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SN (iRINDINd lill 1 ( 1

ON RfSlDli.M .STRliSSl'S DiSIRIHUTION

AND.SURhACEINri (iRITV ()! 1)2

rilRI AD ROLl ING Dil S

Hy

Ol.CiA KARABl-l (illClllKOVA, B.S.

A Til I SIS

IN

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING

Submitted to the Graduate Faculty

of Texas Tech University in

Partial Fulfillment of

the Requirements for

the Degree of

MASTER OF SCIENCE

IN

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING

Approved

Accepted

August, 2004

ACHKOWI i:[)(iMi-NTS

The completion of this work is due to support and guidance of many people.

First. I would like to express my sincere appreciation and gratitude to my graduate

advisor. Dr. Iris Ri\cro. for her support, guidance, and encouragements throughout my

gradiialc studies and research progress.

I would like to thank Dr. Simon Hsiang and Dr. Hong Zhang for for being a driving

force in challenging m\ grow ili as a student and a researcher. 1 am also very greatfiil to them

for shairing their vision of research and encouraging me throughout my graduate program.

I deeply appreciate opportunities that 1 have received through the Department of

Industrial Engineering at Texas Tech University. Special appreciation goes to Fred

Schneider and Norman Jackson for their assistance in specimens' preparations and

conducting the experiment. Grateful acknowledgement is made to the materials

laboratory of Mechanical Engineering Departments for providing the equipment needed

to perform the experiment.

Thanks to all my friends and especially Steve Kelly, Ron and Jane Baker, who

have believed in me throughout my graduate career. They provided me with confidence

and support needed to achieve my academic goals.

I would like to pay my deepest respect and love to my parents and sister. I am

gratefiil to them for their moral and spiritual support, continuous encouragement, care

and infinite love. I owe them everything I have achieved.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

11

ABSTRACT

vi

LIST OF TABLES

vii

LIST OF FIGURES

viii

LIST OF NOMENCLATURE

CHAPTERS

I.

II.

III.

INTRODUCTION

LITERATURE REVIEW

11

13

15

17

17

20

21

23

25

27

RESEARCH METHOGOLOGY

29

30

30

31

3.3.1 Hypothesis 1

31

111

3.3.2 Hypothesis 2

32

3.3.3 Hypothesis 3

32

3.3.4 Hypothesis 4

32

3.3.5 Hypothesis 5

33

33

35

36

38

38

3.6.2 BuehlerMetallograph

40

41

3.6.4 PocketSurfProfilometer

42

43

45

IV.

46

46

47

48

48

50

51

3.7.8 Electropolishing

53

55

55

55

60

61

4.2.1 Hypothesis 1

65

66

iv

V.

4.2.2 Hypothesis 2

68

4.2.3 Hypothesis 3

70

4.2.4 Hypothesis 4

72

4.2.5 Hypothesis 5

73

75

76

77

78

78

84

VI.

86

89

90

90

91

100

RESEARCH CONCLUSIONS

102

103

105

106

107

BIBLIOGRAPHY

109

APPENDIX

A. EXPERIMENTAL DATA

113

118

C. MATLAB CODE IN THE CURVES FITTING

LOCATING THE EXTREME POINTS OF THE DAMPING CURVES

D. ACTUAL VERSUS PREDICTED RS PATTERNS BASED ON THE

BEST FIT MODEL - EQUAL-AREA FITTING

120

129

131

132

ABSTRACT

Three questions were raised in this study: Can residual stresses after multipass

grinding be predicted? What will be their superposition relationship between initial and

final residual stresses distributions? Is there a method to predict and optimize surface

integrity of the material after certain number of passes in order to improve the tools life?

The procedure followed included a nested factorial experiment. The experimental

protocol consisted of six steps, which included microstructural investigation, hardness,

roughness, relative cold work, surface and subsurface residual stresses evaluation. All the

main effects, including heat treatment, type of grinding operation, and multipass grinding

technique and their interactions were found to be significant at a 0.05 level.

Experimental significance was summarized with a second order model representing

the grinding dynamics. The model was selected among four other candidates since it

provided the least predicting errors and the most parsimonious structure with only one

explanatory parameter, the damping ratio. The prediction of the complex nature of the

residual stresses was achieved in two-folds. First, given the multipass grinding operation

preceded by heat treatment, the damping ratio would change based on the experimental

data. Then, this thesis provides the prediction on how the residual stresses pattern at different

depth would change due to the damping ratio parameter. The contribution of this study was

characterization of heat treatment and grinding effects on the surface integrity factor of D2

thread-rolling dies and development of a plausible methodology and potential theory in

describing the memory relationship among multipasses during grinding operations.

vi

LIST OF TABLES

3.1

46

3.2

47

3.3

3.4

52

4.1

61

4.2

of various surface finishing conditions.

64

5.1

83

5.2

98

Vll

finishing.

49

LIST OF FIGURES

2.1

10

2.2

12

2.3

13

2.4

16

2.5

19

2.6

21

2.7

23

2.8

24

2.9

26

3.1

31

3.2

39

3.3

40

3.4

41

3.5

42

3.6

43

3.7

45

3.8

50

3.9

51

3.10

measurements.

52

3.11

54

4.1

conditions.

56

4.2

59

4.3

to various austenizing conditions [42].

59

4.4

62

4.5

67-68

Vlll

4.6

69

4.7

71

4.8

double tempered specimens after grinding operation 1.

74

5.1

77

5.2

79

5.3

the dynamic motion of the system.

82

5.4

87

5.5

89

5.6

three-point fitting approach.

91

5.7

5.8

93

5.9

94-95

5.10

equal-area fitting approach (1).

96

5.11

equal-area fitting approach (2).

97

5.12

the experimental model.

98

5.13

the displacement of the damping system.

100

5.14

components under various applied forces in grinding operation.

101

fitting.

IX

93

LIST OF NOMENCLATURE

Partition ratio of the heat flux into the workpiece to the total heat flux

A'u

To

Ti

T?

(yyield

Poisson ratio

Elastic modulus

- y

Depth defined by equality of thermal elastic stress and the materials yield

stress is reached

Ns

y9

NpiNp2

\l/\ , yj2

r]

Ro

Camera radius

SI , S2

Rn

Roughness average

/?,.v

roughness depths in 5 consequtive sampling lengths

Rz

depths in 5 consecuting sampling lengths

HT

Quenching

T(u)

Gr

Grinding operation

Stiffness

Viscosity/friction

Inertia

Applied torque

(^

Damping ratio

cOr,

Natural frequency

CDcj

q(i)

q{l)

q(i)

Acceleration term

*max

dmin

Depth corresponding to the right-end point of the residual stresses profile; final

depth point at which the stresses were evaluated

RS

RSmnx

RSmin

Ri,R\p

Magnitude of the residual stresses between the surface compressive values and

the tensile peak for actual and predicted data

Ro,Rop

Actual and predicted residual stresses amplitude between the tensile peak and

the final depth point at which the stresses were evaluated

xi

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Fatigue of tools and dies is a crucial problem that has occupied manufacturers for

years. Fatigue is generally described by the behavior of materials under repeated cycles

of applied workload which causes deterioration of the mechanical properties and results

in a progressive failure. The consequence of fatigue includes: (1) loss of strength, (2) loss

of ductility, and (3) increased uncertainty of both strength and service life. The principal

cause of these characteristics is the imperfections in the materials. In addition, fatigue

behavior varies due to service conditions and prior treatments interacting with materials'

characteristics, but is generally common within a particular industrial application in

properties degradation dynamics and type of failure.

Factors influencing fatigue failure may include: (1) design features such as

notches, holes, fillets, uneven surface roughness, or any other feature that tends to create

stress concentrations, (2) fabrication cracks, (3) temperature, (4) speed of loading, and (5)

corrosive environments. Particularly, in thread-rolling cold work application, the dies are

operated at a range of low work temperatures under 400 to 500 F [1]; therefore, high

deformation forces are generated and exerted on the dies. These forces induce great

plastic deformation and, therefore, inevitably lead to the dies degradation and ultimate

failure before the completion the service cycle.

High-carbon high-chromium D2 steel is one of the most commonly used steels for

the thread-rolling dies application. It possesses excellent hardness, strengths, and wearresistance necessary to withstand deformation forces and satisfactory toughness. Despite

its high strength characteristics, there are still some failure related concerns, i.e., spalling

and crumbling. Therefore it remains the goal of metallurgists to work contstantly on

mechanical properties and fatigue life improvement.

Fatigue detection methods may include visual inspection, destructive and

nondestructive testing. However, since characteristic failures of the thread rolling dies

generally occur at surface or near-surface layers, inspection of the surface integrity is

commonly used to monitor the near-surface layers characteristics and their quality by

means of microstructural, hardness, roughness and residual stresses evaluation. Among

the other parameters, the state of the residual stress of a given material is one of the most

descriptive characteristics that can be correlated to many mechanical properties aspects of

the tool. It is mainly defined by a consequence of interactions among service cycle,

temperature, deformation, and microstructure [2]. Thus, studying and optimizing

manufacturing and machining treatments involved in the dies preparation would allow

one to control and predict the tools behavior, and in the long run to prolong dies hfe and

delay the part degradation.

Although heat treatment and grinding operations have been investigated extensively,

the comprehensive analysis of performing multiple grinding passes to obtain desired depth of

cut remains a relatively new paradigm. Researchers, such as Agha and Lui [3] have declared

that final residual sfresses are strongly correlated to initial residual stresses and the number of

cutting passes in machining operation. Their investigation was ftirther supported by Liu and

Yang [4] but limited to establishing the significance of the initial and final residual stresses

relationship at surface level. Multipass grinding operation is commonly applied in the dies

finishing operation, however little information are available in the public domain to broaden

the imderstanding of the multipass grinding dynamic characteristics and their influence on the

fomiation and/or relaxation of the residual stresses. This research was motivated to shed light

on this phenomenon and to assess its true effect by evaluating the resulting residual stresses

after various pass grinding techniques at surface and subsurface levels.

Furthermore, mathematical modeling was incorporated to find a parsimonious

predictive function, in which only one explanatory parameter was used to define the

residual stresses profile. In accordance with the principle of parsimony, there should be a

trade-off between model fit and model complexity. In other words, if the unknown

system can be modeled by more than one model, the simplest one should be preferable.

In this thesis, the emphasis was to determine the state of the residual stresses and to

understand the nature of its profile affected by the preceding treatment operations. For

this reason, the modehng effort of the residual stresses profile and its formation was

postulated to provide a representative, parsimonious, and predictive model, which may

ftirther be used to predict fatigue life of the tool, hi addition, a theory of damping

dynamic system and autoregression system identification technique were used to support

the proposed modeling approaches and theory, and to assign a physical meaning to the

explanatory modeling parameter.

were involved in the dies preparation to evaluate their individual and combination effect

on the surface integrity factor and the development of the residual stresses. An overview

on the present knowledge and existing problems in D2 thread-rolling dies preparation are

discussed in Chapters II. Hardware, experimental design methodology, as well as design

of the experiment are given in Chapter III. Subsequently, Chapter IV provides discussion

and analysis of the results obtained in the experiment and tests the hypothesis. Chapter V

is devoted to the development of the predictive model based on the previously established

significant effects providing mathematical correlation and interpretation of the input and

output parameters.

No superposition relationship of the residual stresses profiles in multipass

grinding operation was found based on the literature search, which would determine and

predict the memory relationship of the previous grinding pass onto a subsequent one.

Furthermore, a predictive mathematical model was logically to be developed to describe

the location of the residual stresses tensile peak and their distribution throughout the

depths of the affected layer. Such a model would establish the correlation between

various combinations of the proceeding heat treatment and grinding operation of several

multipass techniques in a very precise and concise form with minimum number of

physical parameters.

Upon successful completion of this study, this thesis would be able, at threshold

level, to: (1) demonstrate sufficient knowledge and critical judgment of the surface

integrity techniques and methodologies employed in the residual stresses modeling; and

(2) constmct appropriate descriptive and inferential statistical analysis to inform research

results based on the research objectives in two major categories:

1. Analyze and document the effects of the manufacturing processes used in D2

thread-rolling dies preparation on the surface integrity factor, i.e., microstructural,

hardness, roughness, surface cold work characteristics, as well as on the

magnitude and distribution of the residual stresses throughout the depths of the

affected layer:

a. Investigate the main and interactions effect of the experimental factors: heat

treatment, type of grinding operation and multipass grinding technique, and

suggest the most advantageous treatments combination.

b. Study the effect of multipass technique in grinding operations to develop a

functional relationship between the initial and final residual stresses

distribution.

2. Establish a methodology and develop a parsimonious predictive model to describe

the residual stresses distribution; mathematically integrate the explanatory

parameters to the treatment combinations used in the study:

a. The model should have a minimum number of parameters and be

representative, i.e., describe the residual sfresses profiles in a concise way.

b. The model should predict the residual stresses magnitude, tensile peak

location and subsurface distribution.

c. The mathematical model should establish functional

relationship in

utilized in grinding.

CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

Tool steels are used in a variety of industrial applications [5, 6]. The aspects of

their performance affect many other related fields, some of which are safety, continuous

process monitoring, and cost-profit considerations. The parts of a major concern are the

tools used for high duty cycled applications where their failure would cause more

serious damage. Thread-rolling dies are among such critical applications. Being

subjected to great deformation forces exerted on them in service, the dies are operated

at a low range of work temperatures which make them more sensitive to stresses and

more susceptible to sudden fatigue failure.

The life of thread rolling dies is primarily determined by the rate of deterioration

of the die threads profile [1]. Rolling imposes severe on the dies from bending and

sliding action, therefore fatigue failures generally occur from spalling and crumbling. A

failure of one component of the system will inevitably cause collapse of the whole

operation block. Thus the dies were considered as heavy-duty elements of the multicomponent thread-rolling system. This chapter reviews on major manufacturing factors

involved in thread-rolling dies preparation and their effect on mechanical properties and

potential service life of the tool.

Tool steels are of such diverse compositions that are divided into relatively small

number of groups for purposes of comparison and evaluation. Composition and

properties of some of the tool steels are very similar; therefore they fall within natural

grouping. When selecting the right tool steel for a particular application, one should

always be ruled by the following key factors: (1) predicting the performance of that steel

in that particular application, and (2) analyzing the manufacturing limitations in terms of

abihty to produce that tool [5].

Cold-work tool steels, because their alloying content is not sufficient to enable the

steels resist to softening at elevated temperature, are restricted to the use in those

apphcations that do not involve prolonged or repeated heating above 400 to 500 F [1].

Based on similarity of chemical composition and properties, cold-work tool steels are

subdivided into three categories: A-group, air hardening medium alloy cold-work steels,

D-group, high-carbon high-chromium cold-work steels, and 0-group, oil hardening cold

work steels.

The high alloy content of A-group steels is sufficient to provide them with full

air-hardening capability, therefore the steels exhibit minimum distortion and the highest

safety (least tendency to crack) in hardening [1]. The presence of chromium in the steels

(types A2, A3, A7, A8, A9) provides moderate resistance to softening, and sihcon and

nickel (in A9, AlO) improve toughness. Typical applications of these steels include shear

knives, punches, trimming-, forming- and blanking dies.

D-group steels are the most highly alloyed cold-work steels [7]. Chromium, at a

nonnal concentration of 12% is the major alloying element. All the steels of this group,

except for D3, are hardenable by air cooling from austenizing temperatures. Therefore the

steels are very little susceptible to distortion and cracking during hardening. Excellent

wear resistance makes the steels suitable for long-run dies for blanking, thread-rolling

dies, rolls, shear and slitter knives [1].

Alloying elements of 0-group steels provide sufficient hardenability to make

possible hardening of small-to-moderate sections by oil-quenching. High carbon content

provides the most important service-related property - high resistance to wear at normal

temperatures. Subsequently the steels of this group are extensively used in dies and

punches for blanking, trimming, drawing and flanging [1].

Based on the concepts of productivity and performance, one should select a tool

steel for a particular operation to achieve the desirable service life. In this work, steel

selection and the treatment operation used were made with the key concept - enable steel

required properties for the thread-rolling flat dies application for better performance and

prolong fatigue life.

Thread-rolling is a cold forming process for producing threads on cylindrical or

conical surfaces [6]. Dies for this process may be either flat or cylindrical. Flat dies are

used in threaded fasteners and most wood screws production. Half of a pair of standard

thread-rolling dies is shown in Figure 2.1.

go

O '

itofionarv

Traversing die -,

Jie

Tro versing

die^

,_f^^^

Sfohonory die

Depending on its geometry, different techniques and processes are used in the

dies preparation. The most significant properties required for this application are

hardness, toughness, and wear resistance [6]. These properties must be high enough to

enable the dies withstand high deformation forces when in service and prevent brittle

behavior. Good wear resistance is the major consideration here, for the reason that the

prime cause of failure in thread-rolling is due to spalling and crumbling.

The most commonly used steel for thread-rolling dies are Ml and M2 high-speed

steels; D2 high-carbon, high-chromium steel and A2 medium-alloy cold-work tool steel [7].

In general, D2 steel possesses the greatest wear resistance among the listed above steels, and

is most commonly used for long production lines in rolling larger parts and alloys of higher

hardness [6]. Despite its versatile use in a range of industrial applications, there are still some

fatigue related problems that metallurgist work on. Answers to these problems would help

10

increase tools life and their efficiency, and therefore would result in economical savings.

Motivated by these reasons D2 steel was chosen for this research.

Due to low work temperatures thread-rolling processes impose severe

defomiation forces and stress on the dies from pressure, sliding and bending [6]. As a

result, the primary causes for the dies failing are spalling and crumbling. These processes

roughen the minor diameter of the product thread and cause the screw to go out of

tolerance. Spalling usually occurs near the edges of the tool, whereas crumbling originates

on the most sfressed rolling areas of crest and gradually propagates over the die threads.

In this work, various treatment combinations of D2 steel for the thread-rolling flat

dies have been extensively investigated (1) to study the effect of preparatory treatment

combinations on the ultimate mechanical properties, (2) to further model the results and

develop parsimonious predictive tool, and (3) to suggest the most advantageous treatment

techniques that would contribute to prolong fatigue life of D2 thread-rolling dies.

Dies preparation cycle includes heat treatment followed or preceded by surface

finish depending on the required tolerances [5]. Heat treatment practice is used to

promote desired properties in dies, whereas surface finish by grinding is performed to

ensure tight tolerances with enhanced surface characteristics. The major consideration on

selecting the heat treating procedure is to impart the dies with a favorable combination of

hardness and toughness, ft is critical that D2 thread roUing dies possess hardness of HRC

59-62 along with satisfactory toughness [6].

11

therefore additional sfress relieving annealing cycle needed not to be performed. In heat

treatment, tiie steel must be preheated at 1500 F; this practice reduces subsequent

distortion in the parts by minimizing non-uniform dimensional changes during

austenizing [8]. High-carbon and chromium content of the steel requires high hardening

temperatures to obtain maximum hardness. D2 steel is quenched in air cooling.

Multiple tempering, a common heat freatment practice for D tool steels [4],

effectively decreases the amount of retained austenite and stabiUzes the martensitic structure

of the steels. Tempering immediately follows hardening, and is usually began when

workpiece temperature reaches 120-150 F. Most common practice in D2 dies preparation is

to double temper after hardening [8], while single tempering practice is still used successfully

and called out ui some cases (refer to Figures 2.2-2.3). In some high-alloy tool steels triple

tempering is employed to ensure maxunum dimensional stability of the final part [6]. Ruled

by this consideration, the latter has also been included in the experimental study.

- 2000

3 1800

i 1600

I" 1400

*^ 1200

1000

800

600

400

200

0

austenizing

preheating/

1 quenching

1 ""

1

.

^H^

*time

Figure 2.2. Hardening and single tempering practice in D2 dies preparation [8].

12

austenizing

quenching

tempering

tempering

time

Figure 2.3. Hardening and double tempering practice in D2 dies preparation [8].

Machining operation is an integral part in the dies preparation. Flat D2 dies are

usually ground before hardening to avoid grinding cracks, to which D2 is susceptible if

ground improperly [6]. However if tolerances require lower average distortions, dies

must be ground after heat treatment. These facts were kept in mind in selecting the

surface finishing parameters. By performing finishing operations to complete dies

preparation cycle, the author aimed to investigate not only its influence on surface quality

but the tool's properties and service life as well.

Microstructural changes caused by heating and cooling parts underlie the basis of

all heat treating processes. Structural components and transformation rate can be

predicted and controlled by the iron-carbon- and TTT diagrams.

Aimealing is one of the most important heat treating procedures and should be

performed very careful. It requires accurate control of temperature, time and rate of

13

temperature for a long enough time to relieve locked-in internal stresses, and

subsequently slowly cooled down. If performed correctly, annealing process alleviates all

residual stresses and cold work of the previous treatments of steel, ft also puts steel in the

best condition for hardening; therefore hardened steels should always be annealed before

rehardening [9].

Hardening of the steel, which includes austenizing and quenching, consists of

heating the steel to above critical temperature and subsequent cooling with the required

rate. In that temperature level pure austenite should be the only existing phase. When the

steel is heating to just above critical point the austenite crystals formed are very small,

whereas heating to higher above critical temperatures causes austenite grains to grow.

Upon subsequent cooling (quenching) from austenizing temperatures the structural

features of austenite, including grain size, are transferred to martensite, which

morphology determines the characteristics properties of the material. Upon hardening,

steels microstructure consists of martensite untempered, which is of extremely high

hardness and brittle. In this condition the structure will not withstand bending or any

other change of shape without breaking.

The matrix of practically all tool steels in quenched condition consists of

martensite and appreciable quantities (1-30%) of retained austenite [5]. The amount of

retained austenite in the final part should be minimized to the smallest possible degree to

improve impact elasticity and minimize subsequent dimensional distortion of the part

when in service conditions. To stabilize the structure, alleviate locked in stresses and

14

toughen the steel, almost for all industrial applications tempering is used to complete

materials preparation.

Tempering process consists of reheating of hardened steel to the temperatures

below Ai critical point, dwelling time and cooling down. Any temperature up to the

lower critical may be used for tempering; therefore an extremely wide variety of

properties and microstructure can be obtained upon the process [10]. Toughening of the

steel is always accompanied by decrease of hardness. The magnitude of induced

toughness is strongly correlated to the temperature the steel is brought up. The higher the

temperatures the larger degree of toughness the structure of the material will possess.

Therefore for the critical applications where a certain range of work hardness is required,

a selection of tempering procedure should be made very carefully. If the steel can be

tempered to the same hardness at more that one temperature, it is advisable to select the

highest tempering temperature that will produce the desirable hardness. Ultimately, it is

the balance of hardness and toughness required in service that determine the conditions of

tempering for a given application [10]

In general, mechanical and thermal impacts can be differentiated to a certain

degree; however their influence is somewhat overiapped. This fact has brought the

authors of [11] to a conclusion, that no residual stresses can be correlated to any one

specific impact. Graphically, it is demonstrated in Figure 2.4.

15

Machining process

Mechanical

Tliermal

Chemical

..^

impact

^

>>..

r fi

Tool

Geometric

Tliermal

machining conditions

properties

Mechanical

Machining parameters

environment

workpiece

Geometric

Thermal

properties

Mechanical

finish

characteristics,

it inevitably

changes

surface

and

subsurface

materials

characteristics. By removing a layer off the materials surface, this procedure imposes local

plastic deformation, which is invariably accompanied by residual stresses formation [12].

The amount of plastic deformation produced on the surface of a ground part is highly

correlated to the parameters of the machining operation. The major factors affecting the

residual stress state of a material has been defined in [11] as the follows:

1. Machining conditions (depth of cut, speed of workpiece, cutting speed);

2. Topography of the grinding wheel (dressing conditions, wear behavior);

3. Specification of the grinding wheel (grit size, bond, hardness);

4. Cooling conditions.

16

Extensive studies have been done to investigate the influence wheel dressing used

m grinding [13-17]. Coarse dressing produces a wheel surface that is open and free

cutting. On the other hand, a closed grain structure results in wheel surfaces that are not

free cutting which leads to an increased thermal impact [11]. Although the surface

roughness is improved in all cases, tensile residual stresses are generated on the surface

then. Thus aluminum oxide wheels, susceptible to this effect, produce tensile surface

residual stresses [14], whereas Carbon Boron Nitride grinding (CBN) resulted in

compressive residual stresses [14, 15]. Silicon carbide wheels effect on the residual

stresses was strongly dependant on the grinding parameters employed [4].

Grit size of the wheel is another important characteristic affecting residual

stresses. Right selection of the grit size should be made to obtain the intended grinding

effect - roughening, finishing, or lapping for a particular apphcation [16].

Most grinding condition effects take place primary due to three effects [17]:

Thermal expansion and contraction during the process;

Phase transformation due to grinding temperature generated on the surface;

Plastic deformation caused by the abrasive grains of the wheel.

Every time a grinding wheel passes the surface elastic and plastic deformation

occurs in the structure of the material. The forces generated in the material removal

process are proportional to the surface temperature and are mainly determined by the

17

variables of the process, some of which are depth of cut, feed rate, cutting speed, and use

of coolant [18]. The increase of these parameters result in greater surface temperature,

which, in turn, is directly correlated to the amount of energy entering the workpiece: the

more energy enters the surface, the higher temperature rises. Workpiece temperature and

its distribution under the surface can be expressed as the following [17]

f

'

/

^ ^

k^n

3r

3TK\

yAKtj

2/-2r+

'

1 - erfc

V

(2.1)

where i?. is the partition ratio of the heat flux into the workpiece to the total heat flux q in

the grinding zone, k^ is the workpiece thermal conductivity, K is the thermal difftisivity

of the workpiece, ZQ is the time for the wheel to pass the grinding zone, z is the distance

from the workpiece surface. For the calculation of maximum surface temperature, the /

value should be accepted as -z^, half the time that the wheel takes to pass over the

grinding zone.

Thermally induced residual stresses are determined by this temperature gradient

and materials elastic modulus. The material yield stress is usually a function of

temperature; this underlying relationship was determined by [17] and is schematically

demonstrated in Figure 2.5. The yield stress is constant until transformation temperature,

Tj, is reached corresponding to a ^ y transition. The decrease of the yield stress is lineariy

proportional to the temperature rise until T2 upper limit is reached. In case when surface

temperature does not exceed Ti critical temperature of the material, the following kinetics

of the transformation processes is true. The increase of surface temperature causes

surface expansion, however due to energy dissipation subsurface layers are affected to a

18

expansion, and compressive surface residual stresses are generated.

(y Yield

temperature

If thermal stress exceeds yield stress of the material, plastic deformation resuUs in

the surface, which leaves permanent deformation. In this case, tensile residual stresses

will be created in the surface upon cooling. This constant near-surface tension degrades

the material's fatigue life and may result in cracking.

It is essential to control grinding parameters as the stresses induced in the process

can either impair or improve the materials performance and service life. By keeping

thermally induced stresses below the materials yield stress, there will not be plastic

permanent deformation in the material and tensile residual stresses can be avoided [17].

The thermal stresses of the process can be determined from elastic stress analysis and can

be expressed as described in Equation 2.2.

19

^yield

a{z) =

d<z <z

2

'

1

l-V

(/ J-rf/-'

(l^

ldl2

(2.2.)

z<z<-d

where cr,,,vw is the yield stress of the workpiece material, vthe material Poisson ratio,

E the elastic modulus, a the coefficient of thermal expansion, T temperature

distribution when grinding surface temperature reaches its maximum, d thickness of

the workpiece and z,. the depth where the thermal elastic stress equals the materials

yield stress.

Final residual stresses created in the ground surface upon cooling can be

calculated from the compatibility Equation 2.3 [17]

EaT]

- | . ( z ) . ^ | =0

(2.3)

where a (z) is the thermal stress distribution at the begiiming of the cooling process

determined through the equation (previous one).

As it has been explained above, final surface residual stresses can be either tensile

of compressive. Grinding operations are generally subdivided into three categories:

abusive, conventional and gentle. Typical residual stresses profiles corresponding to

grinding classification can schematically be depicted as in Figure 2.6

20

120

J-

S 100

I80

1

AAUSlVt

.*.

1 /

0.000

'^.clnrilf.;

fluid

' / ^

ft.Blil

Dwnn t^cd

"LS"

7; *"'

a :o

CQue'roduced oy Sur-^ace Grinding

Sitit,

all

bCOj

GOCO

.1X0

,002

?.c.l. o i l

(1;.'0)

D.-y

^v..,_^CONV =^moML

"v

"'^--,.^

GE>rrL

0.002

O.DOO.C'Oe

DEP'H BEtay SJR=ACE

0.005

INCHES

0.010

0.012

Figure 2.6. Residual sfresses distribution induced by diverse grinding conditions [19].

parameters employed in the process, but in general, the following logic underlies this

classification: the smaller material removal rate is, the lower energy enters the workpiece

surface. As a result, generated surface temperature does not exceed transitional

temperature [17], and it is said, the grinding process is not abusive.

Based on the consideration of the required process and ultimate properties, the

grinding technique can be performed by taking the required layer of a workpiece off at

once, 1-pass grinding, or in multiple pass manner. A study of somewhat similar

machining process, face turning, has been conducted by Agha and Liu in [3]. The authors

investigated the effect of the second cut on the residual stress distribution of face turned

21

AISI 52100 hardened steels. Comparison of the final residual stresses induced in the part

after first and second cut were shown to be different, although the cutting parameters

were identical. Subsequently, it was concluded that final residual stresses depend on preexisting residual stresses, and the authors claimed that it is impossible to predict whether

the residual stress after the second cut would be less or more compressive than that after

the first cut based on machining parameters alone.

A similar study was carried out by Liu and Yang in [4]. In this work, the samples

were subjected to multipass grinding and surface residual stresses were evaluated.

Identical grinding procedures have been performed on samples n times with no stress

relieving procedure in between. The fact that final resuUing residual stress of different

samples differed from each other, enabled the authors to draw a similar conclusion: final

residual stresses depend on initial residual stresses, and that their superposttion is highly

non-linear [4].

Multipass techniques are commonly used in industry however there are only few

studies that have concentrated on investigating in its effect on materials properties. In this

work, multipass grinding carries somewhat of an alternative meaning. Grinding

operations to the same depth were performed by means of 1-pass, 2-pass, and 4-pass

techniques to evaluate the effect of the operation and model the effect on subsurface

residual stresses superposition.

22

In practice, no component is free from micro residual stresses, and almost all

components have macro residual stresses to certain extend [12]. Residual stresses are

usually generated in metal by thermal and/or transformation stresses accompanying

heating, cooling, and mechanical working processes [20]. The residual stresses can either

benefit in prolong fatigue life of metallic components, or they can be the cause of a

concern by contributing to failures in process and short service life [21]. Therefore, it is

essential to know the magnitude and distribution of the residual stresses in the part upon

its manufacturing to further on control and predict the part's behavior. The study of this

relationship can also be of a great contribution in optimization of the manufacturing

processes to obtain the desired effect.

Residual stresses' effect on mechanical properties of the dies is schematically

presented in Figure 2.7.

Residual stress

^'

Dimensional

1'

^r

Breaking

Hardness /

Toughness

1'

1'

Adhesion

Wear

1

''

'

Tensile

stress

1

1

"

Fat] gu e r iilure

23

The effects of residual stresses have certain common features; however the

magnitude of their action cannot be extended to all materials and to the different

manufacturing processes that induce residual stress. It is accepted, that when applied

sfresses are added to internal tensile sfresses of the material, the part is locally overloaded [2].

To the dies in cold thread-rolling process, these added stresses speed up the deteriorating

processes and may cause sudden failure. If compressive residual stresses are embedded in

the surface, service applied stress is relaxed to some degree and dies fatigue life will be

improved. An example of stresses superposition is given in Figure 2.8.

Figure 2.8. Superposition of residual stress and service stress [2, 22].

Tensile residual stresses may not only facilitate crack initiation but also accelerate

their propagation by increasing mean stress. Fatigue strength of the material is considered

to be a mean or static stress superimposed on the cyclic stress. As the mean stress am

increases, the fatigue stress decreases [22].

The effect of residual stress on the tensile strength was investigated in [23]. After

being subjected to a row of preparation techniques compressive residual stresses were

induced at the surface of 4340 steel samples. Subsequent tensile fatigue testing of all

24

samples revealed increased fatigue life compared to those which were characterized by

tensile surface or lower compressive stresses.

Another manifestation of residuals stresses is their upsetting effect on dimensional

stability. Inequity of residual stresses results in dimensional distortion [24]. These

changes may occur both when residual stresses are relaxed or generated.

In all known up-to-date studies, it has been declared that compressive residual

stresses improve fatigue life; however, the latter carmot be predicted only by the stresses

magnitude and distribution. The authors of [25] demonstrated that it is possible to take

residual stress into consideration when predicting the fatigue life using a global approach.

Some of the aspects, which were involved in the computation, were hardness, strain

hardening and relaxation of residual fatigue stresses. However in real life application,

there are still may be some other factors involved.

The effect of residual sfresses on wear and fiiction properties has also been

investigated although to a much lesser extent [2]. Usually its effect was encountered in

fatigue life through other parameters like toughness, hardness and adhesion which are

affected by the residual sfresses. This effect has been integrated into global parameter of

adhesion, and Bhadeshia in [2] suggested try and determine the real effect of residual sfress.

When the die is subjected to a cyclic load, fatigue failure occurs after a certain

number of cycles. The task of an engineer is to engage those manufacturing preparation

techniques that would increase dies performance and ultimately, fatigue Hfe. Crack is first

25

initiated on a microscopically small scale. Then due to continuous cyclic loading the

crack grows to a macroscopic size. Fatigue life of the die is presented in Figure 2.9 and is

usually detemtined by the last cycle when crack reaches the surface and complete failure

occurs [26].

Cyclic

slip

Crack

initiation

Micro crack

propagation

Crack initiation

phase

Macro crack

propagation

Failure

Crack propagation

phase

materials during cyclic loading. It is accepted that residual stresses may shorten, extent or

leave unchanged the number of cycles to crack initiation, however experimental

investigations of macro and micro residual stresses influence on crack initiation are

scarce [12]. This is due to difficulties that are associated with observation of nucleation

and propagation of small cracks.

Crack nucleation mainly depends on the machining process, loading conditions

and material, but in most cases microcracks can be detected after 0.1-10 % of the lifetime

[12]. Cracks can be initiated at or below the surface. Let us consider both cases.

In most general way microcracks start at the surface of the material as a result of

high localized slip bands caused by a cyclic shear stress [26]. The cychc shear stress is

26

not affected by residual stresses and slip band cracking can still occur. However, if

compressive residual stresses are embedded at the surface, they tend to keep such cracks

closed, which slows down further growth. The author of [26] gives an example of leaf

springs in cars. Shot peening is usually involved in their preparation. Microcracks have

been observed after many years of service; however their accumulation does not lead to

failure. It was concluded that the compressive residual stresses served as an effective

barrier by seazing cracks further growth.

If crack is initiated below the surface, one can be sure it is residual stresses that

caused it. Residual sfresses may have a remarkable influence on the location of crack

initiation [12]. A term "the weakest point" has been defined in [27] as the point of

maximum tensile residuals stress. The authors showed that it could be over four times as

large as that of the average residual stress. Brinksmeier in [11] claimed that fatigue fracture

starts at the weakest point, therefore he emphasized that the knowledge of subsurface

stresses is more important than the average residual stress. If crack propagates into macro

residual stresses field, the behavior of crack propagation can be significantly influenced by

magnitude and distribution of the residual stresses. Thus compressive surface residual

sfress reduce crack propagation rate and, consequently, delay complete failure.

Surface quality and its characteristics are known to play an important role in

part's performance and fatigue life. The conditions of the surface and subsurface layers of

the most machining parts are usually monitored by means of surface integrity factor.

27

Surface integrity factor can be evaluated on three different levels [28]. A basic

level involves microstructure, microhardness and roughness evaluation of the surface

layer resulting from the machining operation under certain process parameters. The

second level includes residual stresses and mechanical properties evaluation, whereas the

top level of the surface intensity factor evaluation consists of actual tests by means of

which the behavior of the part during machining is assessed.

Compressive residual stresses along with flaw-free surface prolong tools life and

delay the components failure [29]; therefore, the main objective of a metallurgical

engineer is to include those mechanical treatment in the part manufacturing, that produce

better surface integrity.

In this work, heat treatment and grinding effects of interest in D2 thread-rolling

dies were studied and evaluated first on a surface level by means of microstructural,

hardness and roughness examination, and then, subsurface residual stresses were

evaluated by x-ray diffraction technique.

28

CHAPTER 111

RESEARCH METHOGOLOGY

Tools life depends upon its manufacturing procedure that enables it with the

required characteristic properties and ensures acceptable longevity. Multipass technique

of the grinding operation is a very important factor to be considered in process

optimization. By selecting specific grinding parameters and techniques an engineer

should fulfill the following industrial requirements:

1. Predict the nature of the surface and subsurface residual stresses along with their

magnitude and in-depth distribution.

2. Optimize cutting conditions to produce the most advantageous

surface

Currently, there is a gap between the above stated industrial requirements and

available theoretical knowledge. Previously, it has been established [3, 4] that the effect

of multipass machining techniques has highly non-linear character; however there is no

analytical predicting tool that would describe this relationship. To fully utiUze the

potential benefits of the dies preparation techniques and contribute to a better

understanding of the processes, the effects of each factor alone, i.e., heat treatment and

grinding conditions, and their interactions were studied extensively. Subsequently, their

effects were modeled to develop an efficient predictive tool, which would complement

existing knowledge in the field and helps optimize the parameters to prolong tool life.

29

This work has been mainly devoted to studying the effects of processes used in

D2 thread-rolling dies preparation and their subsequent modeling. The following

objectives have been pursued:

1. Investigate the effect of tempering and grinding operations on the surface finish

and residual stresses distribution in the dies.

2. Establish the most advantageous treatments for the studied material.

3. Develop predictive model to describe subsurface residual stresses distribution and

integrate established parameters to the treatment combination used.

4. Evaluate the effect of initial residual stresses on final residual stresses distribution

in multipass grinding technique and establish the functional relationship of their

superposition.

The dies preparation scheme was subdivided into two phases: (1) heat treatment

steel preparation, and (2) machining operations. First, the specimens were heat treated.

This practice involved a set of various techniques and was operated at three levels:

quenched specimens were subjected to a single-, double- and triple-tempering.

Subsequently, all the specimens in each heat treated group were ground by one of the two

tested sets of grinding conditions, which in their turn, were performed both by single and

multipass techniques. Schematically the factors of study are given in Figure 3.1, and

30

section 3.5.

Heat treaimeni

''

Q+T(1)

Q+T(2)

'

Q+T(2)

'

'

Gr1|

Gr2

1 r

of 1

''

P2

P1

P1

P4

P2

PI

Gr2

Ol/l

P2

P4

Gr1

P4

P2

P2

P1

P2

P4

P4

Figure 3.1. Experimental design and the factors of interest, where the following

notation was accepted: Q + T(i) - quenching followed by i cycles of

tempering, /=1, 2, 3 (Table 2); Gr^ - grinding operation with set y

conditions, 7 = 1, 2 (Table 3); P]< - number of passes employed in

grinding, k= 1, 2, 4.

The results of x-ray diffraction residual stress measurements were used to analyze

the effects of the investigated treatments via evaluation of the following hypothesis:

3.3.1 Hypothesis 1

Hypothesis 1 was concerned with assessing the overall effect of the experimental

structure. Here, the experimental model was evaluated for any significant effect to

establish if any of the variables in the system could be explained.

Ho: None of the operations involved in the dies preparation would be significant.

Hi: At least one of the treatment operations would be significant.

31

3.3.2 Hypothesis 2

The effect of heat treatment {HT) operations was evaluated in Hypothesis 2.

Identically ground specimens across all heat treated groups were analyzed to establish

significance/non-significance of the effect.

HQ- /^ijk ^ /^2jk " /"jjk'

H,: /y,.,^ it ju^^^ ^ ^^.^.

^/( . multipass technique, ^ = 1, 2, 3.

Null hypothesis, if true, would establish that no heat treatment (HT) effect would

be significant, whereas alternate hypothesis would prove the opposite.

3.3.3 Hypothesis 3

Hypothesis 3 tested if grinding conditions (Gr) used in the study produced

significantly different effect. The hypothesis was assessed by analyzing the specimens

within each heat treatment group, which were subjected to the same multipass grinding

operation (P) but of different sets of parameters

JHQ: //,.,,. = /j^,y;

1H,:/^J,^

'^ /"i2k-

I A: - multipass technique. A: = 1, 2, 3.

Null hypothesis states that no significant effect of grinding (Gr) factor would be

significant, and alternate hypothesis, if true, rejects the first one.

3.3.4 Hypothesis 4

Hypothesis 4 evaluated the effect of heat freatment (HT) and grinding (Gr)

interactions. The samples ground by the same number of passes were evaluated to

32

establish if the effect of each preceding heat treatment {HT) and grinding {Gr) operations

was different from those of other combinations.

|Ho:/A,k =

/"l2k

/^21k =//:2k

= / ' 3 1 k =/^32k;

lu

1,.

.,

k multipass technique, A: = 1, 2, 3.

lH,://nk^

/^,2k

'^ / ' 2 , k ^ / ^ 2 2 k

'^/^Blk

/'32K-

Null hypothesis, if true, would imply that no significant interaction effect of heat

treatment {HT) and grinding {Gr) is significant, while alternate hypothesis, if proven true,

would reveal significant effect of initial residual stresses on final residual stresses.

3.3.5 Hypothesis 5

Hypothesis 5 tested the significance of multipass {P) effect in grinding. The

specimens previously subjected to the same heat treatment {HT) and grinding {Gr)

operations but different grinding technique, i.e., number of passes employed, were

evaluated for significance.

HQ^ /^iji = M\fi = /^ija;

H,: /^ij, ^ /^ij2 '^ Mj3

\i - tempering cycles,; = 1, 2, 3 ;

\j- grinding conditions,7 = 1,2.

Null hypothesis implies that effect of all grinding techniques would be identical

and the mean residuals stresses obtained in various multipass groups would be the same.

Alternate hypothesis would reject null hypothesis.

When a researcher designs an experiment, certain resolution and target values are

consciously or unconsciously embedded for the variables under the investigation. In most

33

cases due to practical and economical issues a certain range within target vicinity is

acceptable. This target range strongly depends on the nature of the experiment and is

valid within the experimental model. Based on these considerations, there were two

technical limitations that influenced selection of the experimental techniques used in the

work. Due to automatic grinder setup only three levels of multipass grinding technique

could be evaluated; however, this was sufficient to establish the characteristics

relationship of its non-linear superposition effect. Also, the number of replications in

subsurface residual stress measurements was limited to six, due to the nature of labor

intensiveness of the in-depth residual stresses measurements collection [30]. Thus,

repeatability of this experiment was achieved by the set of replications in collecting the

data, which was further used to build pure error term in squared sum of errors in general

linear model when assessing the hypothesis. Validity of this work was mainly concemed

with freedom from bias in the formation of conclusions. In this research the following

types of validity were applicable:

1. Internal validity was assured by use of clear relationship between dependant and

independent variables. The design of experiment was buiU in such a way that the

factors of interest were not confounded with any other effect, which could have

resulted in misleading conclusions.

2. Construct validity deals with assessing how well the experimental model

represents the real worid. The specimens were purchased from MSC fridustrial

Supplier, an official distributor of metal-working components. Selection of heat

treatment and grinding procedure suitable for D2 thread rolling dies was

34

determined by the recommendations of [8, 16] and the techniques used in the

study were kept as close as possible to those of industrial settings.

Also, the experimental set up agreed with the principle of temporal stability. Two

specimens were tested in each treatment combination group with memory-free

independent and repeated measurements to minimize random experimental error.

Experimental model implied the following assumptions:

1. Replications carried no memory from the previous testing to the subsequent one,

therefore the data obtained were assumed to be independent.

2. In x-ray diffraction experiment an irradiated area of 1mm x 1mm was used,

therefore an assumption of uniform stress within irradiated area was made [19].

3. All treatments used in dies preparation were in control and repeatable.

4. The population distribution being tested was assumed to be normal, and the

variance of the errors within all levels of each factor was homogeneous.

Bias is defined as systematic error introduced into sampling or testing by selecting

one outcome over another [31]. Bias usually stands for any influence in the system that

distorts the data from their true pure chance nature. The following procedures were

undertaken to prevent any possible bias:

1. Skilled personnel were involved in conducting the experiment.

2. The operator conducting x-ray diffraction measurements was licensed to work

with the radiation emitting equipment.

35

3. Sample material was cut from the adjacent sections of the bar.

4. Samples were tested in randomized order.

5. The number of memory-free replications in repeated measurements was collected

to assess the data variation.

Based on the experimental model proposed in Figure 3.1 the study utihzed

factorial-nested design to correctly investigate the effects of interest. Two of the factor,

heat treatment {HT) and grinding {Gr), were crossed, thus main and interaction effects of

these factors were studied, whereas the third experimental factor, multipass technique (P),

was nested within the levels of grinding {Gr).

The number of passes (i.e., 1-, 2-, and 4-passes) should be considered nested in

the grinding treatment from an experimental design standpoint, because the amounts of

material removed at each pass of one grinding operation are similar but not identical to

those of the alternative operation. That is, the depth changed accordingly to the type of

grinding due to the aforementioned concerns. Selection of factors and their number of

levels is discussed below.

Heat treatment factor {HT) was represented in the system by the number of

tempering cycles employed in specimen's preparation. The effect of tempering procedure

on the final residual stresses is known to be non-linear; therefore, three levels of the

factor were studied

36

tempering. The selection of the heat treatment factor levels was dictated by the a'priori

knowledge of the system; therefore, the levels of HT factor were fixed.

Grinding operation factor {Gr) described the conditions of the machining

operations performed after heat treatment. To prevent crack formation the intensity and

the strength of grinding operation must be kept non-abusive [6]. For this reason, the two

following considerations were kept in mind when selecting the grinding parameters: (1)

non-abusive nature of grinding procedure, and (2) industrial world representativeness.

Depth factor (depth) was introduced in the system with the purpose to evaluate

subsurface residual stress response to the preceding treatments. All hj^otheses being

tested in this research were assessed at each depth level, to establish the range of the

studied effect. Residual stresses distribution throughout the depth is highly non-linear

[20]; therefore, seven levels of the depth factor were studied. An increment in depth layer

and the ultimate depth of the affected layer were determined by considerations of the

previous works in the related studies [11, 28, 32] and the experimental run.

Pass factor {P) described the number of passes used in grinding. Three fixed

levels of the factor were investigated, which included single-, double-, and four-pass

grinding technique. Two studied grinding conditions differed from each other by depth of

cut; therefore the layers of material removed in similar pass techniques were not

identical. In order to ehminate the possibility of drawing any biased conclusion the levels

of pass factor {P) were nested in those of grinding factor {Gr).

Replication factor {rep) was concemed with the replications of the experiment.

Overall, six independent replications in testing each freatment combination were utilized.

37

The levels of this factor were picked randomly from the stand point of data variability

and time issue. Replications were made independently therefore no interactions of this

factor with any other were encountered. Blocking of random replication effect did not

upset any unbiased fixed nature of other factors in assessing the hypothesis.

There were six pieces of hardware involved in the experiment. The equipment and

the sequential order of their use was the following:

1. Atmosphere- and Huppert tempering furnace,

2. Buehler metallograph,

3. Automated grinder,

4. PocketSurf profilometer,

5. PROTO residual stress analyzer,

6. PROTO electrolytic polisher.

D2 tool steels are prone to decarburization; therefore they need to be austenized in

atmosphere controlled furnace. The atmosphere controlled furnace used in austenizing

and dual chamber furnace for tempering are shown in Figure 3.2. Anhydrous ammonia

was used to generate ionized nitrogen which removed oxygen from the heating chamber

and thus prevented steel from decarburization. Ammonia, supplied to the burner,

decomposed into nitrogen which served as a shield from oxygen entering the chamber.

38

(austenizing), 2 - Huppert dual chamber furnace (tempering).

furnace for the experiment, first the temperature dial was set to a desired position, then

compressed air and natural gas valves were opened. Initially, the Ammonia flow meter

was set at 25-30 watch flow meter, and then after the flame shield was generated, the

meter was reset to a 15-20 position.

Tempering procedures were accomplished by means of Hupper dual chamber

furnace (Figure 3.2). The fiimace was equipped with temperature controllers, overtemperature controller and timer. Desired and maximum allowable temperatures for each

tempering procedure were set and monitored via digital controller of the ftimace. Maximum

allowable temperature could be up to 2250 F for the top chamber, and 1250 F bottom

chamber. Both chambers were enabled with independent control system which provided

flexibihty in rurming the experiment. The lower chamber was also supplied with a high

temperature fan to achieve better temperature uniformity in the furnace. For this reason.

39

tempering procedures were conducted using the lower chamber of the furnace. Safety

interlocks on all doors and access panels were set in such a way, that the power to unit

would be cut every time the furnace was open. Programmable controls allowed the

operator to preset a profile which the furnace automatically followed. Digital displays of

the furnace made it easy to monitor the temperature control. The digital controller was

fully factory-calibrated and ready for configuration. Therefore the only needed

calibration step was setting the minimum and maximum limits of the temperatures used

in the experiment.

Microstructural analysis of the specimens after heat treatment was accomplished

by means of Buehler metallograph. The image of the equipment is given in Figure 3.3.

2 - polishing and lapping disks.

40

graduated stage with 30mm x 45mm travel, lOOW quartz halogen illuminator, 5x, lOx,

20x, 50x, and lOOx objectives for bright field and polarizer (0-90 degree rotation).

Grinding procedure was performed on an automatic surface grinder. A diamond

wheel of 6 inches in diameter and 220 grit size was selected for surface finishing of the

dies [16]. The grinder was provided with electrical control box, work table, handwheel to

manipulate table in longitudinal and cross feed directions if needed, hydraulic pump unit

and coolant system. Feed rate, table speed and wheel direction were set by control panel

located on the side of the machine. An image of the grinding machine is presented in

Figure 3.4.

41

3.6.4 PocketSurfProfilometer

Roughness examination of the samples was assessed by using a PocketSurf

profilometer (Figure 3.5). The body of the PocketSurf roughness gage was equipped with

a diamond-tipped stylus, digital display, parameter selection switch, probe, inch/metric

switch, and transverse length switch. Roughness measurement operations were based on

mechanical-electronical principle: the diamond tipped stylus was mechanically moved

over the surface and deflections of the stylus were collected into electronic signals, which

were then amplified and shown on the display. To ensure validity of the measurement the

probe stylus and skid were in good contact with surface, and the setup was properly

aligned, i.e., the axis of probe transverse were parallel to the surface being measured. Out

of three transverse lengths (1,3, and 5) available in the apparatus, a transverse length of 5

was used to obtain more accurate measurements.

42

Calibration of the profilometer was checked prior to its operation. The gage was

calibrated using the reference specimen and the EPL-1681 Riser Plate supplied with the

PocketSurf kit. Five cutoff lengths were used in assessing proper calibration of the

instrument. The readings from the standard specimen were within 4 |a"/0.1 mm of the

value stated on the label, therefore calibration was assumed to be within tolerance.

The PROTO x-ray diffraction system consisted of three basic components: the

goniometer controller, the goniometer head and the computer (Figure 3.6). Goniometer

confroUer was used to monitor and control the variables of the process, such as voltage

and current, and the computer was provided with XRDWIN version 2.0 which was used

to process information.

2 - goniometer head, 3 - computer.

43

The following principle lies in the basis of the x-ray diffraction system [33].

Voltage excited tungsten filament, which made electrons hit the chromium anode and

generate x-rays. The geometrical size of x-rays passing through collimator was defined

by the aperture. Detectors measured lattice strains by recording high angle diffraction

lines produced by a collimator x-ray beam. Recorded x-ray diffraction pattern was

converted into optical signal, amplified and transmitted to the computer for processing

and interpretation.

Firstly, the system was initialized and warmed up. The initialization stage was

done with the Z-motor by focusing the x-ray optics, which could be controlled either

through the software or with the remote pendant. The warm-up procedure was used to

bring up the ftiU power from zero to a full operating voltage in a stepwise manner; it

minimized problems related to measurements collection, and in the long run would

increase the life of x-ray tube.

Considering irreversible detrimental effect of radiation the following safety

measures were true. Safety interlocks in the x-ray diffraction system prevented the x-ray

generator from working when the shutters were not properly closed. Another important

safety feature was flow monitor: if the water flow cooling the tube was not sufficient, the

flow monitor automatically enabled the safety interlock to the h.v. generator, thus

disabling x-rays. The x-ray diffraction lab and the operator were constantly monitored

with dosimeters to detect if the radiation exceeded acceptable level.

44

The major components of the electropolishing system used in the experiment

were electropolisher, stainless steel electrolytic tank, and magnetic electrode (Figure 3.7).

3 - magnetic electrode.

The middle section of the tank was filled with the electrolyte, which was

circulated by pump when running; and the other chambers of the tank were filled with

chilled water to keep the electrolyte cool. The magnet in the system played the role of the

anode. To enable better anode-cathode contact the bottom surfaces of the specimens and

the magnet were polished to remove scale, dirt or any other possible contaminants.

Electropolishing system was equipped with a set of electrode tips of different

apertures. Based on the size and geometry of the specimens a 4 mm electrode tip was

used. Recommended settings of voUage and time for removal 0.001" of the material from

the surface were provided in [34], however prior to the experiment the parameters were

calibrated for D2 steel specimens. Calibration techniques involved trial-and-error testing

of the effects of flow rate and voltage controls in time domain to remove 0.001" off the

45

surface at a time. Once the parameters were determined, this set of data was used at all

experimental runs.

The experimental protocol includes records on (1) material and heat freatment, (2)

metallographic preparation, (3) hardness examination, (4) grinding procedure, (5) roughness

analysis, (6) residual sfress measurements, and (7) elecfropolishing, which are described below.

Material used in the study was high-carbon high-chromium D2 tool steel. The

alloy composition of the steel is given in Table 3.1.

C

1.55

Cr

11.5

Mo

V

0.8

0.9

Mn

0.35

Si

0.45

Eighteen specimens were cut from the adjacent sections of the same bar. The samples

(1/2" thick and wide, 1" long) were sized for the convenience of the experimental procedures.

Initially, six specimens were randomly selected to undergo one of the three heat treatment

procedures (Table 3.2). Microstructural analysis, hardness, and surface residual stresses

examination were accomplished then. Subsequently, the specimens of each heat freatment

group were subjected to various grinding operation of different pass grinding techniques, and

the characteristics of the specimens were evaluated again.

46

Procedure

1

2

3

Preheat

Hardening

1500 F, 12min

1500 F, 12min

1500 F, 12min

1850F,40min

1850F,40min

1850F,40min

1 cycle

400 F, 2 hs

960 F, 2 hs

1000F, 2hs

Tempering

2 cycles

900 F, 2 hs

960 F, 2 hs

3 cycles

920 F, 2 hs

investigate and characterize surface integrity factor at three levels [27]: (1) mictorstructure

analysis, (2) hardness and roughness examination, and (3) surface and subsurface residual

stresses evaluation.

Metallographic preparation of the specimens included fine polishing and lapping.

Fine grinding was performed manually using a series of progressively finer abrasive

silicon carbide papers of 220, 320, 500, and 1000 grit size. Each of the grinding steps was

performed in a direction of 90 to the previous scratch direction. Subsequently, the

specimens were cleaned and finished by lapping with Micropolish Alumina 3. Lapping

procedure was performed on three wheels of different grit size in the following sequence

240-, 400-,0.1 micron.

After a scratch-free surface was achieved, the specimens were etched with 2%

nital. Nital is sensitive to crystal orientation, and is preferred for studying martensitic

structures [1]. Just-etched specimens were rinsed thoroughly with running water and

dried by plotting with cloth towels.

47

metallograph was able to produce a magnification of 5-100 the normal magnification.

The sampled were individually placed on an x-y motion stage. A desired location for the

examination was achieved by manipulating the x-y motion bar. Computer software

allowed viewing several images simultaneously to compare and contrast the

microstructures of different treatments.

Resolution displayed by metallograph was calibrated so that it would represent

true resolution. To do so, a sample was subjected to microhardness testing. An

impression produced by diamond pyramid was measured then. Further on, the diagonals

of the impression were measured using metallograph and corresponding adjustments

were made.

Resistance of the specimens to deformation was measured by hardness testing.

Rockwell "C" scale and brale indenter were used in the study. A basic principle of

hardness measurements consisted in applying the load of 150 kg on the surface of the

material and subsequent measurement of the mean diameter of the impression [36].

Due to preceding heat treatment processes, volume and dimensions of the

specimens changed slightly. Therefore to eliminate the bias and to ensure uniform

material removal from the surface one side of the specimens was initially ground and set

48

as a reference datum. Grinding operations of interest were performed on the other side of

the specimens. First, the z coordinate of the machine was calibrated to coincide with preground specimen's surface level. Then the parameters of interest, including feed rate,

table speed, and the amount of the material to be removed from the surface at a pass was

set. An effective synthetic coolant system (CIMSTAR 3865 undyed metalworking fluid

concentrate) was used in grinding to reduce work temperature and prevent formation of

tensile surface residual stresses [17]. Grinding parameters utilized in the study are

presented in Table 3.3.

Parameters

Wheel speed

Spindle speed

Feed rate

Depth of cut

Coolant

Spark out

Grinding conditions 1

5416.5 feet/min

3450 rpm

40"/min

0.001"

CIMSTAR 3865

1 pass

Grinding conditions 2

5416.5 feet/min

3450 rpm

40"/min

0.0005"

CIMSTAR 3865

1 pass

subjected to all three grinding techniques: 1-, 2-, and 4-passes grinding operation. The

selection of the type of grinding and conditions of the process was recommended by [16]

and was kept as close as possible to grinding procedures used in thread rolling dies

preparation in industry. Due to automated nature of the grinding machine, the grinding

parameters were identical from one grinding cycle to another that ensured accuracy of the

procedure.

49

Surface profile was measured in a direction perpendicular to the lay of the surface

- predominant directions of the scratch marks. Typical profile of highly magnified

machined surface consists of peaks and valley and is schematically shown in Figure 3.8.

>

Among three available roughness measuring techniques, i?, Rmax, and i?-,

roughness average i?, most commonly reported in literature, was used in the study, i.e.,

the arithmetic average height of roughness irregularities measured from a mean line

within the evaluated length, L. This principle can be described in the way of the

following equations:

1^

K=-\\y\dx,

(3.1)

L

R^{approx.) = y.+yi+y^^-yn

50

(3.2)

Both non-destructive and destructive techniques were utilized in residual stresses

examination. First, the surface residual stresses were measured by means of nondestructive x-ray diffraction technique (Figure 3.9), and then the x-ray diffraction was

coupled with electropolishing to estimate subsurface internal stresses.

/v.

X-ray source

Film

.N,P2

Specimen

surface

. ^ - %

Figure 3.9. One-angle arrangement for x-ray diffraction technique [38], where Nsspecimen's normal; fi, angle between incident beam and Ns, Npi, and

Np2 the normals to the different planes 1 and 2 respectively; ^/i and ii/2,

angles between Ns, Npj, and Np2 respectively; rj, the angle between the

incident beam and diffracting plane normals; RQ, camera radius; 1 and

2, two diffracting planes; Si and S2, parameters directly related to the

Bragg's angles, 0i and 02.

Micro- and macrostress deformation principles lie in the basis of x-ray diffraction

techniques. When steel is under applied or residual stress, elastic strains cause change of

interplanar distance in the crystal structure of the material. By measuring this change in

interplanar distance it is possible to quantify the stress. Multiexposure technique (MET)

51

technique involved the measurements of several values of lattice strains in multiple v|;

directions to eliminate non-linearities of d versus sinV due to significant amounts of

plastic deformation caused by machining operations (Figure 3.10).

DSpacIng

EM

Del 1 Del 2

1.177t.

1.1726

1.1&76

1,1626

0,0

0,1

0.2

0,3

0,4

O.E 0,6

Sin2psi

0,7

0,8

0,9

1,0

Phi=0,00

Figure 3.10. Single exposure method: d versus sin^V|; splitting in residual stresses

measurements on single tempered specimen, subjected to a set of

grinding parameters 1 (Table 3.2) of 1 pass grinding technique.

Summary of the x-ray diffraction measurements parameters are given in Table 3.4.

Table 3.4. X-ray diffraction settings data.

Radiation

Lattice planes - Braggs angle

Specimen's orientation angles, \\i

Irradiated area

Tube voltage

Tube current

Cr-K

(221)- 156

-11.95, 0, 11.95

1 mm^

17 kV

20 mA

52

A 10-second exposure time was selected for the stresses evaluation. Tonshoff and

Brinksmeier in [14] investigated the effect of measuring time on standard deviation of the

produced data and concluded that among the range of 1-30 seconds exposure time per

step, a 10 seconds exposure time produced the smallest standard deviation.

Position of K^ diffraction peak, intensity and peak breadth were assessed by

fitting a Pearson VII 85% distribution function by least square regression [39]. The

following corrections were applied to estimate true residual stresses [34]:

1. Corrections for background - a gain profile collected on glass surface was used in

x-ray diffraction measurements to minimize background noise

2. Correction for factors dependent on 9 and \\i - included Lorentz, polarization, and

absorption factors (LPA)

3.7.8 Electropolishing

Ruud in [38] claimed that electrolytic and chemical polishing are the only methods

for material removal from the surface that do not generate residual stresses in the

component. However the application of these techniques requires subsequent subsurface

residual stresses correction by an amount related to the relaxation due to the removed

layers. The residual stresses correction applied in this work are described by the equations

3.3 - 3.5. The principle of the electropohshing is schematically shown in Figure 3.11.

53

Removed layer

For the flat surface, a generalized solution can be written as follows

H CJ,. ( Z )

'"

'-1

-1

z7

-^

'-1

-1

dz.

(3.3)

z7

where cr^(Z|) represents true stress in any direction at depth z,, and CJ,. (Z, ) represents the

measured value at that depth, z/ is a distance from the bottom of the specimen to

uncovered depth of interest, H- original thickness of the specimen.

The correction of the residuals stresses at each particular depth was computed as

difference between the true and measured values

^H cr,. (z)

c(z,) = c7,(z,)-cr,. (z,) = 2 | rfz-6z,

'^1

I'I

^^^dz.

z

(3.4)

The integrands can be expanded in a Taylored series in terms of surface values and

integration is performed step by step. However, only the first terms could be accountered

in calculation for shallow depths corrections:

c{z,) =

-4aJH)^.,

(3.5)

magnitude and inversely proportional to the specimens' thickness [34].

54

CHAPTER IV

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

was accomplished in two phases: (1) surface and (2) subsurface examinations. The first

phase included microstructural, hardness, and roughness evaluation along with analysis

of surface residual stress and relative cold work. The subsurface materials examination in

the second phase was assessed by profiling the in-depth residual stresses. Subsequently,

in order to correlate the residual stresses to the preceding treatment operations, the

profiles were modeled. The details of the modeling methodology will be documented in

Chapter V. When combined with the findings of this chapter, the potential application of

this study was to predict response residual stresses based on the preceding heat treatment

and grinding operations.

4.1.1 Microstructure and hardness examination

In heat treatment, the preceding austenizing and quenching processes produce a

microstructure that can be tailored to microstructural characteristics of the steel upon

tempering. Metallographic examination of the specimens after hardening (see Figure 4.1-a)

revealed heterogeneous mixture of martensite, undissolved alloy carbides, and retained

austenite produced in cooling from austenizing temperatures. Untempered martensite in

the as-quenched condition is highly unstable due to supersaturation of carbon and alloy

55

atoms [10] in the body-centered tetragonal crystal lattice of martensite, and the presence

of retained austenite. Therefore steel hardening is always followed by tempering which

causes certain phase transformations, discussed below, and thus promotes more stabilized

materials structure. The results of microstructural analysis of tempered components are

shown in Figure 4.1-b, -c, -d.

\\^^

^ \

,11

,00 n

3w2^ \

'^_

"*

^^^i\.*r>>-'^^. ^'-tAH-

Figure 4.1. D2 steel microstructural examination after various heat treatment conditions.

Specimens were air-quenched from 1850 F, 2% nital etched; lOOx.

56

ASTM E 112 by using the intercept method. Upon tempering, slight increase of the grain

size was observed. Grain size of 8 characterized the microstructures of as-quenched

specimens, whereas after all tempering procedures employed in the study the grain size

increased to 7.

The primary differences revealed in microstructures of the different heat treatment

operations were the amount, shape and distribution of the carbide particles in the

martensitic matrix. The microstructures of the samples after multiple tempering

operations were characterized by higher uniformity of carbides size and their distribution

throughout the martensitic matrix. In microstructures of single tempered specimens small

and large carbides particles of uneven shape co-existed with each other, whereas their

size was more homogeneous after multiple tempering operations. Tempering causes

transformation of retained austenite, which introduces additional carbides at various

stages. Accordingly, the microstructures obtained on double- and triple-tempered

specimens revealed more carbide particles per unit area when compared to those of

single-tempered practice.

Three distinct stages of tempering can be identified [40, 41]: (1) the formation of

the fransition carbide, (2) transformation of retained austenite, and (3) precipitation of

cementite. The first stage involves precipitation of transition carbides particles, usually at

210-390 F and its effect is revealed through the changes in toughness and hardness

(Figure 4.2). The retained austenite on quenching is mechanically unstable below the Ai

critical temperature, and therefore will fransform to martensite under stress. However,

57

this transfoi-mation occurs only after the transition carbides are well established and

usually takes place in the range of 390-660 F temperatures, which defines the second

stage of tempering [41].

The amount of transfonned retained austenite in the second tempering stage

strongly correlates to the range of tempering temperatures and the number of cycles in

heat treatment. Low tempering temperatures limit the size of the transition carbide

particles and result in very little change in the dislocation substructure of the as-quenched

martensite; therefore very little portion of retained austenite is transformed at lowtempering temperatures [7]. And vise versa, the higher the range of tempering

temperatures, the more retained austenite transforms in martensite. A similar trend was

observed when the number of tempering cycles was increased: the more tempering cycles

were involved in heat treatment operation, the more retained austenite transformed into

martensite.

Carbides precipitation and the retained austenite transformation significantly

increased toughness and lowered the hardness compared to that of as-quenched condition

(Figure 4.2). Due to the microstructure consisting of high-carbon martensite and a high

density of coarse undissolved carbides, the toughness of hardened D2 steel is low [10].

Tempering transforms unstable brittle martensite into a tempered one, thus relieving

some internal stresses. More stabilized tempered microstructures increase plasticity of the

martensitic structure and improve toughness. Being inversely dependent, the increase of

toughness in tempering operations causes decrease of hardness, which was observed on

all tempered specimens.

58

Hardness, HRC

640.43

b5

..aaaaiiM

64

63

62

61

62+0.6

i|:!i;;' 1

60

59

58

57

56

::!iK:l:i::|

iH--E

'!"''='

''!;'! '

-^9+0.43

59^a4

N

U

1i-:''ii.."-','lffi

-''=> '-'=181

'^'''m

Figure 4.2. Results of hardness examination on D2 specimens after heat treatment.

In general, the retained austenite of D-group steels is highly alloyed and hence

quite unstable. For this reason, surface hardness remains low until the secondary

hardening temperature is reached [7]. Gill in [42] investigated the effect of tempering

temperatures on the dynamics of the retained austenite. The results of this correlation on

D2 steel are given in Figure 4.3.

Tempering temperature, F

^XS

5O0

700

90Q

1100

13O0

subjected to various austenizing conditions [42].

59

The tiiird tempering stage consists of the precipitation of the cementite and change of

carbides morphology [10]; however, the effect of this stage could not be revealed by the

metallograpliic examination in this work due to microscope resolution limitations.

The results of hardness examination obtained in this work conformed to the graph

of Figure 4.3 and indicated that secondary hardening took place in triple tempering

procedure. In multiple tempering at high temperatures range (900-1000 F), more carbon

and alloying elements are taken into solution, and therefore are available for carbides

precipitation [7]. Roberts et al. in [5] claimed that in high-carbon high-chromium steels a

large portion of retained austenite stays untransformed up to 800 to 1000 F where a

conditioning reaction occurs, which results in large quantities of new martensite to be

formed, and hardness increases again.

Roughness of the ground surfaces both in longitudinal and transverse directions was

measured with several repetitions to achieve better accuracy in estimation of the

characteristic. Five observations made in each measurement helped estimate standard

deviation and coefficient of variation of the data. Table 4.1 gives the averages of the collected

data. Surface roughness in the longitudinal direction was found to be significantly dependent

on the type of grinding operation performed. That is, the specimens finished by grinding

operation 1 revealed roughness of about 14.4 |i-inch compared to 10.6 |i-inch roughness of

the specimens subjected to the other set of grinding conditions. Grinding multipass technique

effect produced shght roughness variation, however the effect itself was not significant at

60

a=0.05 significance level. Therefore, in the given experimental setup it can be concluded

that surface rougliness depended solely on the amount of the material removed from the

surface during the grinding operation. That is, the smaller the depth of cut, the better

surface finish was produced. The forces generated in grinding to a smaller depth remove

the material in a more even and uniform fashion producing a smoother surface in finishing.

Table 4.1. The resuhs of roughness examination. The data is based on five measurements.

Grinding

technique

1 pass

2 passes

4 passes

Longitudinal

Grinding

operation 1

15 1.58

13.8 1.10

14.41.14

direction

Grinding

operation 2

10.2 0.84

101.58

10.8 1.64

Transverse direction

Grinding

Grinding

operation 1

operation 2

28.8 0.84

29.4 2.88

30.6 1.14

30.6 0.89

29 1.22

29 1.58

effect neither of the type of grinding operation, nor of the grinding technique. The latter

indicates that no external factors or their interactions other than those of grinding

operation parameters were involved, which ensured the conclusion with negligible noise

due to the experimental operations or their techniques.

As mentioned above, tempering operations alleviate some portion of the locked

internal stresses present in the material after quenching and result in more favorable

materials characteristics. Particulariy at the microstructure level, it can be shown by the

61

residual stress level it is manifested by a decrease of surface tensile stresses (Figure 4.4).

120 -'

Figure 2. Surface residual stresses on D2 samples after heat treatment practice:

B - as-quenched condition; D - quenched and tempered specimens.

Every tempering cycle of the heat treatment operation employed in the study

advanced residual stresses relaxation, and the more cycles were involved in the heat

treatment, the lower the resulting tensile residual stresses were. Thus, specimens

undergone triple tempering revealed the lowest tensile residual stresses compared to

those of single and double tempering treatments.

Figure 4.4 shows that every tempering practice utilized in the study reduced

tensile residual stresses towards more compressive, however the effect of multiple

tempering operations was non-linear. That is, the most significant amount of residual

stresses relaxation occurred during single tempering, and even though each subsequent

62

tempering cycle also relieved internal stresses, the increment of the stresses relaxation per

each cycle was considerably smaller.

When material is under stress, applied or residual, dimensional changes due to

inhomogeneous plastic deformation and thermal/mechanical relaxation occur [21]. This

deformation may cause a set of macro and micro residual stresses alteration. Micro

residual stresses influence local hardness within component and consequently - the local

strength. Micro residual stress measurements can be collected along with macro residual

sfresses and determined by peak broadening of Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM)

values of the x-ray diffraction profile. Microplastic deformation changes the perfect

crystalline regions between dislocation tangles making them smaller. Upon reaching

nominal 0.1 jam [43], further reduction of these regions along with variation in lattice

spacing of the diffracting crystallites cause peak broadening.

Comparison of near-surface residual stresses and cold work values before and

after single pass grinding operation are given in Table 4.2. The degree to which the

specimens were cold worked demonstrated strong correlation to the amount of material

cut off in grinding: the specimens subjected to grinding operations of a smaller cutting

depth revealed higher degree of surface cold work compared to that of the alternative

grinding. Moreover, the amount of cold work, introduced in grinding, was found to

depend on the surface integrity.

compressive residual stresses were characterized by greater peak broadening, and thus,

more prominent cold work. Specimens finished by grinding operation 2 (refer to Table 3)

demonstrated the maximum relative cold work of all specimens, and the minimum

63

amount of cold work was obtained on non-ground surfaces. Preceding heat treatment

procedures did not show significant effect, i.e. all specimens in each heat treatment group

possessed cold work within the same range.

Table 4.2. Residual stress and relative cold work (FWHM) values on D2 samples of

various surface finishing conditions.

Surface finishing

condition

Preceding heat

treatment

Q

Q + T(l)

Q + T (2)

Q + T(3)

Residual stresses,

ksi

96.46 2.45

45.08 2.65

20.65 2.21

15.17 2.00

2.29 0.17

2.74 0.15

3.49 0.12

3.75 0.19

Grinding

parameters 1

Q + T(l)

Q + T (2)

Q + T (3)

-53.47 3.26

-55.97 2.92

-59.40 2.35

3.49 0.18

3.74 0.13

3.94 0.21

Grinding

parameters 2

Q + T(l)

Q + T (2)

Q + T (3)

-48.60 3.46

-50.77 3.93

-55.77 2.83

4.76 0.14

4.98 0.17

4.57 0.24

Non-ground

Furthermore, by carefully analyzing the experimental data from the Table 4.2 and

Figure 4.4, the assembled observation clearly shows that grinding procedures produce not

only better surface finish, but also drastically change the stress state of the material. Both

grinding operations of the study converted surface tensile residual stresses towards

beneficial compressive stresses. In particular, grinding operation of set 2 parameters,

which involved smaller depth of cut, tend to produce higher compressive residual stresses

compared to the other grinding operation. However, this difference in surface residual

stresses was not shown to be significant at a=0.05 significance level due to relatively

high variation of the data. This observation corresponds to the results obtained in [19]

64

where Prevey claimed that surface residual stresses may not be representative of the

machining process. Specifically, in case of grinding the surface stresses may be neariy

independent of the grinding parameters [19]. In the same paper, the author also claimed

that machining and grinding practices produce variations in the surface residual stresses

which could be so large that surface results would be of little value. For these reasons,

subsurface residual stress measurements were further conducted in order to correctly

evaluate the effect of grinding on the stress state of the material.

Subsurface residual stresses profiles resulting from the preceding heat treatment

and grinding operations were collected on all specimens. Theoretically, several factors of

the D2 dies preparatory treatments might affect the residual stresses distribution and

magnitude; therefore the factors of interest were subdivided into several groups and

assessed by hypothesis listed in section 3.3. First the experimental data were evaluated

for overall effect by using General Linear Model (GEM), then, if significant, the effects

of each level of treatment was assessed individually and contrasted to those of the other

levels. Mukiple comparison techniques involved Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) range

test and Scheffe test. Furthermore, since the analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistics

used were theoretically based on independence, random sample, normal distribution, and

equal population variance, all data presented in this thesis were plotted and tested for

normality, autocorrelation and equal population variances (for details, see Appendix B).

65

And the coefficients of variation of all data sets were within 3-16 percentage range,

which gave strong indication of the reliability of the resuUs.

4.2.1 Hypothesis 1

Hypothesis 1 dealt with assessing the overall effect of the model. First, the

experimental model was evaluated for any significant effect. The results of this

hypothesis (see Table B.l of Appendix B) indicated that all factors of interest have

revealed significant effect, except for the replication factor {rep), therefore shownsignificant factors were further considered individually in the subsequent hypotheses.

Partitioning of sums of squares of the main effects in the experimental model and their

interactions is graphically shown in Figure 4.5-a. More detailed output information is

provided in Table B.2 of Appendix B.

Non-significance of the replication {rep) factor supports previously made

assumption of the identical and independently distributed data and memory-free

replications. This finding promotes unbiased hypotheses evaluation and drawing right

conclusions. Six replications made in residual stresses evaluation were used to build data

variation and error term which was then used in testing the hypotheses. The output results

of this hypothesis revealed significance of all factors of the modeling design; therefore

heat treatment, grinding operation and multipass effects along with their interaction

combinations were considered individually in the following h3^otheses.

66

a: Hypothesis 1

1 - replication (rep),

2-heat freatment (HT),

3 - depth effect,

4 - (HT)*depth,

5 - pass (P) in grinding (Gr),

6-(P)*(HT)in(Gr),

7-(P)*depth(Gr),

8-(P)*(HT)*depth(Gr).

b : Hypothesis 2

Tempering effect

1 - (HT),

2-error term.

c : Hypothesis 3

Grinding effect

1 - (Gr),

2-error term.

hypotheses.

67

d : Hypothesis 4

Tempering and Grindinginteraction effect

numbering of the effects

1 - (HT)* (Or),

2-error term.

e : Hypothesis 5

Multipass effect

numbering of the effects

1 - pass,

2-error term.

4.2.2 Hypothesis 2

The objective for testing this hypothesis was to argue if tempering effect was

significant in differentiy heat treated groups or not. The residual sfresses obtained on the

specimens, whose preparation procedures differed by only number of tempering cycles, were

compared between each other. Evaluation of the tempering effect across all grindmg

operations revealed similar frend in the residual sfresses distributions. In essence, the more

68

tempering cycles were involved in the dies heat freatment, the less tensile subsurface residual

sfresses were. At surface level residual sfresses of such specimens were more compressive;

however the effect was less distinct. An example of the residual sfresses profile describing

the effect of the preceding heat freatment is graphically presented in Figure 4.6.

Grinding operation 1, 2 passes

I -^T(Y)

3

'VI

Figure 4.6. Heat freatment effect on the formation of the residual stresses. The

data points represent averages of six repetitive measurements. Upon

heat treatment, the specimens were finished by grinding operation 1

in a single pass fashion.

Initially, F-test was performed to establish the significance of the effect, which

output results rejected the null hypothesis (Table B.3). Sums of squares partitioning of

the current experimental model is presented in Figure 4.5-b and indicates the successive

efficiency of the model. Subsequentiy, the data was tested using muftiple comparison

tests, which demonstrated significance of the effect at every depth of the residual stresses

profile. To assess the validity of the model, the assumption of normally distributed

residuals was verified. The data was first sorted by grinding {Gr), pass {P), and depth

69

factors and then evaluated. Q-Q plot and several statistical tests, such as Shapiro-Wilks,

Kolmogorov-Smimov and etc. (refer to Tables B.3, B.4 and Figure B.l) let the tests for

normality pass, hence previously made assumption was satisfied.

From the material's standpoint, the tempering effect was mainly determined by

the stress relaxation processes, which occur when the material was heated up to elevated

temperatures and held at a preset level. The dynamics of the phase transformations is

mainly governed by the temperature and the time of the tempering operation. Tempering

procedures relieve internal stresses locked in the material upon hardening by

transforming retained austenite to martensite and changing the morphology of martensite

from brittle to tempered one. Thus more stabilized structures resulting in lower tensile

stresses were achieved. The maximum residual stress relaxation occurred in triple

tempered specimens, which resulted both in a more stabilized microstructure and more

favorable in-depth residual stresses distribution. Single tempering practice, however,

employed the lowest tempering temperatures compared to those of the other two

treatments, therefore resulting residual stresses are more towards tensile.

4.2.3 Hypothesis 3

The effect of grinding operations was evaluated within each heat treated group

across identically muftipass ground specimens. Sums of square partitioning and the effect

of this model are shown in Figure 4.5-c. The output results (Table B.5) indicate that the

effect of both grinding conditions used in the study was significant at all depths below the

surface; however the effect was found to be insignificant at surface layer. The latter

70

finding conform the conclusion made by Prevey in [19], where he claimed that surface

residual sfresses may be nearly independent of the grinding parameters.

Single tempered specimens, 2 passes grinding

--Grl

.^

CO

:i

VI

Hi

on.

(07

Depth

Residual stresses, ksi (Gr 1)

Residual stresses, ksi (Gr 2)

0

-55.97

-50.77

0.001"

34.47

16.16

0.002"

73.73

58.15

0.003"

87.09

79.72

0.004"

67.25

57.73

0.005"

40.79

31.52

0.006"

19.25

16.37

Figure 4.7. The effect of grinding operations on the final residual stresses profiles.

The specimens' preparation included double tempering heat treatment

procedure, following finishing by two grinding conditions in single

pass fashion. The data is based on six observations.

Grinding effect on the residual sfresses profile is shown in Figure 4.7. Analysis of

tests statistics in SAS output and graphical effect presentation (Figure 4.7) indicated that

the effect of the grinding factor was strongly correlated to the type of grinding operation,

i.e., the amount of the material removed off the surface. That is, the specimens finished

by grinding to the smaller depth of cut were characterized by more compressive surface

residual stresses and less tensile stresses in subsurface layers compared to those of the

alternative grinding operation. This trend in residual stresses was mainly due to the

71

amount of energy entering the specimen in grinding, and workpiece surface temperature.

In essence, when cutting depth is increased, the surface temperature grows

proportionally, and due to the number of phase transformations (details in Chapter II) the

residual stresses of more tensile nature are generated.

4.2.4 Hypothesis 4

In the previous two hypotheses heat treatment and grinding effects were found to

be significant. However, in the cycle of the dies preparation none of these effects is

independent: finishing by grinding followed heat treatment specimens' preparation, hence

could be influenced by the initial state of the residual stresses, i.e., heat treatment induced

residual stresses. This hypothesis aimed to investigate the interaction effect of these two

factors and argue if final residual stresses were correlated to initial residual stresses.

The interaction effect was evaluated by contrasting the residual stresses obtained

on specimens within each grinding technique group, previously subjected to various heat

treatment and grinding operations. The F-test output results and R square values for this

model (see details in Table B.7) indicate the significance of this interaction effect.

Therefore it was concluded, that the effect of heat treatment and grinding operations is

strongly correlated, and final residual stresses are pre-defined by the initial residual

stresses induced in the material by heat treatment. Analysis of sums of squares

partitioning (Figure 4.5-d) along with the R square value suggest that the model is

constincted efficiently. The results of the normality testing given in Table B.S and Figure B.3

satisfied the previously made assumption and validated the model.

72

4.2.5 Hypothesis 5

Multipass grinding factor {P) in this hypothesis was evaluated for significance by

contrasting the residual stresses data obtained on identically tempered specimens and

finished by the same type of grinding. By assessing the hypothesis in this fashion,

identical pre-existing residual stresses induced in the preceding treatments were ensured,

and the observed contrasts between the levels of multipass factor were solely due to the

number of passes employed in grinding.

Residual stresses profiles across various combinations of tempering {HT) and

grinding {Gr) differed from each other in magnitude and their distribution throughout the

depths of the affected layer (hypothesis 4), however muUipass effect within each

combination was found to be similar. The significance of this model was established at

every depth of the profiles, and its effecfiveness can be evaluated by the partitioning of

the sums of squares (Figure 4.5-e) and SAS output resuhs in Tables B.9.

The effect of multipass factor on the residual stresses profiles is graphically

presented in Figure 4.9. The major differences in the residual stresses profiles were

observed in the stresses distribution and tensile peak location. And again, residual

stresses were strongly correlated to the amount of material cut off in grinding. Ultimate

depth of cut was identical across all multipass grinding techniques of each set of grinding

condftions. However due to the multipass technique, the amount of material removed in

2- and 4-passes grinding was twice and four time as less as in single grinding. Thus, the

grinding practice with the least cutting depth (4-passes) produced the least tensile

subsurface residual stresses, and single pass ground specimens were characterized by the

73

highest tensile residual sfresses. This effect was found to be significant at all depths at

a=0,05 level of significance.

Double tempered, grinding conditions 1

a

U

0.C07

Figure 4.8. The effect of multipass grinding on the residual stresses distribution in

double tempered specimens after grinding operation 1.

Another distinct difference in the residual sfresses profiles due to the multipass

effect was in the location and magnitude of the tensile peak. Likewise, the previous

discussion, this phenomenon was determined by the amount of the material removed off

the surface at each grinding pass. On single pass ground specimens the tensile peak was

observed at depth of 0.003", whereas specimens ground using both multipass techniques

had tensile peak at the depth of 0.002" below the surface. The latter observation indicates

that in single pass grinding the effect of the applied forces in material removal has much

greater magnitude, therefore the depth of the affected layers and the magnitude of the

induced sfresses are significantly greater compared to those of multipass ground specimens.

74

CHAPTER V

MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF GRINDING DYNAMICS

There are numerous dimensions in any machining process, which may contain

several interactive variables of equal importance, that make the process very complex.

As such, there is a reduced probability for setting up full explanation that can be

asserted to be the "real causation." At best an attractive model which is partial truth

can be aimed. Such model should be able at the very least to describe certain

phenomenon precisely and accurately.

The models that can be proposed depend on the individual's state of knowledge.

Ideally, a model in its mathematical concise form should have predicting power.

Therefore, it is of no utility to construct a mathematical model which is too complex to

support the reason. That is, the individual has to be in a juncture to derive a mathematical

model and hence physical consequences from the model. Some of the purposes for which

models in this chapter were constructed are:

1. Obtain answers about the dynamics of the grinding process;

2. Develop the theory of the grinding process and heat treatment;

3. FaciUtate conceptual progress in the residual stresses formation;

4. Influence further experimental design.

75

Mathematical modeling of the residual stresses distribution under various heat

treatment procedures and grinding dynamics was mainly motivated to develop a

parsimonious predictive tool which would fulfill the following requirements:

1. Predict the magnitude and nature of surface residual stresses in each of the

experimental combinations.

2. Determine the location of tensile peak and describe subsurface residual

stresses distribution.

3. Establish superposition relationship in residual stresses distribution due to

numbers of passes engaged in the grinding operation.

Mere analyzing of the experimental data is not sufficient to establish the

underlying relationship of the factors for two reasons: (1) their non-linear nature and (2)

interrelated superposition effect. Several modeling techniques were considered to find a

simple function with minimal numbers of parameters, which would not only give a

good fit to the experimental data of in-depth residual stresses, but also predict ultimate

residual stresses profile based on the treatments involved in D2 dies preparation. Thus,

the goal of the modeling effort was to find the best fitting in a parsimonious expression,

yet flexible enough to give plausible physical insight to describe the relationship

between a response variable, residual stress of the material, and a set of independent

explanatory variables of the model.

76

In the first modeling attempt, polynomial regression approach was utilized to

describe the residual sfresses distiibution throughout the affected depth of the material due

to the experimental freatments. From a statistical standpoint, regression modeling is a very

flexible approach, although a good fit of the mathematical model to the experimental data

with more than one asymptotic lines or changes can only be achieved when a large number

of model variables are employed. In addition, since one independent parameter is required

for each convex, concave, and/or flexing point, at least a third-order polynomials with four

parameters were needed to depict the residual sfresses profiles. An example of such a

polynomial regression with limited success in fitting the in-depth residual sfresses profile is

presented in Figure 5.1.

quenching followed by single tempering procedure, and grinding

operation 1 by four passes technique.

77

identifying their unique physical inteipretation and motivated the author seeking for a

more parsimonious alternative. Based on the results, any other approach would be

considered as a candidate for modehng the residual stresses if it would use less number of

parameters with equal or less predicting errors.

5.3.1 Model-to-Data Approach

Inttaitively, there are several closely related factors involved in a grinding operation,

friitially, the grinding setup allows the machine and the worked material press together with

a rotating motion as one intercoupled system. The generated energy therefore causes the

material wear by the introduced friction and subsequent vibration. Finally, the structure of

the ground material is weakened or desfroyed gradually layer by layer.

Analytically, there should be three factors involved in the grinding dynamics:

stifftiess {k), viscosity or fiiction {b), and inertia {m). A generic second-order differential

Equation 5.1 can be used to describe their relationship under certain rotational torque (r).

T{l)-bq{i)-kq{i)

= mq{l)

(5.1,b)

equation 5.1,b in the Laplace domain. In either expression, the stiffness term {k) represents

the memory of the system, and can be considered as the ability of the spring to restore to its

original condition. The friction term {b) provides the resistance to the changes; it is

proportional to the velocity due to damper, and works in the direction opposite to the

78

applied torque (r). Finally, the inertia term (/;/) dictates the ability to maintain the

momentum or the kinetic energy level. In essence, the physical explanation of the

damping/vibration phenomena involves interchange of potential and kinetic energy of the

components of the system: kinetic energy is released in the form of motion and vibration,

and potential energy is stored in the components of the system.

When describing the effect of grinding operations, i.e., cutting conditions and the

number of passes, both the effects of the grinding wheel and material's surface were

equally important. The lumped dyiiamic system was presented as spring-mass-damper

elements of the grinding machine and damping-stiffiiess of the workpiece. The schematic

of the lumped dynamic system is presented in Figure 5.2.

* xi

f X2

]

Figure 5.2. Simplified mechanical model of wheel-surface system [44].

79

An essential concept derived from Figure 5.2 is that the energy absorption or

damping represents the resistance force of the material to vertical vibration motion in

material removal grinding processes. Damping is always present in the systems where the

energy dissipation occurs [45]. This energy dissipation causes a decrease of vibration

amplitude with depth increase from surface layers downward. According to this concept,

the atomic structure of the outermost layers of the material is subjected to greater

vibration amplitude, whereas its effect on the in-depth layers decays in some exponential

fashion. Internal friction caused by grinding defines the capacity of the material to

dissipate applied mechanical energy in the form of heat. The authors of [21] claimed that

internal fiiction invariably describes the capacity for unconstrained or enforced vibration

and is measured by the rate of decay of free vibration decrement. Under the applied

grinding stress, internal friction and thermal vibration of atoms results in irreversible

plastic flow, which in its turn causes plastic deformation, and thus advances residual

stresses formation.

To summarize all of the above effects to the ground surface, the reaction force of

the material was considered as the sum of static, fiiction, and internal forces.

Furthermore, there should be two categories of friction integrated in the lumped model:

(1) external friction between the grinding wheel and the workpiece, and (2) internal

friction at the atomic level within the material. In evaluating this grinder-workpiece

intercoupled system, it was plausible that the magnitude of the internal friction depended

on the maximal applied stress of the grinding cycle [45].

80

dynamics, a number of kinematic and kinetic assumptions were made [45]. First, a

distributed mass was replaced by lumped mass elements to simplify the equation of

motion, and the direction of motion was constrained to a vertical one. Second, in

modeling vibration and damping system, only the cut-off depth of the material and the

natural frequency were accounted to describe the effect of grinding on the materials

residual stresses; any other possible effects were assumed to be relatively small and

neglected. Based on such simplification, it was assumed that velocity-dependent damping

of the grinding wheel is linear. That is, the relationship between modeling system

constants and the motion equations is linear.

Overall, in presenting grinder-workpiece system as a complex damping system,

vibration analysis and control system dynamics were plausible to be lumped together;

such simplification is defendable. For example. Beards in [45] claimed that the basic

equations governing the behavior of vibration and control systems were the same, which

enabled one to correlate the control system dynamics to mechanical engineering

analogies, fri this study, therefore, the grinding dynamics was described by the second

order differential Equation 5.1 a. Furthermore, the damping ratio {Q was expresses

through the stiffiiess {k), friction {b) and inertia {m) as follows [45, 46]

<=J^=

V 4mk

(5.2)

2ylmk

categories depending on the relative motion of the components of the system, i.e.,

81

damping ratio (Q and natural frequency (fij). Underdamping system possesses null

damping ratio, therefore no damping occurs and the system oscillates continuously

(Figure 5.3-a). Damping ratio within a range of 0 - 1 describes damping dynamic

system, in which the motion decays gradually with depth propagation and eventually

comes to rest (Figure 5.3-b). Damping ratio above critical value of 1 characterizes

overdamping system that comes to rest immediately without oscillation as soon as

stiffness component is released (Figure 5.3-c). The governing equations of these three

dynamic systems are given in Table 5.1.

10

15

20

25

30

-0.5

Figure 5.3. The displacement response for a system under various damping ratio {Q

on the dynamic motion of the system: a - underdamping system (i^= 0);

b - damping system (0 < C< 1); c - overdamping system {C > 1).

82

Damping ratio

(a)

Time domain

^=0

1 - cos col

-i0j

(b)

1-

0 < <^< 1

Vw^

sm

./VW^ + tan-'

CO.

\.i\

(c)

1+

^>\

a'-\

" -a e

^ =

2a

divides the effect responses between oscillatory and purely decaying. From the fiinctional

relationship of the damping ratio {Q and physical properties {b, m, k) of the system, it can

be concluded that tiie motion of the dynamic system is defined by the resistance to change,

i.e. fiiction/viscosity, over doubled square root of the memory and inertia product (see

Equation 5.2). Specifically, the damping ratio {Q is increased when the ability to recover

is greater than the product of memory {k) and inertia (m), and vice versa. In other words,

the memory term {k) interacts with the inertia (m) and their increase causes deterioration

of the material's ability to recover.

Another

physical

characteristic

describing

the

potential

change

from

system, as well as the frequency with which the motion repeats. The damped natural

frequency {cod) is proportional to the rate with which oscillation motion occurs and can be

described as follows [45, 47]

83

,=Vw^ = J-(l-^')>

(5.3)

Vm

where Q)d is damped natural frequency, and ci) is natural frequency of the system, both

are measured in rad/s units.

5.3.2 Data-To-Model Approach

The viscous/friction damping force, considered in the model, is proportional to

the velocity across the damper and always opposes the motion; therefore the damping

force is considered as a linear continuous function of the velocity. Then the complex

motion of the system could be expressed by the following second-order differential

equation

mq{) + bq{i) + k[q{i) - q{0)] = 0,

q{i)

where

q{l) =

q{)-q{-A)

V q{)=

(5.4)

q{i)-q{-M)

q{i) +

q{-2)-2q{-M)

A'

q{-M)-q{'2A)

(5-5)

To apply the Equations 5.4 and 5.5 the basic assumption was made: the motion of

the grinder-material intercoupled system depended on the component's inertia (m),

fiiction {b) and stiffness {k). Velocity of the system q{) was presented as a finite

difference of the current and the previous position in - domain. Further, in this study,

will be transformed into d depth parameter of the residual sfresses profile through linear

84

interpolation. Accordingly, the acceleration term q{i) is found through computing the

rate of the velocity change. Both q{C) and q(0 were assumed to be real and stable

functions, therefore the Equation 5.4 can be re-written in the Newtonian Equilibrium

representation as follows

m

q{f) + q{f-2Af)-2q{iAn

^^

, q{)-q{('-AC)

,,

'- + h''

2^^

l^k[q{(')-q{Q)] = 0.

(5.6)

A/'

or

vq{n +

-2/?;

Af-

Al

q{i-Al) +

m

.Ar

b

q{-2Ai) + kq{0) = 0, (5.7)

Ai + k

(5.8)

By analyzing the equation above, one can conclude that every state of the system

can be expressed through the previous two consecutive positions: if one has two known

consecutive positions of the system in

through the system identification auto regression technique (ID-AR), where its own

memory is used for regression correlation of the subsequent positions.

Overall, each of the finite differences (Equation 5.6) and the autoregression

(Equation 5.8) approaches involved three parameters in the goveming second order

differential equation, i.e., in, k, b in the Equation 5.6 and ai, a2, as in the Equation 5.8.

Therefore, the parameters of one approach can be used to relate to those of the other

approach (see Equations 5.9) and vahdate the utilized techniques.

85

-rz2^+Ai

m

Af

r m

^ A t l ^

m

m

71

-bAl

m

kAf

m

(5.9)

, _ kq{0) _ kq{0)

^ _m_

m Ae

Ae

Several methods in damping curve fitting to the residual stresses profiles were

utilized to explore the nature of the residual stresses and to identify the model that would

provide the best fit. The best fit was established by the classical least squares method

when applying the mathematical model (Equation 5.10) to experimental data at each depth

of the affected layers. In general, all the approaches developed in the following sections

were based on defining extreme maximal and minimal points of the damping curve and

achievmg equality of the theoretical and actual upward and downward slopes. This

displacement of the dampuig system can be expressed as follows [46]:

-f/

7 = 1-

Vi^

rsin a)/^\-C

(5.10)

+tan"

J)

To find the maximal and minimal points, the necessary and sufficient conditions

must be satisfied

dY ^

=0

^

and

d'Y ^

r < 0.

dt

86

(5.11)

Accordingly, the following was obtained (for more details see Appendix C):

l = - nn

co..^!^

n e 1,2,3...

(5.12)

Based on the pattern of the residual stresses distribution, the first maximal and

minimal points were the key features of the modeled pattern in this study (Figure 5.4).

>'(0

1.6

n=l

n=2

n=3

1.4

1.2

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

10

15

20

25

30

When the best fit has been found, the values of the abscissa and ordinate Y{)

were converted to those of the corresponding residual stresses coordinate system, i.e.,

depth d and residual stress {RS), respectively. The conversion was based on linear

interpolation, and the utilized equations were derived from imposing a theoretical curve

onto an actual one and governed by extreme points.

Abscissas coordinate:

87

mm

max

"mill

'^nmx

' = 0-6,

(5.13)

of abscissa coordinate of damping curve, / defines the increments of 0.001" depth below

the surface; /' o represents /' initial coordinate; I' ,, and d,ax are maximal points of the

damping and residual sfresses profiles respectively; (' and d,i - abscissa coordinates

of minimal extreme points.

Ordinate coordinate:

DC

^"^d

DC

~ ^'^mas

^^-*

^ , )(''^'^max ~'^'^min)

>

max

DC

Kiy^

.

-,

]

I =dr,-d

mill

DC

(^max -^f.X-'^'^max - ^ ' ^ o )

-'f^'Jmax~~

1

RS.1..-RS0

(5.14)

.

-,

T

l = d max

, ^ , - amm

.

depth below the surface, / = 0 - 6; RSmax and Ymax are ordinate values of maximal

extreme points of actual and modeled curves; while RSmin and Y^in correspond to

minimal extreme points.

There were potentially three approaches in applying equation 5.10: (1) altemate the

natural frequency {cOn), (2) altemate the damping ratio {Q, and (3) altemate both cOn and ^.

Since the third approach doubled the number of parameters, there was no incentive to

apply it unless the first two approaches fail.

88

As discussed in the previous section, the first modeling approach dealt with

damping curve fitting to the residual stresses profiles by locking the damping ratio

coefficient {Q and altering the natural frequency (fij) values. The objective was to

evaluate the effect of the natural frequency alteration of the shape of the damping curve

and to seek the ones that give the best fit.

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

Figure 5.5. The effect of natural frequency on the displacement of the damping curve.

The natural frequency defines the rate with which the damping system oscillates and

is determmed by the time interval during which the fimction repeats itself [48].

Mathematically, it does not influence the magnittide of the oscillation, but characterizes the

location of the exfreme maximal and minimal points in the

fitting was done by (1) imposing the first maximal and minimal points of frie damping curve

onto residual sfresses profiles, (2) scaling the coordinates systems in order to convert one into

89

anotlier one, and (3) estimating the lack of fit. Upon scaling, every nattiral frequency-defined

damping curve revealed identical upward and downward slopes. Therefore natural frequency

cy -ylkim

was assumed to be a constant; this implies that the suspension stiffiiess {k) and

mass {m) of tiie given grinder-material intercoupled system tend to scale together.

Since the effect of the natural frequency was found to be insignificant, its value

was set at 0.5 for computational convenience, and the modeling effort was diverted to the

approach of the damping ratio alteration.

The fitting of the damping curve to the residual stresses profile was

accomplished by assigning the first peak and valley values of the damping curve to

those of the peak and the right-end points of the residual stresses. Then the values of

were shifted along the theoretical curve from mm to max with subsequent reseating of

the theoretical to experimental curve. This procedure was repeated in loops until all

three corresponding points (initial, peak, valley) coincided and the closest downward

slopes of the two curves were reached. The lack of fit error term was estimated by the

least squares method between the corresponding actual and predicted values. The curve

fitting procedure and best fit were assessed via MATLAB, and the code used for the

computation is given in Appendix C. An example of the results of this modeling

technique is presented in Figure 5.6.

90

U3

en

lU

^ = 0.41

SSerror = 9 2 4 . 6 8 3 4

t value

R'^act

RSpred

surface

3.444

-59.52

-56.34

0.001"

5.1666

69.03

44.09

0.002"

6.8888

87.25

84.92

0.003"

8.6110

62.84

75.91

0.004"

10.3332

40.62

46.81

0.005"

12.0554

24.96

22.35

0.006"

13.7776

15.88

15.88

Figure 5.6. Theoretical damping curve fitting of the residual stresses profile using

three-point fitting approach. Specimens' preparation included

quenching, followed by single tempering, and finishing by grinding

of four-passes in grinding conditions 1.

Again, as seen from the graphical representation, the lack of fit in this method was

large enough to motivate the author to seek another fitting technique within the damping

ratio approach.

This approach was based on fixing three points (initial, peak, and valley) on the

theoretical damping curves and thefr shifting along the curve with subsequent rescaling

91

until equal areas under the theoretical damping curve and actual residual stresses profile

were reached. This approach gave the best fit among all the other utilized approaches,

and therefore is described below in details. The structure of the algorithm used to assess

the best fit can be delineated as the following five steps in the iteration:

Step 1. Based on the a'priori sttidy natural frequency {co,,), number of the exfremum order {n),

and a range of (' values were assigned for each iteration of damping ratio {Q testing.

Step 2. Theoretical peak of the damping curve was subsequently computed.

Step 3. The ratio of R\:Ro segments of the actual residual stresses profile were computed.

The R\ represented the magnitude of the residual stresses between the surface

compressive values and the tensile peak; whereas RQ represented the residual

stresses amplitude between the tensile peak and the final depth point at which the

stresses were evaluated. Schematically these segments are shown in Figure 5.7.

Step 4. For each value within the range of 0

theoretical (i.e. predicted) profile was computed from the following proportion

R

R

5- = ^ , where RQ and Ro are the segments lengths of ordinate range between

the maximal and the right-end (minimal) points of the residual stresses and

the damping curve profiles, respectively; R\ and /?ip are the segments of

ordinate range between the initial and the maximal points. This step

determined the best locations of the initial, maximal and right-end minimal

points of the theoretical curve.

92

Figure 5.7. Defining the .H'l .Ho proportion of the residual stresses profile.

increment were found. Based on the given Y values, the steps 4 and 5 were

repeated until the areas under the damping modeling curve and the residual

stresses profile were of the closest possible values, i.e., until Fpred < Yj.

Graphically this mechanism is described in Figure 5.8.

^.pred

pred

93

C=0.1-f0.9

RS. ^=0:2:16

M.. = 0.5=l.

7tn

,...nB

v^fl

^/^?

+ tan'

'1^'

end

Ro = RS {1,3)-RS {1,1)

R, =RS {1,3)-RS {1,1)

Rin

Y,

s]p YmiLX< miLX

R

0.

=Y

pred

max

R,

^^

R,1 .

-N

Qp

-f(y

>^v=l-

VT^

rsm

6 ; / , V r ^ + tan-'

1-r

^

yes

94

B

55 error = 0

-CaX'

/ , V i ^ + tan-'

Y=h

-Sin CO.

1-C^

^ ' '

!=0.1-f0.9

^ _ . = ^ + (/-l)A^

-f((;

i:. = 1 -

sm

/ . . . V l ^ + tan-'

li^

RS,=RS{\,i)

i<4

RS,=RS{\,A)(Y

-Y

){RS{\,^)-RS{\,\)

Y

{Y

-Y

){RS{\,A)-RS{\,1)

-Y

The flow chart presented in Figure 5.9 explains the algorithm used in the equalarea modeling approach. Once the damping ratio coefficient {Q with the best fit was

found, the damping curve coordinate system was converted to that of residual sfresses

profile and the squared sum of error was computed. As in the previous modeling approach,

MATLAB was used to implement the developed algorithm (for more details, see

95

Attachment C). The examples of equal-area fitting approach are demonsfrated by Figures

5.10 and 5.11, while tiie complete information on the fit of all residual stresses profiles is

provided in Appendix D. The residual stresses profiles were collected on the specimens

which undergone similar freatinent, differed from each other only by the type of grinding

operation. The MATLAB code and more detailed information on the output are given in

Appendix C.

(07

^= 0.76

SS.ror= 141.0620

Depth below the surface

surface

0.001"

0.002"

0.003"

0.004"

0.005"

0.006"

value

3.444

5.1666

6.8888

8.6110

10.3332

12.0554

13.7776

Rbact

-59.52

69.03

87.25

62.84

40.62

24.96

15.88

RSpred

-59.52

62.14

87.25

64.14

33.13

18.98

15.88

Figure 5.10. Theoretical damping curve fitting of the residual stresses profile

using equal-area fitting approach. Sample's preparation included

quenching, followed by single tempering, and finishing by grinding

of four-passes in grinding conditions 1.

96

^ = 0.62

Sog

103.7936

surface

0.001"

0.002" ^0.003"

0.004"

0.005"

0.006"

value

4.1

6.0541

8.0081

9.9622

11.9162

13.8703

15.8244

RSact

-62.36

54.00

84.85

62.55

40.61

25.08

12.02

RSpred

-62.36

51.68

84.85

69.56

38.38

18.42

12.02

Figure 5.11. Theoretical damping curve fitting of the residual stresses profile

using equal-area fitting approach. Sample's preparation included

quenching, followed by single tempering, and finishing by grinding

of four-passes in grinding conditions 2.

After determining the curve that provided the best fit for each residual profile, i.e.

every experimental treatments combination, the modeled parameter {Q was plotted

against the factors of interest (see Figure 5.12) to explain the phenomenon and to tailor it

to the effects of the experimental treatment. Numerical values of the damping ratio

coefficients are given in Table 5.2.

97

-Agrinding conditions 1

- grinding conditions 2

4 passes

2 passes

1 pass

2

3

4

number of tempering cycles

Figure 5.12. Correlation of the modeled parameter - damping ratio {Q and the

factors of the experimental model.

Table 5.2. The results of the equal-area modeling approach. The data are the damping

ratio coefficients that provide the best fit to the experimental treatment combinations.

Type of grinding operation (Gr)

Grinding operation 2

Grinding operation 1

Multipass

Heat treatment factor (HT)

Factor

Heat treatment factor (HT)

Q + T(3)

Q + T(2)

Q + T(l)

Q + T(2)

Q + T(3)

Q + T(l)

0.18

0.21

0.11

0.25

0.17

0.1

PI

0.44

0.44

0.51

0.47

0.49

0.56

P2

0.55

0.53

0.62

0.67

0.76

P4

0.76

By analyzing the relationship of the damping coefficients corresponding to the

treatment combinations one can find that there is a limited amount of knowledge and

practice which is significantly manifested in the thoughts and algorithms of this modeling

chapter. The key findings are:

98

1. Multipass grinding factor {P) revealed distinct effect on the residual stresses profile,

i.e., shape and the magnitude of their distribution throughout the affected depth.

That is, regardless of the type of heat treatment and grinding operation, the shape of

all profiles within each level of the multipass factor was similar and therefore

characterized by the damping ratio coefficient within the same range values.

2. Heat treatment effect {HT) on the shape of the residual sfresses profile was found to

be significant on all specimens; however its influence was interactive with the effect

of tiie multipass grinding factor {P). Specifically, in the specimens finished by single

pass grinding the damping ratio coefficient increased with the increase of tempering

cycles. Nevertheless, in four-pass ground specimens this trend was found to be the

opposite: an increase of tempering cycles in heat freatment caused slight decrease in

the characteristic damping ratio coefficient. This finding indicates, that no particular

freatment of the experimental design had independent effect on the resulting residual

sfresses profile, and that every treatment operation used in specimens preparation was

influenced by the precedingfreatmentand, in tum, influences the subsequent one.

3. Grinding effect {Gr) also defined the shape of the stresses profile: specimens

subjected to the grinding operation to a smaller depth of cut (grinding operation 2)

were characterized by greaterer damping ratio coefficient compared to those of

the alternative grinding operation. This effect was more prominent in multipass

grinding rather that in single pass grinding. The fact, that this effect was strongly

correlated to the number of grinding passes employed, conforms to the resuUs of

[4] where high non-linear superposition the residual stresses was declared.

99

Application of damping model to the residual stresses profiles implies that the

mechanism, the structure and the identification techniques, and the insight of damping

ratio are used to derive inferences with regard to the mechanism and the structure of the

residual stresses. Damping modeling methodology was based on altemating natural

frequency {co) and damping ratio {Q coefficients in the damping grinder-material

intercoupled system. Natural frequency was found to be a constant, and it was inferred

that stiffiiess {k) and mass {m) of the components of the system tend to scale together.

Damping ratio coefficient defined the shape of the damping curve by influencing the

amplitude of the system's displacement in

Figure 5.13 and can be summarized as follows: increase of damping ratio coefficient

causes the curve smoothing outward, in other words the amplitude of the system's

oscillation is significantly reduced by increase of this coefficient.

=>

Figure 5.13. Correlation of the damping ratio coefficient and the shape/amplitude

of the displacement of the damping system.

100

The inference derived from the model is that the amounts of the material removed

in two- and four-pass grinding teclmiques were 2 and 4 times smaller than those of single

pass techniques of the same type of grinding. Correspondingly, applied force and the

energy entering the workpiece were significantly lower in multipass grinding operation,

which caused less significant internal friction (Figure 5.14). At the atomic level, such

structures would be subjected to a smaller degree of plastic deformation and reach

equilibrium state sooner. Smaller degree of plastic deformation would also result in lower

tensile subsurface residual sfresses, and therefore smaller amplitude of the residual stresses

alteration from surface to subsurface layers within the affected depth of the material.

2F

Figure 5.14. Schematics of the internal friction and displacement of the structural

components under various applied forces (F) in grinding operation.

Along with the observations of the modeling results stated above, the corresponding

relationship of the damping ratio coefficient and multipass technique validated the previous

conjuncttire on the memory related aspects in the system. Specifically, the increase of the

damping ratio coefficient within each of the identically heat freated and ground group

indicated that the information of z pass was transmitted to that of (z +1) pass.

101

CHAPTER VI

RESEARCH CONCLUSIONS

This study evaluated the effect of various combinations of heat treatment and

grinding procedures on D2 thread-rolling dies surface integrity. The hypothesis and the

dies' preparatory treatments were established by means of microstructural examination,

as well as hardness, roughness and residual stresses distribution evaluation. The

experimental results were modeled to develop a predictive tool that would explain

residual stresses superposition due to treatment operations. The final model involved only

one predictive parameter, which reflected any change of the complex experimental

treatment procedures and estimated in a precise and parsimonious way the corresponding

change in subsurface residual stresses distribution. Furthermore, the parameter was

used to elucidate the dynamics of the grinding operation, and to support the theory of

the heat treatment and grinding effects on the materials characteristics. The results of

the experiment and the model helped evaluate conceptual progress in the residual

stresses formation, and can further be used in improving the dies preparation design to

enhance their life.

Modeling of the experimental data is motivated to reveal the underlying structure

and that the observed data represents the reality. If so, the model can further be used to

explore the insight of the nature. Philosophically, there are two opposing views on the

modeling [49]. Niel Bohr suggested that observation of the world, based on certain

modeling perspective, was fundamental to constructing its reality. Any modeling imposes

102

certain views that are projected onto the reality, and therefore the latter can be as

descriptive and complex as the model one can describe it by. Albert Einstein, on the other

hand, posited that objects existed irrespective to observation. That is, reality is always

there regardless of how you view or model it. To imitate their debate, this thesis should

be finalized with the following two indispensable questions:

1. What modeling experience was and could be infonned by the experimental

observation?

2. What observative knowledge was and could be informed by the modeling

experience?

The results of this research work can be viewed both by the model-reality and

reality-model approach and are presented below.

The following points are based on the author's inductive experience from

experimental observations to model.

1. Microstructural characteristics of the materials were defined by the temperature

and the number of tempering operations involved in the heat treatment practice.

That is, higher uniformity in carbide's size and distribution characterized the

specimens of multiple tempered practice compared to those of single tempering

heat treatment.

2. Surface hardness decrease of D2 specimens was caused by double tempering

procedure due to the residual stresses relaxation and toughening of the structure.

103

However, this dependency was not linear: secondary hardening effect and slight

increase in hardness was observed on triple tempered specimens

3. The effect of grinding conditions on the surface roughness in the longitudinal

direction was found to be significant and strongly dependent on the amount of the

material removed off the surface at each pass. However multipass techniques

produced surface roughness no different from that of the single pass grinding.

Roughness in the transverse direction was neither dependent on the grinding

operation nor on the number of passes employed in the process.

4. Surface residual sfresses upon heat freatment operation were significantly reduced

towards compressive by every additional tempering cycle. This effect, however, was

foimd to be non-linear: the greatest amount of the residual sfresses was alleviated by

the single tempering operation (63%), and even though each subsequent tempering

cycle released additional amount of the intemal sfresses (30% and 7% respectively)

the increment of the stresses relaxation was considerably lower.

5. Surface cold work was strongly correlated to the surface integrity factor: smooth

surfaces with higher compressive surface residual stresses possessed more

prominent cold work. Thus, maximal relative cold work was obtained on the

specimens subjected to a smaller depth grinding, while the minimal cold work

characterized non-ground surfaces.

6. The effect of tempering operation on the residual stresses distribution was

significant at each depth of the affected layer. In essence, the lowest compressive

surface residual stresses and the highest tensile subsurface residual stresses were

104

generated by single tempering heat treatment procedure, while the opposite effect

was observed on triple tempered specimens. In addition, triple tempered

specimens

revealed

significantly

reduce

variability

of

the

measured

7. Grinding effect on the surface residual stresses formation was nearly independent

of the grinding conditions, however it was found to be significant at every depth

of the subsurface layers: grinding operation to a smaller depth generated lower

tensile residual stresses compared to those of the alternative grinding operation.

8. Multipass grinding effect was revealed in the magnitude of the surface and

subsurface residual stresses and the tensile peak location. Increase of the number

of passes in grinding operation resulted in significantly lower tensile subsurface

residual stresses and slight tensile peak shift towards the surface layers.

9. Superposition of the residual stresses in multipass grinding was found to be highly

non-linear: both upward and downward slopes along with the tensile peak

attributes of the residual stresses profile altered simultaneously when at least one

of the treatment parameters was changed, and this correlation was unique to each

treatment combination.

The following points are based on the author's deductive experience from the

model to explain the experimental observations.

105

residual stresses superposition due to each of the preceding heat treatment and

multipass grinding operations.

2. Developed predictive model utilized only one explanatory parameter and

successfully predicted resulting residual stresses magnitude, their subsurface

distribution and the tensile peak location.

3. The modeled explanatory parameter carried important physical information,

which integrated the concept of the grinding processes dynamics and shed light on

the formation of the residual stresses.

Evaluation of the treatments involved in the manufacturing of the D2 threadrolling dies, their influence on mechanical properties and fatigue related characteristics

allowed the author to suggest the most advantageous treatments combination, which

would result in a potential increase in fatigue life. Specifically, it was concluded that,

single tempering heat treatment practice should be avoided by all means and substituted

by double or triple tempering heat treatment. The latter provided more favorable

microstructural characteristics, specifically, more uniform and even carbides particles

distribution throughout the martensitic matrix. Such structures are more stabilized due to

a smaller amount of the retained austenite and are capable of sustaining greater applied

loads due to uniform carbides structure [5]. Hardness of the multiple tempered specimens

was found to be within the work range; however, for critical applications, time and

106

energy expenditure associated with the triple tempering cycle might be justified by

greater hardness and more beneficial residual stresses distribution it generates.

Grinding operation 2 in multipass fashion is strongly recommended. Smaller cutting

depth of such finishing operations promotes formation of smoother surface with greater

degree of relative cold work. These characteristics along with advantageous surface and

subsurface residual stresses distribution would enable D2 thread-rolling dies to sustain

applied forces better and maintain workability throughout greater number of cycles.

In summary, the effect of the manufacturing treatments on the resulting surface

integrity and the residual stresses distribution was weighted by their emphasis on the dies

fatigue life. This research work integrated already existing knowledge of the heat

treatment and grinding operations to the particular application (thread-rolling dies) and

introduced a new perspective on the effect of multipass grinding technique. The analysis

of the experimental results and their further mathematical modeling helped not only

explain the dynamics of the heat treatment and grinding operations and the formation of

the residual stresses, but also predict their superposition and functional relationship.

Among the further research implication that would allow expansion of the scope

of this thesis and deepen the scientific foundation, the following suggestions throw a light

to the ftiture research:

1. The amount of the retained austenite is to be quantified of all heat freatment and

ground structures, to estimate the degree of the residual sfresses relaxation during

107

the processes. The latter would be then correlated to hardness and toughness

characteristics of the materials.

2. Fatigue analysis of the dies after their final preparation is to be performed and

correlated to the surface integrity factor and the state of the residual stresses. This

would allow develop functional relationship of the material's characteristics and

fatigue life.

3. The developed two-step model includes: (1) predicting the damping ratio {<^)

based on various experimental interactions (i.e., tempering, grinding operation,

and grinding technique) and (2) predicting the RS patterns based on ^ . The

future modeling effort should expand the current two-step model to encompass

(1) various materials (within cold-work tool steels), (2) various sizes of the same

material, and (3) various types of grinding dynamics (i.e., grit size, griding wheel

and cutting speed).

4. Further optimization of the manufacturing and machining parameters based on the

developed models can be performed. This would enable one to (1) estimate final

mechanical properties of the dies by knowing the parameters of the manufactiiring

freafrnents, and (2) to determine necessary treafrnent combination to produce desired

surface integrity and residual stresses distribution, and thus better fatigue hfe.

5. Cost-Benefit analysis is to be accomplished to estimate the effect of the advanced

mechanical properties benefit of the triple tempered dies over the double

tempered ones scaled to the time and energy cost.

108

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3.

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8.

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Knowlton, H.B., Heat treatment. Uses and Properties of Steel, Vol. 1, American

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11.

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113

APPENDIX A

EXPERIMENTAL DATA

Replication

As-quenched

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

Mean

StDev

C.V.

64.5

64.5

65.0

64.0

64.5

64.5

63.5

64.5

64.5

65.0

65.0

64.5

64.0

0.43

0.007

Quenched

and single

tempered

60.0

62.0

61.5

61.0

62.5

62.0

62.0

62.5

62.0

62.0

62.0

62.0

62.0

0.69

0.011

114

Quenched

and double

tempered

58.5

59.0

59.0

58.5

59.0

59.5

59.0

59.0

59.5

59.0

59.5

60.0

59.0

0.43

0.007

Quenched

and triple

tempered

59.0

59.0

60.0

59.5

59.5

60.0

59.5

60.0

60.0

60.0

60.0

60.0

59.5

0.40

0.007

Grinding

technique

1 pass

Mean

St.Dev

C.V.

2 passes

Mean

StDev

C.V.

4 passes

Mean

St.Dev

C.V.

Longitudinal direction

Grinding

Grinding

operation 1

operation 2

17

10

16

9

13

11

15

10

14

11

15.0

10.2

1.58

0.84

0.11

0.08

Transverse direction

Grinding

Grinding

operation 1

operation 2

29

29

27

28

34

28

27

30

30

29

29.4

28.8

2.88

0.84

0.10

0.03

14

14

12

15

14

13.8

1.10

0.08

9

10

12

8

11

10.0

1.58

0.16

30

30

31

30

32

30.6

0.89

0.03

31

30

29

31

32

30.6

1.14

0.04

14

16

13

15

14

14.4

1.14

0.08

10

10

9

12

13

10.8

1.64

0.15

29

28

29

31

28

29.0

1.22

0.04

29

31

28

27

30

29.0

1.58

0.05

115

Table A.3. Experimental data on surface residual stress and relative cold work (FWHM)

after various heat treatment operations.

Quenched and

Quenched and Quenched and triple

single tempered

double tempered

tempered

Rep Residual Cold Residual Cold Residual Cold Residual Cold work,

work,

work,

work,

stress,

stress,

stress,

stress, FWHM,

FWHM,

FWHM,

FWHM,

ksi

ksi

ksi

2 deg.

ksi

2 deg.

2 deg.

2 deg.

1

99.52

2.27

41.99

2.71

19.28

3.08

16.27

3.63

2

94.74

2.57

45.51

2.63

18.49

3.51

15.04

4.09

3

96.82

1.89

43.56

3.54

2.95

22.91

3.35

16.26

4

97.98

2.24

3.72

49.08

2.46

23.18

12.03

3.97

5

93.41

2.49

2.94

19.41

3.52

16.27

3.79

45.27

Mean 96.49

3.75

2.29

2.74

20.65

15.17

45.08

3.49

0.21

St. Dev 2.45

0.27

0.21

2.21

0.32

2.00

2.65

0.16

0.13

C.V.

0.12

0.06

0.08

0.11

0.09

0.03

As-quenched

116

sassed #

CN

en oo

o

o O

en en en en in

en

CM

CD

CO

en

to

lO

en

00 1^ o

h*

to

Q:

r^

CO

tn oC O

in CM

CM

117

CM CM

cn

CO

CO

o

en en in en m

cn en

00 CO

CD r ^

CO

en

i^ CD

CO

CM

CD

0-

en

in

CM

00

1**

to

CO

tc

00

CM

O

CO

CM

CM

00

CO

CD

CD

CO

CD

O

CD

00

CO

CO

in CM

-75

-75

-75

00

CO

to

CM

CO

CO

CO

CO

o

^

CM

o

CO

CM

in

CO

CO

00

eo

c;5

CD

CO

CD

CO

1^

to

r-

CM

"3-

CM

CM'

to

eo

^

^

CO

CO

OO

Tt

^

00

CD

00

CD

CO

CM

CO

2.38

-76

cn

CD CM

in

CM

CO

0.60

in

CO

CO

5j oo

CO

CO

en

CM

o

o

CM

in

-75

CO 00

CO

in

T CM

ai

o

^

00

00

^

en en

CM

cn

00

CO

CO

CD

CJ

eo

oo o

to

CO

00

CM

in

oo

in

CM

CD

O

in

in

CO

CO

to

CM

in

r-

<t

CJ

o

tn

to

2.46

26.31

25.15

2.40

44.88

7.92

58.88

12.56

11.05

22.56

24.86

22.39

20.16

43.42

1.46

44.89

1.17

31,74

32.23

34.16

32,34

57.96

0.97

58.93

2.73

44 78

26,45 1 40.37

-77.3 1 24.86 1 41,35

-55,32 1 25.13 1 37.16

30.18

-78.69 1 26,79 1 38,22 1 35.50

1.67

11.521 -69.40 1 25.51 1 40.63

1.24 1 10.09

1.89

3.38

1.88

34.36

32.69

25,05

1.88

18.64

0.49

18.15

-75,9

-58,54

0.00

2.51

-60.93

1.73

24.91

2.22

22.69

24.39

21,76

1.89

28.34

1.95

26.39

25.13

2.91 1

15.77

2.78

12.99

10.51

16.72

10.58

16,54

2.16

16.85

2.44

14.41

11.08

16.10

13.98

14.03

42.09

18.02

24.54

29.46

27.74

56.82

-62.74

16.37

17.98

19.67

43.14

11.68

16.26

1.99

30.44

3.18

27.26

44.35

-60.93

1.01

50.57

64.28

53.81

29.67

27.98

59.45

-61.13

-63.40

1.43

8.52

6.39

6.44

7.91

9.24

8.97

1.91

2.54

1.91

24.03

26.15

42.11

15.10

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

48.03

62.38

1.27

51.20

52.54

49,87

60,93

62,71

27,14

28.58

43 97

-58,54

3.07

12.02

10.28

44.18

46.86

67,77

59.96

48,94

62,49

45,62

48 38

47,45

48.61

59,63

20,87

15.98

2.20

21.91

0.64

21.27

18,40

21,44

61.35

50 916

52.89

-57.21

-62,56

2.35

-59.40

21,11

23.01

CO

8.26

to

in

2.07

0-

T-

24.96

r-

22.58

-74

en

-74

CO

CO

21.09

CD

cn

-74

CO

1.50

5 5

cn to

o

ai tn

00

2.51

22.89

^

CM

CD

en

CM

O

00

CM

CO

00

1^

4.26

h-

CO

CM

00

62.84

24.63

CO

21.16

en

24,00

5

CD

CM

t^

^

^

ISt.Dev

CD

en

in

CM

87.25

CM

to

CM

T

CM

eo en C O ai

en eo

CO

-59

00

CO

CM

CO

1.43

CM

CO

co

^ ^

CD

CM

CO

CM

O

61.41

CM

0.95

o en CM CM

eo

86.30

to

21.71

T-

en CM

to

CO

CO

63.71

CO

CM

00

58.06

CM

CM

en CM 00 CO 00

CO CO en CM 00

CM

83.29

o

CD

CO

CO

en

o

in

86.14

m r^ m

CM

62.63

00

CO

CM

en eo o cn

CO

1^ cn

eo 00

CM

-59

en 00 CD en

o en o en

en

en

CO

Mean

CO

CO

^ in

1^

^ in

00

CO

-64

CM

CO

CM

in

CM

en CO

CO o

cn en

CD

1-58

tn

CM

CO

CO

CM

T-

82.77

CM

CM

tn

cn r^

-64

to

CM

92.73

to

CO

-59

s

CO

CO

59.23

64.24

<i-

82.72

CO

90.17

ai CO r-^ CM

eo CM

en en

CM en C O o CO CO o

CO

CO

CO CO CO

-59

o

in

3.73

l~- 00

-64

'J- en

CM CO

CO

1.40

en

30.22

cn en

CM

in

CO

CO

CO

2.47

CO

CD

1.82

CO

0-

115.19 81.70

CM

CO

CO

CO

CO

CM

CM' in CM

-50

<n

in CM

CM

CO

-58

CO

CD

CM

CO

CD

CO

CO

1st. Dev

cn

en

CM o

0.00

o en

m rr ^^ CM

*

2.35

CM

1.41

0.94

CM

cn

0.00

CO

CO

CO

-64

CO

*

27.87

CO

CD

CM

80.29

CO

CD

114.26

CM

CO

-62

14.30

en

CO

CM

CM

12.05

12.86

10.93

27.79

0.94

11,72

CO

o

o

CD

CD

80.26

CO

-61

a-

29.67

"J-

CM

26.83

^

o

81.73

1^ CO

CO

to

CM

1^

79.31

116.83

CO

1^

111 98

CM

-59

-65

to

CO

1^

26.11

en en

o

CM

00

CM

O

112.31

CM

27.45

CO

82.79

62.2

-59.40

19.25

CO

14.35

12.93

4.22

3.16

1.36

17.73

3.81

13.92

14.63

13.96

15.77

1.61

8.18

3.33

4.85

4.69

2.73

6.24

3.48

6.99

4.98

0.92

6.22

2.92

3.30

2.94

4.58

CM

-58

o

o

CM

Mean

CM

CO

CO

CO

tn

2.92

-69

CO

in

CM

CO

en

-57

en

CO

CO

CM

CO

CM

-59

00

00

75.92

CM

CM

CM

CO

CD

CM

114.65

cn

114.86

to

CO

CO

CM

o

o

r^

CM

-59

CD

CO

1.87

tn

29.37

en

1^

00

CO

CO

2.33

0-

oo

CO

00

to

81.73

o cn

o

*

to CM

114.90

^

o

-55

en

52.42

0.00

3.59

-58.8

15.65

-56.19

-62 08

-58,34

24 32

14,47

-58.74

0.006

,81

in

CM

CM

-54

o

CO

3.47

^

CO

CO

CD

0.00

CM

CO

116.49

en 00

-55

a-

2.86

r^

96.05

CO

00

^

to

00

3.26

*

o

en

-59

r^

CD

CO

CM

CO

o> o>

CM o

StDev

en

00

r^

49.56

oo 00

CO

in

1.72

CO

CM

00

114.77

cn o o cn

en

1.14

CO

16.38

15.04

CO

CO

CO

co CO

00

-53

94.91

CM

CM

en

-53

en

i^ CD

en

CM

co CO

CN(

-55

1^

O

00

a>

i~-

CO

0.00

o

^

50.87

CO

r^

CD

CO

CO

-53

CM

CO

51.12

CM

CD

16.20

CD

14.99

CO

115.1

en

CD

111.85

CD

CO

-57

CD

cn

c(z)

00

CO

97.09

en CD

92.58

CD

CD

*

-52

o

en o

oo en r-o CM en

CO

-52

0.004

CD

en

-55

CM

CO

48.96

o

CO

46,08

un

114.4

CO

^

112.74

O

CM

1^

CO

s

00

96.41

CM

O

-61

0.002

50,4

0.003

CO

CM

98,64

118.24

0.001

CO

Mean

o

CO

CO

-55

-47

89.13

.006

m

o

-54

O

o

-53

C/3

49.94

0.005

Q.

0.003

CD

116.29

95.61

Q.

00

0.002

0.0

o

Triple tempering, 1(3)

o

<u

-57.

3

c

-a

-5c

Heat treatme

D.

O

(U

90 09

c

o

"S

00

CO

CM

to

h-

to

CM

T-

CD

<U

(U

CO

o

U

sas set i#

eo

CM

96.31

-58.26 44.23

74.38

72.08

45.01

48.42

46.81

44.69

-62.67 16.52

-61.81 13.69

-68.93 12.02

-63.58 17.73

-64.37 14.29

9.98

11.63

10.90

12.35

10.37

27.52

26.24

28.90

29.15

26.93

0.00

0.47

0.95

1.42

1.90

2.37

2.85

0.00

0.52

1.63

57.73

2.17

55.56

28.8

31.52

2.72

1.03

1.55

58.62

2.06

34.26

16.37

3.26

13.11

2.58

47.13

12.81

17.87

15.09

14.86

0.60

15.46

2.2543

-58.61

-53.55

-56.20

-55.77

0.00

-55.77

3.455

5.59

7,11

8.02

6.17

3.09

0.00

-56.19

-56.07

-57.06

-55.16

-58.31

-54.37

-69.70 28.42

1.269

12.02

25.84

to

52.99 40.83

CO

CD

CO

1 StDev 1 4.323 2.048 4.641 1.9952 3.203 1.542 0.981 6.3156 4.656 3.681 1.557

1.865

15.87

1.193| 6.0614

10.55 i -64.96

43.86

0.003

0.004

0.005

2.169

2.0039

13.42

0.52

1.56 1

5.24

39.45 1 32.82 1 21.29 1 12.64 1 8.35 1

3.7699 2.5106{ 1.5451 1.6125 1.1066

1.04

6.97 1

8.19 1 5.98 1

38.41 1 31.26 1 19.21 1 10.05 1

18.93|

1

1

1

1

2.2975

7.45

2.70 1

2.25 1

16.51 1

1

1

1

1

1

4.7532 1

6.14

2.94

1.79

7.87

6.04

3.74

1.6088|

15.34 1

3.58

11.758]

12.85

14.258

16.25

17.68

13.20

12.94

12.31

13.17

2.3993

29.36

2.98

26.38

28.99

8.61 1 4.53

5.16

33.47] 21.18 1 10.38 1 3.83

31.09| 19.34 1 9.46 1 4.95

1.6294

27.17

1.80 j

25.372

24.17

27.65

23.42

26.91

24.69

25.39

2.1237

48.57

2.39

46.182

28.39| 18.69 1

0.9859

43.78

1.35

42.435

42.32

41.74

41.70

42.20

44.37

42.28

2.1604

62.81

1.79

61.017

47.06

29.011

16.61

9.81 1

44.79 1 25.52 1 13.91 1

37.82 1

34.95 1

44.55 1

11.69

61.61

58.04

41.31 1

35.58 j

10.77

12.85

36.26

13.10

12.90

0.006

12.38

2.0911

1.4557

0.90

49.63

0.45

8.50

48.73

51.34

46.82

48.08

46.01

49.91

50.21

2.4655

47.14

1.19

45.95

46.96

49.38

8.05

8.31

9.06

6.20

10.19

7.65

6.89

45,85

16.81

-54.82

8.14 -56.14

17.23 7.202

16.93

17.11

19.25

15.03

36.68

32.63 16.36

18.71

68.89 60.65

67.64 55.99

77.1

14.82

15.99

58.15 79.72

1.09

55.74 31.64

13.73

14.58

-52.13

0.002

12.00

0.001

-59.32

1 -59.27 45.14 96.64 75.74 48.48 29.99 14.10 -64.47 15.97 78.13 60.16 36.32 19.81 10.30 -56.19

lst.Dev 1 1.605 2.56 1.126 2.1261 1.461 1.162 0.997 2.5279 2.519 7.144 2.141 1.385 1.547 1.112 1.3886

1-65.35 53.98 77.17 59,31 43,91 24.91 9.43 -72.86 31.95 51.04 37.37 22.28 10.14 7.27 1 -58.88

1-63.09 1 55.03 88.43 63.99 37.95 20.67 9.03 -76.7 24.67 58.19 41.94 23.74 13.84 6.19 -72.44

1-64.94 1 54.98 86.16 61.85 35.13 22.89 7.36 -62.36 33.74 48.11 38.94 24.64 15.05 8.72 1 -62.68

1-61.64 1 49.86 88.47 59.76 38.14 23.17 10.31 -61.33 30.21 49.06 39.41 22.53 14.67 5.68 1 -63.76

-71.77 23.48 50.93 38.12 25.51 11.75 6.97 ! -59.58

1-54.03 1 52.35 80.05 62.41 40.53 22.81

1 -65.08 1 54.78 82.86 59.03 36.01 21.06 9.35 -73.2 23.15 53.92 39.15 22.96 13.07 8.39 1 -72.39

1 Mean 1 -62.36

1 83.86 61.058 38.61 22.59 9.027 -69.7 27.87 51.88 39.16 23.61 13.09 7.20 1 -64.96

1 c(z) 1 0.00 1 0.50 1 1.00 1 1.50 r2.oo 2.49 2.99 0.00 0.56 1.12 1.67 2.23 2.79 3.35 ! 0.00

5; CO

OS'ES 1

118

1 Mean -59.27 44.66 95.69 74.322 46.58 27.62 11.26 -64.47 15.46

96.82

-61.30 44.71

77.65

73.46

46.93

78.25

57.06 78.09

2.872 4.774

-65.44 18.48

1.74 3.9314

-50.77 16.16

19.71

12.30

2.558

27.00

0.00

0.54

-50.77 15.62

61.25

60.24 26.38

28.9 11.08

54.08 79.41

49.55

od

94.44

43.93 96.95

1.866

47.62

11.75

17.92

20.7

-57.39

18.87

-0.99

-47.57

21.19

51.14

10,95

17.98

-49.17

19.06 -53.63

20.33

00

-58.23 41.38

-57.48

72.49

75.87

1.9947

42.75

-1.78

44.54

44.89

41.12

TI

49.27 94.86

1.413

94.77

1.546

2.826

-61,13 44.46

-2.55

79.75

102.33 77.20

-2.52

104.85

82.21

48.53

42.49

44.80

T(3)

RS stress at depth or ...X*0.001"

o

-59.24

90.41

-1.47

91.88

-48.60 46.56

-0.38

92.61

0.00

102.40

91.08

-51.21 47.98

46.94

80.07

106.30

1 IVIean | -48.6

T"

78.93

79.11

12.11

0.006

54,07 26.72

0.005

0.004

59,97 73,14

21.14

0.002 0.003

12.27

-49.37

0.006

0.001

107.80

81.26

103.10

o

104.80

0.005

CO

45.38

a

-a

76.94

CO

CO

0.004

0.003

(U

104.70

CD

92.73 1

89.84 1

91.25 1

93.76 1

tn

0.002

cn

(U

0.001

St.Dev

0)

T(2)

-50.961 48.38 1

-43.581 46.13 1

-51.19| 47.06 1

-44.861 47.85 1

-49.80I 44.24 1

00

o

&

Heat treatment

sees

T(1)

c

o

'^

<u

o

APPENDIX B

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SAS CODE

Data profile;

INFILE 'C:\Documenls and Settings\01ga Karabelchtchiko\My

Doeumenls\Thesis\DATA.csv'DLM=',';

do grinding=l,2;

dopass=l,2,4;

do rep=l to 6;

doT=l,2,3;

do depth^O to 6;

input stress @@;

output;

end;

end;

end;

end;

end;

Proc GLM data=profile noprint;

Class grinding pass rep T depth;

Model stress = rep T|depth|pass(grinding);

output out=ol r=resid;

Proc univariate normal plot data=ol;

Var resid;

* TEMPERING EFFECT;

Proc sort data=profile;

By grinding pass depth;

Proc GLM data=profile;

Class T grinding pass depth;

Model stress = T;

By grinding pass depth;

Means T/SNK;

output out=o2 r=resid;

Proc univariate normal plot data=o2;

Var resid;

by grinding pass depth;

119

* GRINDING EFFECT;

Proc sort data=profile;

By T pass depth;

Proc GLM data=profile;

Class T pass depth grinding;

Model stress = grinding;

By T pass depth;

Means grinding/SNK;

output out=o3 r^resid;

Proc univariate normal plot data=o2;

\'ar resid;

b> T pass depth;

* PASS EFFECT;

Proc sort data=profile;

By T grinding depth;

Proc GLM data=profile;

Class T grinding depth pass;

Model stress = pass;

By T grinding depth;

Means pass /SNK;

output out=ol r=resid;

Proc univariate noiTnal plot data=ol;

Var resid;

by T grinding depth;

run;

120

Table B.l. SAS output on hypothesis 1: assessing the overall effect of the

expenmental model.

Class

Levels

grinding

pass

rep

T

depth

3

6

3

7

Values

12

1 24

123456

1 23

0 123456

Number of observations

756

Dependent Variable:

Source

Model

Error

Corrected Total

)tal

stress

DF

130

625

755

R-Square

0.996286

Sum of Squares

1411377.097

5261.605

1416638.702

CoeffVar

11.09168

Mean Square

10856.747

8.419

RootMSE

2.901477

F Value

1289.62

Pr > F

<.0001

stress Mean

26.15903

Source

rep

HT

depth

HT*depth

pass(grinding)

pass*HT(grinding)

pass*depth(grinding)

pass*HT*depth(grinding)

DF

5

2

6

12

5

10

30

60

Type I SS

9.927

76926.729

1217309.680

31134.753

38835.831

1436.375

40093.199

5630.603

121

Mean Square

1.985

38463.364

202884.947

2594.563

7767.166

143.637

1336.440

93.843

F Value

0.24

4568.87

24099.7

308.20

922.62

17.06

158.75

11.15

Pr>F

0.9467

<.0001

<.0001

<.0001

<.0001

<.0001

<.0001

<.0001

Table B.3. SAS output on hypothesis 2: testing the heat treatment effect.

grinding=l pass=4 depth=3

Class Level Information

Class

T

grinding

pass

depth

Levels

3

1

1

1

Values

123

1

4

3

Number of observations

18

Dependent Variable: sti'ess

Source

Model

Error

Corrected Total

DF

2

15

17

R-Square

0.964087

Sum of Squares

2503.531378

93.258450

2596.789828

CoeffVar

5.402443

Mean Square

1251.765689

6.217230

RootMSE

2.493437

F Value

201.34

Pr>F

<.0001

stress Mean

46.15389

Source

T

DF

2

Type ISS

2503.531378

Mean Square

1251.765689

F Value

201.34

Pr>F

<.0001

Source

T

DF

2

Type III SS

2503.531378

Mean Square

1251.765689

F Value

201.34

Pr>F

<.0001

Student-Newman-Keuls Test

Alpha

0.05

Error Degrees of Freedom

15

Error Mean Square

6.21723

Number of Means

Critical Range

2

3.0684066

3

3.739284

SNK Grouping

A

B

C

Mean

61.412

44.358

32.692

122

N

6

6

6

T

1

2

3

g r i n d i n g = l pass=4 depth=3

The UNIVARIATE Procedure

Variable:

resid

Nonnal P r o b a b i l i t y

4.S+

Plot

I

I

1.5-h

++"+-1-

-1.5+

+"-!-"

+ 1'++i'

I

I

-4.5-h

+-

- - + -

Probability plot (Q-Q plot).

normality output.

Tests for Normality

Test

Shapiro-Wilk

W

Kolmogorov-Smimov D

Cramer-von Mises

W-Sq

Anderson-Darling

A-Sq

123

Statistic

0.973317

0.115231

0.034301

0.209775

p Value

Pr<W

0.8572

Pr>D

>0.1500

Pr>W-Sq >0.2500

Pr > A-Sq >0.2500

T=2 pass=l depth=2 Class Level Information

Class

T

pass

depth

grinding

Levels

1

1

1

2

Values

2

1

2

1 2

Number of observations

12

Dependent Variable: stress

Source

Model

Error

Corrected Total

DF

1

15

17

Sum of Squares

717.8080083

144.2232167

2596.789828

R-Square

0.832684

Coeff Var

5.861285

Mean Square

717.8080083

14.4223217

Root MSE

3.797673

F Value

49.77

Pr>F

<.0001

stress Mean

64.79250

Source

grinding

DF

1

Type I SS

717.8080083

Mean Square

717.8080083

F Value

49.77

Pr>F

<.0001

Source

grinding

DF

1

Type I SS

717.8080083

Mean Square

717.8080083

F Value

49.77

Pr>F

<.0001

Student-Newman-Keuls Test

Alpha

0.05

Error Degrees of Freedom

10

Error Mean Square

14.42232

Number of Means

2

Critical Range

4.8853767

Means with the same letter are not significantly different.

SNK Grouping

A

B

Mean

72.527

57.058

124

N

6

6

grinding

1

2

Variable: resid

Normal Probability Plot

S+

ic

I

I

I

++"+"

I

-5+

+

+

-2

-1-1-+'''-h-i-'''

''++++>v

+

.^

^

-1

++++"

"'++'*+++

+*+"++

^

0

_^

+1

_^

_^_

+2

Probability plot (Q-Q plot).

normality output.

Tests for Normality

Test

Shapiro-Wilk

W

Kolmogorov-Smimov D

Cramer-von Mises

W-Sq

Anderson-Darling

A-Sq

Statistic

0.963241

0.127946

0.032298

0.211147

125

p Value

Pr<W

0.8289

Pr>D

>0.1500

Pr>W-Sq >0.2500

Pr > A-Sq >0.2500

Table B.7. SAS output on hypothesis 4: heat treatment and grinding effects

combination.

= 1 depth-2

Class Level Information

Class

T

grinding

pass

depth

Levels

3

2

1

1

Values

1 2 3

1 2

1

2

Number of observations

36

Dependent Variable : stress

Source

Model

Error

Corrected Total

DF

5

30

35

Sum of Squares

12910.98195

558.79535

13469.77730

R-Square

0.958515

CoeffVar

6.241790

Mean Square

2582.19639

18.62651

RootMSE

i.315844

F Value

138.63

Pr>F

<.0001

stress Mean

69.14433

Source

T*grinding

DF

5

Type ISS

12910.9819

Mean Square

2582.19639

F Value

138.63

Pr>F

<.0001

Source

T*grinding

DF

5

Type I SS

12910.9819

Mean Square

2582.19639

F Value

138.63

Pr>F

<.0001

Level of

T

Level of

grinding

Mean

-stress

Std Dev

94.9100000

91.8783333

72.5266667

57.0583333

52.5443333

45.9483333

126

3.47109781

1.41338483

2.46000542

4.77420325

7.92404144

2.46532283

pass=l depth=3

The UNIVARIATE Procedure

Variable: resid

Normal Probability Plot

5.5+

"+++

+"++

if il it it it

0.5+

it it it it it it

I It It It it it

it I it it Vr it

" + '++

-4.5+

''++++

-+

+

-2

+

-1

+

0

+

+1

+

+2

Probability plot (Q-Q plot).

normality output.

Tests for Normality

Test

Shapiro-Wilk

W

Kolmogorov-Smimov D

Cramer-von Mises

W-Sq

Anderson-Darling

A-Sq

Statistic

0.983974

0.069969

0.029105

0.219773

p Value

Pr<W

0.8694

Pr>D

>0.1500

Pr>W-Sq >0.2500

Pr > A-Sq >0.2500

- T=l grinding=2 depth=2

Class Level Information

127

Dependent Variable: sh'ess

Source

Model

EiTor

Corrected Total

DF

2

15

17

Sum of Squares

437.911744

124.0341

561.9458444

R-Square

0.779277

CoeffVar

3.178291

Mean Square

218.9558722

8.26894

RootMSE

2.875576

F Value

26.48

Pr>F

<.0001

stress Mean

90.47556

Source

pass

DF

2

Type ISS

437.911744

Mean Square

218.9558722

F Value

1 26.48

Pr>F

<.0001

Source

pass

DF

2

Type I SS

437.911744

Mean Square

218.9558722

F Value

1 26.48

Pr>F

<.0001

Student-Newman-Keuls Test

Alpha

0.05

Error Degrees of Freedom

15

Error Mean Square

8.268994

Number of Means

Critical Range

2

3.5386643

3

4.3123589

SNK Grouping

A

B

C

Mean

95.692

91.878

83.857

128

N

6

6

6

pass

2

1

4

The UNIVARIATE Procedure

Variable: resid

Normal Probability Plot

5+

+++"++++

-1+

-7++++

++++++++

--++1

--++2

Probability plot (Q-Q plot).

normality output.

Tests for Normality

Test

Shapiro-Wilk

W

Kolmogorov-Smimov D

Cramer-von Mises

W-Sq

Anderson-Darling

A-Sq

129

Statistic

0.945988

0.154877

0.067391

0.424584

p Valu

Pr<W

Pr>D

Pr > W-Sq

Pr > A-Sq

0.8656

>0.1500

>0.2500

>0.2500

APPENDD( C

MATLAB CODE IN THE CURVES FITTING

z=O.SI

\\'=0.5

t=0:0.2:16

n=l

tmax=(pi. *n)/(w. *sqrt( 1 -z.'-'2))

Ymax= 1 -e\p(-z. *w. *tmax). *sin(w. *tmax. *sqrt( 1 -z.''2)-i-atan(sqrt(( 1 -z.''2)/z)))/(sqrt{ 1 -z.''2))

k=2

tmin=(pi.*k)/(w.*sqrt(l-z.-^2))

t=0:0.2:tmin

Yt= I -exp(-z. *w. *t). *sin(w. *t. *sqrt( 1 -z.''-2)+atan(sqrt({ 1 -z.''2)/z)))/(sqrt( 1 -z.'^2))

RS=[-55.97

34.47

73.73

87.09

67.25

40.79

19.25]

H0=RS(1,4)-RS(1,7)

H1=RS(1,4)-RS(1,1)

fort=0:0.1:tmax

Yt= 1 -exp(-z.*\v. *t). *sin(w. *t.*sqrt( 1 -z.^2)-i-atan(sqrt(( 1 -z.'^2)/z)))/(sqrt( 1 -z.'^2))

Hlp=Ymax-Yt

HOp=(HO.*Hlp)/Hl

Ypr=Ymax-HOp

x=(tmax-t)/3

t7=tmax+3.''x

ift7>tmin

Y7=0

else

Y7= 1 -exp(-z. *w. *t7). 'sin(w. *t7. *sqrt( 1 -z.'^2)+atan(sqrt(( 1 -z.'^2)/z)))/(sqrt( 1 -z.^2))

end

ifY7>=Ypr

break

dispCfound "perfect fit" curve')

end

end

Y1=1 -exp(-z. *w. *tt). *sin( w. *tt. *sqrt( 1 -z.'^2)-(-atan(sqrt(( 1 -z.'^2)/z)))/(sqrt( 1 -z.'^2))

SSE=0

for 1=1:7

ifi<4

tcorr=tt-i-(i-l).*x

Ycorr=l -exp(-z.*w.*tcorr).*sin(w.*tcorr.'^sqrtC 1 -z.'>2)+atan(sqrt(( 1 -z.'^2)/z)))/(sqrt( 1 -z. 2))

RSact=RS(l,i)

RSpred=RS( 1,4)-((Ymax-Ycorr). *(RS( 1,4)-RS( 1,1 )))/(Ymax-Y 1)

else

\ c ^ 1 -exp(-z. *w. *tcorr). *sin(w. *tcorr. *sqrt( 1 -z.^2)-^atan(sqrt(( 1 -z.'^2)/z)))/(sqrt( 1 -z.'^2))

RSact=RS(l,i)

RSpred=RS( 1,4)-((Ymax-Ycorr). *(RS( 1,4)-RS( 1,7)))/(Ymax-Y7)

end

SSE=SSE-H(RS( 1 ,i)-RSpred).^2

Out=[RSact;RSpred]

end

130

z=0.49

w=0,5

t=0:0.2;16

n=l

tmax=(pi. *n)/('. "sqrtl 1-z.-^2))

^ma\=l-exp(-/.''w.*tmax).''sin(w.*tmax.*sqrt(l-z.''2)-l-atan(sq^t({i-z.'"2)/z)))/(sqrt(l-z.''2))

k=2

tmin=(pi.*k)/(\\.'sqrt(l-z.^2))

t=0:0.2:tmin

Yt= I -exp(-z, w. *t). *sin(w. *t. *sqrt( 1 -z.''2)+atan(sqrt(( 1 -z.'^2)/z)))/(sqrt( 1 -z.^2))

RS=[-64.05 38.24 74.22 63.35 42.38 23.34 12.02]

H0=RS(1,3)-RS(I,7)

H1=RS(1,3)-RS(1.1)

fort=0:0.1:tma\

N't=l-e\p(-z.*\v.*t).*sin(\v.*t.*sqrt(l-z.'^2)+atan(sqrt((l-z.^2)/z)))/(sqrt(l-z.'^2))

Hlp=Ymax->'t

H0p=(H0.*Hlp)/Hl

^-p|=^'ma\-HOp

x=(tmax-t)/2

t7=tmax+4.''x

ift7>tmin

Y7=0

else

Y7=l-exp(-z.*w.*t7).*sin(w.*t7.*sqrt(l-z.'^2)-i-atan(sqrt((l-z.'^2)/z)))/(sqrt(l-z.''2))

end

ifY7>=Ypr

break

dispCfound "perfect fit" curve')

end

end

tt=t

Y1 = 1 -exp(-z. "w. *tt). *sin(w. *tt. *sqrt( 1 -z.'^2)+atan(sqrt(( 1 -z.'^2)/z)))/(sqrt( 1 -z.'^2))

SSE=0

for 1=1:7

ifi<3

tcorr=tt-i-(i-l).*x

Ycon= 1 -exp(-z. *w. *tcon-). *sin(w. *tcorr. *sqrt( 1 -z.''2)-^atan(sqrt(( 1 -z.''2)/z)))/(sqrt( 1 -z. 2))

RSact=RS(l,i)

RSpred=RS( 1,3)-((Ymax-Ycorr). *(RS{ 1,3)-RS( 1,1 )))/(Ymax-Y 1)

else

Ycon= 1 -exp(-z. '^w. *tcorr). *sin(w. *tcorr.*sqrt( 1 -z.^2)-^atan(sqrt(( 1 -z.'^2)/z)))/(sqrt( 1 -z.'^2))

RSact=RS(l,i)

RSpred=RS( 1,3)-((Ymax-Ycorr).*(RS( 1,3)-RS( 1,7)))/(Ymax-Y7)

end

SSE=SSE-H(RS(l,i)-RSpred).'^2

Out=[RSact;RSpred]

end

131

=1

ma.x

ml'

Vi-c= ,

'

(-Cii-)c'

1

.

sin

4^

^F-7^+tan f V ^ l

V

f

VI - .;-' + tan

V^

+tan"

f

'

(0(

v ^ ( '1 - 4s "

TAA

:)V'-f' =0

Vl-C' -n

^A

fVi^

/'

= eg

co(yj\-C

^ -

iOlsj] - C' +1

i-C'

' , ; ^ / ^ ^ + tan-'

CO.

sm

x/I - C "

r\\

x/

4^

^'g

clg{A)

x/1 - C '

fx/l-^'

V

'

- tan(/( + S ) =

1 - tan .4 tan S

r

^

1 - tan

(aif^y

V

r

^

I

1 -tan (^x/i-C')

^^r

'

/y

V ^

iV

(c^^V^)^^^^^

x/^

f

^

/

-^ tan tan"'

V^

i(cuf7l-f')-

x A ^

f

7

TAA

V

V

x / ^

TAA

tan

=tan{<.fx/^)

- ^ V ^^

(a>gV'-C')

V^

=tan(a)gV'-^')-

v^

tan

= 0

l-^"-

. n e Z,

Wyl\-C'

132

=;rn,...n eZ,

V r.^7^^

^^ _Vw

'

y;

APPENDIX D

Actual versus predicted RS patterns based on the best fit model - equal-area fitting

C/1

140

120

a> 100

c/l

80

"cS 60

3

40

-a ^0

0)

0

a:

-20

-40

-60

-80

UI

lyi

z=0.1

SS = 2.2723e+003

Depth below the surface

surface

0.001"

0.002"

0.003"

0.004"

0.005"

0.006"

t value

3.2000

-53.47

-53.470

4.2383

51.13

23.7672

5.2766

96.05

85.004

6.3148

116.49

116.49

7.3531

87.49

113.28

8.3914

52.42

79.56

9.4297

26.79

26.79

RSacl

*X.^Died

finished by grinding operations 1 in one-pass technique (Ti Gri Pi).

mi

Z=0.56

SSE = 604.1761

Depth below the surface

surface

0.001"

0.002"

0.003"

0.004"

0.005"

0.006"

t value

RS

3.80

-58.67

-58.67

5.69

54,77

72,64

7.58

115.19

115.19

9.47

81.70

97.28

11.36

50.02

56.03

13.25

15.15

30.22

27.83

18.62

18.62

R^Died

finished by grinding operations 1 in two-passes technique (Tl Grl P2).

133

CO

.^

UI

I/I

100

80

60

13 40

3

a

^0

UI

UI

ai.

0

-20

-40

-60

-80

Z=0.76

S S = 141.0620

Depth below the surface

t value

suiface

4.9000

-59.52

-59.5200

RSact

RSpred

0.001"

7.2838

69.03

62.1363

0.002"

9.6676

87.25

87.2500

0.003"

12.0514

62.84

64.1432

0.004"

14.4352

40.62

33.1279

0.005"

16.8190

24.96

18.9842

0.006"

19.2027

15.88

15.8800

Figure D.3. Actual versus predicted RS patterns of single temperd specimens, finished by

grinding operations 1 in four-passes technique (Tl Grl P4).

CB

73.

vi

0)

(07

Z=0.11

SS = 2.0684e+003

Depth below the surface

t value

RSpred

surface

2.80

-48.60

-48.60

0.001"

3.97

46.56

18.05

0.002"

5.14

90.41

73.75

0.003"

6.32

102.33

102.33

0.004"

7.49

77.20

98.06

0.005"

0.006"

8.66

42.75

66.05

9.84

19.71

19.71

Figure D.4. Actual versus predicted RS patterns of single temperd specimens, finished by

grinding operations 2 in one-pass technique (Tl Gr2 PI).

134

Residi

40

20

0

-20

-40

-60

-80

Z=0.44

SS = 195.7099

Depth below the surface

surface

0.001"

0.002"

0.003"

0.004"

0.005"

0.006"

t value

3.5000

-59.27

-59.2700

5.2484

45.14

52.8695

6.9969

96.64

96.6400

8.7453

75.74

85.5546

10.4938

48.48

51.9581

12.2422

29.99

24.7420

13.9906

14.10

14.1000

R^act

RSpred

Figure D.5. Actual versus predicted RS patterns of single temperd specimens, finished by

grinding operations 2 in two-passes technique (Tl Gr2 P2).

pred

act

lUU

80

y ^ * * ^ ^

60

^^^^^

40

20

0

)

-20

-40

-60 1

0.001

0.002

0,003

0,004

0,005

0,006

0,( 07

-80

Z=0.62

SS= 103.7936

Depth below the surface

surface

0.001"

0.002"

0.003"

0.004"

0.005"

0.006"

t value

4.1000

-62.36

-62.3600

6.0541

54.00

51.6805

8.0081

84.85

84.8500

9.9622

62.55

69.5593

11.9162

40.61

38.3798

13.8703

15.8244

25.08

18.4234

12.02

12.0200

RSpred

grinding operations 2 in four-passes technique (Tl Gr2 P4).

135

s

3

't/i

Oi

0,(07

Z=0.17

SS = 1.4245e+003

Depth below the surface

surface

0.001"

0.002"

0.003"

0.004"

0.005"

0.006"

t value

2.6000

-55.97

-55.9700

3.8587

34.47

7.1045

5.1173

73.73

60.2676

6.3760

87.09

87.0900

7.6347

67.25

83.3664

8.8933

40.79

56.1076

10.1520

19.25

19.2500

RSacI

RSpred

Figure D.7. Actual versus predicted RS patterns of double temperd specimens, finished by

grinding operations 1 in one-pass technique (T2 Grl PI).

ca

-a

ai.

(07

Z=0.49

SS = 21.0527

Depth below the surface

t value

RSa,

RS pred

surface

0.001

0.002"

3.7000

5.4539

7.2078

-64.05

-64.0500

38.24

74.22

74.22

37.3797

0.003"

8.9617

63.35

65.2259

0.004"

0.005"

0.006"

12.4695

14.2233

42.38

23.34

39.9604

20.0367

12.02

12.02

10.7156

grinding operations 1 in two-passes technique (T2 Grl P2).

136

pred

act

J2

80

'Ol 60

>==-

VI

40

20

T3

1 ,._

^ -20

/ 0,001

0,002

0,00.1

0,004

0,005

0 006

0( 07

-40

-60

-80 '

-100

Z=0.76

SS = 205.7874

Depth below the surface

surface

0.001"

0.002"

0.003"

0.004"

0.005"

0.006"

t value

4.9000

-75.24

-75.2400

7.2838

43.85

35.5662

9.6676

58.44

58.4400

12.0514

46.16

43.2492

14,4352

31.56

22,8591

16.8190

20.84

13.5608

19.2027

11.52

11.5200

KOact

RSpred

grinding operations 1 in four-passes technique (T2 Grl P4).

0,(07

Z=0.18

SS = 741.3993

Depth below the surface

surface

0.001"

0.002"

0.003"

0.004"

0.005"

0.006"

t value

1.9000

-50.77

-50.7700

3.3958

16.16

2.1718

4.8917

58.15

53.5634

6.3875

79.72

79.7200

7.8834

57.73

74.3360

9.3792

31.54

47.2976

10.8750

16.37

16.3700

R^act

RSpred

grinding operations 2 in one-pass technique (T2 Gr2 PI).

137

act

pred

100

80

60

40

20

0

/ /

"

^ ? ^

-20

//OOOI

-40

-JL-

0,002

ooo.-i

3 004

0,005

0 006

Or 07

-60 1

-80

Z=0.44

SS = 594.5753

Depth below the surface

surface

0.001"

0.002"

0.003"

0.004"

0.005"

0.006"

t value

3.5000

-64.47

-64.4700

5.2484

6.9969

8.7453

10.4938

12.2422

13.9906

15.97

38.0962

78.13

78.1300

60.16

69.0202

36.32

41.4112

19.81

19,0454

10.3

10.3000

RSaci

RSpred

Figure D. 11. Actual versus predicted RS patterns of double temperd specimens, finished by

grinding operations 2 in two-passes technique (T2 Gr2 P2).

0.004

0.005

0.006

0,0

Z=0.53

SS= 12.3313

Depth below the surface

surface

0.001"

0,002"

0.003"

0.004"

0.005"

0.006"

t value

4.3000

6.3819

8.4638

10.5457

12.6276

14.7095

16.7914

R'^act

-69.7

-69.700

28.42

27.5574

52.99

52.9900

40.83

42.5474

25,84

24.0856

15.87

13.5121

10,55

10.5500

RSpred

grinding operations 2 in four-passes technique (T2 Gr2 P4).

138

pred

act

80

60

^

^

i

^

^

40

3

-a

ai.

20

0

-20

-40

//ooi

0,002

0,00.1

0,004

//

0,005

0,006

0,( 07

-60

-80

Z= 0.25

SS= 1.0930e-^003

Depth below the surface

surface

0.001"

0.002"

0.003"

0.004"

0.005"

0.006"

t \alue

3.1000

-59.4

-59.4000

4.2297

24.41

-1.0061

5.3595

53.81

43.0133

6.4892

64.28

64.2800

7.6190

50.57

62.6263

8.7487

30.44

44.0447

9.8785

17.73

17.7300

K b act

IXOpred

Figure D.l 3. Actual versus predicted RS patterns of triple temperd specimens, finished by

grinding operations 1 in one-pass technique (T3 Grl PI).

Z=0.47

SS = 120.0977

Depth below the surface

t value

RSa,

surface

3.6000

-60.93

-60.9300

0.001"

5.3592

18.64

26.3066

0.002"

7.1184

58.93

58.9300

0.003"

0.004"

8.8776

44.89

10.6368

51.4547

29.9309

28.34

0.005"

0.006"

12.3960

16.85

14.1552

6.22

6.2200

Figure D. 14. Actual versus predicted RS patterns of triple temperd specimens, finished by

grinding operations 1 in two-passes technique (T3 Grl P2).

139

act

^

pred

60

Z=0.67

SS= 131.1188

Depth below the surface

surface

0.001"

0.002"

0.003"

0.004"

0.005"

0.006"

t value

4.3000

-69.4

-69.4000

6.3819

25.51

17.8217

8.4638

40.63

40.6300

10.5457

34.36

32.6455

12.6276

24.91

18.5294

14.7095

15.77

10.4448

16.7914

8.18

8.1800

KOact

RSpred

Figure D.l5. Actual versus predicted RS patterns of tiiple temperd specimens, finished by

grinding operations 1 in four-passes technique (T3 Grl P4).

(07

Z=0.21

SS = 490.9401

Depth below the surface

surface

0.001"

0.002"

0.003"

0.004"

0.005"

0.006"

t value

2.5000

-48.6

-48.6000

3.8088

15.38

0.7405

5.1177

46.99

42.1484

6.4265

62.57

62.5700

7.7353

48.26

59.6668

9.0441

10.3530

28.98

40.0736

14.88

14.8800

RSpred

grinding operations 2 in one-pass technique (T3 Gr2 PI).

140

(07

Z=0.51

SS = 205.3301

Depth below the surface

surface

0.001"

0.002"

0.003"

0.004"

0.005"

0.006"

t value

3,7000

-56.19

-56.1900

5.5023

8,5

22.0752

7.3045

49.63

49.6300

9.1068

43.78

42.9774

10.9091

27.17

25.4693

12.7114

16.51

12.3257

14.5136

7.45

7.4500

RSaci

RSpred

grinding operations 2 in two-passes technique (T3 Gr2 P2).

0,003

0,004

0,005

0,006

0,(|07

Z=0.55

SS = 4.7921

Depth below the surface

t value

RS

RS'pred

surface

3.9000

-64.96

-64.9600

0.001"

5.8065

13.42

14.5606

0.002"

7.7131

39.45

39.4500

0.003"

9.6196

32.82

33.4679

0.004"

0.005"

0.006"

11,5261

21.29

20.1914

13.4326

12.64

15.3392

,2745

8.35

8.3500

grinding operations 2 in four-passes technique (T3 Gr2 P4).

141

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