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Unit 04

1.

December

EQUATIONS.
An Equation is a statement using algebra that contains an unknown quantity

and an equals sign. The Solution of an equation is the set of values which, when
substituted for unknowns, make the equation a true statement. An Equation has
different Elements:

Variables: The unknown quantities

Member: The two expressions on either side of an equation.

Term: Any of the addends of an equation.

Degree: For a term with one variable, the degree is the variable's exponent. With
more than one variable, the degree is the sum of the exponents of the variables.

MATH VOCABULARY: Equation, Member, Term, Variable, Coefficient, Degree,


Constant, Solution.

Axel Cotn Gutirrez

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.4.1

Unit 04

December

2.

FIRST-DEGREE AND SECOND DEGREE EQUATIONS.

2.1.

FIRST-DEGREE EQUATIONS.
A First-Degree Equation is called a Linear Equation. The highest exponent of a

linear equation is 1. The standard form for a linear equation is:

, ,
3 + 2 = 10.

The solution of this equation is = 4


2.2.

SECOND-DEGREE EQUATIONS.
A Second-Degree Equation is called a Quadratic Equation. The highest

exponent of a quadratic equation is 2. The standard form for a quadratic equation is:

, ,
5 2 + 5 2 = 0

Quadratic equations can be solved using a special formula called the Quadratic
Formula:

The solutions to the quadratic equation are often called Roots, or sometimes
Zeroes.

Axel Cotn Gutirrez

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.4.2

Unit 04

December

Case 1:
2 6 + 5 = 0 = 1; = 6 = 5

2 4 (6) (6)2 (4 1 5)
=
=
2
21

6 36 20 6 16 6 4 3 2
3+2=5
=
=
=
=32=
32=1
2
2
2
1
This equation has two different solutions: 1 = 5 2 = 1

Case 2:
4 2 + 4 + 1 = 0 = 4; = 4 = 1
2 4 (+4) (+4)2 (4 4 1)
=
=
2
24
1
4
=

4 16 16 4 0 4 0
2
=
=
=
= 8
4
1
8
8
8
=
8
2

Both solutions are equal. We say that this equation has a double solution or double
root.
Case 3:
2 2 + 5 = 0 = 1; = 2 = 5
=

2 4 (2) (2)2 (4 1 5)
=
=
2
21

2 + 16
=
2 4 20 2 16
2
=
=
=
2
2
2 16
=

This equation has no solution into the set of real numbers.

Axel Cotn Gutirrez

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.4.3

Unit 04

December

The previous examples show that the different types of solutions of the seconddegree equations depend on the value of = . This number is called the

Discriminant.

Sometimes you can find Incomplete quadratic equations, if = =

; = = . You can solve these equations in an easy way, without using the

quadratic formula.

Axel Cotn Gutirrez

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.4.4

Unit 04

December

MATH VOCABULARY: First-Degree Equation, Linear Equation, Second-Degree Equation,


Quadratic Equation, Quadratic Formula, Root, Zero, Double Root, Discriminant,
Incomplete Quadratic Equation.

3.

OTHER TYPES OF EQUATIONS.

3.1.

BIQUADRATIC EQUATIONS.
Biquadratic Equations are quartic equations with no odd-degree terms. The

standard form for a biquadratic equation is:

Lets see the case of fourth degree:

These equations can be written as a quadratic equation by making an


appropriate substitution called Change of variable:

To solve we have only to apply the Quadratic Formula:

Axel Cotn Gutirrez

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.4.5

Unit 04

December

The four roots of the equation will be:

Solve: 4 3 2 4 = 0
2 =

2 3 4 = 0
We apply quadratic formula:

(3) (3)2 4 1 (4)


21

3 25
= 4
= 1
2 = 1
2

1 = +4 = 2
2 = 4 = 2

3 = +1 =

4 = 1 =

MATH VOCABULARY: Biquadratic equations, Change of Variable.


3.2.

EQUATIONS WHICH CAN BE SOLVED BY FACTORIZING.


We can solve an algebraic expression by factorizing if we can write it as the

product of factors.
Axel Cotn Gutirrez

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.4.6

Unit 04

December

() () () =
We can do it extracting factors or with Ruffinis rule as the unit 3.
Solve 4 5 2 = 3 2 4x
Firstly we relocate the equation:
4 3 4 2 + 4x = 0
We extract x as a common factor:
( 3 2 4 + 4) = 0
Now we use Ruffinis rule:

1
1

1 4
+1
0

+4
4
0

( 3 2 4 + 4) = ( 1)( 2 4)
By using polynomial identities:
4 5 2 = 3 2 4x = ( 1)( + 2)( 2)
The solutions are:
1 = 0
= 1
2
3 = 2
4 = 2
Axel Cotn Gutirrez

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.4.7

Unit 04

3.3.

December

RATIONAL EQUATIONS.
Equations that contain rational expressions are called Rational Equations. We

solve rational equations by finding a common denominator. We can follow either of


two methods:

We can rewrite the equation so that all terms have the common denominator and
we can solve for the variable with just the numerators.

Or we can multiply both sides of the equation by the common denominator so


that all terms become polynomials instead of rational expressions.
An important step in solving rational equations is to reject any Extraneous

Solutions from the final answer. Extraneous solutions are solutions that dont satisfy
the original form of the equation because they produce untrue statements or are
excluded values that make a denominator equal to 0. Therefore, we should always
check solutions in the original equation.
Solve:

3
+
= 1
3 + 1

( 3, + 1) = ( 3)( + 1)
3( 3)
1( 3)( + 1)
( + 1)
+
=
( 3)( + 1) ( 3)( + 1)
( 3)( + 1)
( + 1) + 3( 3) = 1( 3)( + 1)
2 + + 3 9 = 2 + 3 + 3
2 2 + 2 12 = 2 + 6 = 0
Axel Cotn Gutirrez

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.4.8

Unit 04

December

1 1 + 24
= 2
= 1

2
2 = 3

We have to check the answers:

=2
3
2
3
2
3

+
= 1
+
=
+ = 1
2 3 2 + 1 1 3
3 + 1

=3

3
3
3
3
3
+
= 1
+
=
+
= 1
3 + 1
3 3 3 + 1 6 2

MATH VOCABULARY: Rational equations, Extraneous Solutions.


3.4.

RADICAL EQUATIONS.
A Radical Equation is an equation in which the variable is contained inside a

radical symbol (in the radicand). To solve it we:

Isolate the radical on one side of the equation.

If the radical is a square root, square each side of the equation. (If the radical is
not a square root, raise each side to a power equal to the index of the root).

Simplify and solve as you would any equations.

Substitute answers back into the original equation to make sure that your
solutions are valid (there could be some extraneous roots that do not satisfy the
original equation and that you must throw out).
Solve: + 5 8 = 1
+ 5 = 1 + 8
Squaring both members:

Axel Cotn Gutirrez

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.4.9

Unit 04

December
2

+ 5 = 1 + 8

+ 5 = 1 28 + 8
2 4 = 28
2 = 8
2 = 8
Squaring again:

(2 )2 = 8

4 4 + 2 = 8
2 3 4 = 0
=

3 9 + 16
= 4
= 1
2 = 1
2

We have to check the answers:


=4

+ 5 8 = 1 4 + 5 8 4 = 3 2 = 1 1

=1

+ 5 8 = 1 1 + 5 8 (1) = 2 3 = 1

MATH VOCABULARY: Radical equations, To Isolate.

Axel Cotn Gutirrez

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.4.10

Unit 04

4.

December

INEQUATIONS.
An Inequation, also known as an Inequality, is an algebraic expression

containing an inequality sign (<, >, , ).


2 4 > 2;

2 + 5 0

The solution to an inequation is the set of values that make true the inequality.
We will see two methods for solving inequations: graphical method and algebraic
method.
4.1.

GRAPHICAL METHOD.
We have to draw the graph of the inequation as if they were equations and

then set the inequalities.


Case 1:
2x + 4 > 0
It you draw the graph of the line = 2 + 4, the solution to the inequation will be the
set of values of such that > 0

Axel Cotn Gutirrez

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.4.11

Unit 04

December

Looking at the graph, you can see that when > 2, then > 0.

That is, the solution to the inequation 2x + 4 > 0 is the interval (2, ).
Case 2:
2x + 7 >

3
2

The ordinate of the line = 2x + 7 is greater than or equal to the ordinate of the

line = 3 for the values of less than or equal to 4.


2

The solution to the inequation is the interval (, 4)


Case 3:
2 + 4 > 2 3
The ordinate of the parabola = 2 + 4 is greater than or equal to the ordinate of
the line = 2 3 for the values of between 1 and 3.
The solution to the inequation is the interval (3,4)

Axel Cotn Gutirrez

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.4.12

Unit 04

December

In general, to solve an inequation with one variable, () () or

() () :

Represent the graphs of the functions = () and = () , and get the points
where they intersect.

4.2.

Find the intervals that make true the inequality.


ALGEBRAIC METHOD.
Solving inequations is similar to solving equations. We add, subtract, multiply or

divide both sides until we get the variable by itself. There is one important difference
though. With inequations we can add or subtract the same thing to both sides and the
inequality stays the same. We can multiply or divide both sides by a positive number
and the inequality stays the same. But if we multiply by a negative number, then the
sign of the inequality Reverses.
Solve:
Axel Cotn Gutirrez

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.4.13

Unit 04

December

2x 7 <

+3
2

4 14 < + 6
4 < 6 + 14
5 < 20 >

20
= 4
5

The solution is the interval (4, )

Solve:
2 5 6 1
2 4 5 0
We find the roots of the polynomial 2 4 5
1 = 1 2 = 5
We plot these roots on the number line and find what is the sign of the number value
of the polynomial 2 4 5 in each of the intervals in which this line has been split.

We take any value of these intervals, for instance:


If = 2 (2)2 4(2) 5 = 7 > 0
Axel Cotn Gutirrez

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.4.14

Unit 04

December

If = 0 (0)2 4(0) 5 = 7 5 < 0


If = 6 (6)2 4(6) 5 = 7 > 0

The solution to the inequation is the interval [1,5]

Axel Cotn Gutirrez

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.4.15