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Byzantine Syria & the Centralised Church

THE BASILICA
Scala 7622 (1972)

Santa Maria Maggiore


plan
modern view
reconstruction

James Fergusson, The


Illustrated Handbook of
Architecture (2 vols, London
1855), II, p 490
Scala 7622 (1972)
Richard Krautheimer, Rome:
Profile of a City, 312-1308
(Princeton [New Jersey] 1980), p
48

St John Studios, Istanbul, 463:


view & plan

Miles Lewis; Stewart, Early Christian,


Byzantine and Romanesque, p 33

Metropolitan Church, Nessebar,


Bulgaria, C5th-6th
Miles Lewis

Metropolitan Church,
Nessebar
plan, apse exterior,
synthronon
Velizar Velkov, Nessebur (Sofia
1995 [1989]), p 39
Miles Lewis

Hagios Demetrios, Salonika, late C5th


Edition Photo Lykides, Thessaloniki, no 1

the Latin & Greek basilicas


Miles Lewis

St Peters, Rome (Latin)


H Studios, Constantinople (Hellenistic)
in the Latin basilica:
1. the plan is (at first) occidented, to the west, rather than oriented to the east
2. the atrium contains a fountain or cantharus for ritual ablutions before entering the
building
3. there is a porch, formed usually by one side of the atrium, whereas in the Greek
basilica there is a narthex, more open to the interior than the exterior

St Peters, Rome,
reconstruction (note the atrium,
cantharus and porch)
MUAS 15,439

in the Latin basilica


4. the lighting is through the gable end, which may be square or pitched, and usually
through three windows

Sta Maria Maggiore, Rome


(Latin)
Hagios Demetrios, Salonika
(Hellenistic)

in the Latin basilica


5. there is commonly a
colonnade dividing off the aisles,
whereas in the east it is always
(except in the Studios basilica) an
arcade.
6. there is a triumphal arch
between the nave and the apse
7. there is a raised platform or
bema for the officiating clergy

St John Lateran, foundations


St Peters, Rome, reconstruction
Sta Maria Maggiore
(Latin basilicas)

chancel rail

in the Latin basiilica:

transverse space

8. there might be some sort of transverse


space at the sanctuary end, but never
(until much later) a true transept: nor
was there in the Greek basilica
9. the altar was commonly portable probably set up in the nave at first, but
later it retreated to the apse, and was
fenced off with a marble chancel rail

early altar
location

10. beneath the altar was commonly a


confessio, or repository for holy relics.
later altar
location
(confessio below)

Mancinelli, Catacombs and Basilicas, p 11


MUAS 10,278
James Fergusson, The Illustrated Handbook of
Architecture (2 vols, London 1855), II, p 490

Latin & Greek


basilicas
Miles Lewis

in the Latin basilica


11. at the back of the apse was the Bishop's throne, or cathedra (hence the word
cathedral): the Hellenistic basilica had a curved seat for the clergy, or synthronon, with
the cathedra at the centre.
12. the apse was semicircular and domed. The Greek one was semicircular internally
but polygonal externally, and was timber roofed
13. the whole plan was long rather than square in proportion

NORTHERN SYRIA

the limestone
massif and
the two
hundred dead
cities

Qirkbize, Northern Syria


Miles Lewis

Qirkbize, Northern Syria: bema & lectern


Miles Lewis

Church, Qirkbize
Jean Lassus, The Early Christian and Byzantine World, p 12

Basilica A, Resafe, C5th: the bema


Miles Lewis

Northern Syria
south courtyard; cistern or fountain; two
south doors; central bema; iconostasis
Church and villa at Qirkbiz, isometric
view, with the adjoining villa, and cutaway
view of the church
Georges Tchalenko, Villages Antiques de la Syrie du
Nord : le Massif du Belus l'poque Romaine(3 vols,
Paris 1953), II, pl civ; pl x, 1

Cathedral of S. Thom, Madras, India, C16th


J F Butler, 'India and the Far East', in Gervis Frere-Cook [ed], The Art and
Architecture of Christianity (Cleveland [Ohio] 1972 ) p 256, fig 2

JUDEA & JORDAN

ROME

JERUSALEM
BETHLEHEM

eastern Christian sites, C4thC6th, with the locations of the


great Constantinian basilicas
indicated
MUAS 15,417

Church of the Nativity at Bethlehem, Jordan, 325-333 and later


interior view & isometric reconstruction
Peter Bamm, The Kingdoms of Christ: the Story of the Early Church (London 1959), p 165
Krautheimer, Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture, p 37

Church at Eleona, founded by Helena, C4th, as restored by Pre L H Vincent


J W Crowfoot, Early Churches in Palestine (London 1941), p 33

Ridge Church, Petra, allegedly late C5th, from above


Jane Taylor, Petra and the Lost Kingdom of the Nabateans (London 2001), p 206

Ridge Church, Petra


allegedly late C5th

view west

atrium & cistern

Miles Lewis

Madaba: Church of the Virgin Mary, C6th, & Church of the Prophet Elias, 607
Michele Piccirillo et al, Byzantinische Mosaiken aus Jordanien (Vienna 1986), p 63

Madaba: Church of the Virgin Mary, C6th,& Church of the Prophet Elias, 607
Michele Piccirillo et al, Byzantinische Mosaiken aus Jordanien (Vienna 1986), p 65

Church of the Virgin Mary, Madaba, C6th: two sides of the ring crypt
Miles Lewis

St Peters Basilica, Rome


isometric reconstruction &
plan the west (liturgical east)
end as rearranged c 594
Toynbee & Perkins, The Shrine of St
Peter, p 215
James Lees-Milne, Saint Peter's: the
Story of Saint Peter's Basilica in
Rome (London 1967), p 80

St Peter's Basilica, cutaway perspective of the crypt area after c 594


Krautheimer, Rome, p 86

Santa Prassede, Rome, c 817


isometric drawing, showing the ring crypt
Krautheimer, Rome, p 123

Church of the Virgin Mary, Madaba, C6th, central mosaic AD 767: plan
Michele Piccirillo et al, Byzantinische Mosaiken aus Jordanien (Vienna 1986), p 140

Church of the Virgin Mary, Madaba: central mosaic AD 767


Miles Lewis

CENTRALISED PLANS: THE BAPTISTERY

octagonal & similar


baptisteries in
northern Italy &
southern France
Albenga
Nevers
Como
Milan
Ravenna (Orthodox)
Ravenna (Arian)
Lomello
Novara

S W Kostof, The Orthodox


Baptistery of Ravenna (New
Haven [Connecticut] 1965), fig 12

Baptistery at Qalat Siman, c 476-90, and associated church, c 500, from south
Miles Lewis

the Baptistery
at Qalat Siman

Georges Tchalenko,
Villages Antiques de la
Syrie du Nord: le
Massif du Belus
l'poque Romaine (3
vols, Paris 1953), II, pl
lxxvi

font in the Baptistery at Qalat Siman


Miles Lewis

THE MARTYRIUM

a heroum
Mausoleum of Diocletian at Spalato or Split, 284: plan & elevation
Robert Adam, Ruins of the Palace of the emperor Diocletian at Spalatro in Dalmatia (London 1764)

a heroum / martyrium
Basilica of SS Marcellinus and Petrus, with the mausoleum of St Helena (mother of
Constantine) originally intended for Constantine himself
Mancinelli, Catacombs and Basilicas, p 40

a herooum /
martyrium
Coemeterium Agnetis
(cemetery of Sant'
Agnese), with the
mausoleum of Santa
Costanza, c 338-350,
and the church of
Sant' Agnese fuori le
Mura, c 625-38

Mancinelli, Catacombs and


Basilicas, p 50

Santa Costanza, interior


Lassus, Early Christian and Byzantine World, pl 16

cruciform martyria

Martyrium of St Babylas,
Antioch-Kaiuissie, c 378: plan
Richard Krautheimer & Spencer Corbett,
'The Constantinian Basilica of the
Lateran', in Richard Krautheimer,
Studies in Early Christian, Medieval, and
Renaissance Art (London 1971 [New
York 1969]), p 28

stylite saint, from an inscription


at Qalbloze
Georges Tchalenko, Villages Antiques de la
Syrie du Nord: le Massif du Belus l'poque
Romaine(3 vols, Paris 1953), III, fig 18

Martyrium church of St Simeon Stylites,


Qalat Seman, Syria, c 460-80
view through north arm of the church
reconstruction of the complex
Miles Lewis
Lassus, Early Christian and Byzantine World, p 46

St Simeon Stylites
plan of church
plan of church complex

Krautheimer, Early Christian and Byzantine


Architecture, p 112

St Simeon Stylites
two reconstructions of the
church

Krautheimer, Early Christian and Byzantine


Architecture, p 112
William Macdonald, Early Christian and
Byzantine Architecture (London 1968 [New
York 1962]), p 45

Madreseh
Halawaya,
Aleppo

Miles Lewis

the remains of a possible C5th martyrium church, later the Cathedral of St


Helen, incorporated in the Madreseh Halawaya, Aleppo
reconstruction plan from S Guyer, 'La Madrasa al-Halwiyya Alep',
Bulletin de l'Institut Franais d'Archologie Orientale de Caire, XI, 1914.
sketch plan of existing structures: Miles Lewis

Madreseh Halawaya, Aleppo: detail at impost level


Miles Lewis

wind-blown capitals
the Madreseh Halaweyeh, Aleppo
Qalat Siman, c 476-490
H Demetrios, Salonika, 500-550
Miles Lewis
Krautheimer, Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture, pl 45 B
Stewart, Early Christian, Byzantine and Romanesque Architecture, p 56

THE TETRACONCH

a Roman tetraconch
the Piazza d'Oro of Hadrian's Villa, Tivoli, 124, reconstruction
MUAS 13,933

San Lorenzo,
Milan, c 370
front colonnade
plan

Miles Lewis
William MacDonald, Early Christian and
Byzantine Architecture (London 1968
[New York 1962]), pl 37

S Lorenzo, Milan
alternative reconstructions
plan
modern view
Fritz Baumgart, A History of Architectural Styles (London 1970
[1969]), p 57
Paolo Verzone, From Theodoric to Charlemagne (London 1968
[1967]), p 35
MacDonald, Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture, pl 37
Hubert, Europe in the Dark Ages, pl 8

S Lorenzo, Milan
interior as remodelled by Martino
Bassi, 1574-88
view, ambulatory, plan
Lassus, Early Christian and Byzantine World, p 89
Miles Lewis
MacDonald, Early Christian and Byzantine
Architecture, pl 37

more tetraconch double shell


(or nearly) plans
church or audience hall in the library
of Hadrian, Athens, early C5th
probable Martyrium at SeleuciaPieria (Samandag), late C5th

MacDonald, Early Christian and Byzantine


Architecture, pl 38
Krautheimer, Early Christian and Byzantine
Architecture, p 105

Resafe

Photo Horst Fiedler Sena Lobo

Resafe

Resafe, from the north


Miles Lewis

Resafe: aerial view from the north-east


Krautheimer, Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture, pl 96

Martyrium or tetraconch church, Resafe, before 553


view from the east & plan
Miles Lewis
Soubhi Saouaf, Six Tours in the Vicinity of Aleppo (Aleppo 1957), fig 93

martyrium church,
Resafe
interior view of the apse with
vestigial synthronon &
cathedra

Miles Lewis

martyrium church, Resafe


nave seen through south conch
Miles Lewis

tetraconch plans
Martyrium, Resafe, before 553.
Audience hall or library in
Hadrian's Stoa, Athens, early
C5th.
San Lorenzo Maggiore, Milan, c
460.

Krautheimer, Early Christian and


Byzantine Architecture p 188.
MacDonald, Early Christian and
Byzantine Architecture, pls 38, 37

SOUTHERN SYRIA

the Hauran
(basalt)

Secular Basilica at Shaqqa, AD C2nd


view & reconstruction by De Vog & Duthost
Miles Lewis
Robertson, Greek and Roman Architecture, p 238

Secular Basilica at Shaqqa


plan & cross-section
H C Butler, Early Churches in Syria (Princeton [New Jersey]), pp 16, 17

Palace complex, Shaqqa,. AD C2nd: west or entrance front

Palace,
Shaqqa
corner span
in first court

the Western Tomb, Amman


C R Conder, The Survey of Eastern Palestine. Memoirs of the Topography,
Orography, Hydrography, Archaeology, Etc. Volume 1. The 'Adwn Country
(London 1889), p 44 & facing

Palace, Shaqqa: first hall

Palace, Shaqqa
the bluestone slab
roofing system

fortified house, Shaqqa


doorway of ?mausoleum

fortified house,
Shaqqa
mausoleum door
& pivot detail

bluestone door
in the
Archaeological
Musem,
Gadara,
Jordan

Miles Lewis

chamber in the
Southern Baths,
Bosra

J W Crowfoot,
Churches at Bosra and
Samaria-Sebaste
[British School of
Archaeology in
Jerusalem
Supplementary Paper 4]
(London 1937), pl 11

Flavian Palace or Domus Augustana, Rome, inaugurated AD 92: octagonal hall


Axel Bothius & J B Ward-Perkins, Etruscan and Roman Architecture (Harmondsworth [Middlesex] 1970), 252

cloister vault of the Military Baths, Bosra


Miles Lewis

THE BOSRAN PARADIGM

Cathedral at Bosra, plan as published by Fergusson


James Fergusson, History of Architecture (2 vols, London 1867), II, p 307,
from E G Rey, Voyage dans le Harouan, 1863, pl iv

Cathedral at Bosra: Crowfoots excavation of 1935


J W Crowfoot, Churches at Bosra and Samaria-Sebaste [British School of
Archaeology in Jerusalem Supplementary Paper 4] (London 1937), p 7

Cathedral at Bosra: plan with tetraconch


Crowfoot, Bosra and Samaria-Sebaste, pl 2

St Hripsime, Vagarshapat, Armenia, 618: plan


Hamilton, Byzantine Architecture, p 144

St Hripsime, Vagarshapat: Miles Lewis

Church at Garni, Armenia, AD C6th-7th


view of partly reconstructed foundations
Miles Lewis

Cathedral Church of the Vigilant Powers, Zwartnots Armenia, AD 641-666


Miles Lewis

Cathedral Zwartnots : reconstruction & plan


Christina Maranci, 'The Architect Trdat',
Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, LXII, 3 (September 2003), p 299

Cathedral at
Bosra
photograph
taken by an
American
expedition in
1875
sketch by de
Vog in 1862

Crowfoot, Bosra
and SamariaSebaste, pl 1

Cathedral at
Bosra

sketch by de
Vog in 1862
Detweilers
reconstruction
1935

Crowfoot, Bosra
and SamariaSebaste, pl 1

Cathedral at
Bosra, plan and
reconstruction by
Detweiler
Crowfoot, Bosra and
Samaria-Sebaste, pl 2

Cathedral at Bosra: interior looking east


Miles Lewis

Cathedral at Bosra
plan
Crowfoot, Churches at Bosra and Samaria-[?Seraste]

detail of the south wall


(marked orange on plan)
Miles Lewis

Cathedral at
Bosra
existing plan and
possible prior form

Cathedral at Bosra
existing plan
previous plan
probable original plan
Miles Lewis

Cathedral,
Bosra
detail of a
column

Miles Lewis

Church at Apamea,. Syria: apse detail


Miles Lewis

Ch

Churches at
Gerasa [Jerash]
J W Crowfoot,
Early Churches in
Palestine (London
1941), p 97

churches at
Bosra and
Gerasa

church at Gadara. Jordan


Miles Lewis

St George, Ezraa,
Syria, c 515
south-west view
apse
interior

Miles Lewis

St George, Ezraa
plan & section

Cecil Stewart, Early Christian, Byzantine


and Romanesque Architecture (London
1954 [1905/8]), p 63, after De Vogu

St George, Ezraa
roofing of the ambulatory

HH Sergios & Bakchos,


Constantinople, 527-36
front view
plan
south-east view

Miles Lewis
G Dehio & G von Bezold, Die Kirkliche Baukunst
des Abendlandes (2 vols, atlas in 5 vols, Stuttgart
1887-1901)
MUAS 15,451

HH Sergios & Bakchos


plan
south flank

Swift, Roman Sources, p 46


Miles Lewis

HH Sergios & Bakchos: interior


Paradoxplace.com.

from HH Sergius & Bakchos to Hagia Sophia


Miles Lewis

Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, AD 532-7


Miles Lewis

Resafe, from the north


Miles Lewis

Qirkbize, Northern Syria


Miles Lewis

Qirkbize, Northern Syria


Miles Lewis