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Ron Smith 1921 �1995

Working Class Son, Peace Activist

Ron Smith at the first Waihopai demonstration, February 1988

(see page 18)

In this issue:

• Australian spooks hit the headlines 2

• Helen Clark - Batting for the spooks 4
• US Air Force flights at Christchurch Airport 5
• Letters from Owen Wilkes 8
• Obituary - Christchurch's US consulate 9
• Hong Kong spybase moves to Australia 10
• Heavyhanded cops grill student activists 11
• Internet brings problems for the spooks? 12
• ASIO - More on a murky past 14
• Spooky bits 16
• Acronyms and other esoteric animals 17
• Obituary - Ron peace ","u VI" 18
• Move to outlaw laser blinding 20
Compiled by Warren Thomson

In the last week of May, the front pages of some major Australian newspapers were fu ll of revelations about the
operations of C anberra's s py agenc ies. In spite ofgovernment efTorts to prevent publication, there were intriguing
revelations about A ustralia's spying on other c ountries' d iplomatic missions. and the effort of some Asian
governments t o eavesdrop on Australian officials. The articles which follow look at these revelations, and some of
the implication s .


The Chinese Embassy in C anberra has been the target The publicity surrounding these s pying inc idents
of a Jong-tenn espionage operation by A ustralian spies could have some repercussions f()f Chinese-Australian
011 behalf o!'the United States, according to reports in relat ions. Bul s ome comment.ators helieve that it is
the Brisbane Courier-Mail, [May 27, 1995] . The not the Chinese reaction that Canberra fears, but the
newspaper said data gathered by a sophist icated American reaction. Australian Government officials
espionage operat i on inc luded important material on worry that the US security s ervices wi l l see t heir
trade issues at a time when the USA and China are A ustralian counterparts as unreliab le i f there is too
locked in conflict overtrade. Information collected is much public disclosure of intelligence matters.
said to have been tran smitted di rectly to the National
Security Agency in the United States. Accord ing to an ABC television bul letin [May 26],
Washington controlled the operati on against the
The A ustralian Broadcasting C orporat ion, which C hinese Embassy, and also limited the amount of
ignored a government notice to prevent it releasing informat ion Australia gained. Some of the local
informat ion, s t ated t hat the A ust ralian S ec urity spooks have a pparently been unhappy with the limits
Intelligence Organisation (ASIO) planted a network on data distribut ion imposed by the US and were the
of fibre-optic bugs throughout the C hinese Embassy source ofABe's d isclos ures.
during its construction in 1990. The record ing devices
-some the size of pinheads - were initially linked to a Dr Jeffrey Richelson, an authority on American
receiver located at the British High Commission n ext intelligence issues. has expressed surprise at Australia
door to the embassy. not getting equal acc ess to information from joint
operat ions. From New Zealand 's point of view, the
Some detai ls of responsibi lity for the bugging vary. quest ion needs to be raised whether smaller c ountries
The Sydney Morning Herald says the operation was are expected to g ive more to the UKUSA c l ub than
begun by the Australian Secret Intelligence Service they receive, and whether their ownl1ational interests
(ASIS) before it was taken over by ASIO (which is are sometimes subsumed by those oftheir big brothers.
res pon s i b l e for d omest ic s pying and counter­ One ABC bulletin sa id that the joint bugging operation
intelligence in A ustralia). It c onfirms that there was a may have meant that Washington was privy to secret
"huge joint operat ion with the Un ited States". The trade negotiations between Canberra and Beijillg.
Courier-Mail says that the sophist icated bugging
devices were ones developed hy the American NSA. The front page a rt ic le in the Sydney Morning Herald
and in format ion was shared under the UKlJSA I May 29] c laims t hat surveillance and eavesdropping
Agreement. had heen c onducted against ot her countries with
d iplomatic m iss ions in Canberra including Indonesia,
When Prime Minister Keating was asked whether he Malays ia, Iraq, Russia, and Iran . In the case of the
was involved in the d eci sion to bug the C h inese last three named it seems Was hington would have
Embassy on behalf of Washington he replied that he much more inte rest in the purloined data t han the
had no intention of commenting on intelligence Austra l ians \vho ca rried it out
matters. C om mentators be lieve the large-scale
government effort to prevent pub lication of stories The Herald a lso asse liS that Austra l ian espionage
about the operation confirms their basic acc uracy. against the Japanese E mbassy in Canberra [see over]

Page 2 Peace Researcher

included the decoding and tr anslating of sensitive The Herald has also r evealed that at least nine
diplomatic and trade information. This may not be Australian diplomatic m issions abroad have been
tota l l y accur ate. I f correct i t im p l i e s that a penetrated by espionage operations and that the
technologically advanced nation like Japan has trouble Australian embassy i n I ndonesia had been under
keeping its coded messages secret; small nations (like surveillance by Japanese agents. The newspaper says
New Zealand) are going to have no show of keeping that an infra-red beam was used to eavesdrop on
their confidential m aterial from the hands ofthe bigger conversations ofAustralian diplomats. [May 25, 1995]
spook agencies.
The revelations stem from a br iefing by Canberra's
Using diplom atic operations as a cover for spying on Department of Foreign A ffairs Secretary, Michael
other countr ies is virtually taken for granted in the Costello, to Australian diplomats working in east Asia.
ambassador ial wor ld. What needs to be ensured, The Herald says it was told by intelligence sources
however, is that if such activities are carr ied out, they that Costello gave the senior diplom ats an extensive
are of vital national interest, and there is proper control special security demonstration which included a
of the people who are responsible. Recent A ustr alian demonstration of eavesdr opping devices found in
exper ience does not give m uch confidence. Australian diplom atic buildings. The display included
a video recording of a Japanese spying operation
Peace Researcher num ber 3 [December 1994] aimed at Canberra's Jakarta embassy.
reported that ex-ASIS officer s had claimed some joint
operations had resulted in information being collected I n 1993 Canberra's diplomats moved into a new
that went against A ustralian interests. Some of their building in the Indonesian capital, but counter­
claims have been recently substantiated. [See story espionage experts had discovered the old premises
below] The balance of small state interests and the were being subjected to an infra-red beam from the
demands ofthe major allied spy powers need ser ious Japanese embassy half a kilometre away. The beam,
scrutiny. when directed against a pane of glass, was capable of
detecting vibrations fr om noises inside a room,
BEIJING SPIES ON AUSTRALIA including conversation. Reflections ofthe beam were
Canberr a's spying on China is directly m irrored by collected by very sensitive collection devices and the
activities of the People's Republic. Representatives vibrations electronically processed to differentiate the
of Chinese pro-democracy gr oups in Australia have sounds and reproduce conver sations. The espionage
claimed that Beijing has "spies" who are intimidating was traced by a special infra-red sensitive lens.
members o f the eth nic C h inese comm unity i n
Australia. These informants are said to be threatening In a later edition [May 29, 1995] the Herald states
and harassing business people, students, and pro­ that the beam was directed from different windows
democracy activists. Chinese living in A ustralia who oftbe Japanese embassy in Jakarta, but always focused
have business dealings with China have been told their on the r oom in the Australian building which was
business links would suffer if they supported the pro­ occupied by the Australian Secret I ntelligence Serv ice.
democracy m ovement. [Chr istchurch Press, March The operation was apparently discovered between
11 , 1995] Moreover, the A u stralian Embassy in 1985 and 1988.
Beijing was infiltrated by an "ingenious" listening
device that had been installed in the new building Australian Foreign Affairs officials have refused to
before it was opened in 1992. Dur ing construction, a confirm the newspaper ' s r eport on the grounds that
hollow electr ical conduit had been set into a central the matter was one of secur ity and therefore not subject
wall. A m icr ophone inside this was able to m ove to comment. However , Coste l lo ' s speech to
backward and forward to listen in to different offices. Australia's eastAsia diplomats in ear ly May has been
[Sydney Morning Herald, May 2 5 , 1995] confirmed. Tokyo' s representatives in Canherra have
said the r e port was "com p letely unfounded".
JAPAN VERSUS AUSTRALIA Costello's demonstration is said by the Heraldlo have
"Australia has mounted widespread and systematic included listening devices, or evidence of spying, from
spying against the Japanese Embassy in Canberra, A ustralian diplomatic buildings in Jakarta, Beijing,
including the interception, decoding and translating Moscow, Ankara, Brasilia, Belgrade, Hanoi, Rangoon,
of sensitive trade and diplomatic informtion" alleged and War saw. Ther e was no indication of when these
the Herald o n M ay 2 9 . The paper r eports devices were found.
comprehensive transcripts are r egularly delivered to
the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade.

Peace Researcher Page 3

ASIS ALLEGATIONS UPHELD Full details are not yet availab le, but one fascinating
L ate in A pr i l public findings were released from an admission has been that the security services used a
inquiry into complaints b y five former ASIS officers bogus psychiatr ic r eport to attempt to d iscredit one
against the agency they had worked for. Many of the of the off icers making the allegations [Sydney
complaints were upheld, and it was recommended that Morning Herald, May 29, 1 995.] Foreign A ffairs
the Government consider compensation. The former Minister Gareth Evans has said that more ofASIS' s
spooks had a l l eged unfair treatm ent from their activities will be made public, and foreshadowed more
em ployer s, a n d two in p articular had str ongly government involvement in Australian security and
criticised A SI S for not being under proper control, intelligence affairs. The ' D-Notice' system, which was
and being involved in activities which worked against used to try and prevent the A ustralian media from
Australia's national interest. [See Peace Researcher, publishing details about Embassy espionage, i s to be
Number 3, December 1994.] r eviewed.

Traditionally the L ab our Party has b een the major weather eye on whether intelligence agencies from
party that has been most suspicious of the SIS and other countr ies are operating cover t l y i n NZ.
related organisations. I n Britain (under Wilson) and Remember the Rainbow Warrior?
in Australia (in the 1950s and again under Whitlam)
the Labour Parties have also come closest to being I n October 1994, Peace Researcher ran a paragraph
undermined by their own intelligence agencies. I n which similar ly expressed support from the leader of
r ecent years, h owever, L abour Party leader s have the opposition for the Government Communications
come out strongly in support of the operations of Security Bureau and its operations. Speaking of
covert agencies in this country. Tangimoana and Waihopai she stated "The two
facilities will remain under the L abour Government
Peace Researcher has been given a copy of a letter as they have in the past. I do not accept assertions
written by Helen C lark to the Executive Director of that the two faci l ities do not serve New Zealand
the Association of University Staff in September last interests."
year. The letter is replying to questions raised by AUS
about allegations from a former Secur ity Intelligence If Helen C lark knows litt le about the SIS, how much
officer. Amongst the comments by the form er officer does she know about the super-secret GCSB? One of
were statem e n t s that part of SI S duties was her predecessors, David L ange, was responsible for
surveillance of univer sity staff . giving the Waihopai base the go-ahead, although it
later became clear he knew l ittle about the operations
Helen Clark says "I thought the comment ofthe former ofthe faci l ity he was supposed to control. Both Lange
agent was somewhat sweeping. I ver y much doubt and Palmer sprang to the defence of the SIS when it
that she ever had any broad mandate to watch came under pub lic cr iticism fr om the ex-officer
univer sity staff'. She believes the SI S " has come a referred to above.
very long way from the days of Brigadier Gilbert".
So L abour Party leader sh i p i s consistent, if not
Does the leader of the main opposition party in inspiring for those ofus who believe that covert spook
Par l i am ent k n o w m or e than the r est of us? operations can do more harm than good. The b i g
Unfort unately not! In her own words she has " l im ited q uestions rem ain: w h o amongst our e l ected
knowledge ofthe SIS and its brief '. Not good enough repr esentatives really knows anything about the
Ms Clark! The lack of proper oversight of the covert operations ofthe SI S and the GCSB, and what power
agencies in this country is too clear ly revealed. I n one do they have to control them?
sentence C lark refer s positively to the SIS keeping a

Page 4 Peace Researcher

US Air Force Flights at Christchurch
The accompanying bar graphs reveal the pattern and the Antarctic season in September 1993. From an
frequency of United States Air Force flights at average of about two transit flights per week (7-8 per
Christchurch Airport (Harewood) between June 1990 month) serving US bases in Australia for many years
and May 1995 - five complete years. Our previous prior to that time, the schedule and frequency have
Peace Researcher article on this subject (No. 3, Dec become less predictable since 1993. But the US
1994) presented the data we had in hand at the time. military continues to inform the Ministry of Foreign
Those graphs may have been misleading to some who Affairs and Trade (MFAT) each month in advance
didn't read the text carefully because they gave the that a full schedule of Pine Gap and Nurrungar flights
impression that there were long intervals with no will take place on a regular weekly basis. The actual
flights. flights often don't match the advance schedule.

The weekly "Pine Gap" circuit, (through

Summary ot Flight Data (transit flights) - Christchurch to Pine Gap near Alice Springs)
US Air Force Starlifters and Galaxys continues (0 be fairly regular, arriving usually
on a Tuesday and leaving the following
Year Antarctic Channel Total % Channel morning. This timing started in April 1994;
prior to then, the arrival was almost always on
1990-91 32 86 118 72.9 a Sunday afternoon with a Monday morning
1991-92 71 97 168 57.7 departure for Australia.
1992-93 38 85 123 69.1
1993-94 47 63 110 57.3 A plausible hypothesis to explain this change is
1994-95 33 58 91 63.7 that the Anti-Bases Campaign made good use
Totals 221 389 610 63.8 of the convenient Sunday afternoon arrival of a
Starlifter to conduct educational tours for
visitors and the media, and perhaps more
Data in the graphs are summarized above (category importantly. to hold demonstrations protesting the
"other" omitted). Note the predominance of Channel American military presence in our city. So, Sunday
(military/intelligence) flights every year. Year to year afternoons at the airport are nO longer enlivened by
variations are considerable but overall the number of the arrival of the Pine Gap Starlifter. It's especially
Channel flights has decreased since mid-1993 as lonely in winter when there are no Antarctic flights
discussed below either.

We are still unable to get information on the other The Nurrungar circuit has become much less frequent.
major category of US aircraft use of Christchurch The transit flights from N urrungar, another US base
Airport: the ski-Hercules flown by US Navy crews. in Australia, are sometimes reduced to one per month.
The Hercules (LC-130) are four-engine propjets These flights return to the US through Christchurch.
equipped with retractable skis for ice/snow landings. Perhaps the US use of the Nurrungar facility has
They are owned at least in part by a civilian decreased in importance. An interesting development
government agency, the US National Science is that Russia is holding talks with Australia on
Foundation (NSF). A naval officer recently told possible use of the nearby Woomera base for missile
ABCers that the NSF owned the airframes and the launching of satellites on a contract basis (New
Navy owned the engines. ABC considers the flights Scientist 15 April 1995). (They need to get rid of
of the NSFlNavy Hercules to be lee-dedicated and their old ICBMs in a constructive and profitable
separate from the USAF Starlifter flights which are manner.) The availability of Russian rockets is
on military/intelligence business. appealing to the Australian government which would
like to develop a world-class facility for routine
Flight Frequency launching of its own and other nations' satellites. We
The frequency of militarylintelligence flights (the so­ wonder if the US would be tolerant of the Russians
called Channel flights) of Starlifters, and sometimes establishing such a presence next door to Nurrungar.
Galaxys, has decreased since about the beginning of [Please note: There are a few discrepancies in the

Peace Researcher PageS

US Air Force Flights at Christchurch Airport

5 --- ---- -- -- -- -
00 3 r- .... - - -- - - �19�9�O�-1�9�9�1� 35 �----------- ------ -----------�
..................................... . 1 ��1����� .
:§,30 . . 30 .............. ............. ...
;;:: 2

5 ........................................... 25
�20 ........................................ .. 20 - • •
I _ . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

'015 ........................... 15 ............. .

}lID 10 .............. . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . .

rl'I'" ·1·· ··ff··

E 5
::l 5 . . . .

Z 0 o
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6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5
Month Month

35.------------ -------�19�9�3--1�9794�
30 • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . • . . . . . • . .

25 ...........................................
........................... 20
15 . . . . . • . . . . . . . .

10 .............. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5
Month Month

35 .-- -- ---- -- ----------1------- --,

�., 0 - - - -

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10 Antarctic. Military • Other
::l 5
Z 0 +il����1-��U4�+il�1L�4_��
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5

About the graphs: The bar charts present complete flight data on United States Air Force cargo aircraft
(primarily C-141B Starlifters and C-SA Galaxys) using Christchurch International Aitport, New Zealand,
between June 1990 and June 1995. A transitflight consists of an arrival and a departure for a given plane.
Military denotes military/intelligence Channel flights serving US bases in Australia; Antarctic denotes
flights to and from the Antarctic in support of the US Antarctic Program; Other denotes occasional visits
by other types o f aircraft including C-130 Hercules and KC-! 0 tankers. Data provided by the USAF
under the US F r eedom of Information Act (B Patchett and R White), and by the NZ Ministry of Foreign
Affairs and Trade under the Official Information Act (R Leonard).

Page 6 Peace Researcher

numbers offlights ifyou compare the data in PR No. the norm. Juggling flight crews whose home bases
3 with this set of bar graphs. This is because are thousands of kilometres away would not be a
interpretation ofthe individualflights can be difficult. simple matter.
1 have reanalyzed all ofthe data and revised some of
the flight totals. As noted below, there are also A letter to ABC from MFAT (23 February 1995)
mistakes in the air force data logs.} attached some significance to these dual missions. But
they are not the usual patterns of Starlifter use; the
Use of Galaxys data show that missions are routinely either solely
Starlifters (CI41B) have been the standard cargo Channel or solely Antarctic. In 1990 and 1991 (and
aircraft on the Channel flights and seasonally on once in 1994) aircraft appear to have been diverted to
Antarctic supply flights for many years. The larger Antarctic flights due to high demand. This is not
Galaxys (C-SA) began to be used in Antarctic supply surprising, because the scheduled Channel flights are
at the beginning of the 1990-91 season, and they have frequent and often loaded well below capacity.
been used sporadically every year since. December Channel flights were listed as "contingency assets"
1992 saw the first Galaxy used for the Channel flights. in an air force journal in the 1980s. We are aware
They continue to appear periodically in place of that many summer Channel flights do carry Antarctic
Starlifters on both the Pine Gap and Nurrungar cargoes to Christchllrch, or back to the USA.
Some of the entries in the data sheets are confusing.

Dual Missions can be confusing Our interpretation has not been helped by the removal

Upon receipt of the bulk of the flight data from the of mission numbers from the data sheets by MFAT.

MFAT in December 1994, we noticed that some We have asked MFAT to explain this censoring. It's

aircraft appeared on both "scheduled" (Channel) flight a puzzle because the sheets we have received directly

lists and "non-scheduled" (Antarctic) flight lists from the US Air Force have not been censored. The

during overlapping time periods. After careful mission numbers are clearly readable for every flight.

checking of flight dates and times it became apparent

that some flights appeared to be dual missions. With Errors in the data
one exception, these mixed operations were during Another possible explanation of some dual mission
exceptionally busy Antarctic flight periods in October! entries is outright error. In most cases the data are
November in 1990 and 1991. Several aircraft arrived entered by hand by air force personnel who apparently
in Christchurch on scheduled Channel missions but lack computer facilities. Some entries are almost
were diverted for periods of days or weeks to Antarctic illegible. Some are downright wrong - Starlifters can't
flights - to and from McMlIrdo. The Channel missions be on two separate missions simultaneously. Nor can
were apparently never completed. they depart Christchurch twice in succession within
minutes without an intervening landing. Some
A couple of missions seemed to follow a reverse apparently dual missions might have been simple
pattern, starting as Antarctic missions but with recording errors.
departures, apparently back to the US, listed as
Channel flights. MAC no more
One of the little tidbits unearthed Jrom the "advanced
Only one example of a dual mission could be found schedule" sheets was the timing of the end of the
in a later year. A Pine Gap flight in October 1994 familiar acronym "MAC", for Military Airlift
was apparently divelted from its normal return to the Command. It occurred some time around September
US to take on Antarctic missions and finally a NASA 1992. MAC became the almost unpronounceable
"flying telescope" support mission on its flight home. acronym AMC, for Air Mobility Command. We had
The Channel flight aircraft are flown by regular duty noticed the name change on the planes themselves
air force pilots. Antarctic flights normally use air force but hadn't noted when it occurred. Also changing is
reserve pilots. Presumably when a Channel mission the colour scheme on the aircraft. The change from
is changed to an Antarctic one, the crews change. camouflage livery to a uniform grey may be another
Landing on the ice near McMurdo or conducting mid­ small move to tone down the military image of USAF
winter supply drops in the dark require specially cargo operations. What next? Civilian pilots?
trained and experienced reserve pilots. The
need to. change flight crews We thank the MFAT for supplying
supports the position that the flight data in this report
dual missions are not Bob leol1crd

Peace Researcher Pagel

Lettersfrom Owen Wi£f(es
Owen W i l k e s reads h i s Peace Researcher it, is the fact that the NCND [neither confirm or
carefully and critically. And when he runs across deny] policy did NOT apply to the channel
statements he disagrees with, he writes us detailed flights prior to the passage of our NF Act. Prior
letters. Herein, we belatedly report some of his to the Act the US government routinely certified
criticisms and comments and offer a response or to MERT [former Ministry of External Relations
two. and Trade] that its aircraft transiting Harewood
carried 'no warlike stores', which presumably
Owen h a s provided several corrections and was acknowledgement that the planes carried
additions to our article in PR number 3 on US neither nuclear nor any other weapons. These
military flights at Christchurch and in the certificates are on file in the National Archives."
This is interesting stuff. We have never
"The Starlifter may have been the first publicised the "no warlike stores" certifications
military pure jet to land in Antarctica, but the because we didn't know about them. What we
first pure jet was a PanAm Boeing 707 under did have in hand as the basis for our statements
contract to Deep Freeze which landed at about NCND and Starlifters was a letter from
McMurdo in 1963-64 or 1964-65. It is better Charles L. Bell, Public Affairs Officer in the US
remembered for the fact that it carried hosties, Embassy dated 27 June 1983: "I am sure you
the first women to go to Antarctica as part of are aware of the long-standing policy of the U.S.
Deep Freeze." Government to neither confirm nor deny the
presence or absence of nuclear weapons aboard
'The channel flights started in 1962 to serve any U.S. military ship, aircraft or vehicle." So
the US AFTAC station at Avalon, south of whom can you trust? N o t the American
Melbourne. This was well before Pine Gap, government.
Nurrungar or North West Cape became
operational. " Moving on to our article on "The military roots
of Operation Deep Freeze", Owen states: "Our
Owen does not agree that the Channel flights are first involvement in nuclear testing, and certainly
a "glaring loophole" in our nuclear free policy. not minor or unwitting, was in May 1957, when
"I think it is regrettable, but it isn't a loophole." I we had a ship, aircraft, troops and meteorologists
accept that the term "loophole" may not be strictly participating in Operation Grapple, the first
correct with respect to the Act itself because the British H-bomb test at Christmas Island." New
Nuclear Free bill was amended just prior to Zealanders were also involved in US tests at
passage in Parliament to make Antarctic support Bikini Atoll in 1947. Peace Researcher stands
aircraft a special category for blanket clearance corrected.
to enter NZ. But the result is effectively a
loophole in our nuclear-free status as defined by On the subject of Black Birch Naval Observatory
the law. The law is so weak that there is no way (our article on p. 11 of PR number 3), Owen
for our government or any New Zealander to raised some technical points and also suggested
know just what is carried on Channel flights. we "fuzzed over the fact that the station is still
There is a loophole because the US Air Force closing down a year ahead of when it was
could carry nuclear weapons on a Starlifter supposed to". According to some of Owen's
transiting Christchurch Airport with zero own writing, Black Birch's program was to last
probability of suffering consequences under the 10 years. It began operation in 1985. The closing
NZ law. date of March 1996 would seem to be about on
Owen continues: "What makes it particularly
regrettable, and I wonder why you never publicise Bob leonard

PageS Peace Researcher

In 1995, ;l�; p<lrt of;:,loh:d ('0:,,1 cut! and :lrcln.'at the late Bill Quirk (also a local accountant Wc madc
the E!llpiH' inh\ ll;!\'t ' �'" l/!lE' 11)(_" { 11!U':"\.I"i ��urc that accountancy was never boring for old Bill).
Adllllni:-trali'lj} ch,,>(:d:i 11IJ11lj-k" :,1"i):-) ofJlu:d
abroad. Onr: of lhc�c \\;jC; 1!\( Ion,\..; l;·,1ab!i:,,1!!.. "d I 12.ot involved in the Vietnam War protest movement
(�onsu!Jh: in Chri>:h:iwn:l) {If dk) l!lcJud,,:d �- j! th(' ill 1969. the same year I joined the I-'rogressive Youth
Consul', "j l\Jul ">;"),,,,,,, '" \'" hnd), 11< I,S Movcll1l..'nt. Wc made the Consulate the target forollr
! l! fnnllH\!pn Se!'v i\.'\�- \ t i >.; j \...,) rd h !; j ;;1.1 () lJtTn regular 3nti-v.;ar marches (they were weekly at one
closvd tll (-'ll1i',,[dldj\,�ll (1..'11\'\ uti;!'" timc, vvc were very young and keen). Rallies were
rc\)p(�nt ,(j � '�', 1<, ) :-;\:�! !d\'if !:1lHlll,tnill\':It';Jtcthc held outside it, petitions and resolutions delivered 10
L'ipadis;l]j n:t!urv \'i CI,\\[ 111;>; me;1!]'-; thdl, there it.. If thc office was shut, we had no qualm:;; in
1> lhnv no 1. jS (jo',,'C! tUll ,'i!! }HC\1.,:J1U..' in l�hl j,;I,.. hun.:h pcr,,,nalisin!! the political - rallies were held outside
{�\;.,cpt of",:',()1!n;c, for (1111'nld fri, nd'o;11 tlh H' F nrt.:e Bill"s (extremely ugly) home opposite Mona Vale,
,,,.,, hl\C at i ];.)1\'\" l\t:! ( i) -, (' jl ! ' rcc l,c llle mandatory US flag was burned. Once wc: even
i" cvh'l/ral held a picnic on his riverside lawn - when the cops
qq ,�igJl:'; nj 1, arrived to throw us out they were reduced to ask ing
LIS whose house it was, so they could get the owner: s
StH.:i1 an C)u,;J.:·;iPI1 iilUS! n()1 pa�.;s \'v!thnul comment or permissioJl to do so (Bill was over the road at a garden
prnpcr lTill('l'ilhr:!1'1cc rlh: Consul at the time of the pm1y),
closure \Vd:; 1)!)\' .I. Iv1.a!c(l!m 011, a Incal accountant. 1
never had the pk�d\\lrC of m ee t in g the f�e!ltlcman, Ilor Nor did protc:--;t stop at the limits of t.he !a\v. The
did I ever ha; C o(cdsioll to go to his Consulate office. COIlSlI hit., was occupied more than once. The cops
physically remo ved us onc (�hristmas Eve and refusc�d
Hu1 ill the ddys oflllY fccklc,;,;s youth the US Consulate. to arrC'lt us. 1 jurnped on the back of a Ill(·s
ill its previous location ()Il the corner of Kilmure and motorhi!-.c. wc roared orf giving the cops the fing<.;rs
Manchester Streets. was a frequent destination, As and pwmptly crashed the bike rounding the COrtIC!,
indeed was the Fcndaltoil Road home ()f the Consul, The same cops anxiously picked us up off the wad

Peace Researcher Page 9

The Consulate and house walls
were painted up so many times
I've lost count. (A tin" today's
taggers - c·
ed ed by
brL ce1\Sot ..J well. The
anI) ,la get rid of it is to
replace the wall). The most
spectacular direct action came in
1973, coincidentally on the very
day that Congress forced the US
Air Force t o s t o p bombing
Cambodia (and thus ended
America's direct combat role in
lndochina). NeB Riethmuller
and Marg Mathieson torched the
place and set off an tragicomic
crosstown car chase in a stolen
Baby Austin that ended back at
their flat a few hundred metres
from the Consulate. Damage
was put at $10,000 (you could
buy a house for a lot less than that in 1973). Ned got target for both legal and cx tra- I egal protests, ranging
four year's prison and deportation back to his native from jumping the fellee to dropping the
Australia ( h e l i v e s n o w in his hometown of communications towers at Vv"ccdons.
Toowoomba, Queensland, which is home to Cabarlah,
one of the A u s tralian sister stations of ·'our" We should celebrate the closure onilc Consulate, for
Tangimoana). Marg got three year's prison and is now whatever reason. Tt means the (JS Government has
a model citizen of Christchurch. retreated into the citadel of Fort Thorndon. otherwise
known as its Embassy in Wellington. And it means
The victory of the Vietnamese people basically ended we should redouble our efTorts (respectable ones of
the intense period of targeting the Consulate. It course, we're middle aged now ) to ensure that the US
remained a focal point for protests involving US military beats a retreat from our airport I hope to be
nuclear warship visits and the ever present US base around to write the obituary for the US military
at Harewood. ·But the USIS office took on the presence at Harcwood.
propaganda function and the base itself became the Murray Horlon


Britain's secret communications spy base at Chung ago. It says that Chung Hom Kok t<mncd all integral
Ham Kok is being shut down, dismantled, and moved part of the West's intelligence ga thering operations

to northern Australia, from where it will continue to in the region, an d s pe c ulat e s that it \vas used

monitor activities in China. extensively during the protests ofthe Chinese students
in Tiananmen Square ill 1 9k9. and to monitor ('hina's

Hong Kong's Sunday Morning Post (March 26, 1995) reaction to the break-up of the Soviet Union in 199 I.
reports that three of the four massive metal dishes 011
the southern part of Hong Kong Island, have been According to the newspaper, inf(Jrmation gathered was

shipped out, along with other high-lech intelligence wntinely funnelled to Australia itlf transl at i on and

gathering e q u i pment. British and Australian analysis, after which it was passed to Britain, New

technicians who operated the station have left. Zealand and the United States. It noles "the installation
IVas operated - and is still controlled - by the British

The newspaper says London began scaling down G overn ment ' s Composite Signals O rg an i s ation, a
activities at the eleven hectare site about two years subsidiary of G eneral Central Headquarters (GCHQ)

Page 10 Peace Researcher

at Cheltenham in western England". Signals I ntelligence actlVl!tes which included
Waihopai, and Geraldton in Australia.
GCHQ actually stands for Government
Communication Headquarters, and the situation with The Sunday Morning Post reports that Chung Ham
regard to control of the station is not clear. The Kok operations are still subject to stringent security
Australian Defence Signals Directorate (DSD) has checks, but the site is no longer properly guarded and
played a major part in the Hong Kong operations since only two smaller communications dishes remain.
1949 and Desmond Ball describes the facilities as According to its sources, monitoring of Chinese
jointly operated with the GCHQ. In 1983 the communications will now take place at Shoal Bay,
Australian National 7lmes reported there was a state near Darwin. This station was set up in the early 1970s
of the art communications intercept project directed to listen to Indonesia
against China from the earlier site of the facility. Data
from the project was sent via a special satellite link The PSD and GCHQ also built a huge radio listening
back to the Sparrow terminal at Watsonia, near facility at Tai Mo Shan in 1976. The aerial [arm
Melbourne. originally targetted Chinese signals, but in the 1980s
became very much involved in monitoring Soviet
The Chung Ham Kok faciIity opened in the m id I 980s, naval bases in the region. Presumably, with the
replacing a smalier listening base at Lei Mun Barracks. approach of Britain's handover of Hong Kong to
This timing shows the expansion was par1 of the Beijillg, this station is also due to close down.
massive enlargement and upgrading ot'covert western

S T UD E N T Murray Horton

There were a number of very disturbing things about even one day), he was held and grilled at Auckland
the largescale state violence used to protect the May Airport, before being eventually allowed in. LFS is a
1995 annual conference of the Asian Development legal organisation but one regularly denounced by
Bank (A DB), in Auckland. One that should be of direct those in power in the Philippines as a "Communist
concern to us is the fact that New Zealand police and front" and "subversive". Terms like that can be
border control authorities, obviously acting on orders laughed off in New Zealand - in a Third World country
from Asian intelligence agencies, detained and grilled where the military is the most powerful institution
at least two people involved in the Asia Pacific and death squads operate, such labels can be a death
Students' Conference that was held in conjunction sentence.
with the ADB.
The whole security operation around the ADB was
Before it even started, they gave the treatment to Bruce heavyhanded and clumsy.. It obviously bore all the
Cronin of t h e Auckland Univer sity Students' hallmarks of having been demanded from abroad, as
Association. Bruce was on his way home from an onc o!'the requiremcnts of being allowed to host such
organising meeting in Manila. He was questioned a singular collection of parasites and ratbags
about what was being organised and whether he had (including the likes of the aptly named Cecil Cocker,
had any contacts with the Commnnist Party of the the Tongan Minister of Groping). The much bigger
Philippines (a legal party, by the way). There was Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting
considerable national publicity about this and a (CHOGM) is being held in Auckland (and
widespread sense of disbelief and outrage - Brucc was Queenstown) in November, with a much larger
a pakcha New Zealander, after all. security operation. It seems that wc can expect to see
more of this spook-driven cackhandedness, backed
But the same thing happened with no publicity, to
, up hy good old fashioned Kiwi cop knuckle artistry.
Randy Vegas, a couferenc .c delegate from the League I f unopposed, this sort of thing leads very rapidly to a
of Filipino Students (LrS). Despite holding an NZ police state. It's yet another unwanted result of being
visa (which Filipinos need to enter the country ttlr part ofthe "global economy".

Peace Researcher Page 11

FOR TH Warren Thomson

The Internet system - a burgeoning computer network of privacy versus law enforcement and the powers of
which allows individuals with personal computers to the spook agencies. Many people will soon be using
log into other computers and systems all around the powerful encryption codes and it remains to be seen
world - presents two contradictory nightmares to whether US Government can force computer users to
intelligence agencies. On the one hand all sorts of provide code keys to a government oversight body
industrial, economic and even military secrets become (escrowing).
accessible to hackers. On the other, encryption
systems threaten to reach such a state of sophistication Washington officials tried to impose a "clipper chip"
that even the U S National Security Agency which can system whereby data would i n c l u d e a "Law
eventually crunch most codes, might not be able to Enforcement Access Field" (LEAF). But last year New
eavesdrop on its targets. Scientist [October 8, 1994] reported that one
cryptographic expert had found a simple way to jam
Clifford Stoll, a "hippyish computer nerd" became a the LEAF system and render the government's
national figure in the US when he stumbled on "trardoor" into the messages unusable. The journal
something suspicious via his personal computer, and also said thatthe National Security Agency knew there
went on to track and uncover a German spy ring who were problems with the technology and was seeking
were using the Internet to steal industrial secrets. alternatives. But, says the journal, "they show no signs
[Christchurch Press, April 4, 1995] of abandoning their commitment to developing
'wiretap ready' technology."
And the case is pending of Philip Zimmermann who
put out an encryption programme on the Internet in In Europe the Netherlands Government attempted to
1991. The US Govtmay prosecute Zimmerman under ban coded messages outright, but failed. France and
US arms export laws - distribution of encryption other countries have pursued the line of requiring all
materials overseas is illegal. His code has a key that cryptography to be licensed, with the government
is public, and scrambles messages, and a key held holding a copy of the private key.
only by the receiver, which makes the receiver the
only person able to decipher the code. Telephone tapping was done traditionally by isolating
copper phone Iines at a junction box or other point
The US International Traffic in Arms Regulations and attaching crocodile clips which connected an
defines encryption techniques as "munitions" and eavesdropping receiver. Now phones are moving to
prohibits their export. Daniel Bernstein from Berkeley fibre optics which carry many more signals and need
has filed a complaint against the US Government much more sophisticated equipment to listen in. Fibre
because it h a s stopped the publication of his lines are also fitted with monitors that detect tiny drops
encryption research since 1992. Bernstein has in the light energy caused by snooping and divert the
developed a system to make live communications traffic to other lines. Tapping a fibre line requires a
secure, but the State Department has told him he needs high level of technical and administrative access.
a licence to operate as an arms dealer and permission
for each separate sale of his programme. [See New Cellular phones are another communications system
Scientist, April 1 5 , 1995] open to eavesdropping. Relatively cheap scanners can
pick up the target signals. However, these systems
There have been cases in the US where police were are now going digital enabling far more phone calls
unable to obtain evidence to prosecute criminals to be crammed into the available band widths, and
because they were unable to decode critical messages. making eavesdropping almost impossible. The most
The FBI and intelligence organisations are desperately sophisticated systems, based on military research,
seeking means of ensuring they can eavesdrop on spread signals over a band of frequencies. To intercept
spies, subversives and criminals as they have in the the data requires "sophisticated detection equipment
past. plus several hours on a Cray supercomputer to crack
the 40 billion possible code combinations." [New
The issue reflects a critical conflict over the balance Scientist, October 8, 1994]

Page 12 Peace Researcher

Encryption systems are now availab le il)l' both phone Internet, and other systems used by companies dealing
conversations and computer communications - usually with all sorts of sen sitive information, are not safe
with a pub l i c key you supply to people who send you places to operate ifyou do not wan t to be hacked. For
messages, and a private key you retain yourself. Even intelligence agencies the concerns are made much
more sop h i sticated are systems which take the greater by the potential reach via networks of
encoded m essage and d i sguise it as a d igitised employees who may have been persuaded by other
photograph, a piece of music, or a financial report. countries to pass on m i litary or economic information.
No wonder the eavesdropping agencies are perturbed .
Decades ago the U S National Security Agency Internet is presently creating n ightmares for the
routinely mon itored tran s-Atlantic phone and telex spooks. And on top of all the other prob lems, law
traffic. What was then a daunting task has become enforcement agencies are faced with the system being
more d ifficu lt: there is too much of it. Private used to broadcast information on the manufacture of
crytography makes th is worse. weapons and other potential terrorist activities. In the
US, recipes for making napalm have appeared on the
Besides the prob lem of ensuring they can eavesdrop Internet. The FBI says this is protected under the
on their targets, the intell igence agencies are gravely constitutional right to free speech. In New Zealand
concerned over the opposite prob lems that arise from school students have picked up methods for making
systems like Internet being too permeab le to hackers. bombs in their own back-yards.

Peace Researcher [ March 1995J reported that At the moment it seems as though Internet and related
sensitive information about counter-inte l l i gence activities are prov id in g a real chal l enge to the
personn e l and secret defen ce installations was capab i lity of state authorities to both protect secrets,
obtained by a hacker from a British Telecom database. and spy on the secrets of others. But evidence is that
The information was then sent to ajournalist over the the spook agencies usually get the resources necessary
Internet system. to keep ahead of their civil ian targets. Undoubted ly
there w i l l b e a fu l l-scale effort to overcome the
"Internet not only gives hacke rs unprecedented access prob l e m s with wh i ch n e w communications
to Government records, electron ic mail addresses, and technology has presented them.
business computers, but it provides a worldwide stage
for their efforts and an efficient n etwork through

which they can share hacking programmes, tips, and
tools," according to C hristchurch Press com puter
reports. [May 2, 1995]
A series of l etters threaten ing P residcnt C l inton was It w i l l take seventy five years to repair the
eventually traced by the US Secret Service to a environmental damage caused domestically by the
University of Cal ifornia computer, and a student who nuclear weapons programme of the United States.
claimed his account had been hacked. They couldn't It could cost $US375 b i l l ion to do it. Some sites
finally pin the offence on any suspect. are too contaminated to be cleaned up and will
just have to be fenced off.
Some sources say the number of Internet security
breaches m ay have doubled from 1993 to 1994. The These figures are reported in New Scientist [April
size of the problem is really unknown; often hacking 15, 1995], quoting the US Department of Energy.
is done for the hell of it, and most IInns don't report The journal says that more than one third of the
hacking incidents for fear of losing cl ients who do money would n eed to be spent on two of the worst
not want to h e tied into permeab le systems. affected areas - the Hanford Nuclear Reservation
in Washington State, and the Savannah R iver site
The Press says a lead ing security software expert in South Carolina.
has released a programme cal led Satan that goes
though a computer n etwork and compiles a l ist of Facilities at both these sites were responsible for
flaws that could be exploited. Snifter programmes the production of plutonium for nuclear weapons.
have been developed which can suss out passwords, Savannah River also produced tritium. At the
or track people who read particular newsgroups or moment Washington spends about $6 b i l l ion each
conferences - both techn iques of interest to spies, year on the clean-up of such sites.
govern ment agent.s, and so on .

Peace Researcher Page 13

Warren Thomson reviews ASIO - An Unofficial History, by Frank Cain.
[Spectrum Publications, Victoria, Australia, 1 994]
I n the last few years there has been a steady stream of the continued existence of the Australian Security
books and media items about various aspects of the Intelligence Organisation would seriously affect the
Australian intelligence organisations. Perhaps this is supply of secret information not only to the Australian
why in Cain's words there is "a range ofaccountability Security Intelligence Organisation, but also to other
measures that probably puts Australia ahead of other Government Departments and instrumentalities."
Western nations i n their attempts to control their
intelligence organisations". And this rationale continues today, in New Zealand!
Aotearoa, to bind us tightly to the predispositions of
Cain is an Australian historian and no apologist for the handful of people who have input into intelligence
the Australian Security Intell igence Organisation decisions. Unless we have total secrecy, we don't have
(ASIO). He documents its resistance to governmental bases like Waihopai. Unless we 'contribute' through
control, its years of all-distorting anti-communist such bases, wc don't belong to the club. If wc don't
crusades, the hostility to the Labor Party, and the get to play the big boy's game we don't get supplied
insidious pressures from close relationships with with the ' i nside stories' and our Prime Minister
Australia's aIlies. He postulates that the infamous doesn't feel important. (No matter that he couldn 't
Petrav affa i r of the 1 9 5 0 s , which entrenched tell a real story from a setup anyway.) It is of interest
conservative paranoia and gave ASIO its platform for that Signals Intelligence secrets (i.e., those which
vast expansion, was in fact largely engineered by would pertain to our own GCSB) were a prime reason
ASIO itself. given for the setting up of ASIO.

The reasons for the establ ishment of ASIO were the Cain's book deals mostly with earlier ASIO history ­
need to defend Australia from threat posed by Soviet where parts have emerged from the archives.
spies, and to persuade Washington that Canberra could Nevertheless it confinns that such organisations must
be trusted with top secret information. Neither reason, be under tight scrutiny (if they are al lowed to exist)
says Cain, was justified by the end results. so that they are not able to manipulate the political
Australian postwar governments wanted to be part of
key weapon s development programmes with the This "Unofficial History" casts serious doubts on the
British, using Woomera as a testing facility. The US Petrov affair, with some quite hilarious disclosures.
refused to share information with the British on the For instance, Petrov claimed to have delivered sums
(spurious) grounds that there had been a leak of a of money to the Communist Party of Australia in $25
secret paper from Australian sources. The evidence notes - which did not exist! He claimed to have given
ofa leak was feeble and the story never substantiated. them to the General Secretary of the party at a time
Nevertheless, the U S continued to deny Austral ian the General Secretary was actually under the direct
participation in top secret programmes. Evidence of surveil lance of ASIO officers in a different location.
Soviet spies appeared occas iona l l y as various Cain suggests that ASIO manufactured evidence for
diplomats were despatched home with maximum the public enquiry, and that Prime Minister Menzies
fanfare from the conservative press. But little evidence planned the date of the 195.1 election around the
of a real threat 10 Australia transpired. ' revelations' about Petrav.

The Soviet spy threat (such as it was) is now a less Of interest to New Zealanders are ASIO's efforts to
than compelling justification for organisations like implicate lan Milner in Soviet spy allegations. Milner
ASIa. So the enduring raison d'etre of counter­ was a diplomat from this country who played a leading
espionage agencies mostly h inges on the insistence role in international organisations. According to Cain,
that a government cannot be in the el ite western ASIO wanted Milner linked with an earlier unsolved
intelligence club unless it demonstrates that it can leak of secret information, and "it was necessary to
enforce top security. Cain quotes an early ASIO maintain the fiction that Mi lncr was the real spy
director: behind 'the Case'''.

"I am quite certain that any suggestion of a doubt of In the 1970s ASIO was alarmed by actions of the

Page 14 Peace Researcher

Whitlam Government and by the determination of perm itted to read ASIO files and had to sit listening
Attorney-General Murphy to gain access to ASIO to the excerpts that the Director-General deemed fit
files. And the 1 971 national L abor Conference had for them to hear.
come very close to voting to dissolve ASIO. I n the
end, says Cain: The last chapter in Cain's 'Unofficial History' gives
com pr ehens ive coverage of changes i n A S I O
" It m ust have been disappointing to Prime legi slation in t h e 1 970s a n d 1 980s. T h e 1986
Minister Whitlam that however much he tr ied to amendments, under a Labor Government make for
br ing ASIO under firmer government control and an interesting compar ison with New Zealand. Some
accountability the closeness and secrecy of the of ASIO's powers were widened, but generally some
brotherhood of intelligence organisations made of the more insidious activities of the organisation
such a goal unachievable." were reined in (at least in legal terms). Emphasis
m oved fr om the pr o blematic ' subver s io n ' to
Cain m akes the point that Prime Minister Whitlam politically motivated violence. "An overriding clause
saw the notorious telegram from the CIA, threatening was also added making it clear that ASIO had no
to break inte l l igence links with Austr alia over power to limit the r ight of a person to engage in lawful
gover nment actions, only because there was a advocacy, protest or dissent."
temporary Director-General at the time who brought
it to his attention. Some commentators believe that Most importantly, m i n i ster i a l contr o l was
this telegram was crucial to the decision of Governor­ strengthened with the author isation of the Attorney­
General Kerr to terminate the Whitlam Government. General to issue guidelines to be laid befor e
Par liament, with deletions as required for secrecy.
[n 1 983 Bob Hawke was confronted with ASIO Written notice has to be issued where the Director­
evidence that David Corn be, a former national General makes a decision contrary to the guidelines.
secretary for the ALP was anti-CIA, had trips overseas A copy of this written statement m ust go to the
paid for by M oscow, and had been ensnared by a Inspector-General ofIntelligence and Security.
Soviet agent named Ivanov. Cain wr ites that ASIO's
Combe dossier contained "many errors" and that The office oflnspector-General, set up by a separate
J ustice Hope's enquiry into the affair was coloured par liamentary act, is to ensure the intelligence
by his belief in a monolithic and threatening Soviet organisations do not interfere unnecessar ily with the
imper ialism and a ubiquitous KGB. He concludes that privacy of citizens or permanent residents. The 1986
" in fact the Combe-Ivanov affair reflected badly on Act set up a joint Par liamentary Committee, made up
ASIO. It convinced many in the ALP and in the ofseven MPs. This is " hedged about with restrictions",
government that the long-established policy ofmaking but, Cain says, "represented an important if limited
A S I O m or e accountable s h o u l d be q u i ckly break-through in pr oviding for par l iam entary
implemented". supervision and inspection of ASIO's activities". New
Zealand has neither of these bodies.
In an interesting sideline to his account of the Combe
affair, the wr iter reveals that ASIO concluded the 1 983 ASIO - An Unofficial History presents a good coverage
film Allies (widely shown in NZ peace movement of the m urky past ofthis intelligence organisation and
circles) was " part of a KGB backed disinformation the secret part it has played in Australian politics. Cain
campaign" that was trying to undermine Australia's concludes that given the supervisory legislation of
security. The erroneous ASIO allegations are shown recent years, ASIO might rise to the challenge ofreal
clearly by Cain to be the result of insidious bias, criminal/econom ic threats to Australia. For readers
incompetence, or both. in this country, we can only cogitate on the appalling
absence of par l i am entary over s ight, and the
The book also highlights ASIO efforts to prevent impossibility of knowing what heights or depths our
ministerial direction of its activities. In the furore over intelligence agencies might reach.
the Corn b e affair, Cabinet M i n i sters wer e not

Peace Researcher Page 15

SElJING SPIES iN AUSTRALIA? the most advanced computer systems in the world.
Representatives of Chinese pro-democracy groups in [Press, May 2, 1 995]
Australia have claimed that Beijing has "spies" who
are intimidating members of the ethnic Chinese US SPIES ON RUSSIAN BORDER
community in Australia. These informants are said to Russia has released three Americans who were
be threatening and harassing business people, students, videotaping sensitive areas of Russia's border with
and pro-democracy activists. Chinese living in China, according to the Itar-Tass News Agency. US
Australia who have business dealings with China have officials confirmed that the men have been released.
been told their business links would suffer if they The videotapes, shot in an area about 1 50 kilometres
supported the pro-dem ocracy movement. south-west ofVladivostok, were confiscated.
[Christchureh Press, March 1 1 , 1 995]
Wafiq Samaraii, head of Iraqi military intelligence An officer of the I sraeli intelligence services has been
during the Gulf War, fled to Saudi Arabia after an suspended from duty after a suspected Islamic m i litant
abortive coup, the New York Times reported in mid­ died i n the hands of the Shin Bet inte l l i gence
March. The general tried to co-ordi nate opposition organisation. The victim, Abdel-Samad Harizat, aged
forces in the north and south of Iraq to overthrow 29, was from the West Bank town of Hebron.
Saddam Hussein but I raq i troops. and the key Pathologists found he had died as a result of torture
Republican Guards, did not support him. Samaraii (or when being questioned about possible plans by Hamas
al-Samarrai ' i ) claimed Iraq had 80 hidden Scud to attack targets in Israel. [Press, May 2 , 1 995]
missiles and several mob i l e launchers which spy
satel lites had not detected. He also said Hussein sti l l WOMAN SPIED FOR NAZI GERMANY
had 200 anthrax bombs. A recent NZPA story reveals that Dorothy O'Grady,
a land lady at a seaside resort, produced detailed plans
PUSH TO CUT US INTElLIGENCE FOR UN ofBritish defence systems for the Nazis. She recorded
When UN peacekeepers were pulled out of Somal ia positions of troops and fortifications, and details of
earl ier t h i s year, s i g n ificant U S i nte l l igence an early radar system on the Isle of Wight. O'Grady
information was left beh ind. Among boxes of was apparently caught several times i n prohibited
abandoned m aterial were reports of confidential areas. She was tried and sentenced to hang in 1 940. A
interviews with Somali informers, daily intell igence miscarriage ofj ustice was held to have occurred, and
on the political situation. and documents detail ing her sentence was reduced to ten years. She c laimed to
sources and methods of US Intel ligence-gathering. be innocently walking her dog when the incursions
Leading Republicans have used this as another reason happened. Some aspects of the whole affair are still
to cut off W ash ington contributions to U N unclear. She is said to have been found, more than
peacekeeping operations, and insist that there be no once, cutting com m un ications wires - not the
sharing of inte l l igence information with the United behaviour of a person wanting to secretly report on
Nations. It is not clear whether US officials failed to defences. No account is given ofhow information was
handle the material properly; some of the documents to get to Germany. Given the name O'Grady, one
were stamped "Noforn" which means they should not m i ght specu l ate that the woman was trying to
be given to foreigners. [Press, March 1 8, 1 995] undermine the English for reasons ofIrish patriotism.
She died in 1 985.
Cray Computer, which supplies (or supplied) the A LImE TRAMP - OR A SUBVERSIVE?
supercomputers the National Security Agency uses Charlie Chaplin was under surveil l ance by Switz
for code-busting, has gone bust itself. The company police during his life in Switzerland. [Christchurch
has filed for bankruptcy. Only a handful of Cray's Press, May 1 9, 1 9 9 5 ] A lthough he was not
gigantic capacity machines were ever sold. A spin­ systematically watched or phone-tapped, Chaplin was
off from the company, called C ray Research, is now seen as a communist sympathiser and had security
the only remaining US supercomputer business. NSA files kept on him. He l ived near Lake Geneva from
may havdo go to the Japanese if it wants to upgrade 1 953 until 1 977.

Page 16 Peace Researcher

(We suggest you cut this out and learn afew terms to sprinkle about at meetings
where everybody else sounds as though they know something you don 't.)

ABC Anti-Bases Campaign group focussing on Organisation running U S sate l lite/photo

N Z ' s m i litary and intelligence links with operations
other countries.
NSA National Secnrity Agency. US Siginl
ASIO A u s t ralian Secu rity Intelligence organ isation which leads U K U SA
Organisation. Domestic anti-spy and anti­ operations. B i gger than F B I and CIA
terrorist agency combined. Headquarters at Fort George C
Meade in Maryland.
ASIS Australian Secret Intelligence Service
C a n be rra ' s overseas spy and covert N U RRUNGAR Ground Station for defence/
operations agency. intelligence satellite early warning signals,
South Australia.
BLACK B I RC H U S Naval Observatory near
B le nheim NZ. Collects star data for missile PINE GAP Key CIAINSA satel lite receiver base
guidance. Due to close 1 996. near Alice Springs, Australia. Key part of
Sigint spying.
C IA C e ntral Intelligence Agency.
Washington' s spy, counterspy, and covert SIGINT Signals Intelligence. Data acquired by
operations agency. spying on communications (eg p h 0 n e ,
fax, radio) and e lectronic noise given off
DSD Defence Signals Directorate. Australia's by radar, m issiles and other equipment.
Sigint agency.
SIS Security Intelligence Service. N Z
GCHQ Government C o m m unications organisation to counter domestic spies and
Headqnarters. Britai n ' s super-secret 'subversives'. (Note: NZ has no equivalent
Sigint organisation.Central headquarters at of overseas spy agencies like ASIS or MI6)
Chelte nham.
TA N G IM O A N A G C S B C om m u n i cation
GCSB Government Communications Security interception base near Marton, New
Bureau. New Zealand's Sigint agency. Zealand. Listens to radio signals across a
wide section of the Pacific region.
LANGLEY Virginia HQ of the CIA.
U K U S A United Kingdom/United States
MI5 Military Intelligence Five (obsolete
term) Agreement. B a s i s of g lobal S i gint
Sometimes known as the Security Service network of UK, US, Aus, Can, NZ. Now
Britain ' s domestic counte r-espionage encompasses as third parties Japan and the
organisation. US's NATO allies. Signed in 1 947, and
so secret it was not o ffi c i a l l y
MI6 Military Intelligence Six (obsolete term) acknowledged in NZ for 40 years.
Often referred to as the Secret Service
Britain's overseas spy and covert action WAI HOPAI Site of GCSB eavesdropping base
agency. near Blenheim, NZ. One large satellite dish
inte rcepts com m u n ications via
NRO National Reconnaissance Office international sate l lites.

Peace Researcher Page 11

Murrey Horton

Ron Smith died of cancer in June 1995, aged 74. l'eace the workforce he became a ful ltime peace movement
Researcher 3 ( December 1994) ran an extract from worker and a familiar public figure in Wellington.
his self-published autobiography "Working C lass Son: He never lacked personal courage. He was a
My Fight Against Capitalism And War. Memoirs of Communist Party parliamentary candidate throughout
Ron Smith, A New Zealand Communist". Getting the the coldest days of the Cold War; he was physically
book finished and pub l ished was a race against battered by outraged Tories when he asked Bolger a
mortality once he was told he had terminal cancer, question at National's 1987 election Leader's Rally
with only a few months to go. (providing the classic photo on the book' s cover); he
chained himself to machinery building the Waihopai
Ron Smith was a communist. Not an ex-communist, spybase and was arrested; he was arrested twice at a
not a socialist or any other form of "ist". Nope, Ron protest at the US facility at Nurrungar, Australia. He
was a commo and bloody proud of it. "Well, I had and I were among those who spent a physically
chosen my target - communism, the elimination of exhausting month in the Philippines, confronting the
exploitation of man by man, the socialisation of the US bases and their triggerhappy local defenders. He
means of production, the ending of imperialist wars, lasted better than me. He was relentless in quest of
the equality of men and women and of nations and material for h i s weekly peace programme on
peoples - and I was sticking to it". He was an active W e l l ington ' s Access Rad i o . He astounded an
member of the Communist Party of New Zealand American sailor by recording the 01 haggling over
(now the Socialist Workers Party) from 194 1 until the price with an Olongapo hooker. Ron was never
the expulsion of the entire Wellington District in 1970. afraid to front up and he always did so with the utmost
He promptly got involved in firstly, the Marxist­ good humour and the good manners drummed into
L e n i n i st Organisation and then the Workers his generation.
Communist League until the latter's demise in 1990.
He ended up a communist without a party but a It's as a veteran peaee activist that Ron was best known
communist nonetheless. He was perfectly happy to to the Anti Bases Campaign. He was involved in it as
admit the mistakes that obviously happened. long as I can remember - he was at the first wave of
base protests back in the early 1970s, including the
Ran grew from the appalling poverty of Depression unforgettable Mount John one. He was in every ABC
Wellington to become a h ighranking public servant. action I can remember and he played a leading role in
But he never abandoned his class or his political faith. the 1990 Touching the Bases Tour. While the rest of
That is striking in itself. He spent 43 years in the public us silly buggers were climbing Black Birch in a
service, starting as the lowly clerk responsible for blizzard, Ron whipped up a petition against the
working out the nation's annual income tax bill on a impending Gulf War, organised a march through staid
manual adding machine (one year he was out by one Blenheim and colleeted several hundred signatures.
penny! ) and ending as a senior officer of the Statistics He was unstoppable. He was a centrepiece in the
Department. He was the "bread king" ofNew Zealand, nuclear free campaign, the frigates campaign, annual
the man who regulated bread prices in the 1940s era Hirosh ima Day observances and in organising
of total price control. He retired before the public Veterans for Peace. He was a central figure in
service was gutted. Throughout this whole time he Wellington CND and was always 1 0 be found in the
was a high profile communist, peace activist and PSA national office of Peace Movement Aotearoa. After
activist. Working life was never dull. retiring he made six lengthy overseas trips on peace
movement business, getting in the front line from the
Ron was a lifelong peace activist. He ended up in the Phil ippines to Tahiti and Australia.
Waiouru cells when conscripted for the "imperialist"
WWIl. His attitude changed when Hitler invaded the Ron was an ABC member and generous to a fault - in
Soviet Union and he finished the war as an Air Force the space of a mere two years, he donated $675 to the
volunteer, see i n g firsthand the devastation of CAFCA/ABC Organiser Account which keeps me
carpetbombing Germany. After his retirement from alive. He donated $ 1 00 when we appealed for funds

Page 18 Peace Researcher

to pay Moana Cole's Harewood fine. Dying did not permanent record of a man who was sti l l able to face
dim Ran's spirit. Right up unti l his death he was active himself sq uarely i n the mirror and say "I did my bit".
in peace campaigns i n Welli ngton, the last one being That bit m akes quite a story.
against the visiting British warship.
Despite being i n the same movement for quarter o f a
G etti n g hi s book out was a tri um ph i n any century, I only came to know Ron from the late 19805
circum stances, let alone whi lst racing against terminal onwards. We became friends. I hadn't seen him since
cancer. Four publi shers rejected it as "commercially 1 993 but we kept i n touch by Ictter and I always rang
not viable". More fool them . It is that rarity, real him when i n Welli ngton. I'll miss him - he was a
people's history, not the academic rendering of the livewire, a very likeable man, with great sense of
official version. It comes complete with a fulsomely humour and humanity. He is an enormous loss to
glowi n g foreword by Vincent O ' S u l li van who Carmen, his children and grandchi ldren, to his
descri bed Ran as a man who was "so right, so early, m anifold friends in Wellington and throughout New
about so much that i s now central to what most of us Zealand. Most of all, he i s a great loss to the m ovement
believe". " Worki n g C l ass Son" stands as the i n this country. People like Ron are all loo rarc.

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"Tell the President hit ball is behind the oak. 50 yard, past the green,"

About Peace Researcher

Peace Researcher is published q uarterly by the A nti-Bases cam paign, Chrislchurch. The editors are Warren
Thom son and Bob Leonard. Our journal covers a range of peace i ssues wilh emphasis on foreign military
bases and intelli gence topics. Contributed articles wi ll be considered for publication based on subjecl matter
and space requirements. We are particularly interested i n reports of original research on peace topics i n
Aotcaroa and the wider region ofA ustralasia and the Pacific.

Our address is:

Peace Researcher
P.O. Box 2258
Aotcaroa! New Zealand

Peace Researcher
Lasers, currently used for purposes such as range­ Multinational Monitor, [January/February 199 5]
finding and target designation, are being developed reports that the US Army Cobra research programme
as. anti-personnel weapons. Hand-held weapons that has been developing this technology for some years,
�ould blind humans could be deployed in a few years. and has field tested more than 1 1 00 Cobra laser rifles.
C�lIs are being made to prevent this happening. Corporations d e v e l o p i n g t h e system i n c l u d e
McDonne l l Douglas Electronics, A l l ied·Signal
There is virtually no way to protect soldiers against Aersospace Company, and a Lockheed subsidiary.
multi-wavelength lasers that make no sound and can The journal says that the US Government opposes
hit a target over a kilometre away. The weapons are controls on the basis that the weapon is "nonlethal"
light-weight, likely to be relative,W inexpensive, and and therefore superior to many alternatives.
leave no ballistic evidence behind:

Blindness, the inevitable result of being hit, is regarded

as one of the worst forms of disability, with victims
losing 80-90% of sensory stimulation. There is no
The Bulletin of the Atomic S cientists [Marchi
recovery from destruction of the retina. lonathan
Apri l , 1 9 9 5 ] reports s c h o o l c h i l dren i n
Power [Toronto Star, March I, 1994] claims the laser
Albuquerque (New Mexico) wanted to build a
rifle would inevitably become the a la mode weapon
monument for peace, and started a project to get
for guerilla forces, mafiosi, drug gangs, and terrorist
a peace garden at Los Alamos. The Manhattan
Project, which produced the world's first atomic
bombs, took place at Los Alamos.
Sweden and the International Committee of the Red
Cross are calling for anti-personnel lasers to be placed
Some local residents and Los Alamos officials
in the same banned category as chemical weapons.
object to the garden, which will contain a peace
(They are also calling for landmines to be outlawed).
statue similar to the one at Hiroshima. They
Peter Herby writes that 26 major nations have already
believe it implies criticism of the role that Los
supported a new protocol on blinding lasers, with only
Alamos played in the creation of the bomb.
the United States opposed. [Bulletin of the Atomic
Scientists, March/April 1995]
Meanwhile the statue project has spread across
the USA and around the world. The Bulletin
Thes proposal . for a ban will be put forward at the
reports that since 1990 when the idea arose, there
Review Conference of States Parties to the 1980 UN
have been pledges of support from more than
Convention on "Certain Conventional Weapons". The
convention will take p lace next October.
4 1 ,000 children in all 50 states and 5 3 countries.
Representatives of the New Zealand and Australian
Anyone in t h i s country l ooki n g for an
Governments have indicated support for a protocol
banning the weapons.
international peace project to get invol ved i.n? )

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