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Waihopai, January 1996

Spy g

Stan Hemsley and tj-iends with his inva

In this issue: page

• New Zealand spies 2

• ABC members testify on ISA Bill 3
• Hearings on the Bill - Latest news 5
• Submission on the ISA Bill by Warren Thomson 5
• Submission by Anthony Lealand 9
• "Hippie-type individuals" arrested at Waihopai 10
• Book Review: "Seeing Red - Undercover in 1950s New Zealand" 13
• UK ministry sned MI5 "waging war of Harassment" 14
• The fate of the Black Birch Naval Observatory 15
• Canberra change will affect Oz defence 15
• CIA File 16
• Internet has international intelligence value for US military 17
• Spooky Bits 17
• Uranium and thorium mining could happen in Aotearoa 19
• Edward Teller at his finest 20
Spooks and spying don't figure hugely in the thinking committee (the ISC) to be created to make sure they
of this country. And the specially constituted behave themselves, won't either. In the legislation
Intelligence Select Committee considering legislation presently before the House, "day to day" operations
for our spies wants to keep it this way. are specifically exempt from examination. Furthennore
the ISC will be unable to access "sensitive infornlation"
A Bill is being fast-tracked through Parliament to - a phrase defined so widely that almost anything of
provide oversight ofthe Security Intelligence Service significance could be den ied to com m i ttee
(SIS) responsible for domestic security and spying, and investigation.
the super-secret Government Communications Security
Bureau (GCSB) which is tasked to safeguard New Under the Bill, the Prime Minister, who is currently
Zealand communications, hut also spies on infonnation responsible for the SIS and GCSB, will continue to
passing in and out of this country via satellite (faxes, have enormous power. He (or she?) determines who
E.·Mail, telexes etc) and radio communications (ships, will be on the ISC, determines when (or if?) it will
military. diplomatic ete) meet. decides what can be investigated and what can
be made public Similarly, the Directors of the SIS
The legislation was introduced into Parliament only and the GCSB can declare information sensitive and
hours before the House closed down for Christmas. The refuse to allow the ISC access to it.
public, most of whom were setting off for the summer
holidays, were given until the beginning of February In the past the record of the SlS has been suspect -
to respond to the B ill. After some pressure this was failure in the cases of the Rainbow Warrior and the
extended to February 21, and a second round of public Trades Hall bombing of Ernie Abbott, libellous
hearings had to be scheduled. But the special Select misinformation in the files of Don Carson, Tom Poata,
Committee - Bolger, MacKinnon, Graham, East, Clark, and others, accusations of sexism and "three year old"
Caygill and Matthewson, show little sign of wanting behaviollf from ex-officers, and political manipulation
to rein in the spooks,or even allowing a decent public of SIS information by fonner Prime Minister Muldoon.
debate on the legislation. (Under the present Bill political misuse of files would
be very simple.)
Members of the Anti-Bases Campaign in Christchurch
have taken a leading part in promoting discussion on For the first time the GCSB would come lInder statute
the Bill. We have worked with others to prepare and (but only to a limited extent). Not before time. But we
disseminate a kit that analysed the legislation, and gave are going to learn nothing more about this mysterious
some general background information. We have been organisation, and its present operations will in no way
very active in providing the media with information be inhibited by any democratic scrutiny. As most of
and releases; we have cajoled and encouraged others the espionage takes place in a close relationship with
to make submissions. The editors of Peace Researcher Australian, British, American and Canadian snooping,
appeared at the first round of hearings in Wellington relevant material will all be "sensit ive" - any
to make slIbmissions. In the midst of all this we put information relating to overseas governments or
together the annual Waihopai protest and the editors organ isations is a no-go area for Out elected
of Peace Researcher ended lip in the cells. representatives.

Our efforts are reflected in the contents of this issue of It's a great idea to set up a parliamentary committee to
the ABC journal. We've done what we can for the watch ollr watchers. But if it is going to be as blind,
moment. We hope that more people out there will be toothless and spineless as the present Bill suggests, we
adding their voices to the calls for full debate, for give a carte blanche to the agencies, and especially any
legislation t h at i s deli berate, democratic, and renegade or dissident elements within them, to interfere
demonstrably effective. The activities of secret spy in personal, political and commercial affairs in this
organisations, and the extent they are under proper country as they see fit.
control, are important measures of the health of
democracy in any country. We all need to get involved The legislation also sets up an Inspector-General to look
to make sure that AotearoaJNZ will measure up. into personal complaints and matters where the law
has been contravened. Don't hold out too much hope
The public are not given any information about what for the latter. But the provision to examine claims that
spying the SIS and the GCSB do, and the parliamentary an individual has been adversely affected by some

Page 2 Peace Researcher

action of the intelligence agencies could be a step committee and the House may be slower than originally
forward. Typically for this legislation however, there anticipated. This gives an opportunity to get to MPs
is a snag. The Chief ofthe agency has to agree in writing and quiz them on what they know about the legislation,
before the complaint can be investigated. and what they know about the spook agencies. Most
know virtually nothing. It is vital to shake them up on
The Bill as presently constituted is a dead duck - shot the issues and ensure some sort of intelligent debate is
through with holes and barely worth retrieving. The heard in the House. In particular, Labour MPs must be
manner of its introduction and the process of hearings told that acting in collusion with Bolger on this issue is
tell us, however that we can't trust our present good for neither Labour nor the country.
parliamentary leaders to supervise the spooks. We need
to give the select committee hell. New Zealand If you can spare a little time, write a letter, make a
democracy deserves better than this. phone call, see an MP. Legislation like this only comes
up once in a decade.
At the time of writing, a second public hearing of
submissions was being held in Wellington. Public ABC Christchurch will supply information ifrequested.
interest has been higher than the politicians wanted, Phone (03) 337-3465, Fax (03) 366-3988,
and the movement of the B il l through the select or write to Box 2258, Christchurch.

ABC members testi before select

committee on the Intelligence Bill
Warren Thomson and I travelled to Wellington for the definition of security (see some of the submissions
February 1 3 hearings on the Intelligence and Security elsewhere in this issue) as a response to the profound
Agencies Bill (ISA). Along with several other people, changes that have occurred in the global strategic
including David Lange, we appeared before the picture (military, economic and political). The shift of
committee chaired by Jim Bolger, and the leading lights intelligence activities into protecting our "economic
ofthe Labour and United parties, but with Jim Anderton well-being" opens a vast and ill-defined arena of spying,
of the Alliance conspicuously missing. Of course, he including industrial espionage. This development is
had never been invited to be a member of the totally consistent with expanded spying activities of
committee. Nor had Winston Peters, a maverick MP other UKUSA nations. It is particularly poignant in
who might be expected to have his own stimulating the context of the so-called "free-market" - the
ideas about oversight of spy agencies. unfettered global trade mentality that our National and
Labour governments have bought into so thoroughly.
One gentleman who testified in the afternoon labelled What is "free" about markets, what is "unfettered"
the committee a bunch of "patsies", leading to a about international trade when governments see fit to
complete loss of warmth in He/en C1ark's demeanour. turn their publicly-funded spy agencies loose on each
But given the overall attitude of the committee other for purposes of gaining industrial, economic and
throughout the day ("this is a good bill, but may need a political advantage? But the business world h'Lsn't
little fine-tuning"), the description seemed appropriate. seemed to pay much heed, or raise much of a fuss about
An Anderton or a Peters would have given the it. Perhaps that is because the real profits for the big
committee a spot of spark. And those who testified hoys, the transnationals, lie not in global free trade but
against the bill, or criticised it strongly, would have in the perpetuation of the massive inequities and
had three or four sympathetic ears at the table. Instead maldistributiol1 of wealth and power that exist today.
we were listened to politely but dismissively, except High tecll spying is one of the tools of that trade and
for the occasional remark fi'om C lark that, hmm ..., we little NZ is keen to play the game.
might look into that point.
But the committee was not sitting to hear that kind of
Almost every witness before the committee criticised argument. Mr Bolger in particular seemed to be
the expanded definition of security in the Bill (see Part resistant to hearing about any of the wider implications
HI of the Bill). That is one area in which we might see of the Bill. The main thrust of Warren's submission
some "fine-tuning". But don't expect any substantial and testimony was how NZ was linked into the western
changes. The Bill is quite deliberately broadening the intelligence network and what that meant in tenus of

Peace Researcher Page 3

lost independence and sovereignty. He asked at the reference to the SIS], and he said the "Fiji coup was a
outset of his testimony to show about four minutes of classic example". It should be noted that covert
video tape from overseas sources - first hand accounts intelligence overseas is not a defined SIS role. Either
of some of the really nasty business that overseas Mr Lange was wrong in his comment, or he knows
intelligence agencies conduct. Bolger would not have something we don 'I.
it. With no knowledge of the content of the tape, he
labelled it "hearsay" and refused permission to have it Mr Lange suggested that NZ needed more HUMINT
played for the committee. Warren persisted and did (human intelligence: real people spying on real people).
succeed in getting Bolger to accept the tape as part of "NZ needs to have the capacity to deploy people in the
the committee's evidence. We do not yet know if South Pacific." "We have been far too generous in
individual committee members have viewed or ever this country." He said there is subversion that should
will view the tape. be under surveillance. "You cannot expose the service
to a parliamentary committee." Only descriptions of
Warren then gave a brief summary of his submission the direction or broad operations should be known to
and answered some questions. I did the same. I parliament. Lange seems to be calling for a NZ service
focussed on the legality of GCSB electronic spying. parallel to the American CIA or British MI6.
Several knowledgeable people, including Ray Parker,
the director of the agency, had assured us that the GCSB Frequently during the day, there were references to the
and its activities were perfectly legal. It appears, difficulty of defining "subversion", and this included
however, that the "legality" is dependent on loopholes statements by the Special Committee members. The
deliberately written i n to international Aussies took the term "subversion" out of the act
telecommunications agreements by governments to creating its domestic spy agency (ASIO) because it was
allow spying to go on, while giving the general populace deemed too difficult to interpret. But Lange stated,
the impression that their private communications are "Subversion is easy. Any fool can determine what is
being protected. It's a cynical business. But what clse subversive."
is new? To his credit, David Caygill rose to the bait of
the claims of illegality in my submission. But he It seems Mr Lange would have us leave the detection
seemed satisfied when I related the gist ofMr Parker's of subversion to the "fools" ill the intelligence agencies,
reassurance about how the legal beagles made sure all and deprive the wise parliamentarians on the oversight
was neat and legal. Caygill did not notice my tongue committee of any details about the tools and tactics of
firmly planted in my cheek, nor did he comment when the fools. That's effective oversight, in the eyes of ex··
I pointedly raised the issue of the morality of the Prime Minister Lange, the man who presided over both
GCSB's electronic spying. Tangimoana and Waihopai but was quite happy to
admit that he never really understood the details of what
Both Messrs Parker (GCSB) and Mclvor, director of they did.
the Security Intelligence Service, sat silently throughout
the hearings. All in aiL it was an interesting day. It isn't often that
two hippy protesters gel to spend a day in the presence
Our total elapsed time before the committee was about of the Wellington power elite. We learned a lot. But
30 minutes. We came away wondering if they had did the committee?
absorbed and reflected on anything we had to say. Bob Leonard

There was some telling and cogent testimony over the

course of the day by the likes of Calh Wallace, Huge
Price, Jack Shallcrass and Maxine Gaye. But in the BASE DECEPTION:
eyes ofthe committee and the media, the star witness The US Military at Airport
was David Lange, the invited speaker who led off the
A new ABC violeo now available
festivities. I j o tted down a few fragments of his
ramblings, including: " . . . supremacy of those who
engage in security"; "paramilitary ethos" (in reference
to the SIS); "GCSB somehow had remained a secret
service"; "High threshold of suspicion of the SIS in
NZ"; "Distrust can never he removed"; 'This bill goes
Copies of "Base Deception" can be purchased
a long way to providing 'justice' for people who work
,, from ABC for $15 including postage. Send
for the organisation [SIS] ; "The level of their
cheques to ABC, Box 22.58, Christchurch.
intelligence p e n etration was extremely low" [ i n

Page 4 Peace Researcher

The second round of hearings on the ISA B i l l was held of its effectiveness unless it was spelt out what it
on 14 March in Wellington. A third hearing was to be actually was targetted to do. A submission by the
held a week later. Originally only one day of hearings Auckland Civil Liberties Council was presented by
was planned, so at least some message has been given Rodney Harrison, suggesting that the Bill was bad law
to the committee on the numbers of people determined and should not be passed in its present form. lane
to get to Wellington and give voice to their disapproval K elsey b l asted the comm ittee further on the
of the Bill. Over 90 submissions were received. impl ications of allowing surveillance under the
economic well-being clauses, and the bitterness in
At the second hearing the negative attitudes ofBolger current party politics was obvious when Jim Anderton
and Helen Clark continued to be evident, with the Prime said the legislation was designed to preclude certain
Minister in particular rude and dismissive to those parties who opposed the activities of the spy agencies.
pointing out the vast shortcomings in his Bill. Although
the committee have promised to look at rewording the Once again the session was attended by Mclvor and
clauses on economic well-being, substantive changes Parker - the heads of the S I S and the GC S B ,
in any part of the B i l l look unlikely. respectively. In spite o fthe fact that suhmissions have
publicised the grave deficiencies in the proposed
Nicky Hager' s submission pointed out to the weakness legislation, these two will be happy. There is no
ofthe proposed New Zealand legislation in comparison indication that the select committee will deviate from
with overseas legislation, where oversight and its prejudged positions. As Anderton said, a B i l l
accountability are much better defined. Kevin Hackwell purporting to bring security services under greater
told the committee that the GCSB should be properly parliamentary scrutiny in fact decreases the likelihood
legislated for, and that there could be no proper auditing of their public accountability.


Submitted by Warren Thomson
Main points in this submission implications of the intelligence relationsbips are not
subject to debate. The agreement locks this country into
I. Given that secret intelligence and security operations systems and postures that stem from the interests of
present acute dilemmas for democratic societies there bigger partners.
should be fu l l debate on the activities of such
organisations. The undue haste with which the 3. There is little evidence that the expensive data
legislation is proceeding is no credit to its promoters collection operations of covert organisations such as
and a serious disservice to democratic values in this the Government Communications Security Bureau are
country. Time for submissions, and for general public better than open collection of information by otber
debate, must be extended. properly resourced analysts. On tbe other hand covert
"The time is long overdue for an informed public debate operations have an enormous potential to trespass
on the UKUSA security and intelligence arrangements against long-establ ished rights to privacy of
and for the bases and parameters of UKUSA security communication and general rights of citizens.
and intelligence operations to be established through
open democratic processes." [Desmond Ball, former 4. The western intelligence agencies that NZ works
Director of the Strategic and Defence Studies Centre closely with, and who set the patterns for the whole
in Canberra1 UKUSA network, have consistently displayed
incompetence, criminality, deceit, and impropriety.
2. It is absurd that the general principles of the UKUSA While New Zealand intelligence agencies operate on a
Agreement are kept secret from the NZ public, and in level tiny by comparison with overseas western
peacetime it is not acceptab l e that the w ider organisations it should not be assumed that the major

Peace Researcher Page 5

problems exposed in tbe bigger partners are absent from bave periodically involved interference in domestic
NZ. politics.

5. Most of the publicly available information on the (e) Failure of Oversight. While oversight by elected
Security Intelligence Service reflects badly on that representatives has provided some controls over
organisation. While it is true that the SIS will have intelligence practices the evidence is that day to day
successes unknown to the public, it is also probable operations proceed pretty much regardless. Often the
that there are many cases of failure or incompetence politicians put on committees move on before they
which have not become public. The current Bill gives develop any real understanding of the covert systems;
no assurance that this will change, nor that intelligence relationships with other countries are used as an excuse
agencies will not be used covertly for domestic political for not revealing infonnation; the threat of real control
ends. can result in the emergence of "deniable" operations
involving "former" officers, mercenaries, co-operative
6. The routine activities of the SIS should be handled business executives, or private investigators etc.
by other organisations which are more open to proper
scrutiny - the Police, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and In New Zealand:
Trade, and so on. I. The Security Intelligence Service
(a) The public record of the SIS is poor.
7. With all due respect to busy and usually competent (b) In the cases of Don Carson, Tom Poata, and the list
ministers and senior politicians, their public comments of SUP mem bers released by PM M uldoon in
on intelligence agencies demonstrate little knowledge Parliament, there were gross and maligning errors. This
about the organisations they are planning to legislate incompetent and/or partial selection of data was only
for. discovered because the Prime Minister of the day tried
to use SIS information in Parliament for political
8. lfthe SIS and GCSB are given a mandate to operate advantage.
then they must be made properly accountable. The (c) No satisfactory explanation has been made of the
proposed law w i l l not do this and requires far more failure to protect the Rainbow Warrior from terrorism
examination and debate. unleashed by an "allied" secret service, nor ofthe failure
to apprehend the perpetrators (which the police
OPERATIONS OF INTELLIGENCE (d) There is no reason to disbelieve the statements of
ORGANISATiONS? the two ex-officers who said in 1 994 that in the late
eighties/early nineties they were being detailed to put
The Overseas Experience: surveillance on university lecturers and trade union
(a) Frequent Failures: Intelligence organisations have officials as well as diplomats. Such operations should
failed to give warning of most of the major events of be closely investigated. The statements of these ex­
the last forty years. officers did no! inlhe slightest threaten national security
and the law must allow comments such as theirs to be
(b) Worthless information. Information collected by made public.
c landestine m eans i s notoriously d i fficult to (c) The recent "Paradise Conspiracy" by a reputable
authenticate and/or interpret. (Between 1990 and 1 993 TV j o urnalist points to worrying activities by
the CIA fed dozens of misleading reports to the intelligence-related personnel in relation to events in
President) It is difficult to find examples where material Auckland and the Wine-box Inquiry, and warrant
collected by secret operations made a significant investigation.
contribution to govemmcnts.
2. The Government Communications Security Bureau:
(c) Occasional double-agents (e.g., Philby, Prime, (a) The hidden signals intelligence operations ofthis
Ames) have not only destroyed sections of the agency - separate from its function of protecting New
organisations but have actually given the advantage to Zealand Government Communications - are not open
perceived "enemies". to scrutiny by politicians and will proceed untouched
by the proposed parliamentary oversight.
(cl) Covert operations, which are unknown to the (b) Politicians have no independent sources capable
government, which go against pronounced govemment of auditing the GCSB operations - a unique situation,
policy, or sometimes even the government itself (e.g., and an exceedingly dangerous one. Only in the area of
PMs Wilson and Whitlam) have frequently been intelligence operations are governments totally and
carried out by elements ofinteiligence agencies. These utterly reliant for advice on the people who carry out

Page 6 Peace Researcher

that policy. management has been to cover up and almost always
(c) All available information shows that Tangimoana to find one or more scapegoats."
and Waihopai are part of a huge international effort Officer One: "These people know that they'll never
(under the UKUSA Agreement) to gather information be scrutinised, they'll never be disciplined and that's
for the benefit of the major western powers. It is by no the risk."
means clear that the benefits to New Zealand outweigh [Note: NZ does not have an equivalent of ASIS, but
the disadvantages of being a tiny cog in this immense the remarks have some relevance for all intelligence
machine yet there has never been any public debate of organisations.)
this issue.
(d) While by law the SIS has to get a warrant before 2. Knightley, Phillip: Journalist for the Sunday Times
being permitted to intercept communications, the with a special interest in intelligence issues. "The
technology of the G C S B a l lows it to intercept Second Oldest Profession", Pan Books, 1 986:
international communications with no reference to
political or judicial authorities - in blatant disregard to "There might, just might, be some justification for the
one of the most basic rights. Any oversight would have intelligence community if it did what it claimed to do:
to ensure that collection of "foreign intelligence" means provide timely warnings ofthreats to national existence.
only communications with neither sender nor receiver But, as we have seen, this claim is exaggerated even in
in New Zealand. Oversight would have to allow for wartime, and in peaclime, intelligence agencies seem
monitoring the likely development of computer to have spent more time trying to score off each other,
technology to develop and record individual phone protecting their budgets and their establishments, and
calls. Furthermore, it would also have to ensure that a inventing new justifications for their existence, than in
sister organisation, e.g., the DSD, were not tasked to gathering intel ligence." (p392)
collect New Zealand communications and pass them
back to the NZ agencies in a way that allows NZ spies 3. Murray, Gary: Journalist and founder of a successful
to deny domestic interceptions. private investigation company that was employed by
British Intelligence for various surveillance operations:
SOURCES AND REFERENCES "Enemies of the State", Simon and Schuster, 1 993, "".
a number of illegal acts, including violence and murder,
I. Four Corners: Code Name Man!ra. Australian TV have been committed by agents of British Intelligence,
Documentary - interviews with two former ASIS in some cases, with the connivance of Her Majesty's
Officers, February 1 994. Government." "". members of our so-called elite
[Narrator, Ross Coulthart) The interviews show services are capable of any i l legal act, including
"".Australians are being poorly served by their secret blackmail, telephone and mail interception, burglary -
service. Their allegations raise serious questions about and even assassination." (pvii, pI 03)
the operations and accountability of ASIS."
"Those operations they detail are sometimes of dubious 4. Richelson, Jeffrey: Consultant on Intelligence
benefit to Australia's national interest." "When ASIS matters in the US, author of a number of related books,
bngging experts do work for the British or Americans, leading commentator on inte l l igence activities.
they're often ordered not to tell Australia about their Interview for British TV's 'Despatches' Documentary
activities." "The Hill" , 6 September 1 993:
The story of 'Officer Two' "raises real concerns that,
in its zeal to be a major player in the intelligence club "Well, NSA, the National Security Agency, reports to
with Britain and America, A SlS sometimes a variety of units within the US Government, both in
compromises Australia's national interest." the executive branch and the congressional
Officer One: "I was puzzled when [Bill Hayden) said branch""NSA intercepts an enormous volume of
'What the hell is ASIS doing in this bloody part of the signals on a day to day basis. And no agency outside of
world?' And I said 'Well, don't really ask me. " it's not the National Security Agency can exercise the sort of
very reassuring to have your minister come through - micro management that would be necessary to oversee
because the M i nister for Foreign Affairs is in charge every one of its operations ... every aspect of its listening
of ASIS - to come through and ask you that question.'" operations""So on the onc hand there are a variety of
Officer Two: "I think i t ' s simply because the mechanisms by which the NSA is controlled by the
intelligence service, for many decades - namely, four­ executive branch and the Congress, at the same time
has not been subject to the sort of scrutiny that an NSA is harder to m icro manage and supervise on a
intelligence service must be subjected to and, along really detailed level than some other agencies."
the way, things have gone wrong, as they will in any "NSA has won a case in court which makes it possible
human organisation. The instinctive reaction of for it to intercept any communications that have one

Peace Researcher Page 7

foreign terminaL.which means NSA can target a "Some elements of the UKUSA community have also
conversation that has one of the ends in a foreign Ilsed the ties , obligations and allegiances of the
country..." UKUSA relationship to frustrate the intentions and
explicit policies of their own governments and
5. Richelson, Jeffrey, and Ball, Desmond: "Tbe Ties sometimes even to assist in the breach of their own
That Bind: Intelligence Cooperation between the national laws." (p305)
UKUSA Countries". Unwin Hymen, 2nd Edition,
1989. (Ball was for several years the Director of the 6. Robison, Robin: Until 1990 a middle ranking officer
eminent Australian National University's Strategic and in Britain's Joint Intelligence Committee, which is
Defence Studies Centre in Canberra): responsible for co-ordination of intelligence. From
Grenada TV's World In Action, shown in Abridged
"The UKUSA security and intelligence community, version TVI, 29/8/9\:
.with more than a quarter of a million full..time personnel "In practice the security and intelligence services were
and a total budget of $US 16 .. 18 billion, [ 1985] operating in a way which was deceitful at times, and at
constitutes one of the largest bureaucracies in the world. best creating a fog around the whole situation so that
As such, it not only wields enormous political power ministers knew as little as possibIe and the public knows
and influence, but also exhibits most of the typical next to nothing, and MPs knew little more than people
attributes oHarge bureaucratic organizations, including in the street"
a tcndency to define and pursue bureaucratic political "In my experience ministers would never set foot in
objectives which are not necessarily in complete the llC and we never ever received requests from
concordance with the national interests of the five ministers for information " [Narrator 1 "Suppose,
UKUSA countries themselves. (p30 1) hypothetically, a minister got himself busy and came
"". it is bound together an extraordinary network of to JlC and said he wanted to see the following files to
written and un.written agreements, working practices make sure things are being run properly?" "It wouldn't
ano personal relationships",,i! is able to shroud itself happen!" [Narrator] "How do you know that wouldn't
in secrecy and to invoke the mantle of 'national security' h a p p e n?" "Because we h a d f i l e s which were
to all extent unmatched by evell national defence specifically marked 'not forminister's eyes'" [Narrator]
establishments,", many of its elements have executive "You mean they were spedHcally marked 'not for
and coercive powers, including the right to indulge in minister's eyes'!'" "Yes" [Narrator] "How did that strike
extreme and violent practices (such as assassination you at the time?" "It cut across any pretence of
and 'special political activities') which are generally democratic accountability."
prohibited in national and illternational laws." (p30 1) The narrator, Nick Davics. states that "...more than 30
" ...undeniable benefits which flow from intelligence former officers. many of senior rank and long service,
co"operatioll muj exchange must be balanced against have told us of their concerns" [about lack of controls].
the costs, risks, and constraints whicb are imposed by One former intelligence officer told Davies 'The only
the UKUSA security arId intelligence arrangements, law at GCHQ is to do what you are told. IfM!5 or M!6
These impositions are particularly significant in the case wan! something. GCHQ provides it. The law just isn't
of the smaller UKUSA couotries." (p303) discussed. ))
"no matter how friendly two coulltries may be ..
national i n t e rests will r a r e l y be i n complete 7. Wrigley, Alan: Former head of ASIO and former
concordance." (p303) deputy secretary of the Department of Defence.
[Priorities of the UKUSA community] ." "can lead to Repotted ill The Press, 27 November, 1993:
a distortion "fth" defence postures and foreign policies
of the smaller UKUSA coulItries"J! is also likely that Mr Wrigley "has made a scathing assessment of
the degree of independence enjoyed by the smaller Australia's intelligence and called for a full
parties in their policy making can be t.xmstrained review of fmure funding, He also claimed spies played
hy the existence ,,[such dose relationships up to the 'gullibility' of politicians who over-rated the
with powers with more global interests." "In value of their assessments. Mr Wrigley told a national
times of war or the demands and obligations of security conference ill Canberra that over the last two
secrer and tend readily decades the contribution of secret intelligence from
to conflict with avowed " (p304) overseas sources to the devdopment of Australia's
"One of the fealures of the lUKUSA] defence policy had only beell slight 'In my exposure,
relationship and one· ofits strengths over 10 years in defence, to increasingly sensitive
- is that demen!s of it come to perceive their classified information, I can think of no major policy
ultill1ate a, more with the UKUSA position or decision that was influenced significantly
community than with tlrCll' own governments." (p305) by secret intelligc1lce' he said. 'Changes in Australia's

Page 8 Peace Researcher

strategic environment made it difficult to justifY the party in the Western alliance.' ... He found it 'alarming'
high cost of technical intelligence collection in the so many politicians had 'such blind faith' in the value
region, a job undertaken by Australia's most secret and importance of intelligence.... The current concern
agency, the DSD,' said Mr Wrigley. The most costly was that the gathering and analysis of intelligence was
intelligence and processing programmes Australia no longer as independent and objective as it needed to
conducted were initiated because of our role as a minor be,"

Professionals Limited




My submission relates in particular to an incident which occurred in 1994 with the Ihen Security
Intelligence Service.

In Christchurch on 20-25 February 1994, The Firoworks Company hosted the 19trllnternational
Pyrotechnics Society Conference. The list of attendees from countries such as Brilaln, Canada,
Sweden, the United States, Australia, Brazil, France, China and Japan included many high
ranking people from industrial, military and research institutions and governmenl officiels.

We were approached by the Security intelligence Service shortly before the start of the
Conference and asked why Russian scientISts were attending. We were amazed to discover
that the Russian scientists were considered some threat to New Zealand, despite the fact that
the Conference was a frank and open seminar with published Proceedings available worldwide
and a mamber of the New Zealand military attending.

tt was with some considerable asperity that I refused to grAnt the Security Intelligence Service
an interview after the Conference. I pOinted out Ihat they were welcome to attend the
Conference by paying the appropriale fees. Further, if they wished 10 interview Ihe Russien
scientist in question, Or Tatyana Pivina, she was lecturing in the Chemistry Department al
Canterbury Universily.

The Socurity Intelligence Service did not have the technical facilities 10 avail begin an analYSIS
of what the Conference was about The gentlemen sonl 10 interview me had absolutely no
technical knO'wledge whatsoever and referred vaguely to "drawing a ring around New Zealand

It is clear from this that thH processes by which the Security Intelligence Service determine thelf
policies and priorities need to be ciAariy available for public scrutiny and debale

The thoughl Ihat in 1994 a "ring" would heve [0 be drawn around New Zealand pyrotechnic
knowledge is so ludicrous that one wonders whot instruction the Department really received
from the Prime Minister Was he aware of their archaIC policies which appoared to be so at
odds with Goverrlm(001 attitudes al thalllme? The list of people attending the seminar from a
w i d e range of military and research establishments throughout the world indicates that the
Security Intelligence Service was unable to grasp the nature of thiS event and by nol a\lendlng
missed El wonderful opportunity to acquaint themselves with a wide rango of enlightening

I submit that the Bill should have a section drafted in it which clearly lays open to publiC scrutiny
and debate Ihe determining policies ot the Security Intelligence Service's thrust

Anthony Lealend

In a letter to Peace Researcher Anthony Lealand asks that his personal point of view be acknowledged. He
states that "a s ecret service with an archaic agenda of cold war, and not subject to scrutiny could well be a
national liability. I support a strong open intelligence service with access to information for interested parties ".

Peace Researcher Page 9

"Hippie-Type Individuals"
Arrested at Waihopai
The following passages were reported i n t h e province and am impressed that people would bother
Marlborough Express, 2 9 January 1996, the weekend to travel here to raise our awareness of the base and the
after the annual protest at the Waihopai spy satellite provisions of t h e n e w internal secuntles
installation near Blenheim. legislation....... When Sgt Rigby reverts to his head in
Six people, arrested during a protest at the Waihopai the sand attitude of labelling protesters as 'hippie type
satellite station on Saturday, were dealt with in the individuals', he leaves himself open to be labelled a
B lenheim District Court this morning. The three men 'small town redneck policeman'." J. Ryan.
'and three women, described by Blenheim Police
Sergeant Ken R i gby as "hippie-type individuals" all "Sgt Ken Rigby' s remarks about the Waihopai
denied charges of trespass. protesters are way out of court. They are prejudicial to
Five of them were arrested as they walked along the the proper course of j ustice and inflammatory. They
driveway which crosses defence department land engender fear in those who disagree with his extreme
between a public road an inner security fence. The sixth political views.... " Norman Fletcher
was arrested nearby.
The article goes on to quote the voluble Sergeant "Sgt Ken Rigby - saviour of Marlborough, social
Rigby... commentator, and conductor of social surveys .... He
"Sergeant Rigby said trouble emerged this year because describes 'hippie type' persons. What are they? ... Scary
police refused to enter an agreement with the protesters stuff Sgt Rigby - what's next? Talkback or should we
over where could go. 'They have never kept their go straight to the public flogging of people you fail to
word before. We told them to stay off defence land but tolerate .... " Liz Michaels
they didn't.' In the past protesters had agreed to stay
away from the fence but had then attacked it with Against the protesters
cutters, he said. Police were tired of the protesters' "I'm not concerned with the infantile antics of half a
underhand tactics." dozen publicity seeking malcontents ....." Tom Fletcher,
Our friend Sergeant Rigby goes on to say ... NZ First Candidate in 1993 Election
"Blenheim people's attitude towards Waihopai is that
it provides employment and brings dollars into the "But democracy accords rights to all of us. Not only
town. Most people don 't give a toss over what goes on the decent, intelligent and hardworking contributors to
out there" our community, but also to the disenchanted and
And his final words ... embittered, the social misfits and the dropouts, even
"These hippie..type individuals come to town and expect the miserable few who proceeded with their pathetic
to impress Blenheim people. but it doesn'l work," said annual ritual at Waihopai.. .... " John Adeane
Mr Rigby.
The annual pilgrimage of the Anti,Bases Campaign to In the main, what this media debate served to do, was
the Waihopai satellite spy-base near B lenheim in to put the issue of the spybase firm ly back into the
January of thi, year produced some surprising results. minds of the Blenheim people.
Not least of these surprising results was the strong
reaction in the media to some of the comments made So... what actually happened?
by Rigby. As a consequence, there has recently been On the Friday afternoon/evening of the 26th of January,
great debate (both for and against) occurring in the the scene at the camp was genial disorder as usual.
Marlborough lcxpress regarding the appropriateness of Everyone was arriving for what has become the annual
Sgt Rigby's comments. Many have even managed to Waihopai demonstration. People running to and fro,
write fairly fervent letters in opposition to the spybase debating the suitability of the river campsite, the
itself. struggle to set up the hired marquee, the picking up of
the Port-a-Ioos, the collection of people from the ferry
Some excerpt'§ from letters to the Marlborough Express (too many people, too little transportation), and the
are quoted here: buying up of sustenance to feed hungry protesters were
all signs that the weekend was beginning well. After
In support of the protesters: dark had fallen and the soup had heen served, we called
"I, for one, do not l ike its [the spybase1 presence in our the first action planning meeting for the weekend and

Page 10 Peace Researcher

some of us decided to visit the base that night to and veterans ofWaihopai demos got fairly incensed at
'surprise' whomever was there. this notion; in previous years, protesters had been
allowed up to the perimeter fence to have a closer look
Some surprise .... We managed to pile into 2 cars and at the base itself. Therefore there was a very strong
headed out to the base. We hadn't gone very far when feeling in the camp that the new police 'line' was 110t
someone spotted a white car with impressive looking acceptable and that we would challenge their assertions.
red and blue l i ghts on top ofit turning around to follow
us. We continued driving out to the base and had just We decided on activities for the day - the first a picnic
passed the Waihopai Valley turnoffwhen suddenly we lunch out at the hase. According to those who attended
were accompanied by 2 more of tllese fancy cars, and the picnic, all went we l l (although some serious
a little further on they started to flash their pretty lights reconstruction work needs to he done if we arc to
(a better light show than the base itself as it turned out) continue to use the surface of the road as a cricket pitch).
and pulled both of our cars over to the side ohhe road. A further action, challenging the line drawn on crossing
They asked to see the warrants, registrations, and the the farm gate, was organised. Some people who felt
licences of the car drivers. Okay.. no problem, all fully able to accept the possibility of getting arrested,
legal and roadworthy. Then the crunch issue. The boys volunteered themselves for this task. The rest of the
in blue (and yes they were all male!) asked for the group prepared to support the action, some by crossing
names, addresses, phone numbers. and ages ofall those the farm fence, with the remaining people staying as
in the Kombi van. If we refused we would be arrested. support at the front gate - and thus the plan was made.
Heavy. Given that it was a dark night on a secluded
stretch of road, the passengers thought that it might be We leapt into cars (a tight squeeze given the lack of
wise to give in this time, although some were clearly transport) and headed out to the base. Almost as soon
not happy with the precedent. So we reluctantly gave as we arrived there, people spread themselves out along
in to this intimidation, and continued on our merry way the feoceline and the attempt to approach the perimeter
to the base under police escort. fence began. For those who confronted the main road
gate, the activity was almost over before it had begun.
The rest of the evening wasn't terribly eventful - just As soon as the five who led the way jumped over the
some meaningful gazes at the base off in the distant gate, the police nabbed them. The five all said that they
farmland once we reached our destination. Some of us were going to walk to the perimeter fence, an idea tbat
were officially warned about the trespass law, and didn't find favour with the police, so instead they got
Warren Thomson and myself, being under trespass (0 ride in the back of a police van.
orders, were warned hy name. We had hoped that the
spies in the base would provide us with their usual light One of the police persons had a nice doggy with him,
show (reminiscent of the movie Close Encounters of and at that stage the policeman decided to take his
the Third Kind), but alas,
we had to be content with
the police cars flash ing
again. So, about half an
hour after we arrived, we
left for the camp.

The next morning it was

quite a rev e l at i o n to
actually see who was at
camp (the hlackness of the
previous n i gh t d i d not
make it easy t o identify
people). We breakfasted,
then quickly got i n to
meeting mode to make the
necessary arrangements
for the weekend. Police had
ear l i e r warne d us that
anyone who crossed the
farm gate would be arrested
for trespass. The old-timers

Peace Researcher Page 11

doggy for a very quick walk to arrest another passing was back to camp for a report and to decide what to
protester who was ambling along on the farm land. do next. A decision was taken by default not to do
He was handcuffed to the fence with plastic handcuffs, any more actions that night (something that some were
alongside one of the women who was arrested earlier. not too happy about).

Meanwhile some ofthe other protesters had gone on The next day time was spent packing up the camp,
a little jaunt around the perimeter of the farm fence to before taking another trip out to say goodbye to the
keep the GCSB surveillance equipment on its toes. base and picking up those bailed out of the cells. We
Those who went on the escapade jumped continually had heard that the Greens were going to pay a surprise
over the fence onto defence land, and then back again visit to the base on Monday night, and were quite
when the police came too near. This game of cat and pleased, because the police had been harassing us all
mouse went on on both sides of the GCSB property weekend (following us around Blenheim to see where
.for about half an hour after the van of protesters had we went) - setting new precedents for Blenheim
been taken away. Police, and they would be quite annoyed if they had
to go to the base on the Monday night as well. So, a
However, the two protesters tied to the fence actually debriefing was held at the house of Evin Wood (a
achieved one of the aims of the protest. They got a long time protest supporter and all round good guy),
ticki tour inside the base enclosure itself when the where we discussed the weekend, the arrests, what
police car they were in got lost driving around inside. would happen next, and ferry timetables.
So much for relying on directions from the police!
The weekend ended quietly there for many. On the
So the arrested protesters were eventually taken back Monday, five of the six arrestees appeared in court
to Blenheim with the usual threat made about keeping (the sixth got diversion), and all pleaded not guilty.
them in until Monday. Some people fol lowed them Going on past history (despite many arrests since
in to Blenheim later (after a brief debriefing) to find 1990, not one person has been convicted - yet!), who
out what was going on. A few stayed behind to do knows when the cases will be heard, if ever. But watch
media work, legal work, and to cook some food. Those this space, because as sure as spies do spy at Waihopai,
who went to Blenheim had a check-in at the Police the protesters will be back again soon to protest. Watch
Station to find out what was happening, and then went this space.
off to the local watering hole for a quick stop. Then it Melanie Thomson,

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The acutely devastating humour of Marlborou[?h Express cartoonist Mark Dower

Page 12 Peace Researcher

Undercover I n 1 9505 New Zealand.
By George Fraser. Dunmore Press. 1 6 1 pp. $24.95.
- Murray Horton

Any political activist can tell stories about spies. They was a striking beauty who would turn the head of
are tbe people who come out ofnowhere to join a group, any red blooded male, but it was her sometimes
and return to nowhere when their job is finished. They searing attacks and plans for retribution on the
are usually thin on politics but very thick on offering conservative politicians in the nearby Parliament
to look after any lists of members or finances. They Buildings which drained that blood away". And
have unlimited time, no visible means of support and Fraser had a quite paranoid (and utterly unfounded)
eagerly join as many groups as possible. ! can think of fear for his own personal safety. He toted a pistol to
at least three I 've personally encountered, one as a meeting in a private home, only to be mortified as
recently as 1 995. My favourite story is of the fellow it slipped down the back of the couch, leaving him
who joined all manner of innocuous organisations in to try to retrieve it unnoticed.
the Wellington area, only to be dabbed in by his very
own Dear Old Mum who was an activist in onc. Ultimately the book tells us very little about either his
spybosses or the communists. Rather it tells us more
Currently the Government, with the active support of than we wanted to know about Fraser's states of mind
Labour and United, is trying to bulldoze the Intelligence throughout He emerges as a self centred individual, a
and Security Agencies Bill through Parliament, the first frustrated musician who went on to become a provincial
legislative look at our spies and eavesdroppers since journalist He publicly came out in opposition to the
the 1 977 SIS Amendment Act and the huge public SIS during that 1 977 campaign. But his main criticism
campaign against it So it's appropriate that one or" our" is the way they treated him - he only mentions in passing
very own spies should publish his memoirs, a rarity in the damage his spying, and the use to which it was put,
New Zealand. inflicted on any number of perfectly worthy individuals.
His gripe is that, when his cover was aboul to be blown,
That said, this book is a disappointment It covers events the SIS packed him and his family offto the US with a
of over 40 years ago and not particularly well at that It promise that he would be looked after by the Big
is strictly personal reminiscence, with no attempt at a Brother agencies there. When they arrived - surprise,
broader analysis or placing it in any sort of historical surprise - nothing. After a couple of hard scrabble years
context Motivated by the anti-communism of the times, he returned to NZ, to find himself unwelcome with his
George Fraser volunteered to be a Police Special former employers. He had become a liability and a
Branch spy within the Communist Party (now the nuisance. The sum total of his nine year's selfless
Socialist W o r kers Organisation), primarily i n service as a spy was that he had been used and disposed
Wellington, but also i n Greymouth and Auckland. He of The analogy that comes to mind is toilet paper. I
was a spy throughout the 1 950s, being passed on by can't say I felt the slightest sympathy.
Special Branch to the newly formed Security
Intelligence Service (all three words could be defined
as misleading advertising). PROTESTORS DAMAGE
Even though its subject is so long ago, Fraser doesn't U K BOMBE RS
reveal very much. He doesn't name many names (I At the end ofJanuary thrcc women broke into an
recognised one fellow who later cropped up as SIS head aircraft hangar in Lancashire and vandalised a
in Christchurch in the 1 970s) or tell us much about the ground-attack aircraft similar to those that British
internal workings of the communists. When writing Aerospace has contracted to supply to the
about the working class or unionist branches of the Indonesian Government The protestors were
party, he reveals his lower middle class contempt for publicising the likely use of the aircraft in East
the great unwashed. But he was much more deferential Timor against the pro-independence resistance
towards the academics and intellectuals ofthe Victoria to the Suharto Government British Aerospace
University or Wellington Central branches. has a 500 million pound ($NZ 1 .2 billion) contract
to supply 24 Hawk j ets to the Indonesian
The style is florid and dated. Writing of a y oung Government.
woman active i n meetings at the time, he says "She

Peace Researcher Page 73

The news o f t h e beating of Patsy Dale, b y a thug using an iron rod, came shortly after publication oflhe article
below. She was beaten at her home in the early evening and suffered severe bruising. This is only the latest in a
history of intimidation going back to the early eighties when Palsy Dale began to fight the British Government
over the issue of compensation for a child born with deformities which are believed to have arisen from the
father's exposure to radiation in a British submarine.


family tell of death threats
by Bermm:l Phelan Irish Star, 26 February 1 996

A West oflreland family claims to have received death This has frightened the life out of my mother-in-law."
threats from MI5 since taking legal action against the
British government. Mrs Patsy Dale is suing the Gardia are investigating the claims but have so far failed
Ministry of Defence on behalfof her son Stephen (22), to substantiate them. "We have spent a considerable
who was born with a cleft palate and brain damage. amount of time on the case," said one detective. The
She believes the defects were caused when his father, Dales have been supported in their court claim by a
Danny Davis, was exposed to radiation while serving former top naval intelligence officer. Commander Rob
on a British nuclear submarine.The accident is alleged Green has uncovered a horrifying gap i n safety
to have occured in 1 97 1 at Rosyth naval dockyard in procedures on British nuclear subs, dating back to the
Scotland, during the refit ofthe sub HMS Resolution. early 1 970s. He says crew members are still being put
at risk.
Mrs Dale , who now lives in Lifford, Ennis, County
Clare with her second husband Gordon Dale, believes DEFORMITIES
many other naval fami l ies have been affected by Commander Green says his evidence shows that the
radiation. But she is the only one, so far, to bring an ratio of deformities among their children is 1 00 times
action against the authorities. The historic case could higher than average. Stephen Dale's father was a chief
open the floodgates to hundreds of similar claims. But petty officer on the Polaris sub when she underwent a
since starting proceedings in the late 1 980s, Mrs Dale refit at Rosyth in 1 9 7 1 and 1 973. His mother Patsy -
claims she was forced out of Britain by an MI5-backed she and Danny have since divorced - said "When
campaign of harassment. Stephen was born I was distraught. Then I discovered
other mothers were having babies with similar
RANSACKED deformities." Top London legal firm Leigh Day and
And since resettling in County C lare, she and Gordoll Co are handling Stephen's case. British MEP Alex
say they have endured death threats, burglaries and Falconer and nuclear analyst John Large also support
assaults. Mr Dale alleges that in the last fortnight: the move.
* Their house was ransacked twice
* Research papers compiled by Mrs Dale were stolen People concerned are asked to write to
and later returned ( I ) Foreign Minister Dick Spring, Clo Department of
Three death threats on paper were pushed through Foreign Affairs, 76-78 Harcourt St, Dublin, Ireland,
the letterbox. Fax: 00 353 1 478 0593, asking him to investigate the
* Mrs Dale's elderly mother, who lives with them, harassment and support the legal case against British
was also targetted. government;
(2) The Editor, The Star, Star House, 62a Terenure Rd
"Last year my wife was confronted at gunpoint by a North, Dublin 6w, Ireland, Fax: 00353 1 490 2 1 93;
man in the garden," said Gordon Dale. "We have been Ask the paper to continue to cover the slory and
unable to identify this person bill believe he is acting comment on the implications for democracy.
on behalf of British intelligence in order to intimidate (3) to the family: Patsy and Gordon Dale, 5 Lifford,
us into dropping our case. There has also been banging Ennis, County Clare, Ireland.
on the windows, day and night for the past few months.

Page 74 Peace Researcher

"US observatory' s future in the stars" read the leader phased out because their functions can be carried out
on a Christchurch Press story ( 1 4 Feb 1 996). What much more accurately via the Hipparcos satellite which
followed in the "Up Blenheim Way" column by Ted has been in orbit for several years.
Reynolds was a rather muddled account of what is
happening to the US Naval Observatory on Black Birch On 1 7 January this year the Press ran a small classified
ridge near Blenheim. Reynolds thought the demise of advert entitled "Blenheim Black Birch Observatory
the US observatory was a shame and that the wonderful (Registration). The advert invited tenders "for the
facility ought to be given to the Carter Observatory, complete demolition and clearing of the above site ... " .
which he assumed still existed just a bit further up the "Work is expected to start in early April 1 996 ... "
ridge. He was corrected by a letter to the editor a few Registrations were to be filed with the Public Works
days later. The old Carter Observatory was closed in Officer at Operation Deep Freeze, also a US Naval
October 1 994, its telescope relocated in Wellington. faci lity.

Reynolds may also think that the Naval telescope is a Readers who are unfamiliar with the issues surrounding
conventional one and would be ofuse as a replacement the Black Birch Observatory should refer to several
for the Carter facility. Of course the US Navy one is a previous issues of Peace Researcher (Numbers 4, 20,
transit-circle telescope that can only swing along a 22, 27). We have reported on Black Birch as a US
north-south axis. Its function is very specialised - military installation and given detailed reasons why it
timing the passage of heavenly bodies as they pass the did not belong in nuclear-free Aotearoa/NZ. In brief,
meridian, its star maps are being, or will certainly be, used to
provide accurate star maps to the U S military for
A further misunderstanding by Mr Reynolds involves purposes of improved ste l lar inertial guidance of
where the Americans have gone to from Black Birch. nuclear-armed ICBM3.
He suggested they were moving to the Andes to
continue "producing a super-accurate map of the The Observatory operated for its ful l I O-year program
northern sky". We hadn't heard that story and it seems and is now obsolete. It will probably be demolished
highly unlikely. The telescope actually came to Black on schedule. We just wish wc could have gotten rid of
Birch from a South American installation, not the other it a lot sooner.
way around. And land-based telescopes are being Bob l,eonard

The election results in Canberra are bad news for the such as cruise missiles to give the Australiau military
Anti-Bases Campaign on both sides oft!!e Tasman. The a new strategic strike {(lrce." [ 1 4 February 1 996] John
new Howard Government is likely to want even closer Howard also pledged to "quarantine" the Australian
ties with Washington, and the possibil.ities of closing Defence Force from allY budge! cuts, and use money
down bases such as Pine Gap and N urrungar arc even from savings ill other areas to expand the army, boost
further away than under the Labor Government It's military firepower, and improve conditions of service
hard to be enthusiastic about Kim Beasley holding his for ADF personnel.
seat - his bullying of New Zealand over the frigates
issne and his build up of Anssie strike torees as Defence The expansion of the army will be a controversial area
Minister were bad news - but it looks like the peace as a recent Defence Department paper outlining the
movement will be in for a lot worse. future of the Austra lian armed forces apparently
recommends making some expensive full-time soldiers
According to the Sydney Morning Herald "A coalition redundant i n order to pay for the extra equipment and
government would begin moves to arm Australia's six modern weapons needed for a reorganised force of
new Collins Class submarines with 'stand-off' weapons smaller, highly mobile task units. The report, Army

Peace Researcher Page 15

2 1 , says that 5 ,000 soldiers would be shed and apparently well under strength. This reduction of
supporting units such as artillery absorbed into new numbers seems now likely to reverse, although the new
self-conta i n e d units. How far this w i l l get i s regime in Canberra might rely more on well-trained
problematical as senior officers are likely to oppose reservists. In opposition the speaker on defence issues
such a concept . [See the Herald, 1 3 February 1 996] for the Liberals was Senator Jocelyn Newman. If she
takes the Defence portfolio in the new government she
The ADF have just under 60,000 personnel. This is will probably have to take a hard line to prove she is
down by about 1 0,000 from ten years ago. Under the one of the boys. Not a good outlook for the peace
Labor Government army numbers dropped from over movement and for the Anti-Bases Campaign.
30,000 to 25,000. Most of the army's combat units are Warren Thorns""

CHRISTCHURCH WAS HOME has benefitted hugely from the resulting publicity, not
FOR EX-CIA OFFICER least from being able to generate huge anti-American
Thanks to the voracious reading habits ofour CAFCA­ resentment in Iran and sympathetic countries.
ABC worker, it has been revealed that the long-standing
Morgan-Foretich custody battle over an American child MORE DODGY DEALS WITH THE VATICAN?
has an interesting CIA connection. The man who The Christchurch Press reported just before Christmas
brought his granddaughter to New Zealand in 1 98 5 to that a former CIA agent was arrested i n Italy in
start a new life had been a CIA officer in earlier years. connection with a probe into a money-laundering ring
Dr William Morgan worked in the Office of Strategic involving the Catholic Archbishop of Barcelona.
Services during the Second World War, and joined the "Reports in Italian and Spanish newspapers allege that
CIA when it was formed later. He is reported to have Cardinal Caries oversaw the laundering of $NZ l OO
left the CIA (if people ever really do) in 1 95 7. million in lire into US dollars through the Vatiean bank,
According to the Christchurch Star [ 1 3 March, 1 996] the Institute of Religious Work." [4 December] Roger
Morgan remained in Christchurch for ten years. He D 'Onofrio was arrested near Naples on suspicion of
returned to the States, dying in Washington DC this using his CIA contacts to help launder money and traffic
year. It is fascinating to speculate that NZ may be seen arms, drugs, and radio-active material. D'Onofrio is
as a safe haven for other CIA personnel and their 72, past the age of CIA staffers, but it is standard CIA
families who wish to escape their previous l ives. practice to use deniable sources for such activities and
he may or may not have been acting for himself. Caries
CIA RELUCTANT TO TAK E ON IRAN? has denied wrongdoing, but the CIA has a long record
At the end of last year Newt Gingrich demanded that of working covertly though the Catholic Church (for
the CIA set up a new covert action plan to destabilise example, in Poland and South America).
the Iranian Government. According to Time magazine
Maxwell Smart himself could not have "devised a more CIA AND ARAFAT - WHAT'S GOIN G ON?
feckless strategem than a scheme now foisted on the After the latest Hamas suicide bombings Yasser Arafat
CIA" . [5 February 1 996] $ US 1 8 million has been has been under immense pressure to suppress Islamic
earmarked for this scheme. Other sources said militants in self-ruled Palestinian areas. News reports
Gillgrieh's proposal was the reason the Senate and have announced that Arafat met CIA Deputy-Director
House had taken so long to agree over a new $US28 George Tenet and other CIA officials atthe Erez border
billion budget for the intelligence community. Time crossing between Israel and the Gaza strip early in
reports American spymasters totally opposed any March. It is believed that the men from Langley met
covert action scheme against Iran, Intelligence officials the Palestinian leader to persuade him to arrest members
believe it is one of the most difficult targets, and the of Qassam - the military wing of Hamas - which has
CIA has a long history of debacles there to prove it. claimed responsibility for several ofthe suicide attacks
These include the failure to foresee the 1 979 revolution 011 Israeli citizens. What was really behind the news
against the C IA-backed Shah, the disaster for local stories remains to be seen. It seems unlikely that Arafat
agents when Iranian militants reconstituted shredded would be happy to be publicly known to be meeting
Embassy files, the U S Embassy hostages and the CIA officials. It seems more likely that Arafat would
bungled rescue attempt, the Iran-Contra affair, and be assassinated, or at least lose considerable support,
probably others not yet known. Gingrich's plan for a for doing so. Another CIA mystery to be unravelled.
secret campaign generated so much debate that Iran

Page 16 Peace Researcher

I nternet Has I nternational
I ntelligence Value For U .S . Military
According to David Corn (, the Washington editor of The Nation, Internet users need to be aware
that the U.S.Pentagon may take great interest in their cyber-communications. Last summer, Charles Swett, a
policy assistant in the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and Low-Intensity
Conflict, produced a report on the intelligence value of the Internet for the Defense Department In addition to
early warnings of significant developments ahroad, the Internet could also be used "offensively as an additional
medium in psychological operations campaigns and to help achieve unconventional warfare objectives." A
significant part ofthe report is devoted to the activities of San Francisco-based Institute for Global Communications
(http://www ., which operates several computer networks used by progressive activists. IGC demonstrates
"the breadth of DoD-relevant information available on the Internet," such as anti-nuclear arms campaigns, the
extreme right, social change, and "multicultural, multi-racial news". Swett's paper presents the world of opportunity
awaiting a cyber-shrewd military and intelligence establishment. Networks of human sources with access to the
Internet could be developed in areas of security concern to the U.S.," says Swett. He also envisions "Psychological
Operations" in which U.S. propaganda could be rapidly disseminated to a wide audience, The Swett paper is
"refreshingly candid," says Steven Aftergood of the Federation ofAmerican Scientists, who placed a copy of it on
the FAS Web site on government secrecy (, where it is being downloaded
about twenty times a day. "We must be doing something right," notes George Gundrey, program coordinator at
IOC. (The Nation; March 4, 1 996, from International Internet NewsClips (@) by - Marsha


In recent years several stories about phone tapping have Office were sacked by Congress at the end ofF ebruary
made the newspapers in France. [n 1 994 four law this year. The Director and Deputy-Director stepped
enforcem,nt officials and an aide to then President down after allegations that the NRO, which is
Mitterand were charged with violating the privacy of responsible for maintaining satellite surveillance
journalists, lawyers, opposition politicians, and an operations, had a $US one billion dollar slush fund.
actress, by tapping their phones between 1 983 and 1 986. Reports of incompetent and/or devious covert financial
Now new reports show that more dodgy domestic control , involving sums more than $US two billion,
eavesdropping took place between 1 987 and 1 993 when became public in January. In 1 994 the NRO upset
the General D irectorate for External Security (the Senators when they discovered it was going ahead with
DGSE which sank the Rainbow Warrior) and the a huge new headquarters complex without telling the
Directorate for the Surveillance of National Territory Senate how big or expensive ($US300m) it was going
tapped telephones with Prime Ministerial approval. to be.
Although French law stipulates wiretapping may only
be carried out in cases involving national security, the TH E FI FTH MAN?
safeguarding of information considered essential to The KGB museum in Lubyanka Square is introducing
France 's scientific and economic interests, and the a new exhibit featuring John Cairncross, who has been
prevention ofterrorism and organised crime, it is clear frequently claimed to be part of the Philby, Blunt,
that lawyers, politicians andjournalists were Ollce more Burgess and MacLeall group tbat passed British secrets
the targets. Some taps were carried out with the to the Russians. Cairncross died last year. His memoirs
approval of defence and interior ministers - both have been written and should be published soon.
socialist and cOllservative. Cairncross worked as a treasury official and later at
[Christchurch Press, 27 February 1 996) Bletchley Park for the GCHQ codebreakers. He denied
ever being a traitor, saying any information he passed
N RO C H I EFS SACKED on was material that helped the Soviet Union defeat
The two top officials ofthe US National Reconnaisance Hitler.

Peace Researcher Page 77

OTHER KGB NEWS i s t o blame has been widely reported i n South African
Russia's new Foreign Minister is Yevgeny Primakov, papers. The Herald reports the ANC Government has
whose previous job was the head of the foreign appointed a judicial committee to make inquiries.
intelligence service, the Sluzhba Vneshnei Razvedaki
(SVR). Primakov was appointed to take control of ISRAELI ITEMS
Russia's overseas espionage in October 1 9 9 1 . He has For a country geographically much smaller than New
been responsible for attempting to reform the former Zealand, it is surprising how often items about the
KGB First Chief Directorate, and its relationships with military and intelligence forces of l srael occur in our
the spy agencies of other nations. But western newspapers. Recent ones reveal that the head of the
intelligence officers condemn his actions, and express security service, Shin Bet, has resigned "just three days
concern about h i s intentions to improve Russia's after the killing of a wanted Palestinian bombmakcr
relations with Iran and Iraq. recovered some ofthe damage the service sum:red from
the assassination of Y itzhak Rabin". [Christchurch
COUNTERFEIT Press, 1 0 January 1 996] The al leged bombmaker was
us intelligence sources are claiming that Iran is forging assassinated by a bomb placed in a mobile telephone.
$ 1 00 United States notes, and tbe operation has been In the meantime Shin Bet bas WOll the right to use force
called an act of war. Given Washington's consistent against Palestinian prisoners under interrogation (surely
attempts to malign Iran the allegations inay be a phoney the ultimate abrogation of civilised behaviour in any
as the notes. state). Israe l ' s H igh Court threw out a previous
prohibition against using physical force while
SOUTH AFRICAN MILITARY'S questionning suspects. And another report
WA.R ON ElEPHANTS [Christchurch Press, 1 6 January 1 996J reveals that
General Magnus Malan, former South African Defence Mordechai Vanunu, kidnapped and imprisoned by
Minister, has admitted that support to the UNITA forces Israeli intelligence in 1 988, is to remain in solitary
in Angola included facilitating the sale of ivory to cover confinement. The forn1er nuclear facility technician was
costs of provisions. Malan "gave permission for responsible for the 1 986 revelations that Israel was
creation of a trade channel" which became a conduit building nuclear weapons.
for rhino horn as well as ivory. [Christchurch Press,
A Royal Air Force filing cabinet packed Witll secret
SOUTH AFRICAN SECURiTY'S documents about the IRA was sold at auction in
WAR ON TH E ANC Gloucestershire. Files detailed IRA methods ofmaking
As this issue ofP eace Researcher goes to print, Malan arms, information about the IRA and how it operated,
and other former security bosses are on trial for and the make-up of its units. To compound the cock­
organising death squads to assassinate black opponents up, classified documents relating to the security ofthe
of their apartheid government. State witnesses have RAF Portreath base were also in the files auctioned.
testified that in the 1 980s the white security forces ran These gave details of military and civilian personnel
a secret camp in Namibia which trained Zulu rivals of and security clearances, patrol times, and indications
the ANC in guerilla warfare. The defendants, former of the best sites to attack the base from outside.
military and police personnel, including several black [Christchurch Press, 1 2 March 1 996]
officers, are charged with more than a dozen murders
and conspiracy to murder supporters of the ANC.
AND SOUTH AFRICAN INTElLIGENCE The United States is set to spend $265 billion
U N DE R SUSPICION (NZ400 billion) on defence in lIscal 1 996. President
The National Intelligence Agency stands accused of Clinlon has signed the defence authorisation bill in
spying on senior police officers and even a government spite of opposing the clauses ill the legislation which
minister according to the Sydney Morning Herald [27 enforce the removal from the military of over a
January 1 996]. Targets apparently included the National thousand service personnel who have tested positive
Police Commissioner, Mr George F ivaz, who fOf HIV . One of the few encouraging aspects of
confirmed that bugs were found in the home of the this gross misuse of resources was the dropping of
secretary ofllle SA Police Service, and in the office of provisions for an anti-missile system that was
a Provincial Police Commissioner. A sophisticated supposed to begin construction in 2003, and defend
tracking device was found in the car of Minister for the USA from l imited missile attacks.
Land Affairs Derek Hanekom. Controversy over who

Page 18 Peace Researcher

U ranium and thorium mining
could happen i n Aotea roa
ECO, the environmental umbrella group co-chaired by sand mining thus has implications for the quality of
Cath Wallace, is warning environment groups and the the West Coast environment and our nuclear-free
public about the potential for mining of uranium and policy. The government initially received incorrect
thorium all the West Coast of the South Island. Both advice 011 the uses of thorium in the nuclear industry ..
elements can be used in the nuclear power industry and both for energy and weapons. None other than Prof
i n nuclear weapons, so the issue should be of Alan Poletti of nuclear-propelled ships fame set the
considerab l e concern to members of the peace government straight on some of the nasty uses of
movement. thorium. The bad advice came from the Commerce
Ministry which blamed its staff geologists and their
The government currently has provisions written into textbooks for the gaff (Christchurch Press, 7 February
its Draft M e t a l l i c and Non-Meta l l ic M inerals 1 996). But ifs far from a gaff for the government to
Programme that would allow these two radioactive ignore the implications of uranium extraction even if
elements to be mined along with gold, silver, zinc and the amounts yielded from the sands would be small.
the like. "ECO has asked that the government disallow Perhaps they hoped no one would notice.
targeted mining for uranium or thorium or associated
radioactive m inerals. We have also asked that any by­ IfMr Bolger wants to be convincing as a nuclear-fTee
product mining for radioactive minerals should be prime minister, he can hardly afford to ignore this
strictly controlled to prevent NZ entering the nuclear mining issue. He would appear to be vulnerable on
trade and to control disposal of any radioactive tailings this one and susceptible to letters of protest about "NZ
or separated radioactive materials." laying the path for uranium and thorium mining", as
Cath Wallace put it in a letter to CAFCA and ABC.
This type of mining is most likely to occur in the Cath suggests expressing your feelings strongly to your
proposed ilmenite sands project at Barrytown on the own MP, to Jim Bolger and to Doug Kidd, the energy
West Coast. Similar sands exist at Charleston. The minister.
�----- ---
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The last issue of Peace Researcher [December 1 995] carried a story about US military bases in Okinawa and
the threat of c losure arising after three American servicemen raped an Okinawan schoolgirl. In early March
of this year a Japanese court sentenced the two marines and navy rating responsible to seven year jail terms,
sentences that were lighter than the prosecution had demandedo In South Korea there has also been a growth
in opposition to the US military presence after a soldier attempted to rape a Korean woman in her apartment
in January. Nearly 40.000 US personnel occupy forward American bases in South Korea.
--.�-------- -----

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About Peace Researcher

Peace Researcher is published quarterly by the Anti-Bases campaign, Christchurch. The editors are Warren
Thomson and Bob Leonard. Our journal covers a range of peace issues with emphasis on foreign military bases
and intelligence topics. Contributed articles will be considered for publication based on subject matter and
space requirements. We are particularly interested in reports of original research on peace topics in Aotearoa
and the wider region of Australasia and the Pacific. Our address is:

Peace Researcher
P.O. Box 2258
Aotearoa! New Zealand

Peace Researcher Page 79


Military I ntelligence .. American style

From the Associated Press network: "The Army told recruiters came over to explain their case to the Navy.
her that we couldn't guarantee her training for ajob in They came armed with a crowbar, and two marines
·intelligence like we bad said. One of our people went were injured in the ruckus. The woman signed up with
over and told the Army recruiter that ' yes, we could'," the Navy. "She said she wasn't too i mpressed with the
said Navy recruiter James Hutchins. The Navy Army," Hutchins said. Two of the Army recruiters
recruitment office in Leesburg, Florida, is next door to were charged with battery, the other with aggravated
the Army recruitment office. The Army recruiters battery.
didn 't like the friendly competition: three Army

Edward Teller at h is fi nest

(text from New Scientist)
Students of the delicate art of putting the past into the The X-ray laser programme has gone the way of the
best possible light should read "Legacy of the X-ray Soviet Union, but the cheery Livermore article assures
Laser Program" i n Energy and Technology Review, the us that plenty ofspin-offs remain. Of course, fhe article
house magazine of the Lawrence National Laboratory does not mention how much the US spent on the
in C a lifornia. I t describes the " l egacy of new programme, a sum believed to run into billions of
technologies for industrial and medical use" left by one dollars. And it is equally evasive about the cause of
of the old Star Wars projects. the project's demise, blaming it merely on "various
technical difficulties".
The original idea was to use a nuclear explosion to
power an amiy of X-ray lasers in space, which would Those who follow Pentagon fiascos may recall that in
destroy Soviet nuclear missiles in flight. Its advocates, reality the project imploded after a group of scientists
notably Livermore physicists Edward Teller and Lowell from Livermore announced that Teller had given
Wood, had visions of a weapon no bigger than an office misleading information to the government and had been
desk that c o u l d o b l iterate the entire Sov iet "overoptimistic" about the project's feasibility.
intercontinental ballistic missile fleet.
(New Scientist, 1 7 June 1 995, p. 64)

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