oldest living beings

(a) episome
(c) ribosome


(b) dsRNA
(d) ssDNA

29. What is true for cyanobacteria?


30. Small proteins produced by vertebrate cells

naturally in response to viral infections and
which inhibit multiplication of viruses are
(b) interferons
(d) lipoproteins

31. Photosynthetic bacteria have pigments in

(a) leucoplasts
(c) chromoplasts

(b) chloroplasts [1999]

(d) chromatophores

32. A few organisms are known to grow and

multiply at temperatures of 100-105C.
They belong to
(a) marine archaebacteria
(b) thermophilic sulphur bacteria
(c) hot-spring blue-green algae (cyanobacteria)
(d) thermophilic, subaerial fungi

33. The main role of bacteria in the carbon cycle


(a) photosynthesis
(b) chemosynthesis
(c) digestion or breakdown of organic compounds
(d) assimilation of nitrogenous compounds

34. The hereditary material present in the

bacterium Escherichia coli is

[1997, 98]

(a) single stranded DNA

(b) deoxyribose sugar
(c) double stranded DNA
(d) single stranded RNA

35. Which one of the following statements

about viruses is correct?


(a) DNA
(b) RNA
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) Only proteins and no nucleic acids

38. In bacterial chromosomes, the nucleic acid

polymers are

(a) Oxygenic with nitrogenase

(b) Oxygenic without nitrogenase
(c) Non-oxygenic with nitrognase
(d) Non-oxygenic without nitrogenase

(a) immunoglobulins
(c) antitoxins

(b) mesosome
(d) microsome

37. Influenza virus has

28. Cauliflower mosaic virus contains

(a) ssRNA
(c) dsDNA

36. The site of respiration in bacteria is [1997]

(a) Viruses possess their own metabolic system
(b) Viruses contain either DNA or RNA
(c) Viruses are facultative parasites
(d) Viruses are readily killed by antibiotics


(a) linear DNA molecule

(b) circular DNA molecule
(c) of two types-DNA and RNA
(d) linear RNA molecule

39. Sex factor in bacteria is


(a) chromosomal replicon

(b) F-replicon
(c) RNA
(d) sex-pilus

40. Interferons are


(a) antiviral proteins

(b) antibacterial proteins
(c) anticancer proteins
(d) complex proteins

41. The plasmid


(a) helps in respiration

(b) genes found inside nucleus
(c) is a component of cell wall of bacteria
(d) is the genetic part in addition to DNA in

42. Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) genes are

(a) double stranded RNA
(b) single stranded RNA
(c) polyribonucleotides
(d) proteinaceous

43. Temperature

blue-green algae is due to




(a) cell wall structure

(b) cell organisation
(c) mitochondrial structure
(d) homopolar bonds in their proteins

44. Escherichia coli is used extensively in

biological research as it is
(a) easily cultured
(b) easily available
(c) easy to handle
(d) easily multiplied in host


KingdomMonera and Viruses

45. Genophore bacterial genome or nucleoid is
made of


(a) histones and non-histones

(b) RNA and histones
(c) a single double stranded DNA
(d) a single stranded DNA

46. Bacteria lack alternation of generation

because there is

[1991, 92]
(a) neither syngamy nor reduction division
(b) distinct chromosomes are absent
(c) no conjugation
(d) no exchange of genetic material

47. The main difference in Gram (+)ve and

Gram ()ve bacteria resides in their
[1990, 2001]
(a) cell wall
(b) cell membrane
(c) cytoplasm
(d) flagella

48. Which one belongs to the Monera?


(a) Amoeba
(b) Escherichia
(c) Gelidium
(d) Spirogyra

Answer with Explanations

1. (a) Archaebacteria different from eubacteria in that

eubacteria have cell membrane composed mainly of

glycerol-ester lipids, while archaebacteria have
membrane made up of glycerol-ether lipid.
Ether lipids are chemically more resistant then ester
lipids. This stability help archaebacteria survive at
high temperture and in very acidic or alkaline

2. (b) In TMV RNA is single stranded (ss) helically

coiled structure containing about 2130 capsomeres,
a basic subunit of capsid (an outer covering of
protein that protects the genetic material of a virus).

There are about 16 capsomeres present in each

helical turn.
2.3 cm

4. (a) Archaebacteria flourish in hot springs and deep

sea hypothermal vents. Eubacteria are true

bacteria, characterised by the presence or rigid cell
wall and if motile a flagellum. Most fungi are
heterotrophic and absorb soluble organic matter
from dead substrates and hence, are called
saprophyte. The cyanobacteria have chlorophyll-a
similar to green plants and are photosynthetic

5. (d) Cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae

(BGA) are most primitive prokaryotic organisms.

These are considered to be the most ancient of all
the chlorophyll bearing organisms on earth.

6. (b) The nucleocapsids of viruses are constructed in

highly symmetric ways. Two types of symmetry are

recognised in viruses, which correspond to the two
primary shapes, rod and spherical. Rod-shaped
viruses have helical symmetry and spherical viruses
have icosahedral symmetry.

7. (d) Nostoc is a prokaryote. Prokaryotic cells lack

18 mm

3. (d) Cyanobacteria contain chlorophyll but the

chlorophyll is not located in chloroplasts, rather it is

found in chromatophores, infolding of the plasma
membrane, where photosynthesis is carried out.
Heterocysts are specialised nitrogen fixing cells
formed by some filamentous cyanobacteria such as
Nostoc. A basal body is an organelle formed from a
centriole and a short cylindrical array of
microtubules. Pneumatophores are lateral roots that
grow upward for varying distance and function as
the site of oxygen intake for the submerged primary

membrane bound organelles and well organised

nucleus, i.e., nuclear envelope is absent.
Penicillium, Agaricus and Volvox are eukaryotic.

8. (c) Maximum nutritional diversity is shown by the

members of kingdomMonera. Some of them are
autotrophic (e.g., photosynthetic autotrophic or
chemosynthetic autotrophic) while the vast majority
are heterotrophs (e.g., saprotrophic or parasitic).
Ecologically, these may be producers or

9. (d) The plasma membrane of eubacteria resembles

to that of eukaryotic cell. It is made of phospholipid,
protein and some amount of polysaccharides.
However, it lacks sterol, the characteristic of
eukaryotic cell membrane. Instead, there is sterol
like hopanoid.


CBSE AIPMT Chapterwise Solutions Biology

10. (a) Methanogens are present in the gut of several

ruminants animals such as cows and buffaloes and
they are responsible for the production of methane
(biogas) from the dung of these animals. Thus, they
are most abundant in a cattle yard.

11. (a) Structurally viruses are very diverse varying

widely in size, shape and chemical composition.

The nucleic acid of virus is always located within
the virion particle and surrounded by a protein shell
called capsid.
The protein coat is compound of a number of
individual protein molecules called structural
subunits. The complete complex of nucleic acid and
proteins, packaged in the virion is called the virus

12. (a) Thermophiles live in very hot places, typically

from 60 to 80C. Many thermophiles (some
eubacteria and archaebacteria) are autotrophs and
have metabolisms based on sulphur.
Some thermophilic archaebacteria form the basis of
food webs around deep-sea thermal vents, where
they must withstand extreme temperature and
pressures. Archaebacteria can grow in highly acidic
(pH = 0.7) and very basic (pH = 11) environments.

13. (a) Viroids are small, circular, single stranded RNA

molecules that are the smallest known pathogens.

The extracellular form of the viroid is naked RNA,
i.e., there is no protein capsid of any kind.
Even, the RNA molecule contains no protein
encoding genes and therefore, the viroid is totally
dependent on host function for its replication. No
viroid diseases of animals are known and the
precise mechanisms by which viroids cause plant
diseases remain unclear.

14. (c) Bacterial blight of chick pea is caused by

bacterium Xanthomonas campestris. The ejected

tissues collapse and are digested by bacteria. Rapid
spread of bacterial infection occurs through
vascular strand.
The stems and leaves of infected plant give blighted
or burnt up appearance. Control measures include
rogueing; 3-year crop rotation, disease free seeds,
spray of copper fungicides and antibiotics besides
showing disease resistant varieties.
Bordeaux mixture is most common fungicide first
discovered by Millardet in 1885 at university of
Bordeaux France to control downy mildew of
grapes. It is prepared by mixing copper sulphate,
lime and water in ratio of 4 : 4 : 50.

15. (a) Inspection of domain Archaea shows that two

sub-divisions exist, the Euryarchaeota and the

Crenarchaeota. The Archaea are chemotrophic
although Halobacterium can use light to make ATP.
Many others are chemolithotrophs with hydrogen
gas being a widely used energy source.
The Euryarchaeota includes Methanobacterium,
Methanococcus, Thermococcus. The differential
features among bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya are:

Characteristic Bacteria Archaea


Prokaryotic cell




Circular DNA




Histone proteins No



bound nucleus







80S and

16. (a) Disease

Causing Organism
Xanthomonas oryzae
cane rubrilineans
Fire blight of apple Erwinia amylovora
Early blight of potato Alternaria solani

Leaf blight of rice

Red strip of sugar

17. (c) Penicillin acts on cell wall and mycoplasma

lacks cell wall. Mycoplasma are inhibited by

metabolic inhibitors like chloramphenicol and

18. (b) When bacteriophage infects a bacterium, it

entirely depends on the host for its multiplication. It

utilises the host machinery for replication and
produce a large number of progeny (phage
particles). The bacterium cell undergoes lysis and
dies to liberate a large number of these phage
particles which are each ready to start another cycle
by infecting new bacterial cell. This cycle is known
as lytic cycle.

19. (a) Retroviruses are so, named because they contain

enzyme reverse transcriptase or RNA dependent
DNA polymerase. The genetic material of these
viruses is RNA, e.g. Rous Sarcoma Virus.

20. (a) Viruses are non-cellular obligate parasite. In the

free state they are just like the particles. They do not
have their own metabolic machinery and use hosts
machinery for multiplication.

21. (d) Viruses are non-cellular, obligate parasites.

They have DNA or RNA as genetic material (never
both). Genetic material of virus is covered in protein
coat, known as capsid. Viruses do not contain their
own metabolic system instead they occupy hosts
metabolic system after entrance in them.

22. (b) Bacterial chromosomes are circular DNA


23. (d) TMV is elongated rod-like, 3000 (300 nm) long

and 180 (18 nm) in diameter.

24. (a) Plasmid is an extrachromosomal material

capable of replicating independently from the main
chromosome. Thus, plasmids are having antibiotic
resistance genes.

KingdomMonera and Viruses

25. (a) A plasmid is a piece of DNA, mostly in bacteria


33. (c) Huge amount of plants, animals and human

(but also in yeast) not forming a part of normal

chromosomal DNA of a cell, but capable of
replicating independently of it. These often act as
vehicles for gene transfer.

wastes are decomposed by bacteria and fungi

present in environment and large quantity of CO2
necessary for photosynthesis is released into the

26. (c) Cells infected by virus produce interferon which

34. (c) Bacterial chromosome is single circular,

is antiviral. It spreads to neighbouring cells and

makes them resistant to virus infections by
inhibiting viral growth.

27. (d) The archaebacteria are able to flourish in

extreme conditions of environment that are believed

to have existed on the primitive earth. It is believed
that these represent the early forms of life. Hence,
archaebacteria are called oldest living beings.

28. (c) Caulimovirus (Cauliflower Mosaic Virus)

contains double stranded (ds) DNA.
Influenza virus contains single stranded RNA
Parvovirus contains single stranded DNA (ssDNA).

29. (a) Cyanobacteria (Gk. Kyanos = dark blue; bakterion

= a staff) also known as blue-green algae. It is a very

important group of photo-synthetic bacteria in the
history of life on earth.
The cyanobacteria fix atmospheric nitrogen through
the help of enzyme nitrogenase and oxygenic
photosynthetic also.

30. (b) Interferons (INFs) are a group of three vertebrate

glycoproteins (, , ). Out of these, two ( and ) are

produced within virally infected cells. Interferon
induces, among adjacent cells as antiviral state by
inducing synthesis of the enzymes which inhibit the
viral production cycle.
So, interferons are inhibitors of virus particles.

31. (d) In photosynthetic bacteria, small particles of

60 m diameter, called chromatophores, are
present. These are attached to the inner surface of
the cell membrane, have no limiting membrane and
possess bacteriochlorophyll.
Plastids are of three types, on the basis of their
(a) Chromoplasts Coloured plastids except green,
give different type of colour appearance to
different parts of the plant.
(b) Chloroplasts Green plastids take part in the
process of photosynthesis.
(c) Leucoplasts Colourless plastids, mainly function
as store house of various types of food.

32. (a) The lipids of archaebacteria are branched chain

lipids, long chain branched alcohols, phytanals, ether

linked to glycerol, this helps them to withstand
extreme conditions and temperature.
So, archaebacteria maintain the selve in marine

double-stranded DNA molecule.

35. (b) Viruses contain only one type of nucleic acid

DNA or RNA. These are obligate parasites; do not

possess metabolic machinery and are not readily
killed by antibiotics.

36. (b) The cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria is

invaginated at certain places into the cytoplasm in
the form of tubules, which are called mesosomes; on
their surface are found enzymes associated with
Mesosome also works as mitochondia in bacterial

37. (b) Influenza virus is single () stranded RNA virus,

which cannot serve directly as mRNA but rather as

templates for mRNA synthesis via a viral
transcriptase. Influenza virus (orthomyxo virus)
infects the respiratory tract and causing influenza.
Influenza virus is generally cause common cold in

38. (b) Nucleoid or chromatin body or genophore in

bacteria occupies 10-20% of cell, is present near the

centre of cell. It consists of a single, circular DNA
molecule in which all the genes are linked. It is over
a thousand times longer than the cell itself and is,
therefore, highly folded. It lacks the histone

39. (b) Bacterial strains such as of E.coli show sexual

differences. Each male cell possesses a sex factor or
fertility factor called F-factor. Infact, it is a small
circular piece of DNA, self-replicating like bacterial
chromosome but only 1/100 in size. The F-factor
codes for the protein of a special type of pilus, the sex
pilus which enables cell to cell contact and transfer of
genetic material through a conjugation tube.

40. (a) Interferons (IFNs) are anti-viral, regulatory

glycoproteins, produced in virus infected cells for

defense. They are non-antigenic protein of
molecular weight 20000 daltons; discovered by
Issacs and Lindemann (1957). These IFNs induce
formation of certain enzymes that suppress viral
multiplication in host cell and protect host from
further viral reinfection.
extrachromosomal, non-essential genetic elements
in bacteria. Each plasmid has a ring of circular,
supercoiled, double stranded DNA. They carry
genes for replication and for one or more cellular
non-essential functions. These are called
minichromosomes or dispensable autonomous

41. (d)


CBSE AIPMT Chapterwise Solutions Biology

42. (b) Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) is elongated, rod

shaped, most thoroughly studied plant virus, with

95% protein and 5% RNA by weight. RNA is
genomic, i.e. genetic material which is single
stranded, linear, helically coiled, 5 m in length
with 6500 nucleotides long.

43. (a) Cyanobacteria provide a good example of the

adaptability of life to extremes of environment (high

temperature of hot springs and low temperature of
polar regions). It is due to their gelatinous sheath, that
can withstand long periods of desiccation. The
compactness of protein molecules and their bonds in
the protoplasm also help the cells to face the extremes.

44. (a) Escherichia coli, a commensal bacterium is most

studied bacterium and widely used in research

because it is easily cultured on minimal medium
and has fast rate of multiplication and short
generation time.

45. (c) In bacteria nucleoid or genophore is haploid and

consists of single, naked, double stranded, circular

ring like highly folded supercoiled DNA with no free
ends, no histone proteins.
The nucleoid of E.coli has a central core of RNA
surrounded by about 50 super coilings of DNA
which is then associated with some basic proteins
but never histones. Some proteins like polyamines
rich in alanine are also found associated with

46. (a) Bacteria reproduces asexually by transverse

binary fission, conidia, budding, cyst and

sporulation. No true sexual reproduction (involving
formation of gametes, their fusion and meiosis) is
known to occur in bacteria.
However, in bacteria the transfer of genetic material
from donor to recipient cell to bring genetic
recombinations/variations is reported that occurs
not through gametes/sex cells but by other methods
like conjugation, transduction and transformation.
It does not result in any multiplication of cells.
47. (a) Gram stain is a differential stain that
differentiates bacteria into two groups-Gram +ve
and Gram ve. The basis of this differentiation lies in
the composition (lipid contents) and thickness of
cell wall of these bacteria.
Bacteria are called Gram +ve, if they retain the
crystal violet colour even after alcohol washing.
Whereas, cell wall of Gram ve bacteria is thin, rich
in lipids and decolourise the crystal violet colour of
Gram stain.
48. (b) The kingdomMonera (Gr. monera = simple)
includes simple, prokaryotic primitive organisms. It
includes bacteria, archaebacteria, Actinomycetes,
mycoplasma, spirochaetes, rickettsiae, chlamydiae
and cyanobacteria. Escherichia coli is the most
studied bacterium. E.coli is an enteric bacteria,
found in entire colon, secretes vitamin-K, B3 , B6 , B12
and folic acid.

Plant Kingdom
1. Which one of the following shows isogamy
with non-flagellated gametes?


(a) Sargassum
(b) Ectocarpus
(c) Ulothrix
(d) Spirogyra

2. Which one of the following is wrong about


Upper oogonium and lower round antheridium
Globule and nucule present on the same plant
Upper antheridium and lower oogonium
Globule is male reproductive structure

3. Which of the following is responsible for

peat formation?


(a) Marchantia
(b) Riccia
(c) Funaria
(d) Sphagnum

4. An alga which can be employed as food for

human being is
(a) Ulothrix
(c) Spirogyra

(b) Chlorella
(d) Polysiphonia

5. Male gametophyte with least number of

cells is present in
(a) Pteris

(b) Funaria (c) Lilium

(d) Pinus

6. Besides paddy fields, cyanobacteria are also

found inside vegetative part of
(a) Pinus
(b) Cycas
(c) Equisetum
(d) Psilotum


7. Select the wrong statement.

(a) Isogametes are similar in structure, function
and behaviour
(b) Anisogametes differ either in structure,
function and behaviour
(c) In oomycetes female gamete is smaller and
motile, while male gamete is larger and
(d) Chlamydomonas exhibits both isogamy and
anisogamy and Fucus shows oogamy

8. Read the following statements (IV) and

answer the question which follows them
I. In liverworts, mosses and ferns
gametophytes are free living.
II. Gymnosperms and some ferns are
III. Sexual reproduction in Fucus, Volvox and
Albugo is oogamous.
IV. The sporophyte in liverworts is more
elaborate than that in mosses.

How many of the above statements are

(a) One
(b) Two
(c) Three
(d) Four

9. Cycas and Adiantum resemble each other in

(a) seeds
(b) motile sperms
(c) cambium
(d) vessels



CBSE AIPMT Chapterwise Solutions Biology

10. Which one of the following is a correct


Pteridophyte gametophyte has a protonemal
and leafy stage
In gymnosperms female gametophyte is
Antheridiophores and archegoniophores are
present in pteridophytes
Origin of seed habit can be traced in

11. Which one of the following is common to

multicellular fungi, filamentous algae and
protonema of mosses?
(a) Diplontic life cycle
(b) Members of kingdomPlantae
(c) Mode of nutrition
(d) Multiplication by fragmentation


(a) cambium
(b) phloem fibres
(c) thick-walled tracheids
(d) xylem fibres

19. Mannitol is the stored food in


(a) Chara
(b) Porphyra
(c) Fucus
(d) Gracilaria

20. Which one of the following is a vascular


(b) Ginkgo
(d) Cedrus

important in the development of seed habit?

(a) Dependent sporophyte
(b) Heterospory
(c) Haplontic life cycle
(d) Free-living gametophyte


22. Which one of the following plants is

13. Compared with the gametophytes of the

bryophytes, the gametophytes of vascular
plants tends to be
(a) larger but to have smaller sex organs
(b) larger and to have large sex organs
(c) smaller and to have smaller sex organs
(d) smaller but to have larger sex organs

free living generation in


(b) Marchantia
(d) Polytrichum

15. Archegoniophore is present in



(a) Marchantia
(b) Pinus
(c) Cycas
(d) Papaya

23. In which one of the following, male and

14. The gametophyte is not an independent,

female gametophytes dont have free living

independent existence?
(a) Pteris
(c) Polytrichum

24. Which

(a) Chara
(b) Adiantum
(c) Funaria
(d) Marchantia

(b) Funaria
(d) Cedrus




(a) Dryopteris
(c) Adiantum

(b) Salvinia
(d) Equisetum



25. Replum is present in the ovary of flower of

(a) lemon
(c) sunflower

16. A prokaryotic autotrophic nitrogen fixing

symbiont is found in
(b) Cicer

(a) mustard
(b) castor
(c) Pinus
(d) Sphagnum

21. Which one of the following is considered

spermatophytes because they lack

(a) Cycas

and female gametophytes are

independent and free-living in

(a) Equisetum
(c) Marchantia

12. Gymnosperms are also called soft wood

(a) Adiantum
(c) Pinus

18. Male

(c) Pisum

(d) Alnus

17. Algae have cell wall made up of

(a) cellulose, galactans and mannans
(b) hemicellulose, pectins and proteins
(c) pectins, cellulose and proteins
(d) cellulose, hemicellulose and pectins


(b) mustard
(d) pea


26. Select one of the following pairs of

important features distinguishing Gnetum
from Cycas and Pinus and showing affinities
with angiosperms
(a) absence of resin duct and leaf venation
(b) presence of vessel elements and absence of
(c) perianth and two integuments
(d) embryo development and apical meristem

Plant Kingdom
27. In the prothallus of a vascular cryptogam,
the antherozoids and eggs mature at
different times, as a result
(a) there is no change in success rate of fertilisation
(b) there is high degree of sterility
(c) one can conclude that the plant is apomictic
(d) self fertilisation is prevented

28. Spore dissemination in some liverworts is

aided by


(a) elaters
(b) indusium
(c) calyptra
(d) peristome teeth


34. In which one pair both the plants can be

vegetatively propagated by leaf pieces?
(a) Bryophyllum and Kalanchoe
(b) Chrysanthemum and Agave
(c) Agave and Kalanchoe
(d) Asparagus and Bryophyllum


35. Auxospores and hormocysts are formed

respectively by

(a) several diatoms and a few cyanobacteria
(b) several cyanobacteria and several diatoms
(c) some diatoms and several cyanobacteria
(d) some cyanobacteria and many diatoms

36. Ectophloic siphonostele is found in [2005]

29. If you are asked to classify the various algae

into distinct groups, which of the following
characters you should choose?
(a) Types of pigments present in the cell
(b) Nature of stored food materials in the cell
(c) Structural organisation of thallus
(d) Chemical composition of the cell wall

(a) Adiantum and Cucurbitaceae

(b) Osmunda and Equisetum
(c) Marsilea and Botrychium
(d) Dicksonia and maiden hair fern

37. Match items in column I with those in

column II.
Column I

30. Flagellated male gametes are present in all

Column II

the three of which one of the following sets?

A. Peritrichous flagellation

1. Ginkgo

(a) Anthoceros, Funaria and Spirogyra

(b) Zygnema, Saprolegnia and Hydrilla
(c) Fucus, Marselia and Calotropis
(d) Riccia, Dryopteris and Cycas

B. Living fossil

2. Macrocystis

C. Rhizophore

3. Escherichia coli

D. Smallest flowering

4. Selaginella


31. In gymnosperms, the pollen chamber


(a) a cell in the pollen grain in which the sperms
are formed
(b) a cavity in the ovule in which pollen grains are
stored after pollination
(c) an opening in the megagametophyte through
which the pollen tube approaches the egg
(d) the microsporangium in which pollen grains

32. Peat moss is used as a packing material for

sending flowers and live plants to distant
places because
(a) it is hygroscopic
(b) it reduces transpiration
(c) it serves as a disinfectant
(d) it is easily available

33. Conifers differ from grasses in the

(a) lack of xylem tracheids
(b) absence of pollen tubes
(c) formation of endosperm before fertilisation
(d) production of seeds from ovules

E. Largest perennial alga

5. Wolffia

Select the correct answer from the following.


(a) 3

(b) 2

(c) 5

(d) 1


38. Which of the following propagates through



(a) Walking fern

(b) Sproux-leaf plant
(c) Marchantia
(d) Moss

39. Which one of the following is a living fossil?

(a) Cycas
(b) Moss
(c) Saccharomyces
(d) Spirogyra



CBSE AIPMT Chapterwise Solutions Biology

40. A

cyanobacterium which can also form
symbiotic association with the water fern
Azolla is
(a) Tolypothrix
(c) Nostoc

(b) Chlorella
(d) Anabaena

(a) power of adaptability in diverse habitat

(b) property of producing large number of seeds
(c) nature of some pollination
(d) domestication by man

42. Which one the following pairs of plants are

not seed producers?


(a) Ficus and Chlamydomonas

(b) Punica and Pinus
(c) Fern and Funaria
(d) Funaria and Ficus

represent the grouping spermatophyta

according to one of the schemes of
classifying plants?
(a) Rhizopus, Triticum
(b) Ginkgo, Pisum
(c) Acacia, sugarcane
(d) Pinus, Cycas

49. In ferns meiosis occurs when


(a) spore germinates

(b) gametes are formed
(c) spores are formed
(d) antheridia and archegonia are formed

50. The largest ovules, largest male and female

gametes and largest plants are found among
(a) angiosperms
(b) tree ferns and some monocots
(c) gymnosperms
(d) dicotyledonous plants

in the sporangium of
(a) Ulothrix
(c) Spirogyra


(b) Rhizopus
(d) None of these

52. The antherozoids of Funaria are

(a) aciliated
(c) multiciliated


(b) biflagellated
(d) monociliated

53. Dichotomous branching is found in [1999]

44. Sexual reproduction in Spirogyra is an

advanced feature because it shows


(a) physiologically differentiated sex organs

(b) different size of motile sex organs
(c) same size of motile sex organs
(d) morphologically different sex organs

in angiosperms?

(a) fern
(c) liverworts

(b) Funaria
(d) Marchantia

54. Bryophytes comprise

45. Which of the following is without exception


(a) Presence of vessels

(b) Double fertilisation
(c) Secondary growth
(d) Autotrophic nutrition

(a) sporophyte of longer duration
(b) dominant phase of sporophyte which is parasitic
(c) dominant phase of gametophyte which
produces spores
(d) small sporophyte phase generally parasitic on

55. Which of the following is true about


46. Which of the following plants produces

seeds but not flowers?


(b) Mint
(d) Pinus

in angiosperms because of


(a) They possess archegonia

(b) They contain chloroplast
(c) They are thalloid
(d) All of the above

56. In which of the following would you place

47. Cycas has two cotyledons but not included

(a) naked ovules
(b) seems like monocot
(c) circinate ptyxis
(d) compound leaves

(b) Bacillariophyceae
(d) Phaeophyceae

51. Columella is a specialised structure found

43. Which one pair of examples will correctly

(a) Maize
(c) Peepal

found that its cells contained both

chlorophyll-a,b,c and chlorophyll-d as well
as phycoerythrin. The alga belongs to [2000]
(a) Rhodophyceae
(c) Chlorophyceae

41. Angiosperms have dominated the land flora

primarily because of their

48. A research student collected certain alga and


the plants having vascular tissue, lacking

(a) Algae
(b) Bryophytes
(c) Pteridophytes
(d) Gymnosperms

Plant Kingdom
57. Largest sperms in the plant world are found
(a) Pinus
(c) Cycas

(b) Banyan
(d) Tsuja

58. Bryophytes are dependent on water because

(a) water is essential for fertilisation for their
homosporous nature
(b) water is essential for their vegetative
(c) the sperms can easily reach up to egg in the
(d) archegonium has to remain filled with water for

59. Which one of the following statements

about Cycas is incorrect?

(a) It does not have a well organised female flower
(b) It has circinate vernation
(c) Its xylem is mainly composed of xylem vessels
(d) Its roots contain some blue-green algae

60. Ulothrix can be described as a

(a) non-motile colonial alga lacking zoospores
(b) filamentous alga lacking flagellated
reproductive stages
(c) membranous alga producing zoospores
(d) filamentous alga with flagellated reproductive

61. The walking fern is so named because

(a) it is dispersed through the agency of walking
(b) it propagates vegetatively by its leaf tips
(c) it knows how to walk by itself
(d) its spores are able to walk

62. Ulothrix filaments produce


(a) isogametes
(b) anisogametes
(c) heterogametes
(d) basidiospores

(a) Spirogyra
(b) Ulothrix
(c) Oscillatoria
(d) Chlorella

because they

(a) are thalloid forms
(b) have no conducting tissue
(c) possess archegonia with outer layer of sterile cells
(d) contain chloroplasts in their cells

66. Multicellular branched rhizoids and leafy

gametophytes are characteristics of
(a) all bryophytes
(c) all pteridophytes

(b) some bryophytes
(d) some pteridophytes

67. Blue-green algae belong to

(a) eukaryotes
(c) Rhodophyceae

(b) prokaryotes
(d) Chlorophyceae

68. Seed habit first originated in

(a) certain ferns
(c) certain monocots

(b) certain pines
(d) primitive dicots

69. In which one of these the elaters are present

along with mature spores in the capsule (to
help in spore dispersal)?
(a) Riccia
(c) Funaria

(b) Marchantia
(d) Sphagnum

70. A well developed archegonium with neck

consisting of 4-6 rows of neck canal cells,
(a) gymnosperms only
(b) bryophytes and pteridophytes
(c) pteridophytes and gymnosperms
(d) gymnosperms and flowering plants

71. The plant body of moss (Funaria) is

(a) completely sporophyte
[1995, 2006]
(b) completely gametophyte
(c) predominantly sporophyte with gametophyte
(d) predominantly gametophyte with sporophyte
(a) red algae
(c) brown algae


(a) phycocyanin
(b) phycoerythrin
(c) fucoxanthin
(d) haematochrome

64. An alga very rich in protein is

65. Bryophytes can be separated from algae

72. Agar is commercially obtained from [1995]

63. Brown algae is characterised by the

presence of


(b) green algae

(d) blue-green algae

73. The

absence of chlorophyll,
lowermost cell of Ulothrix, shows




(a) functional fission

(b) tissue formation
(c) cell characteristic
(d) beginning of labour division

74. The wing of Pinus seed is derived from

(a) testa
(b) testa and tegmen
(c) surface of ovuliferous scale
(d) All of the above



CBSE AIPMT Chapterwise Solutions Biology

75. In Chlorophyceae, sexual reproduction

occurs by


(a) produce spores

(b) have sporophyte attached to gametophyte
(c) lack roots
(d) lack vascular tissues

77. Which of the following cannot fix nitrogen?

78. Chloroplast of Chlamydomonas is

(a) stellate
(c) collar-shaped


(b) cup-shaped
(d) spiral

79. In Ulothrix/Spirogyra, reduction division

(meiosis) occurs at the time of


(a) tree habit

(b) green leaves
(c) ovules not enclosed in ovary
(d) wood




84. The plant group that produces spores and

embryo but lacks vascular tissues and seeds is
(a) Pteridophyta
(b) Rhodophyta
(c) Bryophyta
(d) Phaeophyta


(b) Selaginella
(d) Dryopteris

88. In

Pinus, the pollen grain has 6

chromosomes then its endosperm will have
the chromosome
(a) 12
(c) 6

(b) 18
(d) 24
(b) Pinus
(d) Abies


90. Which one has the largest gametophyte?

(a) Cycas
(c) Selaginella

(b) Angiosperm
(d) Moss


(a) they require a layer of water for carrying out

sexual reproduction
[1991, 96]
(b) they occur in damp places
(c) they are mostly aquatic
(d) All of the above

(a) zygospore
(c) oospore


(b) zoospore
(d) carpospore

93. Apophysis in the capsule of Funaria is

(b) Funaria
(d) Pinus
(b) enzymes
(d) starch

(a) Pinus
(c) Chlamydomonas

fertilisation of Chlamydomonas is

83. Pyrenoids are the centres for formation of

(a) porphyra
(c) fat

represented by zygote is

92. The product of conjugation in Spirogyra or

82. Which one is the most advanced from

(a) Selaginella
(c) Chlamydomonas

87. A plant in which sporophytic generation is

91. Bryophytes are amphibians because

(a) independent gametophyte

(b) well developed vascular system
(c) archegonia
(d) flagellate spermatozoids

evolutionary view point?


(a) Archegonium
(b) Embryo
(c) Flagellate sperms
(d) Roots

(a) Cycas
(c) Cedrus

80. Pinus differs from mango in having [1993]

bryophytes in possessing

between Funaria and Selaginella?

89. Resin and terpentine are obtained from

(a) gamete formation

(b) zoospore formation
(c) zygospore germination
(d) vegetative reproduction

81. Pteridophytes

(b) mosses
(d) gymnosperms

86. Which one of the following is not common

76. Unique features of bryophytes is that they

(b) Azotobacter
(d) Anabaena

and fruits belongs to

(a) pteridophytes
(c) ferns

(a) isogamy and anisogamy

(b) isogamy, anisogamy and oogamy
(c) oogamy only
(d) anisogamy and oogamy

(a) Nostoc
(c) Spirogyra

85. A plant having seeds but lacking flowers


(a) lower part

(c) middle part

(b) upper part

(d) fertile part


94. Moss peristome takes part in

(a) spore dispersal
(c) protection

(b) photosynthesis
(d) absorption

95. Protonema occurs in the life cycle of

(a) Riccia
(b) Funaria
(c) Chlamydomonas
(d) Spirogyra

[1990, 93]

Plant Kingdom
96. Sperms of both Funaria and Pteris were
released together near the archegonia of
Pteris. Only Pteris sperms enter the
archegonia as
(a) Pteris archegonia repel Funaria sperms
(b) Funaria sperms get killed by Pteris sperms
(c) Funaria sperms are less mobile
(d) Pteris archegonia release chemical to attract its

97. Evolutionary



Selaginella is



(a) heterosporous nature (b) rhizophore

(c) strobili
(d) ligule

98. In

structure are



(a) megaspore, endosperm and embryo

(b) megaspore, pollen grain and endosperm
(c) megaspore, integument and root
(d) pollen grain, leaf and root


99. In Pinus/Cycas/gymnosperms, the endosperm



(a) triploid
(b) haploid
(c) diploid
(d) tetraploid

100. Prothallus (gametophyte) gives rise to fern

plant (sporophyte) without fertilisation. It is
(a) apospory
(b) apogamy
(c) parthenocarpy
(d) parthenogenesis


101.Sexual reproduction involving fusion of two

cells in Chlamydomonas is


(a) isogamy
(b) homogamy
(c) somatogamy
(d) hologamy

Answer with Explanations

1. (d) Isogamy with non-flagellated gametes is seen in
Spirogyra. It can reproduce both by sexual and
asexual (vegetative) means.
They reproduce sexually by conjugation in which
two non-flagellated morphologically similar but
physiologically different gemetes (isogamous) fuse
together. One filament acts as male like gamete and
passes through the conjugation tube of another
filament which acts as female like gamete.

Conjugation tube

Female like gamete

Zygospore wall

Male like gamete

Zygospore (c)

2. (c) Both antheridium and oogonium are the male

and the female reproductive structures respectively.

They have sterile jackets on their surface. In almost

all algae of classChlorophyceae, the structure like
globule (male sex organ) is present on lower side,
while the nucule (female sex organ) is present on
upper side of sterile vegetative (leaf-like) structure.

3. (d) Peat is mainly an accumulation of partially

decayed vegetation or organic matter and
Sphagnum accumulations can store water, since
both living and dead plants can hold large
quantities of water and living matter
(like meat egges) for long distance transport inside
their cells hence, it is responsible for peat

4. (b) Chlorella is a potential food source because it is

high in protein and other essential nutrients when
dried, it contains about 45% protein, 20% fat,
20% carbohydrate, 5% fibre and 10% minerals and

5. (c) Lilium (angiosperm) possesses the male

gametophyte with least number of cells.
The number of cells in male gametophyte shows the
pattern of reduction from bryophytes to
angiosperms. In angiosperms, it is reduced to about
2-3 celled and called as pollen grains.
The number of cells in male gametophyte decreases
in the following order
Funaria > Pteris > Pinus > Lilium


CBSE AIPMT Chapterwise Solutions Biology

6. (b) Cyanobacteria within the coralloid roots of

Cycas are chemoheterotrophic and specifically
adapted to life in symbiosis. Only a few species of
cyanobacteria form associations with Cycas. Pinus
is a gymnosperm. Equisetum belongs to vascular
plants and to horse tail family. Psilotum belongs to
divisionPteridophyta and is a fern-like plant.

7. (c) Statement (c) is wrong as Oomycetes include

water moulds, white rusts and downy mildews.
In these, female gamete is large and non-motile,
whereas, male gamete is small and non-motile.
Isogametes are found in algae like Ulothrix,
Chlamydomonas, Spirogyra, etc., which are
similar in structure, function and behaviour.
Anisogametes are found in Chlamydomonas in
which one gamete is larger and non-motile and
the other one is motile and smaller.
Oogamy is the fusion of non-motile egg with motile
sperm. The gametes, differ both morphologically as
Chlamydomonas, Fucus, Chara, Volvox, etc.


Thallop Bryop- Pterido- Gymno Angios

phyta s-perms -perms

hyte (%)






hyte (%)






14. (c) In gymnosperms, (e.g. Pinus, Cycas, etc.) the

male and female gametophytes do not have an
independent free-living existence. They remain
within the sporangia retained on the sporophytes.

15. (d) In Marchantia, a bryophyte, the archegonia

(female sex organs) are borne on special branches
called archegoniophore or female receptacles.
Each archegoniophore has rows of archegonia
protected by involucre or perichaetium.

16. (a) The coralloid root of Cycas is symbiotically

is incorrect and can be corrected as the sporophyte

in mosses is more elaborate than in liverworts.

associated with nitrogen fixing blue-green algae,

Anabaena cycadae and Nostoc punctiforme. These
blue green-algae (cyanobacteria) are prokaryotic,
photosynthetic and autotrophic.

9. (b) Multiciliated motile sperms are found in both

17. (a) Algae have cell wall made up of cellulose,

Cycas (gymnosperm) and Adiantum or walking fern

Seeds and cambium are present in Cycas (quite
common in gymnosperms) but absent in
pteridophytes. Vessels are absent in both.

galactans and mannans. Like plants, algae have

cell walls containing either polysaccharides such
as cellulose (a glucan) or a variety of glycoproteins
or both.

8. (c) Statement I, II and III are correct. Statement IV

10. (d) Origin of seed habitat can be traced in

pteridophytes. Some pteridophytes like Selaginella
and Salvinia are heterosporous as they produce two
kinds of spores micro (small) spores and macro
(large) spores, which germinate and give rise to
male and female gametophyte respectively.
The female gametophyte in these plants are retained
on the parent sporophytes for variable periods. The
development of the zygote into young embryos takes
place within the female gametophyte. This event is
the precursor to the seed habit and considered to an
important step in evolution.

The inclusion of additional polysaccharide in algal

cell walls is used as a feature for algal taxonomy.
Mananas form microfibrils in the cell walls of a
number of marine green algae including those from
the genera Codium, Acetabularia as well as in the
walls of some red algae like Porphyra.

18. (d) In Sphagnum, male and female gametophytes

are independent and free living. In bryophytes, the
most conspicuous phase in life cycle is the
gametophyte. It is independent and concerned with

19. (c) Fucus belongs to classPhaeophyceae, in

of parenchymatous cells are present with secondary

xylem tracheids. So, these are also known as
softwood spermatophytes.

which reserve food is found in form of laminarin,

mannitol and oil.
Chara belongs to classChlorophyceae, in which
reserve food is found in form of starch and oil.
classRhodophyceae, in which reserve food is
found in form of floridean starch and Galactan-SO4

13. (c) As we proceed from thallophyta to angiosperms,

20. (a) Pteridophytes are also called vascular

11. (d) Multicellular fungi, filamentous algae and

protonema of mosses all show multiplication by

12. (d) Gymnosperms lack xylem fibres. Large amount

there is gradual reduction in gametophyte with

reduced size of sex organs. From thallophyta to
angiosperms, there is progressive elaboration of

cryptogams as these have a well developed

vascular system and but are non-flowering, e.g.

Plant Kingdom
21. (b) Heterospory is the production of spores of two
different sizes and of two different developmental
patterns. Heterospory is an expression of sex
determining spores of the plant. It is the most
important evolutionary development in the vascular
plants because it has ultimately lead to seed
development, which is seen in, Selaginella, Salvinia,
Azolla, etc.

22. (b) Pinus is monoecious which bear male cone as


In family NFabaceae (Leguminosae) the

gynoecium is monocarpellary, unilocular with
superior ovary and marginal placentation, e.g. pea.

26. (b) The presence of vessels in the xylem is an

angiospermic character found in Gnetum which
distinguish it from Cycas and Pinus.
Gnetum resembles angiosperms in many other
aspects also like

well as female cone on the tree on separate branches.

Marchantia, Cycas and papaya are dioecious plants.

(i) The leaves in Gnetum have reticulate venation

that is an angiospermic character.

23. (a) In Pteris (also Dryopteris) the spore germinates

(ii) In Gnetum female gametophyte is only partly

cellular before fertilisation and becomes
completely cellular only after fertilisation. Some
of the free nuclei act as eggs as there are no
The short apices in Gnetum and angiosperms show
a distinct tunica and corpus configuration.
The cortex of stem of Pinus is traversed by large resin
ducts or canals. Each duct or canal is lined by a layer
of thin walled parenchymatous glandular secretory
cells constituting epithelium. The epithelial cells
secrete resin into canal. Resin is the chief source of

to produce the prothallus. The prothallus is a small,

green flat, surface loving, thallus-like object. It is
monoecious and bears sex organs on the ventral
side. The antheridia (male sex organs) arise among
the rhizoids towards the posterior side of the
prothallus and are emergent. The archegonia
develop in central cushion behind the apical notch.
In these plants male and female, gametophytes do
not have free living independent existence.
All species of Polytrichum are dioecious. The
antheridia and archegonia are borne on different
gametophore. The plant body is an erect leafy shoot
but is not the entire gametophyte. The leafy shoot
arise from protonema (the juvenile stage).
The leafy gametophore of Funaria reproduces
sexually by formation of antheridia and archegonia.
The antheridia are formed at the summit of a
relatively small, thin, leafy shoot, which develops
first. The female branch arises later as a lateral
outgrowth from the base of parent male shoot.

24. (b) From the following Salvinia is heterosporous.

Heterospory is the production of spores of two
different sizes and two different developmental
patterns. Small spores are called microspores and
larger as megaspore.
Microspores germinate to produce the male
gametophyte or microgametophyte that bear male
sex organs while, megaspore germinates to form
female gametophyte or megagametophyte that
bears archegonia or female sex organs. It is most
important evolutionary development in the vascular
plants because it has ultimately lead to seed
development, e.g. Selaginella, Marselia, Salvinia,
Azolla, Isoetes.
Dryopteris is homosporous and 3264 haploid
spores are produced in each sporangium.
Adiantum is also homosporous. The spores are the
pioneer structures of the gametophytic generation.

25. (b)

The gynoecium in family Cruciferae

(Brassicaceae) is bicarpellary, syncarpous, ovary
superior, unilocular with parietal placentation. At
maturity ovary becomes bilocular due to the
formation of false septum (replum), e.g. mustard.
In familyAsteraceae (Compositae) the gynoecium
is bicarpellary syncarpous, ovary inferior, unilocular,
one ovule in each locule basal placentation and
stigma branched, e.g. sunflower.

27. (d) In the prothallus of a vascular cryptogam, the

antherozoids and eggs mature at different times. As
a result self fertilisation is prevented.

28. (a) Elaters are hygroscopic in nature and help in

dispersal of spores.

29. (a) Types of pigments present in the cell of algae is

the most important character for classification.

30. (d) Flagellated male gametes are present in Riccia,

Dryopteris and Cycas.

31. (b) In gymnosperms, the pollen chamber is a cavity

in the ovule in which pollen grains are stored after

32. (a) Sphagnum is a bryophyte, commonly called as

bog moss or peat moss. It is hygroscopic and
possesses a remarkable water holding capacity.
Hence, it is used as a packing material in the
transportation of flowers, live plants, tubers, bulbs,
seedlings, etc. It is also used in seed-beds and in

33. (c) The conifers (gymnosperm) differ from the

grasses (angiosperm) in the formation of
endosperm before fertilisation. Infact, in
gymnosperms, the endosperm is formed before the
fertilisation, thus, it is a haploid tissue while in
angiosperms, endosperm is formed after fertilisation
as a result of triple fusion or double fertilisation,
thus, it is a triploid tissue.
In both conifers and grasses seeds are produced
from ovules.
Xylem tracheids are present in both conifers and
Pollen tubes are also formed in both conifers and


CBSE AIPMT Chapterwise Solutions Biology

34. (a) Marginal notches in Kalanchoe and Bryophyllum

possess adventitious buds in their leaves for
vegetative propagation.

40. (d) Anabaena is a free living nitrogen-fixing

cyanobacterium which can form
association with water fern Azolla.


35. (a) Auxospores and hormocysts are formed by

41. (a) Angiosperms are well adapted to terrestrial life

several diatoms and a few cyanobacteria

respectively. Bacillariophyceae members (diatoms)
are microscopic, eukaryotic, unicellular or colonial
coccoid algae. These algae are sexually reproduced
by the formation of auxospores in most cases.
Bozi (1914) and Fremi (1930) reported that short
sections of living cells at the tips of the trichomes of
Wertiella lanosa become invested by a thick,
lamellated, pigmented sheath. Such multicellular
spore like structures function as perennating
bodies. They are specially modified hormogones
and are called hormospores or hormocysts.

and occur in diverse habitats like cold Tundra to hot

tropical and even desert areas. They also thrive well
in aquatic habitat. Hence, they being the most
successful, to have dominated the land flora.

36. (b) In the ectophloic siphonostele, the xylem

surrounds pith and this xylem is surrounded by
phloem, pericycle and endodermis respectively.
e.g. Osmunda and Equisetum.

Ectophloic siphonostele

37. (a)

Column I

Column II

A. Peritrichous flagella
(flagella all over the

Escherichia coli
(a bacterium)

B. Living fossil

Ginkgo biloba
(maiden hair tree)

C. Rhizophore
(a form of aerial
adventitious roots)

(a pteridophyte)

D. Smallest flowering


E. Largest perennial


38. (a) Adiantum is also called walking fern. In

Adiantum the tips of the leaves, on coming in
contact with the soil, give out adventitious roots
which, in turn, produce new leaves and develop into
new plants.

39. (a) The Cycadales is an ancient order of

featuresnow having only a few living
representative of once a large group of plants that
glorified during the Mesozoic era. Therefore, Cycas
is called as living fossil.

42. (c) Fern is a pteridophyte and Funaria is a

bryophyte, both these produce spores but not seeds.
Phanerogams is a group of plants which produce
seeds and flowers. It includes gymnospermic and
angiospermic plants. While cryptogams is another
group of plants which do not produce seeds and
flowers, e.g. algae, fungi, bryophytes and

43. (b) Ginkgo is a gymnospermic plant so it comes

before angiospermic plant, Pisum (pea). Rhizopus is
a fungus and Triticum (wheat) is an angiospermic
Option (c) has both angiospermic plants and option
(d) has both gymnospermic plants.

44. (a) In Spirogyra, the sexual reproduction involves

the fusion of two morphologically
anisogametes. This is a case of
anisogamy. In this the active gamete is
the male and the passive as the female.

known as

45. (b) A few plants, (e.g. Rafflesia) are parasitic. Some

angiosperm genera are vesselless. Secondary
growth does not take place in a large variety of
angiosperms. However, double fertilisation is met
with amongst all angiosperms.
In this one male gamete fuses with egg nucleus ( n ).
This is known as syngamy and the second male
gamete fuses with the secondary nucleus (2n ). This
is known as triple fusion. Together these syngamy
and triple fusion is known as double fertilisation.

46. (d) Pinus is a gymnospermic plant. Ovules of Pinus

are uncovered which lie on the megasporophyll,
hence, these plants do not have flowers. However, it
produces seeds (from ovule after fertilisation) like
other three plants mentioned, all of which are

47. (a) Gymnosperms (Gk. gymnos-naked, sperma-seed

e.g. naked seed plants) is a group of phanerogams
which have naked ovules, i.e. structure (ovules) that
eventually become the seeds after fertilisation and
not completely enclosed by the tissues of the parent

48. (a) Members of Rhodophyceae (red algae) contains

Chlorophyll-a, d, r-phycoerythrin, r-phycocyanin,

and carotene pigments.
Members of Chlorophyceae (green algae) contain
Chlorophyll-a, b and -carotene pigments.
Members of Bacillariophyceae (diatoms) contain
Chlorophyll-a, c, -carotene, -carotene pigments.

Plant Kingdom


Members of Cyanophyceae (cyanobacteria,

c-phycocyanin, c-phycoerythrin and -carotene

57. (c) Cycas is a gymnospermic plant. It has the

49. (c) In the ferns sporangium is a diploid structure. It

flagellated (motile) and need a film of water to swim

through for reaching the archegonium. Bryophyta is
a group of cryptogams. Main plant body of
bryophytes is gametophytic (haploid). It bearing
male and female sex organs.

bears diploid spore mother cells which undergo

meiosis and produce haploid spores. Each spore
contains an outer thick brown wall called exine and
a thin inner wall called intine. Spore is the first cell
of gametophyte. On germination, it gives rise to a
haploid gametophytic stage.

50. (c) Cycas with largest antherozoids and ovule, and

the largest plant Sequoia belong to gymnosperms.
Gymnosperm is a group of naked seeded plants,
i.e., their ovules are not enclosed by ovary walls.
Ovules of gymnosperms are directly borne on the

51. (b) In Rhizopus, the central non-sporiferous region

of sporangium is called columella.

52. (b) The antherozoids of Funaria are spirally coiled

and bear two equal flagella at anterior end.

biggest sperms (antherozoids) and ovules in the

plant world.

58. (c) The antherozoids (sperms) of bryophytes are

59. (c) Statements (c) is incorrect regarding Cycas as

Vessels are absent from the xylem of all
gymnosperms (except Gnetales). Cycas belongs to
Cycadales (not Gnetales).

60. (d) Ulothrix is a freshwater, filamentous green

algae, found in rather cold flowing water. Sexual
reproduction in Ulothrix is isogamous type, i.e., it
takes place between two morphological similar
motile, flagellated male and female gametes which
come from different filaments.

61. (b) Adiantum is called walking fern. The tips of its

leaves, on coming in contact with the soil, gives out
adventitious roots which in turn produce new leaves
and develop into new plants.

62. (a) Ulothrix belongs to green algae. Sexual

reproduction in Ulothrix takes place by the union of
isogametes which are motile, biflagellate,
morphologically similar gametes. Approximately
8-32 isogametes are produced from a mother cell.
Two gametes come from two different filament, fuse
and form a diploid zygote.

63. (c) In addition to chlorophyll-a, brown algae posses


Antherozoids (Funaria)

53. (d) Though many liverworts are dichotomously

branched but some of the leafy liverworts are not.
However, Marchantia is a liverwort which is
dichotomously branched.

54. (d) Bryophyta is a group of thalloid, non-vascular,

cryptogams which have gametophytic (haploid
phase) as dominant phase. It bears diploid
sporophytic phase which takes food from
gametophytic phase, thus behaves as parasite on

55. (d) Bryophytes are non-vascular cryptogams, their

main plant body is gametophytic (haploid) which is
a thalloid structure. It contains chlorophyll for the
process of photosynthesis. Thalloid plant body bear
archegonia as female sex organs.

56. (c) Pteridophytes and gymnosperms do have

vascular tissues. However, gymnosperms bear
seeds while pteridophytes not bear seeds. Algae
and bryophytes do not possess vascular tissues.

special carotenoids and fucoxanthin. It is due to the

fucoxanthin (brown pigment) that these appear
Phycocyanin and phycoerythrin are phycobilins
which are found in red algae (phycocyanin-r,
phycoerythrin-r) and blue-green algae (phycocyanin-c,
phycoerythrin-c). Haematochrome is a red pigment
which provides red appearance to a cell.

64. (d) Dried Chlorella pyrenoidosa contains approximately 50-55% crude protein (more than that in
dried beef, soyabean meal and dried yeast).

65. (c) Archegonia is female sex organ in bryophytes. It

is a flask-shaped multicellular organ. It is composed
of a cylindrical upper portion called neck with a
single layer of sterile cells called Neck Canal Cells
(NCC) and a lower swollen sac-like portion called
venter. It also has layer or layers of sterile cells.
Venter encloses a larger egg cell and a smaller (just
above to egg) Venter Canal Cell (VCC).

66. (b) In pteridophytes and gymnosperms, gametophyte generation is reduced, sporophyte is

well-developed. In bryophytes, gametophyte
constitutes the main well developed generation but
in mosses, (e.g. Funaria), it is foliose.


CBSE AIPMT Chapterwise Solutions Biology

67. (b) Blue-green algae or cyanobacteria are the largest

75. (b) In Chlorophyceae, three types of sexual

nitrogen-fixing, simplest chlorophyll containing
thallophytes/ prokaryotes. They neither have a
definite nucleus nor definite plastid with grana.
They also lack flagella, chlorophyll-b, mesosome,
meiosis and membrane bound organelles (except
ribosome of 70S type).

reproduction occurs, i.e., isogamy, anisogamy and

Isogamy involves the fusion of those gametes which
are similar in size, shape and structure, e.g.
Chlamydomonas debaryana.
In anisogamy gametes differ morphologically and
also behave differently, e.g. Chlamydomonas
In oogamy, fusion between motile and non-motile
gametes takes place, e.g. Chlamydomonas

68. (a) The tendency towards seed formation is called

seed habit. It was developed in fossil gymnosperm
of group Cycadofilicales (pteridosperms), i.e., seed
ferns, e.g. Lyginopteris which bears characters of
cycads and ferns both. Seed habit is shown by few
pteridophytes like Selaginella, Marselia, Isoetes, etc,
which exhibit heterospory.

69. (b) In Marchantia, capsule (the part of sporophyte)

contains elaters (2n) and spores (n) in tetrads.
Elaters are diploid, spindle shaped hygroscopic
elongated structures with 2 spiral bands. They show
twisting movement and assist in spore dispersal on

70. (b) Archegonium is the flask-shaped female

reproductive body of bryophytes and pteridophytes.
Archegonium usually consists of a tubular neck and
a swollen venter. Neck is made up of 4-6 vertical row
of cells and encloses 6-10 neck canal cells in
bryophytes and 4 vertical rows in pteridophytes
enclosing 1-4 neck canal cells. Venter has 1-2 layer
but it is wall-less in pteridophytes.

71. (d) Funaria (green moss) and other bryophytes show

gametophytic (n) and diploid sporophytic phases
(2n ). Plant body represents the gametophytic phase,
which reproduces by producing gametes and on
fusion form zygote.
Zygote develops into sporophyte and produces
haploid meiospores which on germination form
differentiated into foot, seta and capsule.

72. (a)

mucopolysaccharide obtained from middle lamella
of cell wall of marine red algae like Gracillaria,
Gelidium, Gigartina, etc; commonly known as
agarophytes. It is used as solidifying agent in the
culture medium, as luxative stabilizer or thickener
in preparing jams, jellies, creams, ice creams,
bakery products and as luxative in drug industry.

73. (d) Ulothrix is an advanced alga, with three types of

cellsgreen dome-shaped apical cell, green
intercalary cell and basal non-green cell called
holdfast. Holdfast or basal cell is for attachment, it
has nucleus and cytoplasm, its presence shows the
beginning of division of labour.

74. (c) The winges of seed of Pinus is thin, membranous

diploid and develops jointly from the basal upper
surface (adaxial) of ovuliferous scale and outer layer
of integument of the ovule.

76. (b) The main plant body of bryophytes is

gametophytic which is independent and may be
thallose or foliose. The sporophyte is differentiated
into foot, seta and capsule and is partially or fully
dependent upon the gametophyte.

77. (c) Spirogyra is a free floating, filamentous, green,

freshwater alga, popularly called pond silk. It has no
role in nitrogen fixation. It forms a green slimy mass
on the surface of standing and stagnant water of
ponds during spring season, hence, also called pond
Whereas, blue-green algae like Nostoc, Anabaena
are the important nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria, so
these are used as biofertiliser. Azotobacter is the
aerobic free living/non-symbiotic nitrogen fixer.

78. (b) In Chlamydomonas, chloroplast is single and

cup-shaped. Chloroplasts are the pigment (chl-a
and chl-b) containing bodies present in green algae.
The green colouration of the members of
chlorophyta is due to the presence of excess of
chlorophyll in the chloroplasts. The chloroplasts are
well defined bodies met within every cell of the
members of this class, though number and shape of
the chloroplasts varies in different orders of the

79. (c) In Ulothrix/Spirogyra, meiosis takes place at the

time of zygospore germination. It takes place when
(+) and () plants/filaments results in the formation
of diploid zygote (2x). Zygote is tetraflagellated, it
secretes a thick wall and becomes non-motile to form
diploid zygospore. Under favourable conditions,
zygospore undergoes zygotic meiosis to form motile
tetraflagellated zoomeiospores or non-motile
aplanomeiospores. Each meiospore (haploid)
germinates to new filament of (+) () strain.

80. (c) Gymnosperms, (e.g. Pinus) are commonly called

as naked seeded plants since their ovules (which
later become seed) are not covered and lie naked on
the surfaces of specialised leaves (megasporophylls
or ovuliferous scales) arranged into cones.
Thus, gymnosperms are also known as seeded
plants without flowers or phanerogams without
ovary. In contrast, angiosperms are seed bearing,
flowering vascular plants in which seeds are
enclosed in fruits, and are called as phanerogams
with ovary or seeded flowering plants.

Plant Kingdom
81. (b) Pteridophytes are most primitive vascular
flowerless, spore producing cryptogamic land
amphibians/botanical snakes/spore producing
seedless trachaeophytes. They are first vascular
land plants to have independent sporophyte diploid
plant body with true root, stem and leaves. In
contrast bryophytes, the amphibians of plant
kingdom are devoid of true roots, stem and leaves,
with no vascular supply but root like, non-vascular
rhizoids, leaf-like and stem like structures are

82. (d) From the evolutionary point of view, the given

options can be arranged as Chlamydomonas,
Funaria, Selaginella, and Pinus.
Pinus, i.e., gymnosperms are the most evolved seed
bearing phanerogamic vascular sporophytic plants,
after angiosperms (most advanced group of plants).
Pteridophytes (e.g. Selaginella) are spore bearing
bryophytes and pteridophytes resemble each other
in dependence on water for fertilisation.

83. (d) Pyrenoid is a seat of synthesis and storage of

starch present in the chloroplast of algae.
A pyrenoid has a core of protein around which
starch is deposited as layers.

84. (c) Bryophytes consist of thalloid body, attached to

the substratum by hair-like structures called
rhizoids (true roots are absent), these lack vascular
tissue (xylem and phloem) and require water at the
time of fertilisation. Bryophytes exhibit alternation
of generation.
The haploid gametophyte (producing gametes for
sexual reproduction) alternates with diploid
sporophyte (producing spores for asexual
reproduction). Production of large number of spores
is for increasing the chances of survival and is an
adaptation to land conditions.

85. (d) Gymnosperms (Gk Gymno=naked ; sperma-seed)

are commonly known as naked seed plants because
their ovules (which later become seeds) are not
covered and lie naked on the surfaces of specialised
leaves called megasporophylls or ovuliferous scales,
arranged into cones, flowers are absent; seed may
have two, (e.g. Cycas) or more (e.g. Pinus) cotyledons.

86. (d) Roots are not the common structure in Funaria

and Selaginella. Funaria (moss) and Selaginella
(pteridophytes) can be related with the presence of
archegonium, embryo, flagellated sperms.
In Funaria, the plant is attached to the substratum
by means of root-like structures called rhizoids,
which are multicellular, branched, have oblique
cross wall. In Selaginella, special leafless positively
geotropic structures called rhizophores arise from
the stem at the point of branching. Rhizophore
resembles the stem in some characters and roots in


other characters and was regarded as

organ-sui-genesis (organ of independent origin).

87. (c) In Chlamydomonas, the plant body is haploid,

and represents gametophyte. It reproduces
asexually through the formation of zoospores and
sexually through gametes. Gametes (haploid) fuse
to produce diploid zygote, representing the
sporophytic generation. The zygote secretes a wall
around it to become a resting zygospore (diploid).
The zygote and zygospore are the only diploid
structure which represents the diplophase.

88. (c) In gymnosperms (Pinus) both the pollen grains

and endosperm are haploid structure, formed before
fertilisation. If the pollen grain has haploid number
of chromosome equal to 6, then its endosperm will
also have the same number of chromosome, i.e., 6.

89. (b) Pinus roxburghi is a source of resin and

terpentine, obtained after distillation. Terpentine is
utilised in varnishes and paints.

90. (d) Of the given options, moss has the largest

gametophyte. It get reduced in the order as
Selaginella, Cycas, angiosperms. Gametophyte
begins with the haploid spore and ends with the
formation of haploid gametes.
Gametophyte gives rise to the sporophyte (through
sexual reproduction) and sporophyte gives rise to
gametophyte. As one moves from thallophyte
bryophyte pteridophyte gymnosperms
angiosperms, there is development in the
sporophyte and reduction in the gametophyte.

91. (a) Bryophytes are called terrestrial amphibians

(amphibians of plant kingdom). They are first
amongst land plants which occur in damp and
shady habitats. As vascular tissues are absent, male
gametes require a layer of water for swimming and

92. (a) Zygospore (zygote) is the fusion product of two

gametes. It infact, represents the resting stage
formed after withdrawl of flagella and formation of a
thick wall around the freshly formed zygote.
Zygospore is spherical with thick, smooth or stellate
wall and contains fats and reserve food materials
other than starch. It can resist unfavourable
In Chlamydomonas, zygospore is the resultant of
isogamy, anisogamy or oogamy. In Spirogyra sexual
reproduction occurs through conjugation, which
may be scalariform or lateral. The resulting zygote
secretes a thick wall called zygospore (having 3
layers thick wall, diploid nucleus and abundant food
reserves in the form of oil and starch).

93. (a) Capsule (the body containing spores) of Funaria

is differentiated intooperculum (cap shaped 2-3
layered thick lid on the top); theca (middle fertile
part) and apophysis (sterile, solid basal portion of
the capsule having chloroplasts).


CBSE AIPMT Chapterwise Solutions Biology

94. (a) Peristome functions in the dispersal of the

spores. Peristome constitutes rings of teeth like
projections at the rim of the capsule of the mosses.
In Funaria, peristome are 32 in number, arragned in
two rings of 16 each (a) outer exostome and (b) inner

95. (b) Protonema represents the juvenile stage of moss

(Funaria). It is much-branched, green filamentous
structure formed by the germination of spores,
under favourable conditions. The protonema
consists of (a) some slender rhizoids (b) a number of
aerial green prostrate branches bearing small
lateral buds which grow up into new moss

96. (d) In Dryopteris and Pteris, when fertilisation

occurs, sperms are attracted by the chemical
diffusing into the water from the mucilage exuded
by the open necks of archegonia of the older
prothalli, some of them make their way down the
canal to the egg in the venter and only one of these
enters the egg to accomplish fertilisation.

97. (a) Heterospory; i.e., the production of two different

types of spores : larger macrospores and smaller
microspores is a character of evolutionary
significance in pteridophyte (Selaginella) because
seed habit (characteristic feature of gymnosperms
and angiosperms) and differentiation of spores on

the basis of sex is believed to have originated from

heterosporous condition.

98. (b) In gymnosperms, the megaspore (haploid) is first

cell of female gametophyte and undergoes repeated
divisions to form a multicellular female
gametophyte, which because of abundant food
reserves, serves as endosperm. So, being produced
before fertilisation, endosperm is haploid in
Microspores or pollen grains are the first cell of the
male gametophyte and are haploid in nature.

99. (b) In gymnosperms, e.g. Pinus, Cycas, endosperm

develops before fertilisation and is haploid in nature.
In angiosperms, endosperm is triploid (3n) and
formed after double fertilisation.

100. (b) Apogamy refers to the development of

sporophyte from gametophyte without fertilisation.
In fern plant, prothallus (gametophyte) gives rise to
main plant body (sporophyte) directly from somatic
cell without forming gametes. Sporophyte thus
formed is haploid in nature.

101. (d) In Chlamydomonas, hologamy involves the

fusion of two young individuals directly,
e.g. C. snowiae and isogamy involves fusion of
gametes which are similar in size, structure and
physiology, e.g. C. euganetos.

1. What is common about Trypanosoma,
Noctiluca, Monocystis and Giardia?


2. When a freshwater protozoan possessing a

contractile vacuole is placed in a glass
containing marine water, the vacuole will
(b) disappear
(d) decrease in size

3. The chief advantage of encystment to an

Amoeba is

(a) the chance to get rid of accumulated waste
(b) the ability to survive during adverse physical
(c) the ability to live for some time without
ingesting food
(d) protection from parasites and predators

4. Extranuclear inheritance occurs in


(a) killer strain in Paramecium

(b) colour blindness
(c) phenylketonuria
(d) Tay Sach disease

5. Which of the following organisms possesses

characteristics of both a plant and an
(a) Bacteria
(b) Mycoplasma
(c) Euglena
(d) Paramecium

characteristic feature of
[1995, 2002, 05]
(a) Paramecium and Vorticella
(b) Opelina and Nictothirus
(c) Hydra and Ballantidium
(d) Vorticella and Nictothirus

(a) These are all unicellular protists

(b) They have flagella
(c) They produce spores
(d) These are all parasites

(a) increase in number

(c) increase in size

6. Macro

7. Excretion in Amoeba occurs through [1995]

(a) lobopodia
(c) plasma membrane

(b) uroid portion

(d) contractile vacuole

8. Protistan genome has

(a) membrane bound nucleoproteins embedded in
(b) free nucleic acid aggregates
(c) gene containing nucleoproteins condensed
together in loose mass
(d) nucleoprotein in direct contact with cell

9. Entamoeba coli causes


(a) pyorrhoea
(b) diarrhoea
(c) dysentery
(d) None of the above

10. Protists obtain food as

(a) photosynthesisers, symbionts and holotrophs
(b) photosynthesisers
(c) chemosynthesisers
(d) holotrophs

11. If all ponds and puddles are destroyed, the

organism likely to be destroyed is
(a) Leishmania
(b) Trypanosoma
(c) Ascaris
(d) Plasmodium



CBSE AIPMT Chapterwise Solutions Biology

12. The part of life cycle of malarial parasite

Plasmodium vivax, that is passed in female
Anopheles is
(a) sexual cycle
(b) pre-erythrocytic schisogony
(c) exo-erythrocytic schisogony
(d) post-erythrocytic schisogony
(a) Plasmodium vivax transmitted by tse-tse fly
(b) Trypanosoma lewsii transmitted by bed bug
(c) Trypanosoma gambiense transmitted by
Glossina palpalis
(d) Entamoeba gingivalis spread by house fly

14. In

osmoregulation occurs through
[1991, 95, 2002]


16. Malignant tertian malarial is caused by


17. Genetic information in Paramecium is

contained in
(a) micronucleus
(b) macronucleus
(c) Both (a) and(b)
(d) mitochondria


(a) eating balanced food

(b) eating plenty of fruits
(c) drinking boiled water
(d) using mosquito nets

20. What is true about Trypanosoma?


(a) Polymorphic
(b) Monogenetic
(c) Facultative parasite
(d) Non-pathogenic
(a) Sarcodina
(c) Ciliata


(b) Zooflagellata
(d) Sporozoa

22. The vector for sleeping sickness is


(a) house fly

(b) tse-tse fly
(c) sand fly
(d) fruit fly

(a) Ronald Ross

(b) Mendel
(c) Laveran
(d) Stephen
(a) Plasmodium falciparum
(b) P. vivax
(c) P. ovale
(d) P. malariae


(a) Sarcodina
(b) Ciliata
(c) Sporozoa
(d) Dinophyceae

21. Trypanosoma belongs to class

15. Who discovered Plasmodium in RBCs of

human beings?

to class

19. Amoebiasis is prevented by

13. African sleeping sickness is due to

(a) pseudopodia
(b) nucleus
(c) contractile vacuole
(d) general surface

18. Plasmodium, the malarial parasite, belongs


23. The infective state of malarial parasite

Plasmodium that enters human body is
(a) merozoite
(b) sporozoite
(c) trophozoite
(d) minuta form


24. Malaria fever coincides with liberation of

(a) cryptomerozoites
(b) metacryptomerozoites
(c) merozoites
(d) trophozoites


Answer with Explanations

1. (a) Trypanosoma, Noctiluca, Monocystis and
Giardia are all unicellular protists.
Trypanosoma gambiense is the single celled,
parasitic zooflagellate causing trypanosomiasis or
sleeping sickness.
Giardia or the Grand old man of the intestine is a
parasitic flagellate occurring in the intestine of man
and other animals and causes giardiasis or diarrhoea
(i.e. very loose and frequent stool containing large
quantity of fat).
Noctiluca is a marine, colourless dinoflagellate. It is
a voracious predator and has a long, motile tentacle,
near the base of which, its single short flagellum
Monocystis is a microscopic, unicellular
endoparasitic protozoan found in the coelom and
seminal vesicles of earthworm. As it is an
endoparasite, it does not possess any special
structure for locomotion.

2. (b) Fresh water protozoans live in hypotonic solution

so, for regulation of excess of water which comes in
the protoplasm through the process of endosmosis,
contractile vacuoles have developed. When these
protozoans are placed in marine water, i.e.
hypertonic water, the contractile vacuoles become
disappear because the process of endosmosis does
not occur and thus, water does not come in the

3. (b) Encystment of Amoeba is occurred regularly to

tide over unfavourable conditions like drought and
extreme temperature, etc. During these conditions,
the Amoeba forms a covering or cyst wall around
itself. Thus, it is an adaptation to sunrise during
adverse conditions (extranuclear inheritance
adverse condition).

4. (a) Paramecium exhibits cytoplasmic inheritance

due to the presence of Kappa particles
(self replicating bodies that produce toxin called
paramecin). Besides binary fission and conjugation
other reproductive processes that occurs in
Paramecium are autogamy, endomixis and
Tay Sachs disease It is a rare autosomal recessive
genetic disorder.
Colour blindness It is X-chromosome related
disease. So, it is a sex linked disease.
PKU autosomal recessive genetic disorder
characterised by homozygous or compound
heterozygous mutation in the gene.

5. (c) Euglena is a connecting link between animals

and plants. Euglena contains chlorophyll, yet it

resembles animals, because it feeds like animals in

the absence of sunlight. It resembles the ancestral
form from which the plants and animals evolved.

6. (a) Paramecium and Vorticella have dimorphic

nuclei (heterokaryotic). Micronucleus that is
inactive except during cell division and houses the
master copy of the genome. Macronucleus controls
daily synthetic activities or on going metabolic
functions of the cell and asexual reproduction.
Macronucleus contains multiple copies of DNA.

7. (d) Endoplasm of Amoeba in the posterior part

contains a single clear rounded and pulsating
contractile vacuole. Contractile vacuole is
analogous to uriniferous tubules of frog, it functions
in excretion and osmoregulation.

8. (a) Eukaryotic (e.g. protistan) genome is organised

in the form of nucleus. It is differentiated into
nuclear envelope, chromatin, one or more nucleoli
and nucleoplasm. Nuclear DNA is linear, associated
with histone proteins. A small quantity of DNA is
also found in the plastids and mitochondria. In
contrast, prokaryotic (bacterial) DNA is circular and
lies freely in the cytoplasm.

9. (d) Entamoeba coli is the common parasitic genera

of phylumProtozoa. It harbours the upper part of
large intestine (colon) and very often in the liver,
brain and testes. and causes constipation.

10. (a) Protistans have variable modes of nutrition.

i.e. saprophytic, parasitic and ingestive.

11. (d) Anopheles is the host of malarial parasite

Plasmodium is known to occur most favourably in
stagnant water, ditches, ponds, moist and damp
Destruction of all the ponds and puddles, i.e. the
breeding places of larva and pupae will cause
destruction in the number of Anopheles and

12. (a) Sexual phase in the life cycle of Plasmodium

occurs in the gut of mosquito. Sexual phase involves
the gametocytes, megagametocytes (female) and
microgametocytes (male) which reach the stomach
of female Anopheles mosquito by sucking human

13. (c) The disease African sleeping sickness is caused

by Trypanosoma gambiense and this is transmitted
by tse-tse fly (Glossina palpalis).

14. (c) Amoeba and Paramecium contains two

contractile vacuoles (anterior and posterior, the
latter being faster) for osmoregulation, i.e.
maintaining water balance in the body.


CBSE AIPMT Chapterwise Solutions Biology

15. (c)

In 1880, Charles Laveran discovered

Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria in RBCs
of human beings. In 1897, Ronald Ross discovered
oocytes of Plasmodium in the stomach of mosquito.

16. (a) Malignant tertian malaria is caused by the

malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, whereas,
P. vivax causes tertian malaria and benign tertian
malaria; P. ovale causes mild tertian malaria and
P. malariae causes Quartan malaria.

17. (a)

dimorphism, large macronucleus controls metabolic
activities and growth. It is called vegetative
informatioin and thus, takes part in reproduction.

18. (c) Plasmodium, the malarial parasite belongs to

classSporozoa. Sporozoans are intracellular
parasites, reproduce by multiple fission and life
cycle may include the two different hosts.

19. (c) Amoebiasis or amoebic dysentery is caused by

protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica that
resides in the upper part of large intestine. It spreads
through contaminated water and food containing
adult form (trophozoite) or cyst of Entamoeba.
Trophozoite damages intestinal wall by enzyme
histolysin, reaches blood capillaries and feed on
RBCs, bacteria, tissue debris, resulting in
abdominal pain, acidic motions with mucus and
blood. The disease can be prevented by drinking

boiled and clean water and intake of fresh and

hygienic food.

20. (a) Trypanosoma is an obligate parasite, it is

digenetic polymorphic (Trypanosoma is adult form
in human, whereas, crithidal and leptomonal are
developmental forms in tse-tse fly).

21. (b) Zooflagellates are protozoan parasites which

possess one to several flagella for locomotion. They
multinucleate), body is covered by a firm pellicle,
e.g. Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Trichomonas, etc.

22. (b) Trypanosoma gambiense is the causative agent

of African sleeping sickness. Its primary host is man
and the secondary (intermediate) host or vector is
tse-tse fly (Glossina palpalis).

23. (b) Sporozoites

uninucleate organisms present in the salivary
glands of the mosquito. Sporozoites represent the
infective stage, which along with saliva inoculates
into the blood stream of human and undergo

24. (c) Merozoites are the progeny of sporozoites,

formed in the liver of human. These are produced
several days after the initial infection, which enter
the blood stream and infect erythrocytes.

The Living World
1. Which one of the following scientists name
is correctly matched with the theory put
forth by him?
(a) Weismann Theory of continuity of germplasm
(b) Pasteur Inheritance of acquired characters
(c) De Vries Natural selection
(d) Mendel Theory of pangenesis

2. Biological organisation starts with


(a) sub-microscopic molecular level

(b) cellular level
(c) organismic level
(d) atomic level

3. The living organisms can be

un-exceptionally distinguished from the
non-living things on the basis of their
ability for
(a) responsiveness to touch
(b) interaction with the environment and
progressive evolution
(c) reproduction
(d) growth and movement

4. Which one of the following is an example of

negative feedback loop in humans? [2007]
(a) Constriction of skin blood vessels and
contraction of skeletal muscles when it is too
(b) Secretion of tears after falling of sand particles
into the eye
(c) Salivation of mouth at the sight of delicious
(d) Secretion of sweat glands and constriction of
skin blood vessels when it is too hot

5. Which one of the following is not a living



(a) King crab

(b) Sphenodon
(c) Archaeopteryx
(d) Peripatus

6. Praying mantis is a good example of [2006]

(a) warning colouration
(b) social insects
(c) camouflage
(d) mullerian mimicry

7. Animals have the innate ability to escape

from predation. Examples for the same are
given below. Select the incorrect example.
(a) Colour change in Chameleon
(b) Enlargement of body size by swallowing air in
puffer fish
(c) Poison fangs in snakes
(d) Melanism in moths

8. Which of the following is the relatively most

accurate method for dating of fossils?
(a) Radio-carbon method
(b) Potassium-argon method
(c) Electron-spin resonance method
(d) Uranium-lead method


9. Carbohydrates

biomolecules on earth, are produced by
(a) all bacteria, fungi and algae
(b) fungi, algae and green plant cells
(c) some bacteria, algae and green plant cells
(d) viruses, fungi and bacteria

CBSE AIPMT Chapterwise Solutions Biology

10. Barophilic prokaryotes

(a) grow slowly in highly alkaline frozen lakes at
high altitudes
(b) occur in water containing high concentrations
of barium hydroxide
(c) grow and multiply in very deep marine
(d) readily grown and divides in sea water
enriched in any soluble salt of barium

11. More than 70% of worlds fresh water is

contained in


(a) antarctica
(b) greenland
(c) glaciers and mountains
(d) polar ice

12. Age of fossils in the past was generally

determined by radio-carbon method and
other methods involving radioactive
elements found in the rocks. More precise
methods, which were used recently and led
to the revision of the evolutionary periods
for different groups of organisms, include
(a) study of carbohydrates/proteins in fossils
(b) study of the conditions of fossilisation
(c) Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) and fossil DNA
(d) study of carbohydrates/proteins in rocks

13. According to Oparin, which one of the

following was not present in the primitive
atmosphere of the earth?
(a) Methane
(c) Hydrogen

(b) Oxygen
(d) Water vapour

14. Which one of the following is categorised

under living fossils?
(a) Selaginella
(c) Cycas

[2003, 04]
(b) Pinus
(d) Metasequoia

15. There is no life on moon due to the absence of

(a) O 2
(c) light

(b) water
(d) temperature

16. Organisms which obtain energy by the

oxidation of reduced inorganic compounds
are called
(a) photoautotrophs
(c) saprozoic

(b) chemoautotrophs
(d) coproheterotrophs

17. Reason of diversity in living being is [2001]

(a) mutation
(b) gradual change
(c) long term evolutionary change
(d) short term evolutionary change

18. Most abundant organic compound on earth is

(a) protein
(c) lipids

(b) cellulose
(d) steroids


19. What is true for photolithotrophs?

(a) Obtain energy from radiations and hydrogen
from organic compounds
(b) Obtain energy from radiations and hydrogen
from inorganic compounds
(c) Obtain energy from organic compounds
(d) Obtain energy from inorganic compounds

20. First life on earth was


(a) cyanobacteria
(b) chemoheterotrophs
(c) autotrophs
(d) photoautotrophs

21. Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) is

usually referred to damages caused by
(a) low temperature
(c) encephalitis

(b) high temperature
(d) radiation

22. The most important feature of all living

systems is to

(a) utilise oxygen to generate energy
(b) replicate the genetic information
(c) produce gametes
(d) utilise solar energy for metabolic activities

23. An orchid resembling the female of an

insect, so as to be able to get pollinated is
due to the phenomenon of
(a) mimicry
(b) pseudocopulation
(c) pseudopollination
(d) pseudoparthenocarpy

24. If there was no CO2 in the earths

atmosphere the temperature of earths
surface would be
(a) higher than the present
(b) less than the present
(c) the same
(d) dependent on the amount of oxygen in the

25. Warm ocean surge of the Peru Current

recurring every 58 year or so, in the East
Pacific of South America is widely known as
(a) Gulf Stream
(b) El Nino
(c) Aye Aye
(d) Magnox


The Living World

26. Which one of the following is a living fossil?
(b) Dalbergia sissoo
(d) Ginkgo biloba

(a) Pinus longifolia

(c) Mirabilis jalapa

27. The CO2 content by volume, in the

atmospheric air is about
(a) 0.0314%
(c) 3.34%


(b) 0.34%
(d) 4%

28. In RNA, thymine is replaced by

(a) adenine
(c) cytosine



(a) purine
(c) nucleoside
(a) galactose
(c) fructose

33. Pedology is science of

(a) earth
(c) diseases

(b) soil
(d) pollution

(a) tendency to change with change in environment
(b) tendency to resist change
(c) disturbance in regulatory control
(d) plants and animals extracts used in

improvement of human race is


(b) glucose
(d) sucrose

31. A nucleotide is formed of

(b) Herpetology
(d) Organic evolution

35. Employment of hereditary principles in the

(b) pyrimidine
(d) nucleotide

30. Glycogen is a polymer of

(a) Palaeontology
(c) Saurology

34. Homeostasis is

(b) guanine
(d) uracil

29. Adenine is

32. Study of fossils is


(a) purine, pyrimidine and phosphate

(b) purine, sugar and phosphate
(c) nitrogen base, sugar and phosphate
(d) pyrimidine, sugar and phosphate


(a) Euthenics
(b) Eugenics
(c) Euphenics
(d) Ethnology

36. Phenomenon when organisms resembling

others for escaping from enemies is [1988]
(a) adaptation
(c) homology

(b) mimicry
(d) analogy

Answer with Explanations

1. (a) Scientist



Theory of continuity of


Germ theory of disease

Charles Darwin

Theory of natural


Inheritance of acquired

Hugo de Vries

Mutation theory


Laws of inheritance


Theory of pangenesis

2. (a) Biological

sub-microscopic molecular level, where four types of
molecules, i.e. carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and
nucleic acids are organised into organelles of cell.
3. (c) All living things reproduce passing on traits from
one generation to next. Non-living things cannot

4. (a) Skin blood vessels constrict and skeletal

muscles contract due to the cold is an example of
negative feedback mechanism of homeostasis.

5. (c) Archaeopteryx lithographica is not a living fossil.

It is a fossil bird that lived in Jurassic period about
180 million years ago. Its fossil displays the
characters of both reptiles (e.g. long tail, bones not
pneumatic, jaws with teeth, fingers terminating into
claw, the presence of weak sternum, free caudal
vertebra etc.) and birds (e.g. the presence of
feathers, jaws modified into beak, forelimbs
modified into wings, intimate fusion of skull bones
etc). King crab, Sphenodon and Peripatus are the
living fossils.

6. (b) Praying mantis (Mantis religiosa) is a large

social insect. It has small triangular head, a long
prothorax and abdomen consisting of 10 segments.
The wings are well developed and the pincer-like
forelegs are modified for grasping prey. It usually
inhabits plantation areas. It destroys certain
harmful insects, so it is useful.

CBSE AIPMT Chapterwise Solutions Biology

7. (c) Animals resist predation by cryptic colouration,

16. (b) The organisms obtaining energy by chemical

deceptive marking, behavioural defences and the

possession of mechanical or chemical defences.
(a) Enlargement of body size by swallowing air in
puffer fish.
(b) Melanism in moths.
(c) Colour change in Chameleon.

reactions independent of light are called

chemotrophs. The reductants obtained from the
environment may be inorganic (in case of
chemoautotrophs) or organic (in case of
Photoautotrophs organisms that make their own
food by photosynthesis, using the light energy.
Saprozoic organisms obtain food from dead and
decaying matter.

8. (c) Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) method is the

most accurate method for dating of fossils.

9. (c)

Some photosynthetic bacteria such as

Rhodopseudomonas can prepare carbohydrates.
But during this type of food synthesis O2 does not
evolved because, in this case hydrogen donor is
other than H2O. Algae (green and blue-green) and
all green plant cells prepare their food
(carbohydrate) through photosynthesis. Here,
hydrogen ions are donated by water molecules by
the process of photolysis of water, i.e. O2 is released
during this type of food synthesis.

10. (c) Barophilic prokaryotes grow and multiply in very

deep marine sediments.

11. (d) Three fourth surface of earth (about 71% of total)

is occupied by oceans which contain 97.5% of total
water. This is marine water with about 3.5% salt
contents. Rest water, i.e. 2.5% is freshwater which
occurs on land. Most amount of this water (about
1.97%) occurs as Frozen ice caps and glaciers
and 0.5% fresh water occurs as ground water.

12. (c) Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) measures

17. (c) Though mutation provides the source of

variation, the diversity in living beings is due to the
natural selection of variations and consequent
evolutionary change over a long period of time.

18. (b) Cellulose, constituting the cell wall of plants, is

most abundant organic molecule on the earth.

19. (b) Photolithotrophs used light as energy and

inorganic electron donor (like H2 , H2S) as hydrogen
source. Purple and green sulphur bacteria are
examples of photolithotrophs.

20. (b) First living beings were formed in the

environment of sea having abundant organic
molecules. They absorbed the organic materials for
the sake of nutrition and hence, were

21. (d) RBE (Relative Biological Effectiveness) is a

comparison of the dose of the radiation being
studied with the dose of standard radiation
producing the same effect.

number of charges occupying deep traps in crystal

band gap. The basic principle of ESR is same as
those for luminescence, i.e. electrons become
trapped and stored as a result of ionising radiations,
e.g. dating of tooth enamel.

22. (b) Reproduction is necessary for continuity of life.

13. (b) According to Oparin, the atmosphere of

23. (b) For its pollination, the orchid Ophrys speculum

primitive earth was reducing because H atoms were

most numerous and most reactive. Large quantities
of H2 , N2 , water vapour, CO2 , CH4 and NH3 were
present, but free oxygen was not present in
significant amount.

14. (c) OrderCycadales includes both living and fossil

members which are originated in the upper Triassic
period of the early Mesozoic era.
The familyCycadaceae of this order has 10 living
and one fossil genera. Cycas comes under living
genera and has a long writing history so, it is also
known as living fossil.

15. (b) Water is an essential constituent of cytoplasm of

all living organisms. It helps in distribution of
substances within the organism, elimination of
waste products, body temperature maintenance, etc.
It is absent on the moon.
Anaerobic organisms can live in the absence of O2 .
Light and temperature are already known to exist on
the moon.

However, production of gametes is not only method

for this. A number of organisms reproduce
asexually. In any case, cell division is necessary
which involves replication of DNA.
has picked on the most selective attraction in the
entire animal kingdom. It is pollinated by a hairy
wasp, Colpa aurea. The wasp has a fixed habit
whereby its males leave the burrows for above
ground existence about four weeks before the
females emerge for the open-air mating.
The orchid opens its flowers about the same time
the males appear and they possess an appearance
and odour similar to those possessed by the female
wasps. The inexperienced males mistake the Ophrys
flowers for their female counterparts and land to
perform the act of pseudocopulation. The insect
repeats the act with a number of orchid flowers and
carries pollinia from one flower to another. This
insect-plant relationship is beneficial only to the

24. (b) CO2 layer around the earth surface acts as

insulator and does not allow heat of the earth to
escape into space thus, keeping the earthwarm.

The Living World

25. (b) El Nino is a warm ocean surge of Peru Current

31. (c) (Nucleotide is the basic unit of nucleic acids

(flowing North from Antarctic along the West coast

of South America to South Ecuador, the West). It
recurs every 5-8 year or so in the East Pacific of
South America.

(DNA and RNA). It is composed of nucleoside

(nitrogenous base + pentose sugar) and phosphate

26. (d) Ginkgo biloba is believed to be the oldest living

seed plant. Its fossils have been found in rocks as old
as Triassic. It still survives with little change over
this long period of time while other members of its
group have become extinct.

32. (a) Palaeontology is the study of fossils (remains or

impressions of ancient forms) and their distribution
in rocks of various ages. Study of animal fossils is
known as Palaeozoology and study of plant fossils is
known as Palaeobotany.

27. (a) CO2 constitutes 0.0314% of the atmosphere.

33. (b) Pedology is the study of soil and soil properties.

Producers use CO2 along with energy from the sun

and make carbon compounds such as glucose
during the process of photosynthesis.

34. (b) Homeostasis (Gr. homeos = similar; stasis =

Consumers use these compounds as energy source.

28. (d) DNA consists of nitrogenous bases, adenine,

guanine, cytosine and thymine, whereas in RNA
thymine is replaced by uracil. The other nitrogenous
bases, i.e. adenine, guanine, cytosine are present
both in RNA and DNA.

29. (a) Purines are 9-membered double ring nitrogen

bases which possess nitrogen at 1, 3, 7 and 9
positions, e.g. Adenine (A), Guanine (G).

30. (b)

Glycogen is a storage carbohydrate

(a polysaccharide of -glucose) of animals and
fungi. Glycogen is stored in liver and muscles in
human body. It is hydrolysed to form glucose

standing) is the tendency of maintaining a relatively

stable internal physiological environment in an
organism, or steady-state equilibrium in a
population or ecosystem. It is carried out by
regulatory mechanisms which coordinate internal
functions such as providing nutrients to cells and
transporting substances.

35. (b) Eugenics refers to improvement of human race

by modifying fertility or employing the hereditary

36. (b) Mimicry is the phenomenon of resemblance of

one species with another. It is a means of adaptation
and protection against predation. The species which
is copied is called a model, while the animal which
copies other is known as mimic, e.g. viceroy butterfly
mimics toxic monarch butterfly.