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40 years of US Military Occupation at

Operation Deep Freeze

ABC members and supporters confront the American military and the NZ police at the Open
Day celebrations on 1 October 1995 at Operation Deep Freeze. A liS official had recently
admitted in the media that OI>F's first priority has always been military, not science.

In this issue: page

+ The Rape ofOkinawa- Massive Anti-Bases Protests 2

+ For Queen and Country - Some things rotten in the state of Britain 4
• Update on US military flights at Christchurch Airport 5
+ ABC visits I-Iarewood 40th Anniversary Open Day 6
• Book Review: lan WisharC s "The Paradise Conspiracy" 7
• The SAS - How little we know 9
• Champion Security - At world record prices 1 (J
+ CIA File 11
+ New Zealand, home ofthc world's first anti-nuclear prolest (August 1(45) 13
• More things rotten in the state ofBritain IS
• Spooky Bits 16
+ Waihopai Protest - January 1995 18
Marines Brutality Spark For Massive Anti-Bases Campaign

- M urray Horton

Working w i t h i n an exclusively Australasian the US officially apologising to the people of

framework, anti-hases activists have got used to Okinawa: and the US Commander in Chief of the
dealing to American spybases, transport bases, or Pacific Command (ClNCPAC) being forced to retire
communications bases, But neither country, because of extremely ill advised comments.
f(lftunately, plays host to any US combat bases, We
tend to f(lfget that some of our Asian neighhours most All this was sparked by the September 1995
emphatically do. To the undisguised joy of the great kidnapping and rape of a 12 year old Okinawall
bulk of thc Philippines' people, the US military quit schoolgirl by three US servicemen - two Marines and
that country in 1992, having failed to get a renewed a Navy seaman. It was a particularly brutal crime but
bases agreement ratified by the Philippines Senate the far from the fifSt. Most recently a US Marine stood
previous year. That ended a 94 year occupancy of trial fi)r beating an Okinawan woman to death with a
Subic Bay Naval Base, Clark Air Force Base and a hammer. Since the island reverted to Japan in 1972,
host of lesser installations. Now the US is trying to there have been 4,675 serious crimes involving US
get its foot back in the door via a warship servicing personnel or their dependents (Time, 6/11/95). The
agreement at Subic Bay. But Uncle Sam remains ugly side of a foreign military presence is all too
outside, trying to get back in. That was a great victory obvious on Okinawa - I vividly recall the observation
for the anti-bases campaign, on a glohal scale. by New Zealand peace activist, Owen Wilkes, that he
had seen more Filipina prostitutes around Kadena Air
Now another massive people's movement has erupted Force Base on Okinawa than at any of the US bases
in Asia against US bases and it's got the ruling circles in the Philippines.
of both Japan and the US worried. It has blown up in
Okinawa, the southernmost island of Japan, the island Okinawa waS a fire just waiting for a spark to start it.
most heavily occupied by the US military, and has It has been roughly colonised, firstly by the Japanese,
led to a number of unprecedented things - huge then by the Americans, now by both working together.
demonstrations; the US agreeing to let arrested troops
be held in Japanese custody; the local government "The bases represent the latest face of the hard fate
refusing to renew leases on land vital to the US bases: that Okinawa has endured since the once independent
kingdom, the heart ofthe Ryukyu
Island chain, was annexed by
Japan in 1879. The Japanese then
tried with p a r t i a l success to
exterminate the local culture and
language. Toward the end of
World War 11, 150,000 local
people - nearly a third of the
population - and 12,520 US troops
and 100,000 Japanese soldiers
died there in the bloodiest
campaign in the Pacific.

"The US retained control of the

island until 1972, when it was
returned to Tokyo. But the
islanders believe that Tokyo sees
Okinawa, one of the poorest
prefectures in Japan and the only
o n e with a distinctive non­
Japanese culture, as a second rate
part of the country. One measure

Page 2 Peace Researcher

of that disrespect is the heavy presence of US bases. US off their island, with consolidation iuto fewer bases
Nearly two thirds of all American service members as a very first step, and beyond that, a whole review
in Japan are stationed on Okinawa, which accounts of the 1960 US/Japanese mutual security treaty. This
for less than 1% of the nation's territory" (Time, 2/ prospect evinces considerable alarm i n the
10/95). governments of both the US and Japan. It is seen as a
major threat by the US establishment Time has

There are 28,000 US troops on Okinawa (out of a total devoted extensive coverage to it, including a cover
of 45,000 in all of Japan). Seventy five per cent of the story (6/11/95, "The Fury Mounts"). An even more
physical area occupied by the US military in Japan is significant media outlet, the Christchurch Press, ran
on Okinawa. The 40 hases are vital to the Pentagon - an editorial on it (10/11195, "US troops in Japan").
they are key to the US "defence" of South Korea The ramifications of the US military being forced to
(which hosts 37,000 US troops) and the rest of the quit Okinawa and/or Japan are quite clearly
region; they were a crucial staging area for US troop understood by conservatives throughout the entire
movements during the 1991 Gulf War. Individual US AsialPacific region.
bases on Okinawa have functions ranging from air
bases to special warfare training areas. Apart from massive demonstrations and constant
political pressure, the Okinawans have other effective
Okinawa is a small island, 1500 kms south of Tokyo, means at their disposal to make life uncomfortable
and such a huge military presence has been a long for both of their colonisers. 111e charismatic Governor,
term irritant to the locals. The bases intrude into Masahide Ota (inevitably described as a "leftist"), has
densely populated residential areas, being dangerously said he will refuse to sign lease renewals for 286
close to houses and schools. Constant noise from jet square kms of land occupied by bases. Thirty five of
fighters coming and going is just one complaint. The 2,900 property owners have said they will refuse to
rape of a child by US servicemen has proven to be the renew. One lease is up for renewal now - a 71 hectare
last straw. plot occupied by a US Navy communications
installation. The owner, Shoichi Chibana, is an
Massive demonstrations began immediately the three Okinawan national hero for refusing to renew. (In
Americans were arrested, the biggest being one of 1987, Chibana publicly burned Japan's Rising Sun
85,000 people or nearly 8% of the total population. flag in protest at this symbol of past militarism).
Their demand is simple - that the US military should Former governors have overriden the wishes of
get out of Okinawa. The age old chant of "Yankee individual owners by signing lease renewals on their
Go Home" was heard, to the nostalgic surprise of own authority but Ota refuses to do this. He came to
veteran reporters covering it. office in 1990 on a promise to reduce the US presence.

The Old SOFA- Not So Comfy Any More Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama has the power,
with the help of the courts, to sign the leases himself.
What adds insult to injury, not only on Okinawa but So far he has refused to take that path, hoping to win
throughout Japan, is the 1960 Status of Forces over the enraged Okinawans. That may be a hard job
Agreement (SOFA) between the US and Japan. When - there is widespread outrage that in 1994, Murayama,
Japanese police arrived to take custody of the three a socialist, dropped his lifelong opposition to the US/
arrested suspects, the US military police refused, citing Japan security treaty and to US bases on Japanese
the relevant section of the SOFA - the US is only soil. He is seen as betraying what he stood for and to
obliged to hand over military suspects after they have have become the front man for the Pentagon.
been indicted. (The US-South Korea SOFA is even
worse. There, accused U S personnel are not Hit The Road, CINCPAC
surrendered t o local authorities until they are
convicted and have exhausted all appeals.) This Both governments are very afraid of where all this
angered Japanese police and the broader Japanese might lead and have confined themselves to very
public. reluctantly tinkering around the edges. Joseph Nye,
Assistant Secretary of Defence for Regional Security,
As public fury mounted, the three suspects were turned said: "Reopening the SOFA is a major issue. Before
over to Japanese custody and the highest ranking US you know it, we could have a mess on our hands"
officials have basically pronounced them guilty. The (Time, 16110/95). But the SOFA has been changed -
US and Japanese governments have offered to Japanese police can now hold American military
examine aspects of the SOFA. But the Okinawan suspects in Japanese custody, before they have been
people have moved way beyond that. They want the indicted (a concession the Okinawans denounce as

Peace Researcher Page 3

too little, too late). Nothing substantive regarding stupid. For the price they paid to rent the car, they
Okinawa, or the Japan/US military relationship has could have had a girl" ie prostitute (Press, 20111/95).
been addressed. Both governments hope against hope So much for his day of reflection. That was too much
that it will go away. for his bosses - it was announced that he would retire
early. John Dalton, Navy Secretary, said: 'There is
In the meantime, there has been a whole saga of no place in today's Navy for attitudes that reflect a
apologies and recriminations. Marines on Okinawa regard for women as property or that show
were ordered to spend a day in reflection. US Defence insensitivity towards the victim of rape and brutal
Secretary, William Perry, issued an "extraordinary assault" (ibid). Some hope - in December 1995, the
public apology to Japan", on behalf of all members US Marines on Okinawa announced that they were
of the US Armed Forces (Press, 211 1195). President investigating the alleged rape of a female Marine by
Clinton has said he "deeply regrets" the incident. "We a fellow Marine.
do not condone any misconduct or any abuse of the
Japanese people" (Time, 21l 0/95). The Cold War Is Not Over In Asia

And heads have rolled. The three accused rapists face The central conclusion out of all this is that, although
a sentence of up to life imprisonment in a Japanese the Cold War is over in Europe ("we" won,
prison. Noboru Hoshuyama, head of the Japanese remember?), it sure as hell isn't in Asia. The
Defence Facilities Administration Agency, told demonisation of North Korea continues unabated and
reporters in a bar: "This issue has been caused because the US is very keen to maintain a substantial military
the Prime Minister is stupid" ie by not initiating the presence in that part of the world. Japan is vital to
lease renewal process (Press, 20/10/95). That was the that global military scenario, and within Japan,
end of his job. nowhere is more convenient than poor colonised
Okinawa, one of the most militarised places on Earth.
The highest ranking victim was Admiral Richard The only fly in the ointment is that the Okinawans
Macke, Commander in Chief of the Pacific Command themselves have had a gutsfull of being an unsinkable
(CINCPAC), commander of 330,000 US military aircraft carrier for both the US and Japan, and want to
personnel. He really put his foot in it by revealing be rid of the whole lot. Theirs is a struggle that
rather too frankly the workings of the military mind. deserves the fullest support from the anti-bases
Talking of the rape, he said: "I think it was absolutely campaign in this part of the world.


Reports that British companies (including formerly state-owned enterprises) were willing to sell torture
equipment to other countries has got no response from the British Government except threats to prosecute
the producer of a TV programme which aired the story. Royal Ordinance apparently provided 8,000
electro-shock batons to Saudi Arabia, and another company supplied China with 300 in 1990. The batons
can paralyse or even kill without leaving tell-tale marks. [New Statesman 11 August 1995] Other reports
tell us that the Apartheid system in South Africa was able to operate the pass system in its latter years by
using computer equipment sold to the South African Government by the then British owned ICL company.


In June this year a British Cabinet Minister was accused by the judge investigating the supply of British
defence-related equipment to Iraq of giving Westminster MPs false information. William Waldegrave is
said to have been behind a secret British decision to relax restrictions on sales of equipment to Iraq during
its war with Iran. This follows previous revelations that other British Ministers lied about related activities
in connection with illegal supply of machine tools to the Saddam Hussein regime. John Major is reported
to have written misleading letters about British policy in 1989, although some sources attributed this to
poor briefing by Whitehall officials.

Page 4 Peace Researcher

US military aircraft continue to use Christchurch contrast to the mixed role of the US Air Force
International Airport for various purposes all of flights. The Hercules flight data will enable us to
which are accepted by the NZ government as calculate the proportion of the annual total of US
covered by the Antarctic Agreement of 1960. Our military flights dedicated solely to Antarctic
last report on this subject was in the June issue (No. missions (Hercules and some Air Force) compared
S) in which we summarized five years of data (June to the proportion conducting militarylintelligence
1990 through May 1995). The information business in whole or in part (Air Force).
continues to be supplied to the Anti-Bases
Campaign by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and The graph covers only about half the current
Trade (MFAT) under provisions of the Official Antarctic season. Note the open bars which show
Information Act. monthly Antarctic flight numbers. In June those
flights were Starlifters and tankers carrying out the
The most significant addition to the data is the Ski­ mid-winter supply drop at McMurdo. The single
Hercules category, seen on the graph as a line plot Ski-Hercules appearances in June and July were for
over the bars. The Ministry began to supply the maintenance by Air New Zealand under a service
Hcrcules information at the beginning of the agreement In August all of the Antarctic flights
current onc-year period of blanket diplomatic were Hercules preparing for the upcoming
clearance for all US government flights. The ski Antarctic season. Supply to the Ice began in
planes are the primary Operation Deep Freeze earnest in October at which time the still hard­
cargo aircraft capable of working in the Antarctic frozen Williams Field at McMurdo could
under a variety of snow and ice conditions. Unlike accommodate the Starlifters and Galaxys. Only
the Starliftcrs and Galaxys of the Air Force, which three i1ights were Hereules. In mid-summer the
are strictly wheeled aircraft, the Hercules used by supply flights are limited to Hercules.
Operation Deep Freeze are equipped with
rctractable teflon-coated skis and thus can land on Note the darker bars which continue across the
asphalt and under any temperature conditions in months in more uniform numbers (see data in the
any season on Antarctic snow. June issue as well). The militarylintelligence
flights of Starlifters and Galaxys go to and from
The Ski-Hereulcs (designated LC-130s) are flown Australia, not the Antarctic, and they continue year­
by US Navy flight crews. Their missions are, in round. There appears to be an increase in military
our view, strictly for Antarctic logistics support, in flight numbers in 1995 compared to 1994.

US Air Force and Navy Flights at Christchurch Airport


o Antarctic 1995
.<: o Military
<;:: � Ski-HerclIles
'l;i 15



� 5 I----�---I

6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Peace Researcher Page 5

Greg Jones
On Sunday, 1s i of
October, the Christchurch
City Council and others
organised an open day at
the Christchurch
International Airport to
"celebrate" the 40th
anniversary of Operation
Deep Freeze.

Twenty something ABC

people turned up at noon
to impart some truths to
the party-goers. We came
with placards, banners,
and leaflets - one of which
quoted the w o r d s o f
National Science
Foundation head Charles
Paul saying that the
American priority at Deep
conversation. Then again, as Abraham Lincoln said,
Freeze had always been military. not the Antarctic.
"You can please half the people .H

Most of us were positioned just outside the main

However, the overall reaclioIl to our day's activities
entrance where we proceeded to attach banners to the
was positive and if we didn'l convert many people.
fence and hand out the leaflets. The Airport authorities
I'm sure at least we planted questions about US
objected to banners being hung on "their" fence and
activities at Harewood which will hopefully callse
so wc took turns holding them. We had friendly
many people to question what they read in
discussions with several police who were stationed at
newspapers/hear on the radio/see on television. If we
the airport. Wc explained we were hoping to speak to
keep presenting the evidence to the public, the US
Dr Charles Paul. and could they locate him') Ouc of
military machine at Harewood will not be able to
the older policeman identified Bob Leonard as a
continue to conceal its operations behind the mask
Lincoln University lecturer nice to know our profile
of support for Antarctic research. For some reason I
is worthy of their study after do/ens of protests over
keep thinking of the child who said "Look the
years of action against the liS military presence.
Emperor's not wearing any clothes". (Or William
Stringfellow: ''Exposure is disabling to the demonic.")
The reactions of the public were mixed. Some
obviously pigeon-holed us from a quite a distance and
called us "stirrers", "peddlers of bull-shit" or merely DEEP FREEZE FOR
used sign language, most of which I interpreted as
indicating they were not interested in meaningful US BASE STAFF
debate and didn't want the truth to intrude upon their
. The budget battle between Clinton and Congress
blissfully ignorant existences Bob also had a long
in November stopped pay for some workers at
standoff with police before they allowed him to
Christchurch's Harewood base. Three "non­
distribute leal1ets inside the base fence.
essential" civilian staff from the US Navy's
electronic calibration section were sent home for
When some of us offered to talk or explain further
nearly two weeks. Although the staff were later
our position w e were sometimes confronted by
reinstated with back pay the matter raises once
defensive reactions, but also by constructive and
more the old issue of workers' rights and the
positive comments. It showed m e that it can
power of the US military at Harewood to over-
sometimes be counterproductive to thrust pamphlets
=r e t' .
�u: . f �
into people's faces if you want t O�h: v.::: ...:a
a:.: se I = = = = == ======


Page 6 Peace Researcher

lan Wishart's uThe Paradise Conspiracy"
(HowlingAt the Moon Productions, Auckland 1995)
Book Review by Nuclear Free Kiwis

Banana republics are countries ruled by multinational appeared and most of the secrets that White said he
companies, corrupt politicians, money-grubbing had learnt seem to have been buried with him.
businessmen, and "goon" gangs. While this might
not yet be an accurate picture of New Zealand in the Much of the early part of the "Paradise Conspiracy"
mid-1990s, there are elements emerging that indicate sets the scene for the winebox affair with Wishart's
a pattern more familiar in the Third World. Sometime, investigation into White's allegations and the
early next century the pattern could become much "spooky" events culminating in the computer dealer's
more obvious. This is the real warning of "The death. Wishart paints these incidents, and the
Paradise Conspiracy", [an Wishart's gripping and following sequence of events described in the book
detailed expose of the "winebox" affair, along with as: . . . "war on the streets of New Zealand, and the
the wider background to this affair. Winston Peters public never knew. Like the plot of a Cold War spy
aside, Wishart is the televisionjoumalist who has done novel, it was a clandestine campaign of dirty tricks,
most to rip the lid off the winebox conspiracy for the international intrigue, kidnap attempts, death threats,
New Zealand public. The affair, of course, is still in beatings, buggings and break-ins" (p.2).
progress with the Davison Commission of Inquiry
unravelling more of its machinations as time passes. Paul White had been subject to an injunction by
Citibank for the return of a collection of about 90
At this stage, some of the elements of banana computer disks which had accidentally fallen into his
republicdom are still pretty shadowy. But, then, possession after the sale of some redundant Citibank
elements like death squads have always been shadowy computer hard ware. Citibank had come to realise that
entities. Undoubtedly, tbe most serious charge in "The there was highly "confidential" information on these
Paradise Conspiracy" is the suggestion that if a disks, with a small number containing especially
particular New Zealander named in the book "was inflammatory material, and wanted them all returned.
murdered, then the evidence points to the involvement One of White's allegations was that "the disks showed
of state security organisations - either the Security a US$50,OOO payment by a multinational company to
Intelligence Service or the Special Air Service" (p. a member of Parliament" (p. 15). This money had
325). been deposited in the tax-haven of the Bahamas. It
was ironic that this sum of money was also the finder's
The person concerned was Paul White, the 26 year fee that White asked ji"Om Citibank for returning the
old second-hand computer dealer who died in a disks.
mysterious car crash in Auckland on September 5,
1992. White had claimed to have been in possession The story has certain very murky dimensions well
of some Citibank computer disks that were allegedly described by Wishart. For example, if Citibank had
very revealing about political corruption in New really wanted the disks with the greatest of urgency,
Zealand, as well as recent and current secret activities it could have immediately paid over the $50,000
by New Zealand special forces overseas. The covert which, for a bank like Citibank, would have been only
side of the former Australia, New Zealand, United a small cost. Instead, Citibank preferred to work
States defence pact (ANZUS) certainly continues in through the legal system. At the same time, it was
full today. One aspect identified by White related to clear that White was under close surveillance for at
arms sales by a New Zealand company. least two months, the sort of surveilllance that only a
security service would mount since any filll-time
At the time of the media reports of Paul White's death, private investigators would have cost a lot more than
alarm bells with sinister overtones were ringing loud $50,000 (p. 16). A white Toyota Hiace van with tinted
for some of us. White's death seemed just too windows that kept watch on White and also, 011 one
conveniently coincidental and conveyed the hallmarks occasion, journalist Fran 0' Sullivan' s apartment
of a specially contrived "hit". This impression was "during a 1993 meeting with a key source on the
rapidly reinforced by the strangely precipitous way BNZ's dealings with Fay Richwhite", was shown to
the whole case was buried by the authorities, and a have had the false registration plate ofNE9l18. When
clean bill of health proclaimed to the world. The Wishart traced this registration, he found it in fact
missing disks with the vital information have never belonged to a similar vehicle owned by a woman in

Peace Researcher Page 7

Gore. Her vehicle had stayed in Gore all the time. The connection with the winebox affair comes through
White's claims of massive "money laundering" and
This is only part of the mysterious ring that Wishart tax evasion scams being carried out courtesy of the
shows to have been quickly closing in around Paul Cook Islands' tax-haven (p. 29).
White. D u r i n g this period, Wishart was in
communication with MP Winston Peters. We can For spook monitors, it is the first 150 pages of the
only hope that Wishart informed Peters of more than book which hold the most interest. After that, Wishart
what has so far come out in public about alleged gets immersed in the story of unmasking the winebox
political corruption in New Zealand, and whatever conspiracy with European Pacific and the bunch of
other significant information might have been on the scumbags associated with it. This is all very important
computer disks. Peters and his lawyer have apparently but since television has focus sed on the business
been under surveillance too. machinations, what is most new and revealing is the
spooky stuff about White's death and the role of
One point well worth noting is that "a large number intelligence/security agencies in big business,
of upper echelon security firms now have former especially the protection of what may prove to be
spooks and troops on staff' (p. 19). A network is criminal activity.
clearly developing within New Zealand, comprising
a web of connections among current and former Throughout the book, there is a hero who pops up
intelligence and security people, and the military, from time to time - Winston Peters. Wishart gives
which could be mobilised for repression if ever the him full credit and rightly so. In a graphic, humorous
position of the rich and powerful were under threat. phrase, Wishart portrays Peters in Parliament, blasting
As the international "New Right" continues to hand the National government, as "the one megaton nuclear
over most of the functions of national government to teddy bear from hell" (p. 240). Only a few journalists
multinational finance and big business, it is conserving like Wishart resisted the concerted corporate media
a central core of operations of which the most attack to discredit Peters. We owe them both, as does
important is the control of intelligence/security forces, what is left of New Zealand democracy in general, a
however privatised elements of these may become. huge vote of thanks.
More than ever before, such agencies are becoming
the coercive arm of vested economic interests. While Nuclear Free Kiwis has been a strong critic of Peters
they can be in competition as shown by recent US­ in the past. We once had an article in Peace
Japanese conflict, they have common enemies - in Researcher (first series, June, 1988, no. 1 9), raising
particular, those working for social justice and questions about his role in the "Honolulu loans seam"
economic change. (called by the media the "Maori Loan Affair"). This
gave all the indications of a CIA-engineered covert
As he came under growing pressure, Paul White got operation to destabilise the Labour government of the
a visit from a man claiming to be an SIS agent, day over its anti-nuclear stand. At that time, Peters
warning him of "a search warrant executed" on his was the "nuclear teddy bear from hell" for the Labour
flat in a couple of days time by the police if he did not government, laying waste to its conventional defences.
hand over the disks to the security service. This police Now that more of the evidence is on Peters'
raid happened as predicted. Various other strange and parliamentary performance, we can consider him as
unpleasant things also happened. For instance, the a maverick MP, a cannon capable of independent fire
police confiscated White's files (except for several as well as unwitting calibration by the CIA.
missing disks) and amazingly enough allowed
Citibank to have access to them, even though this was It is ironic, of course, that Peters' activity on the
evidence subject to criminal proceedings. Indeed, winebox affair mirrors to some extent his activity in
Wishart also portrays a persuasive case of a police relation to the "Honolulu loans seam". Both scandals
cover-up of White's death that points to the highest concern devious Pacific island-based financial
levels of the government. Wishart identified scratches manipulations that Peters brought to public attention.
on White's car which could have been evidence of Indeed, the Cook Islands was deeply implicated in
the vehicle having been sideswiped off the road. the "Honolulu loans scam", and Wishart recounts this
first seam to help give the background to the winebox
White claimed to have found on the Citibank disks conspiracy. The description here is part of an
evidence of shady dealings involving "big New interesting. wider discussion of shady business dealing
Zealand corporates", as well as "a US$50,000 and spook agencies.
payment to another senior National MP via an account
at Citibank Nassau, in the Bahamas" (p. 37). In the coverage of such things on the sweeping scale

Page 8 Peace Researcher

of this book, it is very hard to be absolutely accurate. country where the ruling "establishment" has
Wishart mistakenly ascribes the existence of the CIA­ strenuously tried to keep as much of it as hidden as
connected Centre for Strategic and International possible. There is ohviously plenty more to he told
Studies at Washington DC's Georgetown University yet.
to the aggrieved reaction of master spook, Ray Cline,
against New Zealand's anti-nuclear stand (p. Il l ). ("The Paradise Conspiracy" [August, 1995] is now
In fact, the Centre predatcs the ANZUS crisis and available in some bookshops. It can also be obtained
Cline was already operating out of it in an effort to by ringing the free phone number: 0800 747 007; or
establish an ANZUS "think-tank" targeted at New by applying to Insight Data NZ Ltd, PO Box 90-160
Zealand. AMSC, Auckland, ph (09) 3580055; or direct from
But this is only nit-picking at a book which deserves the publisher, Howling at the Moon Production
the widest readership that we can help give it. "The Company, PO Box 16233, Sandringham, Auckland.
Paradise Conspiracy" has been written by a journalist It costs $34.95 for mail-order delivery; the bookshop
who made considerable sacrifices and took great price is cheaper.)
personal risk to expose a lot of dirty work in our own


Warren Thomson

In June of this year a member of the New Zealand removed from official employment when used in
Army was killed while on active duty with British Cambodia, and thinks evidence of a NZ SAS role in a
forces in Zimbabwe. Lance Corporal Daniel Flannigan number of war zones around the globe is strong and
was killed, not by enemy action, but by a rampaging merely managed to provide for deniability.
elephant. The army maintains a strict policy of never
identifying members of the Special Air Service (SAS) What role SAS soldiers have been playing overseas
or disclosing details of their training or operations. may be difficult to judge. But their presence has been
But army sources said Flannigan was based at confirmed from various sources, and the official line
Hobsonville Air Base, the main quarters for the SAS, of no operations overseas since Vietnam seems thin,
and was almost certainly on exercises with the British if not downright lies. In the early eighties two SAS
in this capacity. members died in the crash of a US military plane in
the Philippines. Before the ANZUS row the SAS
Very occasionally, references to activities of the New participated in counter-insurgency exercises at Subic
Zealand SAS come to light. But the operations of this Bay that included assassination techniques. One
elite unit are mostly kept secret and little is known former British SAS officer told Wishart he had worked
about where or how they operate. lan Wishart's alongside New Zealanders who fought with the British
"Paradise Conspiracy" [see book review in this issue] in Oman sometime between 1972 and 1974. The same
contains some intriguing references to SAS actions, person said that NZ SAS arc regularly attached to
and asserts that "successive New Zealand British units, and have served in combat roles in
Governments have been prepared to lie to the media Northern Ireland and other places, including the Gulf
and the public about the NZ involvement..." in various War.
overseas operations.
In 1989 wc learned that covert missions had been
Wishart sought information about SAS activities undertaken deep inside Indonesia during the
through the Official Information Act, but got very little Malaysian troubles in 1965-66. The missions were
back because most material is classified. He highly classified and officially denied for over twenty
particularly wanted to confirm information that he had years. Former Colonel David Moloney, in charge of
been given from reliable sources that elements of the the last SAS detachment in Borneo, said the
New Zealand SAS had been involved ill action during operations were mostly for reconnaissance, but the
the Gulf War, in Cambodia, and in other undisclosed New Zealanders were involved in "ambushes in
theatres. The official answer was that no serving defence". [NZ Sunday Times, 25 June 1989] Moloney
soldiers had been involved, nor had SAS people from did not believe anyone from this country had been
this country been in overseas advisory or combat roles killed in the operations, and said that one SAS member
since the Vietnamese War. However, Wishart points won a decoration for bravery. The Sunday Times
out that John Pilger foundBritish SAS operatives were article makes the point that while these activities were

Peace Researcher Page 9

totally concealed from the New Zealand public, the SAS. Newsinger shows that the book is another of
Indonesians knew about them all the time. the currently prolific genre of SAS bero worship that
substitutes "tales of SAS prowess for any serious
The Australian SAS will play a key role in security consideration of tbeir military effectiveness". He
for the Sydney Olympic Games in 2000AD, standing states that "while there is no doubting tbe courage,
by to deal with any hi-jacking or serious terrorist fitness, or endurance of the SAS [often under 1
activity. The NZ SAS carries out similar training to appalling conditions" their role in Malaya, the Middle
storm buildings or aircraft under the control of East, and Northern Ireland is grossly exaggerated. The
"terrorists". During the 1987 Fiji Coup, Prime article suggests that in Northern Ireland, where the
Minister David Lange ordered an SAS detachment to NZ SAS may have been involved, the secret war
fly to Fiji where an Air NZ jet had been hi-jacked by waged was probably responsible for strengthening
an Indian, to proteci NZ citizens in the aircraft or other IRA support, and generating further violence.
danger areas in Fiji. The soldiers were heading for
Auckland to board a plane when they were recalled. Much remains to be uncovered about the operations
The NZ Defence Chiefs had opposed the wishes of of the New Zealand SAS. Whether their activities
the Prime Minister and the Minister of Defence, and would be applauded by the public of this country, or
the operation was abandoned. (The hi-jack crisis was condemned, we won't know until much more
solved when the 747's flight engineer hit the hi-jacker information is available about the covert activities of
over the head witb a bottle of whiskey.) the organisation. Some Cabinet Ministers are briefed
on SAS operations, but the media, and the public, are
In tbe December 1995 edition of the journal L obster, left totally in the dark. Another black hole in our
John Newsinger discusses the recent autobiography democratic solar system.
of Peter de la Billiere, long time Director ofthe British



South Korea spent over $65 million dollars to guard About 10,000 military personnel from tbe army and
against terrorists or subversives interfering in the 1988 the marines will be kept close at hand but out of sight.
Olympic Games. This mega international event is a They will not be in combat uniform. Other security
bonanza not only for the advertisers, but also for the groups will include private security teams, state
security agencies. Already the Australian Security troopers, municipal and county police, and elements
Intelligence Organisation has launched a recruiting . from the FBI, the US Customs Service, and the Bureau
drive to ensure its readiness for the 2000AD Olympics of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. The Dallas police
in Sydney. And a top ASIO official is reported as chief has been recruited to run the security operation,
criticising organisers for not reacting quickly enough heading a committee of local, state and federal law
to growing terrorist threats. The initial $Aus30 million enforcement agencies. The committee will be
security budget is now promised by the NSW police responsible for assessing potential threat from the
chief responsible, to "rise substantially". Some left intelligence data collected, and formulating strategies
wing groups in Australia have pointed out that the to deal with possible problems.
games w i l l g i v e spook agencies the perfect
opportunity to crack down on "subversive" groups In Australia the Oklahoma bombing and the Tokyo
and increase surveillance of political opponents of the subway attack have been used as reasons to boost
government. security measures for the Sydney Olympics. Current
plans are under wraps because the NSW State
Over 20,000 people will be mobilised to provide the Government has banned anyone from talking to the
security for the Atlanta Olympics in 1996. But the media about the subject. However, the Sydney
organisers are depending on electronic gadgetry and Morning Herald [4 November] reports that infra-red
good intelligence data, rather than force and firepower, surveillance cameras will cover every Olympic venue
to ensure that the sports games are safe from terrorist and transport route throughout the city, and that
ones. A system of access control to sensitive locations, Australia's Special Air Service Number One squadron
costing around $US 25 million, will track everyone will be available on 24 hour standby to deal with any
coming or going with encoded identity cards and terrorist attack.
surveillance cameras.

Page ID Peace Researcher

The newspaper says that in the event of an attack the tend to attract small numbers of nutters who can be
1973 National Anti-terrorism Plan would come into extremely dangerous. An academic who specialises
play, with the Protective Services Co-ordination in study of terrorism, Ms Jenny Hocking, is quoted as
Centre (PSCC) taking control. The area would be saying that the current terrorist threat is seen to come
sealed off and the PSCC, which carries out two most likely from the Middle East, and that there is
exercises each year, would direct the operations of very little history of domestic terrorism in Australia.
the state counter-terrorist squad, Federal Police, ASIO, This is hardly likely to stop the Australian intelligence
and the army. Apparently the last time the National agencies doing all they can to use the huge resources
Anti-Terrorism Plan was put into operation was during thrown into the four yearly spectacle as a boost for
the Hilton Hotel Bombing in 1978. their organisations, and even more to make up ground
lost in recent years through criticism of their
Political commentators have said that Olympic Games undemocratic and over-extended domestic operations.

CIA REPORTS QUESTIONABLE information" passed on by Soviet agents was acually
CIA officers sent at least 35 intelligence reports to genuine and offered by the KGB to establish the
the White House and the Pentagon without disclosing credentials of its double agents with the CIA. Arlen
that the information was coming from Soviet double Specter (surely a name for James Bond to consider)
agents. Suspect reports went to Presidents Reagan and Republican chairperson of the Senate Select
Bush, and at least one to Clinton before he took office Committee on Intelligence, maintains that the
in January 1993. CIA Director John Deutsch says that misinformation has cost the US "billions of dollars".
some of these were flawed reports about the former One of the officials responsible for CIA oversight,
Soviet Union which were known or suspected to come Inspector-General Frederick Hitz, has recommended
from enemy agents or assets controlled by the Soviet that over a dozen CIA officers be held responsible
security forces. A classified report presented to for their roles in the affair. Most of these have already
Congress by the CIA at the beginning of November retired. According to Time Magazine [13 November]
suggests the information passed on by double agents the Hitz man also recommended that the last three
may have influenced Washington's weapons agency Directors (Webster, Gates, and Woolsey)
purchases by giving an inflated picture of Soviet should also be held accountable. nme says "The latest
military capabilities. The revelations came as part of scandal has sent morale at the agency to rock bottom.
the assessment of the damage done to the CIA by Disgusted with incompetence by higher-ups, many
Aldrich Ames, the mole who betrayed several top US younger spies are resigning." The debacle again points
agents to the Soviets between 1985 and 1994. Ames's up the inanity of setting up massive intelligence
treachery had made it difficult to get good information organisations which work in a twilight zone to the
from the Soviet Union, partly because of the loss of extent that it is impossible to decide whether
agents and partly because he revealed US information infomation collected is reliable or bogus.
gathering techniques to Moscow. Over the same 1985-
1994 period the CIA distributed 95 reports from CIA lOSING TO DEFENSE?
double agents and other questionable sources, but In the CIA File of last issue [October 1995] we noted
often failed to tell policy-makers it had doubts about a report that the Defense Intelligence Agency was
the reliability of the material. Congressional leaders gaining clout at the expense of its CIA rival. Its
have disagreed on the impact of the revelations. There internal reorganisation of the intelligence sectors of
is difference of opinion on how much of the its constituent services, and its control of a large part
information given to the CIA was genuine and whether of the intelligence budget put the DIA in a very strong
it did have significant impact on US policy and arms position. In L obster, December 1995, Alex Cox notes
purchases. The Sydney Morning Herald [11 that the CIA is feeling threatened: the CIA has already
November] reports that sources who have seen the lost control ofthe eavesdropping agency, the National
damage assessment say it is careful not to declare that Security Agency, to the military, and future covert
Russian spies were the decisive factor in convincing operations are likely to be more under the control of
Washington to make needless and costly purchases the DIA's National Military Collection Agency.
of new weapons. The House Intelligence Committee Covert operations will be run by the new Defense
chairperson, Larry Combest claimed "controlled Human Intelligence Service (DHIS). While CIA

Peace Researcher Page 11

Director Deutsch is nominally in charge of the DHIS, trade Minister. This is further proof of the way US
Cox says t h e military will have day-to-day intelligence is being used for economic espionage to
responsibility. openly advantage American business interests. The
Japanese Government has complained to the White
IVY LEAGUE LAWYER fiGHTS THE CIA House but indications are that knowledge of the
Jennifer Harbury, wife of the murdered Guatemalan bugging was widespread and the media exposes are
rebel leader Efrain Bamaca Velasquez, known as being shrugged off. Japanese security experts have
Everardo, and a Harvard educated lawyer, is suing speculated that the CIA itself fed the story to the NYT
the CIA over the death of her husband. He had been in order to boost its own importance. The CIA has
tortured and killed in 1992 on the instructions of been working hard at economic espionage in Japan
Colonel Julio Alpirez, a Guatemalan intelligence since the late 1970s. Security amongst Japan's
officer on the payroll of the CIA. She spent two years bureaucrats and business executives is said to be lax,
confronting Guatemalan and US authorities using partly because of the extra costs involved in tight
hunger strikes as a way to demand official action and security measures. The Australian Bulletin
promote media investigation to find out what had [Newsweek section, 3 I October1 says thatthe Japanese
happened to the rebel leader. Harbury learned that Doomsday Cult, Aum Shinrikyo, was found to have
the US Embassy in Guatemala had actually received sensitive Mitsubishi files on new ann our for tanks,
a CIA report saying that Everardo had been captured had broken into a laser-research facility near Tokyo,
alive, so his subsequent torture and death were known and had floor plans for several electronics companies.
to them. The case has caused more damage to the CIA On the other hand Japan's own spies are regarded as
and two officers have been given early retirement. It masters of economic espionage and have been spying
seems that the bad old days of CIA backed repression on the French, British and Americans for decades.
in Central America are yet to end. An inquiry was
launched by the White House into allegations that the AND SEXIST TOO
National Security Agency and other intelligence In June this year a gronp of women who are suing the
groups had shredded evidence relating to this case. CIA over allegations of rampant sexism in the
Time MagaZine has reported CIA Director John agency's overseas stations, rejected the offered
Dcutsch as announcing that ten agency officials would settlement of $US one million. The plaintiffs, acting
be dismissed, demoted, or reprimanded for having on behalf of about 350 colleagues, want more money
mishandled information regarding human rights as compensation for gender-based discrimination in
abuses in Guatemala. [9 October1 the Directorate of Operations. This is the division of
the agency responsible for spying and covert action.
HONDURAS LEGACY (Last year in New Zealand an ex-spook had similar
Human Rights Commissioner Leo Valladares says that problems trying to get a judgement against the SIS
US and Argentine military personnel were involved on grounds of sexual harrassment.)
in the "disappearance" of suspected leftists in the
1980s. He alleged that Honduran death squads, trained lANGLEY LOOKS TO ESP FOR HElP
by the CIA and Argentine advisors, kidnapped, Amongst the Especially Silly Programmes instituted
tortured and killed 184 people. [Christchurch Press, by the CIA over the last twenty years have been a
4 November] series of attempts 10 use ESP, Extra-Sensory
Perception. Psychics were used to try and scan inside
CIA SPIES ON TRADE NEGOTIATORS the house of Panamanian dictator Manuel Norriega
The CIA played a major covert role in US-Japanese by the Director of Army Intelligence, and the military
trade negotiations over the last year when the two and CIA have over the years tried to find infonnation
countries were involved in a stand-off over car by using people who claim to have extraordinary
imports. A front page report in the New York Times powers to see what other spies or satellites cannot.
said the Americans had used electronic eavesdropping Psychics were employed to try to locate Colonel
equipment to spy on Japanese officials and business Muammar Gadaffi before bombing his house in 1986.
executives. Mickey Kantor, the U S trade Attempts were also made to find the whereabouts of
representative, received daily CIA briefings on what General James Dozier, kidnapped by the Red Brigade
the Japanese were saying amongst themselves, both in 1981, and more recently to find Plutonium in North
in Tokyo and in Geneva. US television has also run Korea. The CIA funded research into ESP because of
stories that the CIA tapped phone calls made by concern over Russian developments i n
Akitane Kiuchi, an envoy involved in the talks, and parapsychology and the potential of 'psychic warfare'.
the Agency also spied on Ryutaro Hashimoto, Japan's

Page 12 Peace Researcher

New Zealand, home of the
world's first anti-nuclear protest
only days after Hiroshima
by Giyn Strange, Christchurch

When thefirst
might well think - if, by then, people bother to think at all - that the Golden Age ofmankind came to an end with the
end ofthe present war. Looking back, they might see that, although technological progress continued, freedom of
thought, ofspeech, and ofscientific discovery came to an end in 1945. Karl Popper, August 1945

Sunday 6th August 1995 was the fiftieth anniversary jam-packed. People were elbow to elbow and sitting
of one of the twentieth century's most important in the aisles". As well as a better than usual turn-out
events: the dropping of the first atomic bomb on the of students and staff, there were some interested
Japanese city of Hiroshima. members of the pUblic. Also present was a reporter
from the city's evening newspaper, whose subsequent
Soon afterwards, in Christchurch, one of the twentieth article contains the only known written account of
century's most important thinkers gave a lecture which what Popper said.
may have been the world's first anti-nuclear protest.
That the world does not know is a product of some Reliance on a hastily-compiled newspaper report is
unique circumstances. not always safe. Indeed, in its next issue the
newspaper published a response from Popper who
In 1945 Karl Popper was still relatively unknown. His took issue with parts of the original report. He did
first published work, Logik der Forschung (The Logic admit, however, that it represented the gist of his
of Scientific Discovery), had been published but not lecture very well. So long as his contested points are
translated into English. His second, The Open Society allowed for, we can assume that it gives a reasonably
and its Enemies, had been written but not published. clear description of his ideas.
He had just begun to attract attention in England when
war broke out. To escape Nazi rule in his native First it must be said that Popper's lecture was not
Austria, he then spent eight years in the obscurity of simply anti-nuclear. He felt that nuclear power had
a small university college in Christchurch, New much potential for good. He even felt that the Allies
Zealand - admittedly Ernest Rutherford's alma mater, were rigbt to develop the bomb when they did. It
but his fact was not widely publicised at the time. was, he said, far better than letting the Germans beat
them to it, which would have been "infinitely worse".
To deepen the obscurity, Popper's lecture was not a
public occasion but one of a series on Scientific Despite the newspaper's sensational headline - "Grim
Method which he was giving as part of his job as a Forecast for Future of Civilisatiou" - Popper made no
lecturer at Canterbury University College, the predictions. As he said in his reply, he regarded
forerunner of the modem University of Canterbury. historical prophecy as a form of "intellectual
From 1937 to 1945 Popper enlivened the drab scenes charlatanry". But he was interested in the possible
of provincial life in Christchurch with his European ways in which the new power might be used. Drawing
manners, his strong Viennese accent and his single­ a large question mark on the blackboard he proceeded
minded academic professionalism. He inspired an to discuss what we would now call the "worst case
intellectual excitement that lives on in the memories scenarios" of the postwar period.
of former students and colleagues.
The first of these concerned the future of scientific
John Pollard, chemistry student at the time, research. A possible result of the timing of the
remembers "As soon as Popper announced that he discovery of nuclear power was that it might come
would discuss Hiroshima in his weekly lecture, the under political control. Had the discovery come in
whole college was buzzing with anticipation. When peace time and been put to peaceful uses, he said, the
the time came Room 15 [Popper's lecture room1 was results would have been so much better. Discovered

Peace Researcher Page 13

in wartime and put to warlike use, it meant that Clearly, however, the Bomb created a dilemma for
governments were almost obliged to take control in Popper that rose beyond mere persona considerations.
order to protect their citizens from the potential In his view all good teaching lay "on the borderline
indiscriminate use of so massively destructive a of knowledge" . The intellectual freedom that he most
power. prized had led to its development, yet now that it had
been developed, it threatened to circumscribe the very
As Denis Hogan, another chemistry student in 1 945, freedom that had produced it. That was one problem
points out, this had not seemed possible before the which, as an academic, he felt keenly.
war, when nuclear research had been conducted by a
multinational group of scientists who had collaborated But there were also moral and spiritual difficulties.
freely and openly exchanged information in the belief To create artificial borderlines beyond which teachers
that science was beneficial to humankind and therefore and students could not proceed, would be to diminish
transcended politics. Popper, knowing that physicists freedom of enquiry and, ultimately, freedom of
would uot want the responsibility of controlling the speech. People were in danger of being told what
dangerous knowledge they had unlocked, could see they were allowed to think. This, he said, could
little alternative to government control. produce a "tremendous spiritual loss to mankind", and
the fight to preserve intellectual freedom would not
From here his fears for the future began to escalate. be an academic issue but a moral one.
Not just science but all learning might come under
threat from unscrupulous governments. "Once a Referring to the nuclear secret he said that some people
political dictatorship has control of the dangerous would say that mankind was not ripe for such a
departments of physics and chemistry, what will be discovery, but in his opinion this was nonsense.
done with the rest? ... Control of one science will "There is nothing wrong with mankind. those who
spread to others as the ruling hierarchy strives to guard say there is are those who wish to control the lives of
the secrets of power." other, to make the rest of humanity conform to the
pattern conjured up by their own minds."
He jokingly imagined a time when we might still be
allowed to study botany and even elementary biology, He concluded: "The fundamental struggle in life is
and if our minds are still unsatisfied, perhaps we might the moral struggle to limit the power men wield over
be permitted to carry out researches in Sanskrit", then their fellow men".
added: "Better blow up the whole show, than confine
human minds by locking the doors of knowledge." The reason why we should concern ourselves with
words spoken - even if by so eminent a thinker as
Placed in the context of a world war which had turned Karl Popper - on such an obscure occasion, in such
him into a refugee, Popper's fears of political an out-of-the-way place, 50 years ago, is that they are
dictatorship seem a natural personal reaction. There still bitingly relevant to the 1990s.
were other personal elements in his reaction too.
Before coming to New Zealand, Popper had enjoyed In the scientific field Popper's worst fears have not
close personal and professional links with many top been realised. Although the nuclear secret has been
scientists. In his lecture Popper mentioned Niels Bohr, jealously guarded, there are plenty of other fruitful
one of the principals of the team, "not only a great fields of research, and in many of these progress has
scientist, but a modest and humble man, and a good continued unabated. Limitations have been imposed
man in the highest sense of the word". He added that as much by industrial secrecy, funding cuts and public
there were "probably no people in the world, not even morality as by political influence. However John
in Japan" more unhappy than the men who penetrated Offenberger, a refugee student from Austria in the
the nuclear secret. He felt for the predicament of his 1 940s and friend of Popper's from that time until the
personal friends, and he was in the process of realising, philosopher's death in 1994, points out that in a survey
on the even of his return to Europe later in 1 945, that recently conducted by the New Zealand Association
things could never be the same after the war as before. of Scientists only about 50% of more than 700
respondents said that they could share ideas freely.
To the comments quoted at the head of this article he Intellectual freedom, for many, may already be a thing
added that the atomic bomb had brought "the end of of the past.
most of those things that made life really worth
living", and "1, for one, have rather liked the old world In our society, to judge from such diverse examples
as I have known it". as French nuclear testing in the Pacific and the
creeping disease of political correctness, there are still

Page 74 Peace Researcher

plenty of minorities who are keen to make other been identified as the catalyst that, after the war, turned
"conform to the pattern conjured up by their own New Zealand universities from little marc than
minds". There is no doubt that the "moral struggle" overgrown post-secondary schools into modern
of which Karl Popper spoke continues after fifty years research facilities. His legacy in this regard is well
of "peace". known. His anti-nuclear stance, though less well
known and less well documented, descrves to be
Room 1 5, i n Popper's day the largest lecture room in recognised as well.
Canterbury University College, is still there as part
of the Arts Centre of Christchurch, an institution The former Room 1 5 is part of a protected historic
created when the university outgrew its central city place - the Arts Centre of Christchurch .. but is not
site and moved to the suburbs. As the University singled out as having any special significance of its
Theatre, Room 1 5 is now a venue for experimental own. As the site of what was quite possibly the
work by drama students of the University of world's first anti-nuclear protest, uttered just a few
Canterbury. Protected by artistic licence at least, a days after the catastrophic possibilities of nuclear
spirit of free enquiry pervades the place where Popper power had been demonstrated to the world, perhaps
made an important plea for it survival. it should be.

Popper's insistence on high academic standards has Glyn Strange, © 1 995

Reprinted by permission of the author and ChemNZ (NZ Institute of Chemistry)


British Government research into the effects of nuclear A British nuclear reactor came close to meltdown after
radiation, carried out between 1 955 and 1 970, an accident in 1 993 and only luck helped avoid the
involved secret experiments on the bones of dead most serious incident to hit Britain's nuclear industry
children. Pregnant women were also used in radiation in recent history. The information became public
experiments. These allegations are made in a British during a court hearing in which Nuclear Electric, the
Channel Four documentary reported in the Guardian. operator of the plant, admitted four charges under the
In the 1 960s the British Government also authorised Health and Safety Act. The BBC reported that plant
secret germ tests on the London Underground to find officials in Anglesey (North Wales) waited nearly ten
out how a biological weapons attack would affect the hours after the accident before closing down the
system. Spores from bacteria were found to have reactor. [Christchurch Press, J 4 September 1 995]
travelled 1 6 km along one of the underground lines. British newspapers have reported several other serious
At the time scientists did not have full knowledge of incidents in the past few years, some at other Nuclear
the properties of bacillus globigii - the bacterial Electric plants, and some at the British Nuclear Fuels
species utilised in the experiments. [Press, 23/31l995] facility at Sellafield.

New Statesman [ 1 1 August 1 995] revealed that the NUCLEAR SUBMARINE LEAK (I)
British Ministry of Defence tested LSD on soldiers The HMS Sceptre, a British nuclear submarine, was
between 1 962 and 1 972. The experiments were carried recalled from patrol in early August when radioactive
out at Porton Down chemical warfare facility. In one leaks were discovered i n both the primary and
1 964 experiment a small group of soldiers was given secondary cooling systems of its nuclear reactor. The
LSD doses ranging from 75 to 200 micrograms Defence Ministry has insisted there was no danger,
(enough to trip for 12 hours or more). "After 70 but there has been very critical comment on the
minutes, the levels of incapacitation and the condition of similar boats in the past. Pat Davis, who
breakdown of communication between sections of the ran a long campaign i n the 1 9808 to claim
unit was such that all activity was terminated. It was compensation from the British Navy for radiation
concluded that men given a drug such as LSD would damage to her submariner husband, was burgled,
be incapable of effective military action." In the US, beaten, harrasssed and put under surveillance for
soldiers who underwent similar tests complained their attempting to publicise the issue.
mental health was harmed.

Peace Researcher Page 75

RABIN'S KILLER WORKED FOR massacre in the United Nations declared safe zone at
iNTElLIGENCE Srebrenica, The Sydney Morning Herald [9
Yigal Amir, who assassinated the Israeli Prime November] reports that a senior U S official has
Minister in early November, worked for Israeli confirmed the existence of transcripts which show the
Intelligence in 1992 on a three month assignment in involvement of the senior Serbian commanders, The
Latvia, Eyal, the right wing extremist group that International War Crimes Tribunal in the Hague has
assisted him in the killing, has extensive links to Shin criticised the with-holding of crucial evidence, but a
Bet, the Israeli security service now known as Shabak, White House Spokesperson said there are "certain
These are the conclusions of extensive investigation types of intelligence information onr Government
by the British O bserver, detailed in the Christchurch cannot share with the international community", In
Press [25 November], Shyam Bhatia, author of the the past the US intelligence community has been
report, says "evidence piles up that Shabak was aware extremely reluctant to allow the publication of any
of the identity and intentions of Rabin' s killer for information obtained by electronic eavesdropping,
weeks and even months in advance" and that "there
are also reliabJe claims that Shabak belped fund Eyal RIGHT MURDERS ASIO SPOOKS?
and that several members of it were key informants", Right-wing extremist groups in Anstralia have been
The Observer article relates that Amir underwent a accused of killing three people they believed worked
fundamental change when he witnessed the Israeli for the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation
pullout from Gaza - a move very much contrary to or some law enforcement agency, ASIO has revealed
his nationalist ideology, It describes the "battle" that over the last five years, three people were
between left and right within the intelligence agency, murdered because they were thought by Neo-Nazi
It states that many Shabak departmental heads organisations to have infiltrated their groups, Two
opposed military withdrawal from Palestinian centres, killings took place in Perth and one in Sydney,
and some resigned when a new Shabak head was [Christchurch Press, 3 November 1995]
appointed who was believed to have the intention to
come down on right wing groups, HONDURAN INTELLIGENCE OFFICIALS
Avishai Raviv, a key figure in EyaJ, and close friend DISAPPEAR
of Amir, has been revealed as a Shabak agent It is In October six people who were key witnesses in an
clear that the security service knew of Amir's Honduran investigation into political disappearances
intentions but failed to stop the assassination either have themselves vanished, Human Rights groups say
because they could not believe a Jew would kill that the six have probably been killed to block an
another Jew, or even for more sinister reasons, investigation into political killings in the 1980s, Those
Another possibility is incompetence - the officer who have disappeared in this case are intelligence
responsible for Rabin's safety is said to be "wholly officials from various parts ofthe country who would
unsuitable for the senior position to which he was probably have been called to testify about past killings,
FRENCH NAVY SECRETS HACKED Muziwendoda Mdluii, appointed security chief at the
Secret French and Allied naval data was accessed by National Intelligence Agency after South Africa's first
hackers in July this year, according to the satirical Le open elections last year, was found dead in his car
Canard Enchaine, The weekly says data on the early in October. The Johannesburg newspaper
acoustic signatures of ships - used to distinguish Sunday Independent reported that Mdluli had been
friendly and hostile vessels - was broken into, and investigating the possible involvement of fellow
that the Defence Ministry in Paris had confirmed the agents in the failed coup in the Comoro Islands and
story, [Christchurch Press, 2 1 September 1995] unnamed intelligence sources said this may have led
to his death, The death initially appeared to be suicide
US KEEPS INTERCEPTS SECRET but old-guard spooks with the agency in apartheid
Washington is refusing to make public intercepted times have been blamed for the killing, [Christchurch
communicat i o n s which implicate the Serbian Press, 10 October 1995]
President, Slovodan Milosevic, in last summer's

Page 16 Peace Researcher

GUilT AND ANXIETY fOR FORMER STASI Australian domestic politics." [Sydney M orning
OFfiCERS Herald, 1 1 November 1995] Whitlam has stated in a
Although most people who worked for the East new book that Christopher told him in 1977, when he
German secret police (the STASl) before 1990 have was then Assistant Secretary of State for Asia and the
not been gaoled by the courts, many are apparently Pacific, that "the US would never again interfere in
suffering anyway. The downfall of the organisation the domestic political process in Australia". The
left agents with "angst in the structure of their Herald writes that "The reported Christopher
personalities" according to a Berlin psychologist comments appear to lend credibility to a theory,
working with former agents. Their identities were widely discussed in the aftermath of the dismissal [of
founded on the security of believing that they were Whitlam] that the US Central Intelligence Agency had
working for the right cause, now swept away with the been involved".
Berlin Wall. Some have become seriously disturbed
as the result of guilt feelings over those they have PARTIAL BAN ON lASER WEAPONS
harmed. The head of the STAS! in its last years, In October a UN-sponsored conference to review
Wemer Grossman, is not repentant or apologetic. But the 1980 Treaty on Certain Conventional Weapons
he has expressed regret at the way that sex was produced a document aimed at banning laser
sometimes used to manipulate people, and for tricking weapons designed to blind enemy soldiers. The
a West German woman into believing she was International Committee of the Red Cross had
working for MI5 with the end result that sbe was jailed campaigned hard to get a complete ban on all
for passing on information. At the height of its power battlefield laser weapons, but opposition from the
the East German secret police employed 85,000 main arms-producing states meant that lasers used
people, paid up to half a million informers, and kept for destroying enemy equipment are still
files on one third of its own citizens. [New Scientist, permissable. Proposals to outlaw the production
4 November 1995] and stockpiling of laser weapons failed. The ban
011 anti-personnel lasers has to be ratified by 20

UNDER COVER GUILT nations before it comes into effect.

Other undercover operatives have previously made
comments that they have felt bad about the people The United States was one of the strongest
that they became friendly with while reporting on their opponents of any ban, but New Scientist [21
activities. In the curious case of Wendy Holland, the October] reports that the Pentagon has cancelled
woman who spied in this country for Australian spook its plans to buy laser weapons which would have
agencies, one of the few regrets she expressed was been used by infantry to blind opposition. An army
the spying on members ofthe NZ-USSR Society. She spokesperson said the decision was motivated in
felt they were nice people and felt bad about betraying part by a desire to prevent blinding weapons falling
them. In the recent furore about the addiction problems into the hands of terrorists, but NS says the sheer
of undercover cops in New Zealand, a former woman bulk of tile equipment would have been a factor: it
officer said she liked the lifestyle and people she was was to be mounted on top of an M-216 rifle, and
involved with and couldn't tolerate the hypocrisy of weighed 19 kilograms.
her work. Jude Williamson is quoted in one woman's
magazine as saying she started to think "These people
aren't criminals. We're making them into criminals." NO AGREEMENT ON LAND MINES
[ Woman 's Day, 20 November 1995] Some years ago The Vienna Conference also sought agreement on
a person who had taken a prominent part in progressive new rules to reduce the risk posed by mines to
political groups i n this country went around knocking civilians, but was "... unable to reach agreement
on doors of former associates and apologising for on stronger restrictions on the use of anti-personnel
reporting on them. He had been informing on their mines". [Christchurch Press, 14 October 1995] The
activities for over twenty years. Secretary-General of the UN, Boutros Boutros­
Ghali, had urged the conference to ban landmines
US DENIES WHITlAM INTERVENTION altogether. Twenty thousand people, mostly
"The US State Department has again formally denied civilians, are killed or maimed by landmines every
any United States involvement in the dismissal of the year. According to the UN about 100,000 mines
Whitlam Government. But it has left nnanswered are cleared annually, but more than two million laid.
suggestions by the former Prime Minister, Mr Gough Proposals to use only "smart weapons" which self­
Whitlam, that the current US Secretary of State, Mr destruct after a set time were rejected on grounds
Warren Christopher, referred to US interference in of cost.

Peace Researcher Page 1 7

fpiday. Januapv 26 -

�unday January 2B
T he Wcll hopai spy base i nte rcepts c ommunicat ions coming
Into o r out of New Zealand and its P a c i f i c ne i g hbours .
T h is top sec ret Inte l l i gence gathering IS part o f British and
American operations t hat a re c losed to sc rutiny by NZ
Members of P a r l i ament.


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