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Revista Boliviana de Qumica

Rev. Bol. Quim. ISSN 0250-5460


Rev. boliv. quim. ISSN 2078-3949

Bolivian Journal of Chemistry


Vol. 33, No. 5, 2016
Abstracts list
A STUDY OF THE EATABLE FRUIT OF GARCINIA GARDNERIANA

Galia Chvez Cury1,*, Mara del Carmen Abela Gisbert2, Willy Jos Rendn
Porcel1
1Department

of Chemistry, Research Center of Natural Products CIPN, Food Chemistry Area, Research
Institute of Chemical Sciences IIQ, Universidad Mayor de San Andrs UMSA, P.O. Box 303, Calle Andrs
Bello
s/n,
Ciudad
Universitaria
Cota
Cota,
Phone
59122792238,
La
Paz,
Bolivia,
galiachavez2005@yahoo.com, willlyjrendon@yahoo.com

2Faculty

of Medical Sciences, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Laboratory of Sensorial Analysis,


Universidad Mayor de San Andrs UMSA, Av. Saavedra 2246, Phone 5912229588, La Paz, Bolivia,
webmaster@umsa.bo

Keywords: Fruto, alimento, Garcinia gardneriana, Clusiaceae.

ABSTRACT
The fruits of the vegetable species Garcinia gardneriana (Clusiaceae) were surveyed. This is a species known in
the Bolivian Amazonian region under the common name of Achachair. The fruits were collected at Ixiamas,
capital of the province Abel Iturralde, department of La Paz. In the investigation of the eatable part of the fruit
pulp and shell, a bromatological preliminary study was carried out. The macro and micro nutrients were
determined, as well as the taste of fruit [pulp] and the handmade elaborated product. A preliminary
phytochemical study was also performed in fruits.
*Corresponding author: galiachavez2005@yahoo.com

RESUMEN

Spanish title: Estudio del fruto comestible de la especie vegetal Garcinia gardneriana. Se realiz un
estudio del fruto de la especie vegetal Garcinia gardneriana (Clusiaceae), conocido en la parte amaznica de
Bolivia con el nombre de Achachair. Los frutos fueron recolectados en la localidad de Ixiamas, capital de la
provincia Abel Iturralde, departamento de La Paz. En la investigacin de la parte comestible del fruto, pulpa y
cscara, se realiz un estudio bromatolgico preliminar, as como la determinacin de macro y micro nutrientes.
Tambin se realiz la degustacin del fruto [pulpa] y de los productos elaborados artesanalmente a partir de
pulpa. Adems, se realiz un estudio fitoqumico preliminar.
INTERACTION OF 2-AMINOPHENOL, 4-AMINOPHENOL, 2-NITROPHENOL AND 4NITROPHENOL WITH MANGANESE AND NICKEL HEXACYANOFERRATE (II)
COMPLEXES
Savi Bhalkaran1,2, Brij B. Tewari1,*
1Department

of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Guyana, PO Box 101110, Georgetown,


Guyana, brijtew@yahoo.com

2Department

of Chemistry, University of Saskatchewan, 110 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK, 57N 5C9,

Canada

Keywords: Removal, 2-Aminophenol, 2-Nitrophenol, 4-Aminophenol, 4-Nitrophenol,


Adsorption, Metal ferrocyanides, Methylene blue dye.

ABSTRACT
The adsorptive interaction of 2-aminophenol (2 AP), 2 nitrophenol (2 NP), 4 aminophenol (4 AP) and 4
nitrophenol (4 NP) with manganese and nickel ferrocyanides have been studied at neutral (pH 7.01 0.01)
and at thermal (T 30 1 C) conditions. The progress of adsorption was followed spectrophotometrically by
measuring the absorbance of amino acids solution at their corresponding max. The Langmuir type of adsorption
is followed in the concentration range of 10-4 to 10-5 mol/L of substituted phenol solutions. Nickel ferrocyanide
was found to have greater adsorption ability in comparison to manganese ferrocyanide with all four substituted
phenol adsorbates. 4 Nitrophenol and 2 aminophenol was found to have greater and lesser affinity,
respectively with both metal ferrocyanides studied.
*Corresponding author: brijtew@yahoo.com

RESUMEN
Spanish title: Interaccin de 2-aminofenol (2AF), 2-nitrofenol (2NF), 4-aminofenol (4AF) y 4nitrofenol (4NF) con complejos de hexacianoferrocianuro (II) de manganeso y nquel. La interaccin
adsorbativa del 2-aminofenol (2AF), 2-nitrofenol (2NF), 4-aminofenol (4AF) y 4-nitrofenol (4NF) con
ferrocianuro de manganeso y nquel fue estudiada en condiciones de neutralidad (pH 7.01 0.01) y en
condiciones trmicas (T 30 1 C). El progreso de adsorcin fue monitoreado espectrofotomtricamente por la
medida de la absorbancia de la solucin de aminocidos y su correspondiente max. La adsorcin del tipo de
Langmuir es controlada por la concentracin de las soluciones de los fenoles sustituidos en el rango 10-4 to 10-5.
mol/L. El ferrocianuro de nquel mostr una mayor habilidad adsorbativa en comparacin con el ferrocianuro de
manganeso con los cuatro adsorbatos fenlicos. El 4-Nitrofenol y el 2-aminofenol mostraron tener mayor y
menor afinidad respectivamente con ambos ferrocianuros metlicos estudiados.

PRESENCE OF ATRANORIN IN PHYSCIA SOREDIOSA

Short report
Angel Maldonado Montao1, Rosaicela Menesses2, Jos A. Bravo3, Jos L. Vila1,*
1Department

of Chemistry, Research Center of Natural Products CIPN, Laboratory of Synthesis and


Hemisynthesis of Natural Products, Universidad Mayor de San Andrs UMSA, P.O. Box 303, Calle Andrs
Bello s/n, Ciudad Universitaria Cota Cota, Phone 59122795878, La Paz, Bolivia, joselu62@hotmail.com

2Department

of Biology, Ecology Institute IE, National Herbarium of Bolivia LPB, Universidad Mayor de San
Andrs UMSA, P.O. Box 10077, Calle Andrs Bello s/n, Ciudad Universitaria Cota Cota, Phone
59122792582, La Paz, Bolivia, lpb@acelerate.com

3Department

of Chemistry, Research Center of Natural Products CIPN, Laboratory of Phytochemistry,


Universidad Mayor de San Andrs UMSA, P.O. Box 303, Calle Andrs Bello s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Cota
Cota, Phone 59122792238, La Paz, Bolivia, jabravo@umsa.bo

Keywords: Physcia sorediosa, Atranorina, NMR.

ABSTRACT
In this short report we inform over the presence of the depside named atranorin in the lichen Physcia sorediosa
(Physciaceae) by means of isolation techniques and structural characterization by using NMR techniques. The
lichen was collected at the UMSA campus Cota Cota in La Paz. To the best of our knowledge this is the first
characterization of this depside in the lichen Physcia sorediosa.
*Corresponding author: joselu62@hotmail.com

RESUMEN
Spanish title: Presencia de atranorina en Physcia sorediosa. Reportamos la presencia del depsido
denominado atranorina en el liquen Physcia sorediosa (Physciaceae) mediante su aislamiento y caracterizacin
por RMN, el liquen fue colectado en el campus Universitario de Cota-Cota, UMSA, La Paz Bolivia.
SYNTHESIS
OF
BENZYLIDENEACETOPHENONE
IRRADIATION; GREEN CHEMISTRY

UNDER

MICROWAVE

Short report
Gabriela Ibieta Jimnez1, Jose A. Bravo2, Jose Luis Vila1,*
1Department

of Chemistry, Research Center of Natural Products CIPN, Laboratory of Synthesis and


Hemisynthesis of Natural Products, Universidad Mayor de San Andrs UMSA, P.O. Box 303, Calle Andrs
Bello s/n, Ciudad Universitaria Cota Cota, Phone 59122795878, La Paz, Bolivia, joselu62@hotmail.com

2Department

of Chemistry, Research Center of Natural Products CIPN, Laboratory of Phytochemistry,


Universidad Mayor de San Andrs UMSA, P.O. Box 303, Calle Andrs Bello s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Cota
Cota, Phone 59122792238, La Paz, Bolivia, jabravo@umsa.bo

Keywords: Benzylideneacetophenone, trans-Chalcone, Microwave Synthesis, Irradiation,


Green Chemistry, NMR.

ABSTRACT
The synthetic equivalent of the natural chalcone known as benzylideneacetophenone was obtained under
microwave irradiation conditions. The synthetic reaction included benzaldehyde and acetophenone as precursors.
The reaction was done under alkaline conditions (NaOH). The pure compound was obtained after crystallization
and was characterized by NMR techniques.
*Corresponding author: joselu62@hotmail.com

RESUMEN
Spanish title: Sntesis de bencilidenacetofenona por irradiacin de microondas; qumica verde. El
equivalente sinttico de la chalcona natural bencilidenacetofenona, fue sintetizada a partir de la reaccin de
benzaldehido y acetofenona en medio bsico asistido por microondas y purificado por cristalizacin. La
caracterizacin del compuesto fue realizada por RMN de 1H y 13C.
ENCAPSULATION,
CHARACTERIZATION
AND
THERMAL
ANTHOCYANINS FROM ZEA MAYS L. (PURPLE CORN)

STABILITY

OF

Evelyn V. Mendoza Sillerico1,2, Cecilia K. Curi Borda2, Virginia J. Rojas Mercado1,


Juan A. Alvarado Kirigin2,*
1Department

of Chemical Engineering, Research and Development Institute of Chemical Processes


IIDEPROQ, Universidad Mayor de San Andrs UMSA, Calle Andrs Bello s/n, Ciudad Universitaria Cota
Cota, Phone 59122774412, La Paz, Bolivia

2Department

of Chemistry, Research Institute of Chemical Sciences IIQ, Universidad Mayor de San Andrs
UMSA, P.O. Box 303, Calle Andrs Bello s/n, Ciudad Universitaria Cota Cota, Phone 59122792238, La
Paz, Bolivia

Keywords: Zea mays L., Maz morado, Antocianinas, Encapsulacin, Secado por aspersin.

ABSTRACT
The optimal conditions for encapsulation of anthocyanin extract from Zea mayzs L. (purple corn) by using, a
mixed design, was investigated. This study determined the best mixture ratio of Maltodextrin and Arabic gum as
encapsulant agents and the effect of the inlet temperature on the response variables: yield, moisture and total
anthocyanins concentration. The physico-chemical and morphological characterization of the obtained
encapsulates was performed. The heat effect at temperatures of 45, 60 and 75C on the concentration of total
anthocyanins was also evaluated as well as the color variation of the encapsulates at room temperature in a twomonth-period.
*Corresponding author: jaalvkir@gmail.com

RESUMEN
Spanish title: Encapsulacin, caracterizacin y estabilidad trmica de antocianinas de Zea mays L
(maz morado). En el presente trabajo se investigaron las condiciones ptimas para la encapsulacin del
extracto de antocianinas del marlo de Zea mayz L. (maz morado) mediante un diseo mixto, determinndose las
mejores proporciones de maltodextrina y goma arbiga en la mezcla encapsulante y el efecto de la temperatura de
entrada sobre las variables respuesta: rendimiento, humedad y antocianinas totales. A partir de los encapsulados
obtenidos, se realiz su caracterizacin fisicoqumica y morfolgica. Finalmente, se evalu el efecto de la
temperatura en la concentracin de antocianinas totales en condiciones extremas de almacenamiento, a tres
diferentes temperaturas: 45, 60 y 75 C y la variacin de color a temperatura ambiente en un periodo de dos
meses.
CHEMICAL AND MINERALOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MACHU RUMI, A CLAY
WITH GEOFAGIC USES BY RESIDENTS OF CHIMPAJILAHUATA COMMUNITY OF
AZNGARO DISTRICT, PUNO, PERU

Heber Nehemias Chui Betancur1,*, Dwight Roberto Acosta Najarro2, Paula Ofelia
Olivera de Lescano3, Godofredo Huamn Monroy1
1Instituto

de Investigaciones de la Universidad Nacional de Altiplano de Puno Av. Sesquicentenario s/n,


Ciudad Universitaria, telfono 051 367516, Puno, Per, heberchui@gmail.com

2Instituto

de Fsica, Universidad Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito de la Investigacin Cientfica, Ciudad


Universitaria, CP 04510, Telfono: +52(55)56-65-72-63, Ciudad de Mxico, Mxico

3Centro

Nuclear RACSO, Instituto Peruano de Energa Nuclear, Av. Canad 1470 Telfono: 226-0030, San
Borja Lima Per

Keywords: Machu Rumi, Geofagy, Clay, XRF, XRD, Chimpajilahuata.

ABSTRACT
Machu Rumi, or an old stone with geofagy applications used by members of the Chimpajilahuata community of
Azngaro district in Puno, Peru, was chemically and mineralogically characterized. The samples were analyzed
by means of the use of X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy
(SEM) whose elemental abundance was: Fe 11%, Al 4%, Ti 4080 ppm, Ca 814 ppm, and Zn 220 ppm, and other
elements with low concentration such as V, Cr, Mn, Ni and Sr. Also, the main crystalline phases were identified
by X-ray Diffraction and reported as: Quartz (SiO2), Clinochlore [Mg3 Al Mn2 Al Si3O10(OH)8], Goethite
[Fe+3O(OH)]; and Chamosita [(Mg5.036 Fe4.964) Al2.724 (Si5.70 Al2.30 O20) (OH)16]. Goethite presence was common in
the layers 2, 3, 5 and 6; this clay mineral is considered a very effective reducing agent, capable of removing
inorganic as well as organic arsenic. The topology sheet samples were observed across the micrographs obtained
by scanning electron microscopy.
*Corresponding author: joselu62@hotmail.com

RESUMEN
Spanish title: Caracterizacin qumica y mineralgica del Machu Rumi de uso geofgico por los
habitantes de la comunidad de Chimpajilahuata del distrito de Azngaro, Puno, Per. En el presente

artculo se describe la caracterizacin qumica y mineralgica del Machu Rumi (Piedra antigua con aplicaciones
geofgicas por los integrantes de la comunidad de Chimpajilahuata del distrito de Azngaro, Puno, Per). Las
muestras fueron analizadas por la tcnica de Fluorescencia de Rayos X (FRX), Difraccin de Rayos X (DRX), y
Microscopia Electrnica de Barrido (SEM) cuya abundancia elemental fue: Fe 11%, Al 4%, Ti 4080ppm, Ca 814
ppm, y del Zn con 220ppm, seguida de otros elementos de baja concentracin como el V, Cr, Mn, Ni y Sr.
Asimismo, se reportan las principales fases cristalinas identificadas por la tcnica de Difraccin de Rayos X
como: cuarzo (SiO2), Clinochlore [Mg3 Mn2 Al Si3 Al O10 (OH)8], goetita [Fe+3 O (OH)]; y la chamosita [(Mg5.036
Fe4.964) Al2.724 (Si5.70 Al2.30 O20) (OH)16], la presencia de Goethita es comn en las capas 2, 3, 5 y 6; este mineral de
arcilla es considerado un reductor muy eficaz con capacidad de remover arsnico inorgnico as como orgnico.
La topologa laminar de las muestras fue observada a travs de las micrografas obtenidas por Microscopia
Electrnica de Barrido.
ASSESSMENT OF PRE-REQUIREMENTS OF HACCP AND ANALYSIS OF CRITICAL
CONTROL POINTS FOR SAFETY DURING PRODUCTION OF ARTISANAL AND
INDUSTRIAL BREAD

Rossio Castaeda, Catalina Fuentes, J. Mauricio Pearrieta*


Department of Chemistry, Research Center of Natural Products CIPN, Food Chemistry Area, Research
Institute of Chemical Sciences IIQ, Universidad Mayor de San Andrs UMSA, P.O. Box 303, Calle Andrs
Bello s/n, Ciudad Universitaria Cota Cota, Phone 59122772269, La Paz, Bolivia

Keywords: Bread, Bakery, Industrial, Artisanal, HACCP, APPCC, BPMs, Food innocuity.

ABSTRACT
Bread is the main food in the Bolivian family basket since it forms essential part of Bolivians basic feeding. Its
low price, easy processing and nutritional characteristics contribute largely with important amounts of
carbohydrates to the daily diet. In spite of all these important features of bread, there are few studies devoted to
the establishing of its quality indexes during production in La Paz. This problem implies a potential negative
impact on the health of consumers.
The purpose of this study was to observe and evaluate compliance with Good Manufacturing Practices and
to see the feasibility and/or analysis of the implementation of an HACCP system in two bakery companies in La
Paz, Bolivia, one industrial and the other Craftsmanship type.
From the evaluation of both bakeries, it can be concluded that the Craftsmanship type does not comply with
the minimum production requirements for human consumption. This is a threatening and alarming fact for the
health of the population. On the contrary, the industrial type bakery meets most of the prerequisites for bread
production with safety and it is suggested that in time a HACCP and consequently the ulterior corresponding
quality management systems could be implemented for it
*Corresponding author: mauricio.penarrieta@gmail.com

RESUMEN
Spanish title: Evaluacin de los prerrequisitos del APPCC y anlisis de los puntos crticos de control
para el aseguramiento de la inocuidad en la produccin de pan artesanal e industrial. El pan es el
principal alimento de la canasta familiar boliviana, formando parte de la base de la alimentacin debido a su bajo
precio, su fcil elaboracin y sus caractersticas nutritivas aportando con grandes cantidades de carbohidratos a la
dieta cotidiana. Sin embargo, existen pocos trabajos enfocados a la observacin de la calidad de produccin de
los mismos, siendo ste, un problema que puede repercutir en la salud de la poblacin.

El presente trabajo tuvo como finalidad observar y evaluar el cumplimiento de Buenas Prcticas de
Manufactura y ver la factibilidad y/o anlisis de la implementacin de un Sistema APPCC en dos hornos
panificadores de La Paz- Bolivia, uno de tipo industrial y el otro de tipo artesanal.
De la evaluacin a ambos hornos se puede concluir que el horno de produccin artesanal no cumple con los
requisitos mnimos para producir panes para consumo humano, lo cual es alarmante y puede constituirse en un
peligro para la salud de la poblacin. Por el contrario, el horno de produccin industrial cumple con la mayora
de los prerrequisitos para la produccin de panes con inocuidad y se sugiere que en el tiempo pueda adecuarse a
la implementacin de una ACCPP y posteriormente a sistemas de gestin de calidad ya que ste cumple con la
mayor parte de los requerimientos.