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Zaria Oliver

Independent Research

Annotated Source List


Access to alcohol and heart disease among patients in hospital: Observational cohort study using
differences in alcohol sales laws. (2016, June 18). Retrieved from Gale Virtual Reference
Library database. (Accession No. A460969493)
Summary: Journal
This journal studies the correlation of alcohol and heart disease. The abstract explains the
objective to investigate the relation between alcohol consumption and heart disease by using
alcohol sales as an experiment. The conclusion stated that the greater the access to alcohol, the
more of an increase in heart problems like heart disease. Also the more sales of alcohol led to an
increase of heart issues in hospitals. The study was conducted by British Medical Journal. There
are links to where they collected the data that was used from yearly US censuses and a healthcare
atlas. There was no patient involvement. There is also a dense list of contributors and references.
Application to Research
This source will be useful for me if I research the things that relate to a higher health risk
to people in low income neighborhoods. I think that this topic could be interesting. The source
relates to the topic because I know that there is a lot more easy access to alcohol and other
harmful drugs in low income neighborhoods and less access to it in higher income
neighborhoods. This could correlate to higher health risk because people are surrounded more by
these dangerous things. The source also leaves a list of other sources for me to discover that
relate to my interested topic.
African-Americans and heart disease, stroke. (2015, July). Retrieved September 11, 2016, from
American Heart Association website:
http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/More/MyHeartandStrokeNews/AfricanAmericans-and-Heart-Disease-Stroke_UCM_444863_Article.jsp#.V9VYBfldVHo
Summary: Website
This article explains the issues of heart diseases prevalent in African Americans. This
includes high blood pressure, obesity, and diabetes. High blood pressure can cause permanent
damage to the heart before there are any symptoms. African Americans have the highest chance
of getting high blood pressure and this may be from the potential of carrying the gene of salt
sensitivity. African Americans could also get Obesity easily. The article tells about how that can
be controlled, though, by giving pieces of advice on how to avoid Obesity. Lastly the article
talked about how African Americans can get diabetes. Most people do not treat it fast enough.
Application to Research
This resource helps to go more in depth into the topic that I am considering studying. I
got some background on heart disease and I learned new information. I think that this source
confirmed that I would like to look deeper into the topic. I might be able to question what factors
actually lead to heart disease or if there is a correlation from African Americans getting heart
disease and their circumstances. This topic is important to me because it directly affects me and
my family. I might use this information to find a way to help African Americans in bad
circumstances to overcome getting heart disease even in their situations.

American journal of public health. (1992). http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.82.6.816


Summary: Book
This book looks at socioeconomic status and how this can lead to risk factors for heart
disease. Socioeconomic status was determined by income, education, and jobs. The study
connected these factors to disease. The methods consisted of studying these factors on a group of
cardiovascular disease risk factors. The results showed that education had the largest effect on
risk of heart disease. Higher results for risk were associated with lower levels of education. The
study had links to many resources that regard the topic.
Application to Research
This source is very helpful. It shows that education has a huge impact on the chances of
developing heart disease. This adds a possible claim for me to use in my research paper. I like
that this is on a website with many other possible resources, and also, that there is a list of
helpful references to use. The journal also not only gives me the environmental factor of
education, but also income and occupation. This is helpful because I can look further into these
environmental factors in future reading reports. Seeing that education contributes so much to the
risk, makes me think of doing a final project that will either help to educate minority groups, or
create some sort of a fundraiser to get healthy food to places where it is not as available. This
source gives inspiration for a solution to these factors and their risk. This source also makes me
want to look into which environmental factor has the biggest effect on risk of getting heart
disease.
Block, J. P., Scribner, R. A., & DeSalvo, K. B. (2004). Fast food, race/ethnicity, and income.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2004.06.007
Summary: Journal
This journal discusses the environmental factors that lead to obesity especially in African
American or low income households. The literature review discusses the environmental factors
of mainly fast food and alcohol. It tells how the geographic distribution of these places, fast food
or alcohol outlets, affects the surrounding lower income residents. The study was conducted in
Louisiana. The amount of fast food and alcohol outlets were calculated per mile and per square
mile. They were compared to predominantly white neighborhoods. Significant results were
shown. Predominantly black neighborhoods have 2.4 fast-food restaurants per square mile
compared to 1.5 restaurants in predominantly white neighborhoods. The study concluded that
these environmental factors may contribute to the obesity epidemic in these groups.
Application to Research
This journal significantly helps me because it is the first resource that I have found that
closely addresses my topic. It provides me with a lot of background information. I found the
words that go with my explanations. I can also use this evidence to assist me in my literature
review. It also shows me that the research question that I developed is relevant to the world and
an important topic. I can use the authors of the journal to find other sources that connect to my
topic.
Desmond, Sharon. Jan 9, 2017.
Summary: Interview

This interview was extremely helpful. Dr. Desmond explained that there is a huge
relationship between minority and health. She explained that minority does not just count
racially. Minority can be racial, income, sexual preference, etc. She told me how a big cause for
the health disparities between racial groups is institutionalized racism. This prevents certain
groups from having equal access to healthy options. For example, in African American
neighborhoods, there is more likely to be a lack of healthy grocery stores, whereas in Caucasian
American neighborhoods, there are more healthy food choices. Dr. Desmond also told me about
how she does charity work to help get better health to less fortunate people.
Application to Research
Professor Desmond gave me advice on what I could do for a final product. She said how I
could organize a fundraiser or make an infographic. She also gave me new points to include in
my paper, like the mentioning of institutionalized racism. I can also show in my paper support
for my claims that address location and education. Professor Desmond emphasized how
important these two environmental factors were. She showed how they link to every other
environmental factor. My topic can be organized effectively after this interview. The interview
also provides for some reliability in my research paper.
Dunne, N. (2015, April 10). Segregated neighborhoods raise heart risks if youre black.
Retrieved September 15, 2016, from Futurity website: http://www.futurity.org/africanamericans-segregation-neighborhods-895502/
Summary: Journal
This journal discusses how there is a correlation between neighborhood segregation and
the high levels of heart risks in African Americans. Neighborhood segregation sorts population
groups in the country. Basically, certain ethnicities group together in different neighborhoods.
This correlates to higher heart risks for African Americans because their neighborhoods are
subject to little access to unhealthy foods and violence. The article conducts a data collection that
demonstrates the correlation and the results support their claims.
Application to Research
This source makes me want to research the topic of heart disease in African Americans. I
think that the idea of neighborhood segregation is an interesting topic to research. I can use this
point as a claim in a possible thesis in my paper. I also like the use of data in this source. It
makes it more reliable and credible. I think that the relation of neighborhood segregation to heart
disease is interesting. I could research how to get rid of neighborhood segregation. I could also
research the reasons for neighborhood segregation, and I could look into how it could be stopped
or improved. I could also look into if people even would like to stop having neighborhood
segregation. There are many routes I could take with this topic.
Heart disease. (n.d.). Retrieved October 17, 2016, from Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention website: https://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/about.htm
Summary: Website
This is an extremely helpful website that can be used to get a good background on the
topic of Heart Disease. This is also a trusted and reliable government website. First it defines
heart disease and the different types like coronary heart disease and heart attacks and etc. The
website also provides some statistics. About 610,000 people die of heart disease in the United
States every yearthats 1 in every 4 deaths. These statistics also include racial statistics. There
are multiple fact sheets and references to pull information from. There are lists of risk factors like
conditions, behavior and family history factors that increase the chance of getting heart disease.

There is also a section of recommendations of things to do to prevent heart disease. Lastly the
website has links to multiple journals on the topic.
Application to Research
This website is absolutely reliable since it is a government website. I am glad that it has
so many links to other references. It provides me with a lot of background information to use in
my paper and in any presentations. It is laid out neatly and easy to understand. I am definitely
able to use the racial statistics as well. I think that this source will be used consistently
throughout my paper proving any background information that I need.
Heart disease and African Americans. (2014, February 26). Retrieved October 12, 2016, from
YouTube website: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eIeNjy7z4C4
Summary: Video
This video explained the signs of heart disease and stroke. It explained some causes of
heart disease as well. This included diet and how African American cultural food can be
unhealthy and lead to heart disease. The video talks about the kind of questions that patients
should be asking their doctors to make sure they can stay away from possible heart diseases.
Lastly, the video gave two examples of stories from African Americans of their stories of having
heart attacks and their lifestyle habits and how it relates. A professional physician then talks
about ways to prevent heart disease such as exorcise and change in diet. The video demonstrates
how people can sometimes be nonchalant about the signs of a stroke or heart attack. It
emphasizes acting fast to get medical help and being better safe than sorry.
Application to Research
This source relates to the topic of heart disease. Whatever my question may be for this
topic, I can use the facts provided in this video to add background information. I am considering
discussing how to get the information to people of how to protect themselves from heart disease
and how to make them actually want to take the advice. I can use the information from the
medical professional because he explains that an important thing to do is to educate people about
the possibility of getting heart disease. I can use these personal stories to help an audience relate
and demonstrate how a stroke or heart attack is a serious matter.
Heart disease and black women: The silent killer that speaks volumes. (n.d.). Black Women's
Health Imperative. Retrieved from http://www.bwhi.org/issues-and-resources/heartdisease-and-black-women-the-silent-killer-that-speaks-volumes/
Summary: Article
This article by an imperative group explains how women, especially African American
women, are more likely to get heart disease. The article starts off by defining heart disease, a
term used to describe a number of problems affecting the heart and the blood vessels of the
heart. Next the article goes on to inform why it is important to know what heart disease is and
what African American women need to know about it. The article explains that rates are twice as
high for African American women than Caucasian women. It also explains that African American
women are more likely to have unhealthy eating habits and lack of physical activity. The
company in creation of the article explains what they are doing to help the matter. This includes
Adopting a social determinants of health approach to eliminating health disparities which helps
us to address many of the factors that contribute to heart disease and other health conditions that
Black women face. Lastly, a list of important things African American women can do to help
themselves is provided. The website ends with a list of related articles.
Application to Research

This source has a plethora of information for me to utilize. I can also use the resources on
the website and linked to the site to find more information. I especially like how this source
mentioned social determinants of health, because that is what I want my topic to be about.
Heart disease - risk factors. (n.d.). Retrieved December 1, 2016, from Better Health website:
https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/heart-disease- riskfactors
Summary: Website
This website goes into great depth of risk factors of Heart Disease. You can reduce your
risk of developing CHD by reducing or removing the modifiable risk factors, such as smoking,
high total cholesterol, high blood pressure, being physically inactive, being overweight, diabetes,
depression and social isolation. The website also explained that a family history of Heart
Disease makes a person at a higher risk. Men tend to get Coronary Heart Disease at an earlier
age than women. If the is a higher risk for a person, that they cannot control, they should focus
on trying to remove all other risk factors. People with diabetes have a higher risk of heart
attack, angina and stroke. People with CHD frequently have type 2 diabetes. High blood
pressure can overload your heart and coronary arteries, and speed up the artery-clogging process.
This can lead to problems such as heart attack and stroke.
Application to Research
The source goes into great depth to explain exactly how each health issue relates to
getting Heart Disease. This helpful because I can thoroughly explain why having these
conditions or a family history of them is a big reason to pay attention to health. These risks also
show me why it is such a big problem that people do not have access to things like physical
activity, healthy foods, etc. This source helps me to understand how to approach my research
question and see what sources I need to look for.
Hispanics and heart disease, stroke. (n.d.). Retrieved November 16, 2016, from American Heart
Association website:
http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/More/MyHeartandStrokeNews/Hispanicsand-Heart-Disease_UCM_444864_Article.jsp#.WCzXyvldWKI
Summary: Article
This article discussed how Latin Americans are at high risk for heart disease. This is due
to health reasons like diet, but it is also from the environmental factors. For example, not having
a large enough income to purchase healthy foods. Any family with two working parents
may find that $5 can get several hamburgers, but fruits and veggies are more expensive and take
more time to prepare, she said. Its an issue of time and money. Obesity is most prevalent in
Mexican Americans. The website does, however, give advice on how to lower risk of getting
heart disease. It explains what exactly heart disease is. The article informs that diabetes is also a
big issue with the health of Latin Americans. The website has links to many other resources
regarding the topic.
Application to Research
This source is great because it shows that there is more than one minority ethnicity that
has a difficulty with heart disease. The article also provided me with a new environmental factor
of income and the cost of healthy foods. The article links me to many resources regarding my

topic and provides me with extra background information on heart disease and the different types
like diabetes and obesity.
Interview with Dr.Anne Thorson: preventing heart disease in women. (2012, June). Retrieved
January 7, 2017, from University of California San Francisco website:
https://www.ucsfhealth.org/education/interview_thorson_preventing_heart_disease_in_w
omen/
Summary: Interview
This website interview is with a cardiologist from the University of California San
Francisco Medical Center. Dr. Anne Thorsen discusses the risk of heart disease for females. This
interview held many great pieces of useful information. It told how Heart Disease takes 500,000
lives each year in the United States. More than sixty percent of women in America are
overweight. Twenty-five percent of women in the United States do not do any type of physical
activity. An important statement that the doctor made was one of the problems with having high
blood pressure is that most of the time people who have high blood pressure have absolutely no
idea that their blood pressure is high. The interviewee offered many pieces of advice on how to
reduce risk
Application to Research
This source is important because it gives an educated opinion on my topic. Also there are
a lot of useful statistics that I can use in my research topic. I think that this source will be helpful
to use in my paper at the end when I offer tips on how to reduce the risk of heart disease. This
source provides me with more information to write about. Lastly, the website, that the interview
was located on, had many links to other potential sources.
Jones, C. P. (2000, August). Levels of racism: A theoretic framework and a gardeners tale
[PDF]. American Journal of Public Health, 90(8), 1-4. Retrieved from
file:///C:/Users/zfashionista17/Downloads/Jones(2000)LevelsRacism.pdf
Summary: Journal
This journal was extremely interesting. It was intriguing and understandable. It discussed
the topic of the different types of racism and how racism had a huge effect on health. There are
three different levels of racism. There is institutionalized, personally mediated, and internalized.
Institutionalized racism is based on material conditions and access to power. Personally mediated
racism is prejudice and discrimination. Internalized racism is acceptance by individuals in the
stigmatized race about the negative messages of their abilities. The journal consisted of a story
comparing the types of racism to flowers growing. This source was written by a research director
on the social determinants of health and equity at Meharry Medical College and graduated from
Johns Hopkins with a doctorate degree. This source also has a lot of citations to other possible
sources.
Application to Research

This source was very good because it will give my paper some credibility. Also, I
contacted the author for an interview for a reading report. This source helped me to really
understand the meaning of institutionalized racism and it helps me figure out how to explain it in
my paper. I think that this was a very beneficial source and it was sent to me by my interviewee.
It is good that other professionals in the field see this as a good source.

Lampert, & Kroll. (2013). Socioeconomic status and health. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00103013-1695-4


Summary: Journal
This journal is about a study that was conducted in Germany. It compared the health of
individuals to their socioeconomic status. The general tenor of the results of these studies is that
persons with lower SES have higher risk of contracting many chronic diseases and complaints
than persons with a higher SES. The study conducted data collection over a time period, on 1879 year olds at random and locally. Their data showed that lower class had higher percentages of
self-rated health status, diabetes mellitus, obesity, depressive symptoms, and inactivity in sports.
The journal went into detail about particular terms as well. Obesity as a severe form of
overweight is determined via the body mass index (BMI) which is defined as the ratio of
bodyweight in kilograms to body height in meters squared.
Application to Research
This source is very helpful because it supports my claim that people living in poverty,
which is mainly minorities, have a higher risk of contracting cardiovascular disease. This source
proves that this is a problem all over the world, not just in America. This source is also helpful
because it helps to define a lot of terms, such as obesity. I can use this to add detail and to
organize my research paper.
LaVeist, & Wallace. (2000). Health risk and inequitable distribution of liquor stores in african
american neighborhood. Retrieved from
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10868674?dopt=Abstract
Summary: Journal
This journal investigates the topic of alcohol access in predominantly African American
neighborhoods. It compares the amount to the access to alcohol in predominantly white
neighborhoods. The journal examines the intersection of race and income in African American
communities and their increase in risk of heart disease. This resource analyzed racial
composition and household income in relation to the number of alcohol outlets per capita. The
study took place in Baltimore, Maryland. The studies showed that there was excessive access to
alcohol in predominantly African American neighborhoods.
Application to Research
Since alcohol is proven by my other sources to be a giant cause of heart disease, I can
conclude that the uneven distribution of alcohol outlets leads to an increased risk in heart disease
for minorities. In this case, African Americans are the minority. Any low income ethnic minority
can be part of this statistic though. This source is very helpful and it can be used to back up my
point that the environmental factor of access to alcohol outlets leads to an increased risk. I like

that this source had a long list of references to retrieve more information from. Also, this source
provides me with some statistics that can be helpful in my literature review. This source does not
go into depth with comparing the findings to the risk, but I can do this comparison myself with
the information that was provided.
Life expectancy in northern virginia [Illustration]. (2016, June 7). Retrieved from
http://www.societyhealth.vcu.edu/work/the-projects/life-expectancy-in-northernvirginia.html
Summary: Image
This diagram/image shows an interactive map that discusses the characteristics that
impact health in the Richmond Virginia area. The characteristics include food access, income
gaps, poverty, health outcomes, race, education, physical activity, and life expectancy. The food
access section shows that there is a large percentage of food deserts in the area. This means that
there are not a lot of places to get healthy/grocery food from for miles. The income gaps sections
explains that the mean income is seventeen times greater in wealthier than poorer tracts. One
fourth of the areas residents live in poverty. An interesting fact that was provided was that
segregation resulted in more African Americans living in poverty, getting preventable diseases,
and dying younger than Caucasian Americans. The health differences are increased throughout
neighborhoods because of lack of open green areas for physical activity. Huge percentages of
African and Hispanic Americans have no more than a high school education.
Application to Research
This source is amazing in providing me with evidence and more environmental factors to
use. The website is reliable and has even more information for me to utilize.
M A Winkleby, D E Jatulis, E Frank, and S P Fortmann. Socioeconomic status and health: how
education, income, and occupation contribute to risk factors for cardiovascular disease. American
Journal of Public Health June 1992: Vol. 82, No. 6, pp. 816-820.
doi: 10.2105/AJPH.82.6.816
Summary: Journal
This journal compares the risk of cardiovascular disease to socioeconomic status. The
methods were from four cross sectional surveys. The background information of education,
income, occupation, etc., was obtained through questionnaires. The population survey was
predominately white. Clear gradients were seen between educational level and smoking for both
sexes. The journal had several data tables and lists with many details and subcategories. The
study concluded that education may be the highest predictor of health.
Application to Research
This source is very helpful because it directly relates to my topic. I like that this source
says that education is most the impactful risk. It leads me to want to look into why there is a lack
of education and how I can inform those who do have a lack of education. What will really
motivate them to take initiative in helping their health? I like that this source also helps me to
locate better resources and potential interviewees.
Morland, K. (2002). Neighborhood characteristics associated with the location of food stores
and food service places. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0749-3797(01)00403-2

Summary: Journal
This journal studies the distribution of food stores by neighborhood wealth and
segregation of neighborhoods. Mainly, health issues are connected to just diets, but it is not often
looked into the availability of healthy food. For the methods, names of food stores from a group
of states was obtained and the median house values were used for neighborhood wealth. The
proportion of African Americans was used to identify neighborhood segregation. The results
showed that, in wealthier neighborhoods, there were a larger amount of grocery stores. There
were also three times less places to get alcohol in wealthier neighborhoods. Regarding
neighborhood segregation, there are 4 times more supermarkets located in white neighborhoods
compared to black neighborhoods. Without access to supermarkets, which offer a wide variety
of foods at lower prices, poor and minority communities may not have equal access to the variety
of healthy food choices available to nonminority and wealthy communities.
Application to Research
This is an extremely helpful article. If lower income neighborhoods, consisting usually of
minorities, have more access to alcohol, that can lead to risk of heart disease for them. This
source shows how neighborhood segregation and food store distribution can be factors of heart
disease.
Neighborhood-based differences in physical activity: An environmental scale evaluation. (2003).
http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.93.9.1552
Summary: Journal
This journal conducted a study that tested the relationship between neighborhood
quality/safety and the amount of physical activity. A neighborhood with considered highwalkability was compared to a neighborhood with low-walkability and they accessed their
residents physical activity. The physical activity was accessed with self report and an
accelerometer. The results displayed that the neighborhood with high-walkability had
corresponding high physical activity. The low-walkability neighborhood had data displaying low
physical activity. The journal had a list of contributors and sources that can be used to find other
informational texts.
Application to Research
This source displays a cause of lack of physical activity. This source was interesting to
me because a lack of physical activity can lead to heart disease. Also, I know that a lot of
predominantly African American neighborhoods can be considered unsafe, especially in
impoverished neighborhoods. The low safety of the African American neighborhoods could
potentially be a cause of the high rates of heart disease in African Americans. If I choose to do a
topic about the rates of heart disease in this nationality, this source will be very useful for me in
supporting my claims.
Number of heart disease deaths per 100,000 population by gender. (n.d.). Retrieved December 8,
2016, from Kaiser Family Foundation website: http://kff.org/other/state-indicator/heartdisease-death-rate-by-gender/?
activeTab=map&currentTimeframe=0&selectedDistributions=male
Summary: Website

This website shows the number of deaths caused by heart disease according to gender, in
the United States. States like Washington DC, Arizona, Kentucky, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and a
few more have the highest numbers for deaths caused by heart disease. Males have higher
amount of deaths than females in all of the states. Each death was per thousand. The most deaths
were in the states with big cities. This data is from the year 2014.
Application to Research
This source provides me with data to show that heart disease affects a lot of people. Also,
with this information, I can see that heart disease is higher in specific states. These states seem to
have more cities which have more impoverished places. This supports how the environmental
factors that relate to most urban areas can be risks for heart disease. These factors include low
income, lack of access to healthy food, neighborhood safety, and much more. The specific
statistics that are provided in this source also are interesting to use in final projects and
presentations. Lastly, this website has many links to other sources that I could possibly use. Also,
this access to links, relating to my topic, could lead me to finding potential interviewees and
advisors for future reading reports or my interview assignment.

Ollove, M. (2016, December 30). Where you live can have a lot to say about your health. The
Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/healthscience/where-you-live-can-have-a-lot-to-say-about-your-health/2016/12/30/6d94c510cc73-11e6-a747-d03044780a02_story.html?utm_term=.20d7569fa5ae
Summary: Article
This article talks about how your location can affect your health. The article says
peoples health depends as much on factors related to location such as recreational
opportunities, transportation, crime and unemployment. The article then went into detail about
several states. It also provided links to other sources. The source talks about how people should
look into changing this difference between locations. The article inputs an interesting quote
saying the zip code is more important than genetic code.
Application to Research
I can use this source to support my claim that location and environmental factors affect
the risk of getting heart disease. I can also look into the extra sources that it provided. It would
also be nice if I could contact anyone involved in writing that article as a possible contact. I can
use the quote of zip code versus genetic code to organize my paper. I might be able to make an
argument of whether environmental factors or genetic factors are more important. I can also
make this a question to ask in my interview.

The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/healthscience/where-you-live-can-have-a-lot-to-say-about-your-health/2016/12/30/6d94c510cc73-11e6-a747-d03044780a02_story.html?utm_term=.20d7569fa5ae


Summary: Website
This article talks about how your location can affect your health. The article says
peoples health depends as much on factors related to location such as recreational
opportunities, transportation, crime and unemployment. The article then went into detail about
several states. It also provided links to other sources. The source talks about how people should
look into changing this difference between locations. The article inputs an interesting quote
saying the zip code is more important than genetic code.
Application to Research
I can use this source to support my claim that location and environmental factors affect
the risk of getting heart disease. I can also look into the extra sources that it provided. It would
also be nice if I could contact anyone involved in writing that article as a possible contact. I can
use the quote of zip code versus genetic code to organize my paper. I might be able to make an
argument of whether environmental factors or genetic factors are more important. I can also
make this a question to ask in my interview.
The link between ethnicity, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease. (2002, March 10). Retrieved from
Gale Virtual Reference Library database. (Accession No. EJ3010291205)
Summary: Website
This database article explained the correlation of heart disease, diabetes, and ethnicity.
The article started off with stating a source that is helpful called the Association of Black
Cardiologists. The article talked about how African Americans are at the highest risk for heart
disease and many do not know it. Many people with diabetes are likely to die from heart disease
also. The article discussed how many people do not know much about diabetes also. The
database that the article was located on also had many sources to find other resources related to
the topic. The article source list had a plethora of links to books and sources to find more
information.
Application to Research
This source is helpful to me if I decide to research the topic of heart disease and the
correlations to ethnicity and African Americans. I found it interesting that the article mentioned
how a lot of African Americans are unaware of their increased risk of getting heart disease. I
think it would be cool to research how to inform ethnicities effectively about their risks for
certain medical issues. I liked how the article gave me a new resource at the Association of Black
Cardiologists where I can locate new information. I also like that there is a long list of organized
sources to locate other pieces of evidence for this topic.
Types of cardiovascular disease [Photograph]. (n.d.). Retrieved from:
http://www.who.int/cardiovascular_diseases/en/cvd_atlas_01_types.pdf
Summary: Image
This image/diagram explained the different types of heart diseases in details. There are
several different types. Coronary Heart Disease occurs when the blood vessels do not supply the
heart muscle. Rheumatic Heart Disease is caused by bacteria. Congenital Heart Disease is caused
by malformations of the heart from birth. Stroke is caused by lack of blood being supplied to the
brain. Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism is caused by blood clots in the
leg veins which can cause heart issues. The source also includes many risk factors for each.

Risks factors for Coronary Heart Disease include tobacco use, high cholesterol, inactivity, and
more. The source provides graphs of the deaths from different types of cardiovascular heart
disease. Lastly the source provides background facts about the human heart, which a very
interesting.
Application to Research
This source is very helpful to me because it provides so much information. The risks of
the different types of cardiovascular diseases relate to some of my environmental factors,
proving that risks are increased by them Also, I can use the information from the graphs to give
statistics about the severity of Heart Disease. Lastly, I can use the interesting facts to give
background on the heart. This source helps me to better understand my topic, and it informed me
about the information that I was missing.
What we dont know about heart disease can kill us. (n.d.). Retrieved December 1, 2016, from
NPR website: http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2014/09/29/352494155/what- wedont-know- about-heart- disease-can- kill-us
Summary: Website
This article is gives basic facts about Heart Disease, but, mainly, it provides multiple
helpful statistics. And maybe you don't want to worry, but cardiovascular disease is much
more likely to kill you than cancer, HIV or Ebola. Heart attacks and stroke are the number one
and number two causes of death, according to the World Health Organization, accounting for 14
million deaths each year. And even though we know how to reduce risk, we arent stepping up
our efforts to have a healthy heart. The article talks about how, even though there is a lot of
information out in the world about health risks, most individuals still do not pay attention to
these facts.
Application to Research
This source was helpful in providing me with statistics that can be a big influence,
helping individuals to realize the huge issue of Heart Disease. This source also helped me to
realize that there are people who do indeed know the risk factors, yet do not help themselves. I
can now figure out how to appeal to those people in my paper and presentations. I can also use
the various statistics in my research paper.
Elger, E. (2007). Women and minorities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics
upping the numbers (R. J. Burke & M. C. Mattis, Eds.) [e-book]. Retrieved from
https://books.google.com/books?
hl=en&lr=&id=zgsvXQ4GbfkC&oi=fnd&pg=PR4&dq=minorities+in+stem&ots=25n8Z
eZyp_&sig=EV87B64Mm56V2cNqAak81Vsp5SE#v=onepage&q=minorities%20in
%20stem&f=false
Summary: Book
This book is about the lack of minority and women in the fields of STEM. STEM is for
science, technology, engineering, and math. The book goes into detail about the
underrepresentation, benefits of including women and minorities into STEM, barriers the
minorities face, and action strategies for upping the numbers. If the cure for cancer is in the
mind of a girl, we might never find it. Myra Sadker. The book has piles of information to draw
from.
Application to Research
This source would be great for me if I decide to research the topic of minorities in STEM
fields. It contains a lot of information, so I am not sure if I will be able to brainstorm a question

that does not already have an answer. I think I could possibly look into how the field of STEM is
being presented to the minorities and if it is effective in recruiting STEM thinkers. I can read
further into the book and look at its details to get a good understanding of the source. Therefore,
if I research this topic, I will have a lot of background information.
Mendoza, M. (2013, October 1). Strap on your computer, wearable tech taking off. San
Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved from SIRS Discoverer database.
Summary: Website
This article is about wearable technology. It gives a brief background on the topic. The
article lists many examples of todays wearable technology and how people have been using
wearable technology for longer than we think. The source talks about how this is only the
beginning of wearable technology and how there is much more to come. It also discusses future
possibilities like the pros and cons to having wearable technology increase and decrease. The
cons included things like potential cultural and social issues. The website is a database that is
very useful in showing results for searches.
Application to Research
The source would definitely be of great use to me if I decide to research engineering or a
technology related topic. I could look into how wearable technology has changed and how might
it start to affect people as it develops. I could also research the issues with wearable technology. I
think that the cultural and social views of the topic are very interesting. This source pushes me to
find a topic more related to technology because I feel that there are many cool things I could do
with a project about wearable technology. I think I would enjoy this topic.
Modi, K., Schoenberg, J., & Salmon, K. (2012). Generation STEM: What girls say about
science, technology, engineering, and math. Retrieved from
http://www.voced.edu.au/content/ngv:70545
Summary: Journal
This journal explains why girls/women are underrepresented in STEM fields/careers.
First the article provided interesting statistics such as: African Americans and Hispanic girls
have high interest in STEM, high confidence, and a strong work ethic, but have fewer supports,
less exposure, and lower academic achievement than Caucasian girls and Perceived gender
barriers are still high for girls and may help explain why STEM fields arent their top career
choices. The journal then explains how girls are just as capable of understanding and
succeeding in topics involved with STEM. Things like confidence, goals, hard work, and
persistence, though, separated the STEM girls from the non-STEM girls. STEM girls receive
support to go into the direction that they are going. An interesting piece of this journal was that
when it came to minorities, the girls had less percentages of influential adults. They also had
higher percentages of belief in barriers and obstacles such as unequal treatment in jobs due to
gender. The journal provides tons more information.
Application to Research
This source was very interesting and persuades me to learn about and research why girls,
mainly minorities, are less likely to pursue the path of STEM careers and hobbies and how they
can be inspired to follow these paths. I think that this is a very good question to research and this
journal and its references will be very helpful to me.