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iSSN 1173·2679

December 1996 P.O. Box 2258

Number 11 Christchurch
New Zealand

Spying by the GCSB and Waihopai

above, beyond, outside the law?
(set' page 2)

CONVICnm! Three protesters outside the Blcnheim �om1 in .hul" l'i'l6 .iust alter
c<H1vidioll on cha..ges oftresp"" at Ih" \",,;hopai satellik spy base. The judge did not
a/low preselltation of aefe"". argull,,'nts challenging the legality of GCSE activities.

III tllis issue: page

.. Is the GCSB a lawless agency? 2
" Okinawa - Historic referendum votes for bases out 6
'" Philippines - Former bases still contaminated by toxic wastes 7
" NZ secret anti-terrorism conference in the Philippines 8
" SIS break-in - Ombudsman shields details 9
" Woman offered cash to spy on peace group 11
" The CTB - push for ratification 11
e Non-proliferation lreaty conference - seizing the opportunity 12
$ Depleted uranium weapons - expose them, oppose them 12
.. US magazine exposes CIA assassinations, plots, coups and disinforrnation 13
" CIA File 15
$ Spooky Bits 17
" The risks of protesting 'The Bomb" 19
" The US Navy gradually departs Deep Freeze 20
by Bob leonord

Does the satellite station at Waihopai spy on New Zealanders?

Does the Government Communications Security Bureau obey the law oj the land?
Is the GCSB exemptedfrom provisions oj/he law?

Nicky Hager is the author of Secret Power, the subsequent exchange in which the GCSB weighed in
authoritative book that reveals more than you ever directly, a most unusual event - "The GCSB's foreign
dreamed o f asking about the Government intelligence function involves p roviding the
Communications Security Bureau (GCSB) and its Government with information that is derived from the
highly secretive operations (see PR 10 for a review), analysis of foreign communications, not the
But despite massive research files and detailed communications of New Zealanders'"
documention, Nicky still cannot say whether or not the
GCSB spies on New Zealanders, Domestic spying is Ray Parker, the Director of the GCSB, even referred to
one of the stickiest problems you face in attempting to the latter Press statement in a letter to me dated 22
investigate the GCSB and its two spy stations, Waihopai August. The single substantial paragraph in the short
and Tangimoana, Waihopai intercepts international letter is as follows:
satellite communications; Tangimoana intercepts high
frequency radio communications, "The answers to both your questions aTe contained
in the statement published by the Christchurch
Waihopai is the station that concerns me most because Press under your letter to the Editor dated 23 July
it is capable of listening to and recording the 1996, I would only add that the legal status of the
international emails, faxes, telexes and even telephone Bureau is that of a non-statutory agency of the
calls that ordinary New Zealanders send and receive executive government of New Zealand, established
every hour of every day, That capability is not in doubt. under the prerogative," 5 [The royal prerogative is
But because the agency is so secretive, it is difficult to exercised in NZ by the executive government of
determine with any certainty whether Waihopai actually the day,]
intercepts domestic communications,
These exchanges of letters and comments underscore
What is a "domestic communication"? Overseas, the a number of important legal issues that surfaced in our
GCSB's sister organisations claim any communications defence preparations prior to trial on charges of trespass
that either originate or end outside the country at Waihopai in January 1996, I am not a lawyer, but I
concerned are "foreign" and the interception of these believe there is good reason to question the legal status
does not constitute domestic spying, The American of the GCSB, The legal issues involve not just
National Security Agency (Big Daddy in the UKUSA suspicions of domestic spying but the legal basis for
group - see below) won a court case allowing it to target the very existence of the GCSB and its operations,
conversations that had one leg outside the US although
it is prohibited from spying within the US,, In Canada, The relevant legal documents are the Trespass Act
Section 7 of the Official Secrets Act makes it legal - (1980), the Bill of Rights Act ( 1990), the Privacy Act
under warrant - for its spy agency to intercept ( 1993), the Crimes Act ( 1964), The Intelligence and
communications that either originate or end in Canada Security Agencies Acts ( 1996), the International
as long as only one party is in Canada,' Telecommunications Convention (Nairobi Convention,
1982), and the Security Intelligence Service Act ( 1969),
The GCSB denies that it engages in domestic spying,
In response to my letter to the editor ( 10 July 1996) There were six arrests at the January 1996 Waihopai
alleging domestic spying by the GCSB, the editor of action, all for simple trespass on government property,
the Christchurch Press stated: "The GCSB is subject Three of us were tried in Blenheim and presented our
to the provisions of section 2 16 of the Crimes Act, own defence in court, I decided to base my defence on
although it is not mentioned in the act, and this formed a clause in the Trespass Act involving "".trespass for
the basis of our comment that the organisation is his own protection",", Since there is no definition of
prevented by statute from spying domestically".' We the word protection in the act, or in the Acts
suspected thi� �ditorjal comment was saurced in the Interpretation Act, I attempted to develop my defency
GCSB itself; oUr suspicions were reinforced by 11 using a broad interpretation of that key word, I was

Pa.,qe2 Peoce Researcher

motivated to trespass in order to protect my,right to he The Privacy Act thus appears to contain a loophole for
secure against unreasonable search anliseizure and the conduct of unlawful acts by intelligence agencies­
to privacy t h a t I b e l i e v e to be threatened b y the GCSB and the SIS - by excluding them from legal
comm1111ications interception a t Waihopai, The judge liability in the relevant sections of the act. In other
did not even allow presentation of my defence and each words, the Privacy Act would seem to specifically allow
of us was convicted on a narrow interpretation of the actions by the GCSB to collect personal information
act of trespass. We had accepted that we did indeed for unlawful purposes using unlawful means. Can
trespass. We (and our lawyer) believed there was a intelligence agencies be said to act unlawfully when
strong basis for appeal of the conviction but we chose Parliament appears to have excused them from the law?
not to go that route. But the legal issues remain. What It is easy to put this stuff in the too-hard basket and
follows is my view of the issues, based in part on my simply say that Parliament can do whatever it wants,
prepared court defence. But I think ordinary citizens should not be content to
leave this one to the politicians and the lawyers.
The New Zealand Bill of Rights Act (1990)
I am convinced that the operations of the GCSB at the I object most strenuously to the two intelligence
Waihopai station violate my rights as protected under agencies being placed above the law of the land. As a
the Bill of Rights. private citizen, I believe I have a right to take action to
inform New Zealanders of this appalling situation in
Section 21 of this act reads: "Unreasonable search our body of law and to attempt to protect others and
and seizure - Everyone has the right to be secure myself from violation of our right to privacy (thus, my
against unreasonable search or seizure, whether of the arrestable actions at Waihopai).
person, property, or correspondence or otherwise."
The Crimes Act (1964)
"Correspondence or otherwise" can be reasonably As described at the beginning of this article, my debate
interpreted to include telecommunications. [The term with the GCSB and editors through the letters column
"correspondence" is used in a telecommunications of The Press evolved into arguments about the Crimes
context in Article 22 of the Nairobi Convention (see Act, not personal rights or privacy. My original letter
below).] In my defence argument I alleged that the was in response to a Press editorial which said nothing
operations of the Waihopai station, in the interception of substance about the GCSB but praised the newly
of international telecommunications without legal passed Intelligence and Security Agencies Act (rSA
warrant, violate my rights and those of all other New Act). I alleged boldly that the GCSB spied on New
Zealanders to protection from unreasonable search and Zealanders. If we could prove that it does, would the
seizure under the provisions of the Bill of Rights Act. Crimes Act really apply? Possibly only in part.

The Privacy Act (1993) According to one N e w Zealand barrister who

My defence argument also invoked provisions of the specialises in information and privacy law, "The Crimes
Privacy Act, and here the legal issues begin to get a bit Act contains an offence of intercepting private
sticky because of special treatment of intelligence communications by means of a listening device.
agencies in the act. However, this prohibition is on eavesdropping on oral
communication s only. There is no offence of
Section 6 of the Act sets out twelve information privacy intercepting data, or facsimile transmissions, which are
principles. But the government in its wisdom has seen more and more commonly being sent across telephone
fit to exempt (in sec 57) intelligence agencies (named lines". (Emphasis added.) We should add electronic
as the GCSB and the SIS) from nine of those principles mail (email) to this updated list The old Crimes Act
(l to 5 and 8 to 11). Principles I and 4 were particularly simply hasn't kept up with technology. The barrister
relevant to my defence. goes on to say that, "The fact that snch interceptions
are not expressly prohibited under s.216, means that
Principle I states, "Personal information shall not be the lawfulness or otherwise of such interceptions is
collected by any agency unless - (a) The information governed by default, by the Privacy Act 1993".6
is collected for a lawful purpose connected with a
function or activity of the agency..." (emphasis added) I addressed a question about the above interpretation
to GCSB director Parker in a recent letter. He
Principle 4 states, "Personal information shall nol be responded:
collected by an agency - (aJ By unlawful means " ...

(emphasis added) "The statement in the Christchurch Press that the

GCSB is not exempt from the provisions of the

Peace Researcher Page3

Crimes A c t 1961 was correct, as is your Zealand and probably every other signatory country.
iuterpretation of the relevant provisions. Your
analysis in relation to the Privacy Act 1993 is, The Internation,,1 Telecommunications Conventio!!
however, faulty; it is incorrect to assert (as you (Nairobi Convention 1982)
do) that since the Crimes Act does not cover the New Zealand is a signatory member of the Nairobi
interception of non-oral communications they are Convention (184 member nations). Article 22 is
'by default' governed by the Privacy Act. The entitled "Secrecy of Communications". It contains the
privacy legislation - from which, as you point out, following two sections:
the GCSB is to a large extent exempt - is of no
application to the foreign signals intelligence "1. Members agree to take all possible measures,
function of the GCSB. In any event, that Act applies compatible with the system of telecommunication
only to personal information, that is 'information used, to ensuring the secrecy of international
about an identifiable individual', where 'individual' correspondence.
means a 'a natural person' (Privacy Act 1993,
section 2(1»".7 "2. Nevertheless, they reserve the right to
communicate such correspondence to the
Mr Parker accepts that only interception of oral competent authorities in order to ensure the
communications is covered by the Crimes Act. That is application of their internal laws or the execution
a very significant admission for the GCSB to make. of international conventions to which they are
He then skirts the issue of non-oral communications parties."
(i.e., all but the telephone) by moving directly to tbe
Privacy Act and dismissing its relevance to the GCSB. From what we know about Waihopai, its spying on
Parker says that act "is of no application to the foreign satellite communications appears to violate the secrecy
signals intelligence function" - a predictable statement protection provisions (section 1) of the Nairobi
in view of the flat denial of domestic spying by the Convention. Section 2 can be logically interpreted to
GCSB? But if the act doesn't appy to the GCSB, why mean that any interception of correspondence (i.e.,
did its authors see fit to exempt it from key privacy phone, fax, telex, email) must be for use only by
principles? And it's precisely personal information on "competent authorities" for lawful purposes. GCSB
real people that we are concerned about. activities probably violate this section as well because
much of its spying is not covered by the Crimes Act
The wording of both the Crimes Act and the Privacy and it is exempted
- from key principles of the Privacy
Act leaves the legal status of the GCSB in limbo when Act.
it comes to spying on you and me. But what this legal
uncertainty does do is call into serious question the Signatory countries probably pay little attention to such
following GCSB statement contained in their rcsponse prohibitions. Spying on your neighbours is big business
to my letter in The Press: "The GCSB, which is subject and "everybody does it". Meanwhile, the public may
to oversight and review by the Inspector General of feel reassured that New Zealand has signed the
lntelligence and Security (one of wbose statutory convention, but it means nothing in practical terms.
functions is to examine the legality ofthe GCSB's One reason often given for this is that the convention
activities), complies at all times with the law of New is not part of New Zealand law. We do have our own
Zealand".' Parker tooks pains to repeat the "complies Telecommunications Act (1987), but it says nothing
with ilw law" bit in his most recent letter. A more about adhering to the international convention.
accurate statement would be that the GCSB is above
the law orthe land - i.e., a law unto itself. However, adherence to the Nairobi Convention cannot
be dismissed lightly. In a current New Zealand
It is also worth noting that as we go to press the oft1ce controversy surrounding a fatal plane crash near
oflnspector General of Intelligence and Security has Palmerston North last year, police are trying to gain
jnst been filled by Lawrence Greig, a former High Court access to the plane's cockpit voice recorder tape.
Judge with no knowledge of intelligence agencies. According to a newspaper account, "The Transport
There is as yet n o Parliamentary oversight committee Accident Investigation Commission has refused to
as created in one of the new ISA Acts. In the meantime, release the tape, saying it is protected under the
there is little or no oversight of intelligence activities. International Civil Aviation Organisation's Chicago
Convention annex".8 Counsel for the police has argued
There is yet another restraint on the activities of our that the annex is not part of NZ law. But the TAl
intelligence agencies that is worth considering. It is Commission lawyer "...told the court the convention
theoretical in that it is apparently totally ignored in New . was part of New Zealand law. New Zealand ratified it

Page4 Peace lCiesearcher

in 1947 and has consented to be bound by it".' Although ordinary persons in New Zealand. If you choose to
the legal issues are far from resolved, international protest at Waihopai you are attempting legitimately
conventions should not be ignored. The government to assert your rights in a democracy. You are calling
should be taken to task for its lax attitude to the Nairobi into question the anti-democratic actions of a
Convention. government that created the GCSB, Waihopai, and
Tangimoana under pressure of foreign intelligence
Gcse Legislation powers beholden only to the ultra-secret UKUSA
There is none. The GCSB is not like the SIS, which has agreement.
its own statute and whose intelligence gathering activities
are restrained by the need for warrants and by other Natural Law and Justice
provisions of the act. The GCSB is a "non-statutory The legal systems of New Zealand, Britain and many
agency" (quoting director Parker) which sprang out of other western countries derive their authority from
thin "executive-government" air in 1977 (not quite as natural law. And natural law is based on "the rule of
old as the Universe, but with similarly mysterious reason". In placing its intelligence agencies above
origins). There is nothing in law, or elsewhere as far as the law (in provisions of the Privacy Act) the New
we can determine, that restrains the activities of the Zealand Parliament is seriously eroding the bedrock
GCSB. There is no effective way anyone outside the authority of our legal system.
operational centres of the GCSB can know what is being
intercepted or what is being done with the information. It is somehow oddly appropriate to close this essay
The new ISA Act, which is supposed to provide on the nasty business of spying with a perspective on
parliamentary oversight of the GCSB and SIS, is natural justice from the ongoing Winebox Saga. Ian
seriously inadequate and is unlikely to provide effective Wishart has reported on the squirming of Serious
protection of New Zealanders from excesses of either Fraud Office witnesses under intense questioning
agency (see PR 8). before Sir Ronald Davison' s Commission of Inquiry.
The SFO has been attempting to defend itself against
International Agreements and Democracy charges that it failed to investigate tax fraud in the
While the executive government of NZ ignores the face of compelling evidence i n the wine box
Nairobi Convention, it abides rigidly by the rules of the documents. In desperation, and at taxpayers' expense,
five-nation UKUSA agreement.' That agreement, not the SFO brought over an official of the British SFO,
Parliament, directs the activities of the GCSB and the a Mr Tate, to tell the inquiry that the NZ SFO had
ultimate fate of the information it generates by spying. acted competently in the investigation. Sir Ronald
Are we a signatory to that agreement by virtue of public took an hour to decide whether or not to let Mr Tate
discussion, and a democratic decision by Parliament? take the stand. "Despite his ' expressed reservations',
No. In fact, " ... a significant proportion of law-making he would let Mr Tate take the stand, apparently
in New Zealand - relating to international agreements - because of SFO concerns that it would be denied
is undemocratic", according to the Clerk of Parliament, naturaljustice. 'The SFO is in the position of being
Mr David McGee. "He says that the executive, the a party to this inquiry and it is at risk of having adverse
cabinet, is empowered to enter into international findings made against it,' said Sir Ronald. 'In such
agreements without reference to Parliament. ... 'I think circumstances, it should be given every reasonable
that is not just unsatisfactory, it is unsupportable and opportunity to defend its position '. " II (emphasis
anti-democratic'." 10 added)

McGee goes on to say, "I suggest thatthe ordinary person It seems to me that's not a bad precedent to cite if
should be involved before the Government assumes the you protest at Waihopai, get arrested, and find
international obligation." The UKUSA agreement yourself trying to mount a defence in Blenheim
(dating from 1948) is a prime example of anti-democratic District Court. But then, I'm not a lawyer.
behaviour with potentially serious consequences for


1. Richelson, Jeffrey. Transcript for "The Hill", Dispatches TV 7. Letter from MrRay Parkerto the author, 14 November 1996.
documentary, 6 September 1993. 8. The Press, 30 October 1996, page 6.
2. The Globe and Mail (Canada), 15 November 1995. 9. See Hager's Secret Power and PR 3 (Feb. 1983, 1st series)
3. Letter to the editor, and reply, in The Press, 19 July 1996. for details of the UKUSA agreement.
4. GCSB reply to letter to the editor, in The Press, 9 August 1996. 10. "Law-making seen as not democratic", New Zealand Herald,
5. Letter from Mr Ray Parker to the author, 22 August 1996. 29 October 1996.
6. Edwards, John. 1995. Current privacy issues in 11. "UK former fraud chief backs SFO" by Ian Wishart, The
telecommunications. Unpublished paper for a conference. Press, 2 November 1996.

Peace Researcher Page 5

Historic Referendum Votes for Bases Out But leases Renewed
Peace Researcher has been
following, for several issues Okinawa's US military installations
now, the Olympian struggle
being waged by the people of
Okinawa t o get rid of the
massive US military presence
on their island. They host
2 8,000 of the 4 7,000 US troops
in Japan, and American bases Telecoms >taI.lOIll_-.
occupy fully 20% of the island
(which constitutes less than 1%
of Japan's total land area).
Okinawans have paid a heavy site
price since being forcibly
colonised by the Japanese in T",.ll
1879, and then by the
Americans after one of the
bloodiest b a t tles of WWII. Kadena
When the island was returned to Air Base
Japan in 1 972, the bases
remained. The US and Japan are
semce AirField
very happy with the area
arrangement - the Japanese
taxpayer pays most of the $US7 N
billion required to maintain the Naval
lJS military in Jap a n ; the port
Americans get a major military
presence in North East Asia,
adjacent to China and Korea (the
Pentagon's two Asian hot spots)
at a never to be beaten price. The
only flies in the ointment are the
Okinawans, who want to be rid of the lot of themo Governor, Masahide Ota, who declared that, unlike
previous governors, he would refuse orders from Tokyo
A head of steam has been building up over many years to renew the leases.
bnt what blew it was the brutal rape in 1995 of a 12
year old Okinawan schoolgirl by three American In August 1996 the Okinawan provincial government
military personnel. They were arrested and convicted; mounted a legal challenge to the bases through the
they could have got life but they got seven years, to be Japanese Supreme Court. The 15 judges rejected the
served in a Japanese prison (and even that is a change plea that it is unconstitutional to seize private land for
from the privileges enjoyed by the US military under use by the US military and ordered Ota to rcnew the
the 1960 Status of Forces Agreement). This was the leases (one of which had already expired). Undaunted,
last straw to Okinawans goaded beyond endurance by Okinawa held a September non-binding referendum on
thousands of crimes committed by US servicemen; by the issue, the first prefectural (i.e. provincial)
constant noise and danger from jet aircraft based in referendum in Japanese history. Okinawans voted 10
their midst; by great chunks of their island being cut to I that the bases must go.
off by barbed wire and all the other stylistic niceties of
military bases. They erupted in huge mass rallies (one Sadly that was as far as the Governor's resistance went.
of which attracted nearly 10% of the total population); Faced with relentless pressure from Tokyo, he
they hacked 35 landowners who refused to renew their relnctantly agreed to sign. "This is the most difficult
leases with the U S military; and they cheered on their decision I have had to make in my six years in office"

Page 6 Peace Researcher

(Time, 23 September 1996; "Eviction notice; For its part, the US has started seriously looking at
Okinawans vote overwhelmingly to send US troops substantial troop reductions on Okinawa. It has been
packing"). UnsUl'prisingly, Okinawans were outraged. argued that the 18,000 strong Third Marine Division
Shoichi Chibana, one of the refusenik landowners, could be withdrawn without jeopardising any military
described it as a sellout. response to events in Korea or Taiwan. Shunji Taoka,
a defence analyst on the A sahi Shimbun newspaper,
Tokyo offered carrots as well as the stick. Prime says: "The only purpose of the Third Division is to
Minister Ryutaro Hashimoto promised $US47 million secure the jobs of its commanders" (ibid).
in special funds to improve the economy of the
prefeclUl'e, the poorest in Japan, with an average income None of this is likely to mollify the Okinawans, who
half that of Tokyo. Hashimoto also promised to have consistently demonstrated, with their feet, their
implement an April 1996 US/Japan agreement to close voices and their votes, that they overwhelmingly want
down or move nine of the island's multitude of bases. to be rid of the American military occupation of their
Other inducements included the offer of a free trade home. Things are still at boiling point - only days after
zone, to attract businesses. Hashimoto made an the referendum, two US Marines allegedly assaulted
unprecedented public apology: "When I think of the and robbed a 56-year-old female bar owner. And the
great sacrifices that the people of Okinawa made during 3,000 landowners, whose leases with the US military
World War II and the great suffering that Okinawans expire in May 1997, have vowed to fight on, despite
have so far endured, I realise our efforts have been Governor Ota' s promise to sign. Uncle Sarn is far from
insufficient" (ibid). Governor Ola's backdown was so out of the woods in Okinawa, and the people of that
vital to the central government that it was the benighted island deserve all the help and support they
determining factor in naming the date for the October can get from anti bases activists throughout the Asia!
1996 general election. Pacific region.

former US Bases Still Contaminated By Toxic Wastes
PR 3 (December 1994) ran a report on the problems visit to the Philippines in late 1994, but nothing more
caused by toxic waste contamination of the former US has been heard of the subject from either government
military bases in the Philippines, principally the two since. The Filipino and American environmental groups
big ones at Subic Bay and Clark Air Force Base (the say that they have identified at least 14 known
Pentagon was forced to leave in 1992, after the historic contaminants at both Subic and Clark. For its part, the
1991 Philippines Senate vote not to renew the bases SBMA strongly denies suggestions that the water
treaty, ending nearly a century of American military supply of the Subic Bay Free Port has been seriously
presence). contaminated for three years. The stakes are high here
- the SBMA has attracted $US 1.3 billion worth of
The toxic wastes problem is still unresolved. A 1991 foreign investors, who would get decidedly squeamish
US Defense Department report and a 1992 US General if it is confirmed that the place is one big toxic waste
Accounting Office report both concluded that improper dump. President Ramos is touting Subic as a
waste storage and disposal turned Subic into a potential replacement for Hong Kong once that is repossessed
toxic hotspot. US Navy reports said Subic generated by Chiua in mid 1997 and he is intent on staging major
more than 500 tons of toxic waste per year in 1990 and international events there, such as the November 1996
1991, but disposed of less than 20%. In mid 1996, a Leaders Summit of the Asia Pacific Economic
coalition of the Philippine Task Force for Bases Cooperation forum (APEC).
Cleanup and the US Working Group for Philippine
Bases Cleanup charged the World Bank and the Subic As for the gigantic former airbase which was destroyed
Bay Metropolitan Authority (SBMA) with negligence by the 1 9 9 1 Mt Pinatubo eruption, the Clark
for not releasing the results of an environmental Development Corporation has signed a memorandum
baseline survey on Subic Bay, conducted by the of agreement with the Malaysian based AsiaStar
American company Woodward Clyde and funded by Weston Environment Services (Awes) to conduct an
the World Bank. environmental site study, to determine if there is any
toxic waste dumped there. Awes has experience of
Presidents Clinton and Ramos briefly discussed the research, site assessment and actual cleanup at more
question of toxic waste cleanup during Clinton' s State than 100 former American bases worldwide. The US

Peace Researcher Page 7

military has agreed to turn over official records to the held in Subic in November 1996, to coincide with the
Philippines govermnent to assist this site studyo So even APEC Leaders Summit thereo
though it is several years since the US military actually
quit the Philippines, L'1e country is still bedevilled by The Nuclear Free Philippines Coalition can be
Uncle Sam's toxic legacyo contacted at Room 5 1 1, J&T Building, 3894 K
Magsaysay Boulevard, Stao Mesa, Manila, Philippines,
A major international conference on bases cleanup was ph/fax (632) 7 1610840


Ombudsman Upholds Government Ban On All Details
PR 9 (June J 996) reported that New Zealand officials consideration of material and information of a very
were among the 128 delegates from 19 countries who sensitive naturcoooTaking those factors into account, I
participated in the February 1996 International am satisfied that if the information were released there
Conference on Counter Terrorism, hosted by would be a real and substantial risk that the future
Philippines President, Fidel Ramos, in Baguio Cityo entrusting of information to the Government of New
Apart from the fact that it happened (which we learned Zealand on the basis of confidence by an overseas
from Filipino sources; it was never announced in this government or authority would be prejudicedooJ! was
counily) everything about it was secret We do know also the consensus of the Conference that the names
that the delegates were security ministers, high ranking and designations of officials would remain
intelligence officials and counter terrorism expertso The confidentiaL I understand that the reason for this was
only communique issued said that its goal was to a risk that should this information, or information which
strengthen international cooperation against terrorism may identify those officials, find its way into the hands
in the areas of intelligence exchange, policies and joint of a terrorist group or its supporters, the safety of such
counter measures. persons would likely be endangeredo I am tillable to
explain my reasons further without especially
ABC applied to the Department of the Prime Minister prejudicing the interests that section 6(d) of the Act
and Cabinet, under the Official Information Act, for seeks to protecL" (letter to ABC, 9 October 1996)0
details of the New Zealand delegates; copies of papers
presented by the New Zealand delegation; and the We had one last attempt at pointing out some of the
delegation's conference report We got a blanket glaringly obvious to Sir Briano
"Naturally we are disturbed by this trend to repress
We appealed and many months later, in October 1996, anything that NZ officials do in conjnnction with
we got a decisiono Surprise, surpriseo Sir Brian Elwood, those from other countrieso
the Chief O mbudsman, fully supported the
Government's blanket ban on any details" He cited "We specifically appeal your upholding the
Section 6 of the Official Information Act - this covers confidentiality of the NZ delegates' designationso
security, def,mce, international relations, the entrusting For example, it is illegal to identify by name
of information t o the government of New Zealand on a anybody who works for the NZ Security
basis of confidence, and protection of personal safetyo Intelligence Service (except the DirectOl} So what
hann can it do to say, for argument's sake, that the
"I am advised that it was agreed at the Conference in SIS Deputy Director attend e d the Baguio
Baguio that there was to be no publicity, that the Conference? We don't know hislher name, and if
Conference proceedings were to be confidential and we did, it is illegal to identify him/heL
that the Conference communique was to be the only
statement released to the mediao There was also a "We take with a grain of salt claims that identifying
Consensus at the Conference that the names and any oHhe NZ delegates would endanger them from
designations of officials would remain confidentiaL The international terroristso Presumably, international
Conference was held to enhance international terrorists know who they are anywayo The only
cooperation against all forms of terrorism and included provable time that international terrorists came here

Page 8 Peace Researcher

to bomb and kill, the target was not NZ intelligence Rainbow Warrior, to which you refer, involved a
or police officials, but the civilian crew of the completely different set of circumstances and in my
Rainbow Warrior. In that instance, all NZ view is not relevant to the facts and circumstances of
intelligence agencies were worse than useless in this case ..."
detecting or preventing this murderous covert
operation by a foreign intelligence agency on our To which we have but one reply. Crap! This simply
soil. On that subject, we refer you to "Secret Power" continues the pattern of the Government, backed up by
by Nicky Hager ...." (ABC fax to Chief the Ombudsman, of suppressing any information
Ombudsman, 25 October 1996). relating to the domestic and international activities of
our "intelligence" agencies. We pay the wages of these
But, alas, Sir Brian was baving none of it. His final bastards. How about some accountability and
letter to us (3 1 October 1996) reiterated that he could transparency, to use the favourite jargon of the
not explain his reasons without prejudiciug the very numbercrunching ideologues. Rest assured that their
section of the Act (6[d]) which he was invoking. But activities are not being kept secret from "international
he did respond to one of our specific points: "I think terrorists", but from the long suffering taxpayers who
the presumption would need to be that international foot their bills, are the target of their bungling
terrorists would not know the identity of the NZ incompetence, and in whose name they act. Don't be
delegates at the Conference. The terrorist attack on the shy, boys. Let's see some value for money.

Ombudsman (Again) Back.s Ban On
Intelligence Agency Details; SIS Director Shy
PR 10 (September 1996) had a
lengthy lead story about the very
strange sequence of events arising
out of a bungled Security
Intelligence Service (SIS) break
in to the home of Christchurch
activist, Aziz Choudry, during the
July 1996 Trading With Our Lives
Alternative Forum on Free Trade
(he was the principal organiser).
This also involved police raids on
his home and that of David Small,
because o f their alleged
involvement in a hoax bomb
planted outside the Christchurch
City Council building. The bomb
was alleged to be in protest at the
city hosting the Annual Meeting
of the Asia Pacific Economic
Cooperation (APEC) forum
Trade Ministers. The whole
shambles became a major media
story which ran nationwide for
David Small and Aziz Choudray their questions remain unanswered


There have been a couple of subsequent developments. Official Information Act, a very curious section indeed,
Aziz Choudry applied for the police file on the break one which neither confirms nor denies the existence of
in (which had been interrupted by David Small, who the information in question. Aziz appealed this to the
had called by to collect a TV and VCR needed for the Ombudsman, and received Anand Satyanand's
Forum). The cops had refused, citing Section 10 of the decision, in October 1996. He changed tack and pointed

Peace Researcher Page 9

out that the Police's refusal to provide any file through a systematic series of requests, gain an
constituted proof that such information did exist overview of the uature and range of infonnation
However, he then justified the refusal by invoking held by the Service iu respect of certain individuals.
Section 6 of the Act (the very same one used to refuse These observers could then develop a reasonably
all details of New Zealand's involvement in the accurate picture of the 'type' of person that the
International Counter Terrorism Conference in the Service might be interested in as well as the
Philippines). Once again it was "regretted" that the very Service's ability to obtain, correlate and evaluate
same section of the Act, dealing with "security or any intelligence information. This would in turn
defence of New Zealand", prevented any elaboration enable observers, who might otherwise be of
of the reasons why. "However, I can assure you that interest to the Service, to identify how they could
the arguments for withholding have not been accepted order their activities to avoid coming to Service
at face value" (letter from Ombudsman, 9 October attention" .
1996). Really, this is a dead giveaway that it was the
SIS; why else would the State play hard to get over a In the case of Murray Horton, McIver also included a
humdrum break in that wasn't even a burglary?) copy of a 1985 letter from him as secretary of
CAFCINZ (now CAFCA) asking for any SIS material
Aziz succinctly expressed the feelings of many: "It is held on it. The reply from his predecessor, John Smith,
scandalous. that the police and their political masters was the same as in 1996. So Murray knows that his
can collude with breaking into the house of someone SIS file contains at least one letter - from him to the
involved in entirely above ground, legitimate political SISt Next time he writes they'll probably send him his
activity, with impunity. Apparently the Government 1996 letter.
feels so threatened by democratic dissent that it has to
resort to dirty tactics like this" (Press, 15 October 1996) So the cone of silence continues to be invoked over
anything remotely connected with the SIS. If you should
PR 10 also reported that, in August 1996, a group of come home one evening and find strangers of a certain
representatives of various groups called to the "type" crashing around in your backyard, only to be
unmarked Christchurch office of the SIS (4th floor, 70 told by the cops and all other officials that you must
Gloucester Street), and delivered individual requests have been seeing things, then rest assured that you have
for their SIS files. In September, all those who had been visited by the shy and elusive SISsies (who live
requested their SIS files received a reply from the at the bottom of the garden). You could save them a lo!
Director, Don McIver, refusing to confirm or deny that of puffing and blowing by leaving anything you think
the SIS held anything on them. might be of interest in the letterbox for them.
Remember, they are here to protect us from ...whom?
"My concern is that skilled observers could, And who protects us from them?


The irony of SIS Director's refusal to "confirm nor delete any material which could give away vital
deny whether the service holds any information" about national security-threatening secrets, and could easily
individuals is its own palpable form of paranoia. Mclvor allow a viewing of file material that does not allow
is concerned people might conspire together and gather removal of any information. They could acknowledge
information o n modus operandi by collating they hold files where they refer to previous letters but
information on the "type" of person the spooks are refuse to confirm or deny they hold files!
interested in. W e should be most concerned that the
"type" of person invigilated is commonly not those the Unofficially it is said that those requesting files are
SIS is legally permitted to put under surveillance. generally of no consequence but would like to think
themselves important enough to be under surveillance.
McIvor's rationale are shot through with If this is so it is very hard to imagine how release of
inconsistencies. In periods when only one or (wo people their files could in any way threaten the service except
apply for files then his conspiracy theory doesn't hold. to reveal that they waste their time on matters which
are outside their brief. Remember that under the SIS
Obviously asking for your file draws attention of the Act there must be no surveillance of those going about
agency - hardly a sound. procedure if you are acting legal political activism. Either those on file are
with nefarious intent. The spooks have the right to significant or they should not be on the files!

Page 70 Peace Researcher

Special Branch officers in Britain offered a former to and said "It's part of ongoing efforts to ensure the
policewoman 200 pounds a month ($500) plus expenses force plays an effective role in preventing criminal
if she would inform on friends in Ploughshares. Some offences being committed at BAe' s Warton site".
Ploughshares members were recently acquitted on a (Warton is the place where the protesters' attack on
charge of damaging British fighter-bombers bound for the Hawk aircraft took place. There has been more than
Indonesia. Lancashire police described this attempted one incident of damage to aircraft there.) The police
recruitment as "not unusual". spokesperson went on to say "This sort of inquiry is
not unusual, indeed she is one of several people who
Janet Lovelace, who had served five years in the police have been approached". One of the women acquitted
force, said two detectives came to her house and told in August [see PR 10] claimed a friend of hers had
her they wanted her to infiltrate the Ploughshares been asked by a man from MI5 if she would infiltrate
movement and report back on people's names. When Ploughshares. [Based on The Guardian, 28 September
they met a second time in a pub the two men tried to 1996]
persuade her that Ploughshares' actious would cost
local people their jobs.
As well as paymeut Ms Lovelace was offered child­ The August 1996 newsletter from the Women's
mindiug fees, petrol, a mobile phone, bonuses for top­ Camp at Menwith reports the distress caused by
grade information, and immunity from prosecution. The the admission of one of the protestors that she is a
Special Branch officers were particularly interested in police informer. Justine Taylor, also known as
names of Ploughshares members and who the Justine Woods, stole the (fe)mailing list and made
organisers were. They also wanted early warning of photocopies for the Miuistry of Defence police and
actions as the group only releases information about the local Harrogate police. The issue of how to
some of its protests half an honr before they are carried respond to such an admission has proved a very
out. One of them gave her his pager number and asked difficult one for the anti-base activists. The courage
her to adopt a codename. Lovelace told them she was and commitment of the women at the camp can
not interested in doing this work and that she had left only be admired as such harrassment is added to
the police force to get away from things like that. the problems of ongoing court battles and the
horrors of another English winter on the roadside.
Local police agreed that the woman had been spoken


The three reports that follow come from Felicity Hill, DisarmamentlDevelopment Intern,
Womens League for Peace and International Freedom

After 42 years in the making, the text of a The 38 who have signed are the five nuclear weapons
Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty passed through the powers, and Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium,
UN General Assembly on September 24, 1996 and was Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Finland,
signed by III governments in the first 11 days it was Germany, Hungary, Indonesia, Iran, Israel, Italy, Japan,
opened for signature. The treaty requires the 44 nations Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Peru, Poland, Romania,
with nuclear facilities to sign and then ratify it through Slovakia, South Korea, South Africa, Spain, Sweden,
their national legislatures before it can come into force. Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, Vietnam and Zaire.
Thirty eight of the required forty-four are among those
who have already signed, leaving India, Algeria, The treaty requires a conference in three to four years
Bangladesh, Egypt, North Korea and Pakistan. for members to decide how to accelerate the ratification
Although India, one of the 44, has vowed never to sign process should India and others still refuse to join the
"this unequal treaty, not now, not later", it is still very pact. In the meantime, the treaty places a large taboo
much worth pushing for the ratification of the CTBT on testing and with all five declared nuclear weapons
through the New Zealand parliament. states imposing voluntary moratoriums on testing, the

Peace Researcher Page 71

world should never again experience nuclear test on Disannament in Geneva by India and was taken to
explosions. the UN General Assembly by Australia supported by
many other states.
The treaty text was blocked through the Conference

In April of next year, the world's governments will powers agree to concentrate on the issues found in the
have a unique chance to concretely demonstrate their principles. The time has come to "pay the piper", as it
commitment to the spirit of the CTBT and to the stated were, and actively take up issues like: universality,
goals of nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament. disarmament, NWFZs (Nnclear Weapon Free Zones),
The first Preparatory Committee (PrepCom) of the security assurances, safeguards and peacefhl uses of
NPT's new, strengthened review process will take place nuclear energy. The spirit of the document was that
in New York and will be closely watched by citizens this would be a list of living, changeable items which
from all around the globe. An important document, would be updated and replaced as individual elements
Principles and Objectives for Non-Proliferation and were achieved (e.g. the CTBT). To achieve this laudable
Nuclear Disarmament, will have its trial run in a forum goal, strong, decisive action will need to be taken at
that has almost nniversal membership second only to the Preparatory Committee meeting.
the UN Charter. Both the principles and objectives and
the new review process documents are politically bound The principles and objectives must become the
to the legally-binding extension decision, which were yardstick by which future progress on nuclear non­
tied together in a package format by the conference proliferation and disarmament is measured. If it fails
president at the review and extension conference last in that objective, then an important opportunity and
year. tool for future action will have been lost There exist
few, if any, similar opportunities for this type of
The pressure will be on the nuclear and other western coordinated international action. Activity is already
powers to address the specific list of topics outlined in beginning in governments and NGO circles around the
the principles and objectives document. In what world to ensure that the commitments made in 1995
amounted to an exchange for a vote to indefinitely are not forgotten.
extend the NPT, many conntries demanded that these


During the Gulf War, mnnitions and armor made with and combat soldiers, have suffered the effects of
Depleted Uranium (DU) were used for the first time in exposure to these highly toxic, radioactive weapons.
combat history. Over 940,000 30-millimeter uranium
tipped bullets and "more than 14,000 large caliber DU Of the 697,000 US troops who served in the Gulf,
rounds were consumed [sic1 during Operation Desert 90,000 have reported medical problems ranging from
StonnlDesert Shield." (U.S. AEPI Report 1994) These respiratory, liver and kidney dysfunction, to memory
largely untested weapons were used indiscriminately loss, headaches, fever, low blood pressure, and birth
throughout the siege of Iraq with no concern for the defects among their newborn children. However, none
health and environmental consequences of their use. of these reports has addressed the use of DU weapons,
Between 300 and 800 tons of DU bnllets are now which could potentially be the greatest health and
scattered on the ground in Iraq and Kuwait Up to 70% environmental risk of the entire war. Given the number
of the depleted uranium within these weapons of G1's seeking medical attention for problems linked
disintergrates to fine particles on impact and as to Gulf War service, the media and NGOs have a
radioactive dust it is easily ingested. As a result, responsibility to investigate this connection.
hundreds of thousands of people, both victims of war

(All t.l:iree reports above come from WILPF. For more information, contact P.O. Box 8390 Christchurch. A brief
item on exposure to chemicals in the Gulf War also appears in CIA File later in this issue.)

Page 12 Peace Researcher

lorry Ross reviews Covert Action Quarterly

The American magazine Covert Action Quarterly request of the CIA. The Winter 1988 issue of Covert
(formerly Covert Action Information Bulletin)haB been Action highlighted the activities of the US in the South
exposing the secret activities of the American Central Pacific, including the role of the US in the March 1987
Intelligence Agency and other intelligence groups since Fiji Coup. Other issues have included stories on the
1978. The magazine's mission is to expose the criminal CIA's war against environmental and peace groups.
activities of the CIA, which have been directed against As Ralph McGehee ( a former CIA officer whom the
foreign countries and governments as well as against Nuclear Free Peacemaking Association brought to New
the American people themselves. Covert Action reports Zealand in 1986) has said "the CIA is not an
have covered CIA assassinations of foreign leaders, the intelligence organisation at all, but a covert action ann
instigation of wars and coups against governments the of the Presidency, distorting and falsifying the facts
US wishes to get rid of, various techniques of whenever it suited its operational purposes." Covert
destabilisation used against foreign societies, and the Action affirms this contention.
planting of disinfonnation and propaganda in both the
US and foreign media. Much of New Zealand's foreign and defence policy
seems to have been based on CIA disinfonnation and
Many writers, editors and journalists are on the payroll fabricated intelligence designed to influence allies in
of the CIA (and the other intelligence agencies). In 1983 directions that support US policy. The "China threat",
and 1988 the magazine revealed that the Reader 's the "Soviet threat", the excuses for US attacks against
Digest carried false stories and propaganda at the Vietnam, the "bomber gap", the "missile gap": all have
been shown in various issues of Covert Action to be
fabrications. This influence on public views and policies
" U N B REAKABLE" COD E in many countries, including New Zealand, will
continue as long as most citizens and Members of
CRACKED Parliament are not aware of how their thinking and
The New Scientist reports that two Israeli perceptions are guided b y CIA disinformation
mathematicians have developed a code-breaking campaigns.
strategy that is capable of penetrating "virtually
all major encryption systems". [9 November 1996] In addition to overt disinformation stories planted in
The electronic spying agencies like the NSA and the media to influence public opinion, false intelligence
GCHQ will go into overdrive on the implications is distributed to influence government decisions.
of these revelations. Until now, says the New Because this is classified as "secret" there is no outside
Scientist, concern about vulnerability of and independent assessment of the validity of such
confidential data has focused on compnter intelligence. There is not even an awareness that such
techniques for finding prime number "keys" used faulty 'designer' information is working away at the
to encrypt the data. These methods have limited minds of officials and influencing the advice they give
applicability and can be defeated by using longer to government. The system seems designed to ensure
keys. The new technique requires only a desktop that the only officials allowed access to secret
computer and a microwave generator. It is said to intelligence are those that can be trusted not to question
work no matter how long the key is, and without its validity. Thus, the myths upon which New Zealand's
any knowledge of the encryption system used. The foreign and defence policy are based tend to be
strategy is based on exposing the encryption device venerated, protected and perpetuated like religious
to a series of bursts of electromagnetic radiation doctrines. This is in spiv� of overwhelming evidence
which progressively trigger random errors in the in Covert Action and other sources, that the myths are
circuitry storing the secret keys. By comparing untrue, and a threat to NZ interests and security.
messages as the system breaks down the operators
can work out the form of the original key. The A complete index of Covert Action Quarterly articles
method was based on studies which showed data follows. Copies of Covert Action are available from
on smart cards could be cracked by tracking errors the NZ Nuclear Free Peacemaking Association,
prompted by exposure to microwaves. Box18541, Christchurch.

Peace Researcher Page 73

o IUHR No. 34 (Summer 1990) FBI/CIA Role in Martin Luther King, Jr. Assassination;
Nicaraguan election & NED; CIA in Costa Rica; El SalvadOr" Noriega & CIA' South
B A C K s S U E � ;
African death sq�ads; U.S. & Pol Pot; Marcos & murder; Tai illl; Council fo Nation­
FO R M .-=- --=- .
al Policy; Operation CHAOS.

No. 1 (July 1978) Philip Agee on CIA; Cuban exile trial; Consumer research in
No. 35 (Fall 1990) Special-Eastern Europe: Destabilization of USSR; CIA's
prospects, NED in Lithuania, Balkan Nazis, Free Congress Foun. Goes East; C.D.
Jackson; Cuba; Other Iran-Contra Cases; CIA and Banks; CLA and Indonesian Mas­
No. 2 (Oct. 1978) How the CIA recruits diplomats; Researching undercover officers;
Ten years as double agent in the CIA.*
No. 86 (Spring 1991) Special--Racism & Nat. Security. FBI vs. Arab-Americans &
No. :3 (Jan. 1979) CIA attacks CAlB; SecretAnny manual; Spying on hostcoun­
Black Officials; Dhoruba bin-Wahad; MumiaAhu..Jamal; DestabiJizing Africa: Chad,
S. Africa, Angola, Mozambique, Zaire; Haiti; Panama; Gulf War' COINTELPRO
No. 4 (Apr.-May 1979) U.S. spies in Italian services; CIA in Spain; CIA recruiting for Uart�; Nat. Security "Humor."
Africa; Subversive academics in Africa; Angola.*
No. 37 (Summer 1991) Speeial--GulfWar; Media; "Clean War�; CIA's Iraq Radio;
No. 5 (Aug. 1979) UB. intelligence in Asia; CIA in Denmark; Sweden; Grenada; Evangelicals for Nuclear War; UN; Libya; Iran; Domestic costs; N. Korea Next?; Ille­
AIFLD.* gal Arms Deals; Georgie Anne Geyer.
No. 6 (Oct. 1979) U.S. in Caribbean; Cuban exile terrorists; Philip Agee on CIA plans No. 38 (Fal!. 1991) Special-DoD, CIA recruitment ofU.S. & international students;
for Nicaragua; CIA's secret Perspectives for InteUigence.* Militarism campus guide; ArifDurrani.'s Iran·Contra case; S. African state terror;
No. 7 (Dec. 1979·Jan. 1980) Media destabilization in Jamaica; CIA uses cockroaches; Rev. Moon & Acaderrua; Targeting environmentalists; CIABase database.
Robert Moss; CIA propaganda budget; �edia operations; UNITA; Iran.* No. 39 (Winter" 1991·92) Special--The "Good� Agencies: NED, Peace Corps, USAID &
No. 8 (Mar.-Apr. 1980)Attacl<..$ on PhilipAgee; V.S. intelligence legislation; CArB AIDS inAfuca, Nat. Cancer Inst., Population Control; Casolaro; FBI & Supreme
statement to Congress; Zimbabwe; Northern Ireland. Court; Rooort Gates; USSR destabilization; BCCI.
No. 9 (June 1980) NSA in Norway; Glomar Explorer; Mind control; NSA. No. 40 (Spring 1992) Special-Indigenous Peoples: N. America, toxic dumps,
No. 10 (Aug Sept. 1980) Caribbean overview; Destabilization in Jamaica; Guyana;
Leonard Peltier interview. Guatemala; East Timor Massacre; VB. in Pacific'' Cambo-
Grenada bombing; The Spike; ClA De£lp Cover Manual." dia; GATI, David Duk('.

No. n (Dec. 1980) Right'Wing terrorism; South Korea; KCLA; Portugal; Guyana; No. 41 (Summer 1992) Special-Next Enemies; LA Uprising; Geo. Bush & CIA;
Caribbean; AFlO; NSA intervinw. Bush Fam.ily; Eqbal Ahmad; UN: D.S. Tool; Nuclear Proliferation; Environmentalist
Attacked; V.S. Economic Decline; Dissent as Subversion,
No. 12 (Apr. 1981) U.8. in El Salvador & Guatemala; New Right; William Casey;
CLAin Mozambique; Mail surveillance.* No. 42 (Fall 1992) Philip Agee on Covert Ops; Peru; Fluoride; VP Bush & CIAlNSC''
Nicaragua; SO/LIe; Militarizing the Drug War; CIATargets Henry Gonzalez; Bush
No.. 13 (July-Aug. 1981) S. Africa documents; BOSS; Namibia; mercenaries; Globe
Inaugural Leak; Rov. Moon Buys University; Inside LA Police.
Aero; Angola; OL-'\ jn Mozambique; Central America; Klan in Caribbean; Max Hugel;
Mail surveillanc&. No_ 43 (Winter 1992·93) Chemical and Biological War: Zimbabwe, So. Africa and
anthrax, Gulf War Syndrome, Agent Orange; Yellow Rain & Wall Street Journal; &i­
No. 14-15 (Oct. 1981) Index to Nos. 1-12; Review ofintelligence legislation; CAIB
entific racism; Plus: Yugoslavia destabilization; V.S. Religious Right; Somalia.
No. 44 (Spring 1993) Special-Public relations, buying infiuenC(l. Hill & Knowlton,
plans; Extended Naming Names.
No. 16 (Mar. 1982) Green Beret t.orture in El Salvador; Argentine death squads; CIA
media operations; Seychelles; Angola; Mozambique; Constantine Menges; Klan in Burson-Marsteller, Clinton Cabinet; Somalia: "hurrum.itarian" intervention; Rio
Caribbean; Nugan Hand. * Sununit Greenwash; BCCI.CIA; Clinton & Nat. Sec. Act; .Anti+Gay plans.

No. 17 (Summer 1982) CBWbistory; DoD nerve gas sales pitch; Cuban dengue epi­ No. 45 (Summer 1993) So. Mrica Right's Links; German N(l{)+NaziB; RN Haitians;

demic; Scott Bames and �yellow rain� lies; Mystery death in Bangkok; CIA assassi­ Interview: Fred Weir in Russia; Police 'Im-get Black Youth; ADL Spying; Pelican Bay
nations.'!' Prison; Ireland's Youth; Angola Profiwers.

No. 18 (Winter 1983) CIA & religion; �Secret" war in Nicaragua; Miskitos; Opus Dei; No_ 46 (Fall 1993) Economic intelligence; CIA's Hit List; Israel & Iran; NSA; School
Evangelicals in Guatemala; Summer Itwt. ofLinguistics; World Medical Relief; CIA o.f the Americas; Ex-adviser reveals El Salvador cover-up; Private prisons; Deltajua­
& BOSS; S. Mrican torture; NSA; Vietnam defoliation.'" tice & Death Row; Savrumah River; French Bull; NSA's Clipper Chip; -CIA uses
NQ. 19 (Spring-Summer 1983) CIA & media; History of disinfonnat.ion; "Plot"
against the Pope; Grenada airport-Reagan's big lie; Georgie Anne (}eyer. No. 47 (Winter 1993·94) 15th Anniversary: FBI YS. Ban; RU8llian October Coup;
Rocky li'lats Jury; NAF1'A Trila"teralists; Zinn on FBI; DeUinger on '9Os; Cold War
No. 2() (Win.ter 1984) Invasion of Grenada; War in Nicaragua; Ft. Huachuca buildup;
Quiz; Ginsberg on CIA; Mumia Ahu..Jamal; World BankJIMF; Evergreen Air UN/CIA
Israel and South Kotea connections in Central America; Mooniesj KAL Flight 007;
CIA aMassinations. PropriBtary.
No. 48 (Spring 1994) Cbiapas Uprising; CIA & NAFTA; D.S. Sells Out Haiti; Iran­
No. 21 (Spring 1984) New York Times and the Salvadoran election; Time and
Newsweek distortions; Accuracy in Media; Nicaragua; CIA occult research Contra Report; LA-8; U.S. mercenaries in A:r,erbaijan; Council for Nat. Policy;
Guatemala's Drug Generals.
No. 22 (Fall 1984) Mercenaries & terrorism; Soldier of Fortune; CAlB investigates
No. �9 (Summer 1994) Muntesinos, Fujimori, and Peru; TurabilSudan; Operation
Special Forces camps; Jonathan Inst.; "Privatizing" war in Nicaragua; CIA terror
manual; U.S.··South Afric:>..n terror; Italian fascists. Gladio; UB. atom "tests on humans; Armenia and Azerbaijan; So. Africa's Left; Sal·

NI). 23 (Spring 1985) "Plot" to kill the Pope/"Bulgarian Connection"; St. Peter's Sq.
vador's Ejections.

phow manipUlation; CIA tie� to Thrkish and Italian noofascists; Paul Henu on No. 50 (fall 1994) Operation Condor; Clinton's Crime Bill; Carte's Liberty Lobby;
human rights; Claire Sterling. Monforts Mea.tpackers; Low Intensity Democracy; NEO & IntelligenCB Budget.

No. 24 (Summer 1985) State repression, FEMA, infiltrators, provocateurs; sanctuary No. 51 (Winter 1994-95) U.S. Interests i.n Haiti; Canadian Intelligence
movement; American Indian Movemeot; Leonard Peltierj NABBCO strike; Arnaud de �ts N6Q-Nazis� Brookhaven Lab and Cancer; U.S. in Bulgaria; Repackaging Popu­
Bo.rchgravfJ, Moon and Robert Moss; Tetra Tern. lation; Asylum Rights for Women; The CIA Budget; Paramilitary Vacations; Bud

No• .25 (Winter 1986) U.S., Nazis, and Vatican; IDaus Barbie; "Project Paperclip" & J.
McFarlane book review.

Peter Grace; James Angleton & Roger Pem-son; Nuremberg prosecutor interview; No. 52 (Spring 1995) Rwandan Genocide; Proposition 187; Rise ofMilitins; Noo­
Specialized torture in Brazil; Knights of Malta; Greek civil wart'Eleni�; WACL. Nazi/Anti-Abortion Li.n.k.s; Groom Lake; Wall Street Pressures Mexico; Human Rad.i�

No. 26 (Summl!r 1986) Index to Nos. 13-25; U.S. state terrorism; Noam Chomsky;
ation Update; Corporations Fund Reaea.tch; NSA in Cyberspace; Internet Resources;
Vemon Walters; Libya bombing; contra agents.; Israel & South Africa; Dua.rte; media Warren Andetson located.
manipulation in Costa Rica; Jonathan. Pollard; Democracy in Nicaragua:" No. 53 (Summer 1995) GulfWar Syndrome Cover-Up; Militia and Military; Frank
Donner; Arab Bashing; Hiroshima: Cold War Bomb; Iraqi Embargo; Guatemala;
DeVooe Murder; Bhopal; FISA Court; Omnibus lmtiterrorism. Act; Kunstler 011
No. 27 (Spring 1987) Special-Religious Right: Christian underground; Christian
Right & African f\merica.n.,'I.; New York Times and Pope Plot; Frank Carlucci; Moon s
law; SouthernAir Transport; Oliver North & Michael Ledoon.* Fourth Amendment Violation.

No. 28 (Spring 1987) Special-CIA and drugs: S.E. Asia, Afghanistan, Central Amer­ No. M (J:i'a1l 1995) Chomsky on corporate propaganda; &srna fonllD.; V.S. in Kurdis­
ica; Iran-Contra documents; Nugan Hand; William Casey; MK-ULTRA in Canada; tan; obit for Sasakawa; Labor Now: NAFTAlayoffs, Prison Labor, AFL-CIO in Rus-­
. sia, PrivatE: Seeurity Guards, Waiter Reuther.
Delta Force; AIDS theories & CBW."
No. 29 (Winter 1988) Special-·Pacific: Philippines counterinsurgency & Religious No. 56 (Winter 1995·96) Polit;e vs. Cithen Review; Corporate Assault on FDA; PR
Right; Fiji., N, Zealand; Belau, Vanuatu; Atom testing; Mediai.Nicaragua; CIA in Industry Wars on Activists; Colin Powell; UN at 50/Castro Speech; Economic lntelli*
Cub$.; Tibet; CiA. & &ader's Digest; AIDS." g<:!nce; Spain's GAL Sc.andal; East 'I'irnor--Britain Ar:ma Indonesia; Bosnia Forum
No. 30 (Su.mmer 1988) Spe(:ial�Middle East: lntifada, Abu Jihad's asSMSination;
Israeli anns sales & nuclear arsenal; Israel & Contraslin Africa; Libya disinforma­ No. 56 (Sprill€ 1996) Chomsky on �enduring truths"; High-Tech survci.llance; Milita*
tioni CIA's Williem Buckley; Mghan arms pipeline & contra lobby; CIA "role models.� rizing USlMexico border; Pepper Gas; Guy.ana mining disaster; Economics behind
No. 31 (W:nter 1989) Special-Domestic surveillance: 'I'hi) Unew" FBI; CIA on cam­ fall ofYl.lgoslavia.; Russian nationalism; USIKorea partnership and Kwangju; La
pus; Off. of Pub. Diplomacy; Vigiloo1wrepression; Geronimo Pratt; Lerington Prison; Belle bombing.
Puerto Rico; State defense forces; World wlo War Coun.; Int. Freedom Foun.; New No. 57 (Summer 1996) Six-pack of lies, Racism in the ranks, White-collar crime,
York Times disinformation. Common law courts, INS detention, Buying the Russian elections, Chornaky on the
No. 32 (Summer 1989) Thnth Year Anniversary Issue: Best ofCAIB Naming Names; US and Haiti, US·Israeli cooperation, Anonymous remailers, Nukes in Space.
CIA at home, abroad, and in the media. Eleven�year perspecl.ive by Philip Agee, No. 58 (Fall 1996) Burmese Gulag; Estrogen Mimickers & Endocrine Disrupters;
No. 33 (Winter 1990) Bush is1:lue: CIA agents for Bush; Terrorism Task Force; 8 years Globalization of Crime and Capital; �Co=tm:-ThrromID"� documents; Black church
of covert action; NED in Nicarat,'1.m; El Salvador election & state terror; Bush & Nor­ burnings; AID and thfJ environmen.t; Br,y...hlu!.ven whi.a:tleblowers; AIDS Conspiracy
iega; Skull & Bones; Repuh. Party & fascists; FEM..<\. & NSC; Cuba & drugs disinfor· debunked.
mation; Chile.
C I A DEBACLE ABANDONS African American communities says much of the
AlliES TO DEATH interest comes from Blacks, even though only about
In a little-publicised disaster in Iraq the Washington 14% have computers.
spooks have once more abandoned a group they were
using to subvert a government they are hostile to, with D I D CUNTON WORK FOR THE CIA?
the result that dozens of their allies were tortured and NameBase Newsline, a newsletter which monitors the
killed. This scenario has been a repeated and sorry CIA and its personnel, features an article in its October­
refrain in CIA history. In Cuba, Vietnam, Iran, and other December issue that suggests the newly-elected
places, the CIA has encouraged local dissidents in President was recruited by the CIA. The story says that
rebellion, then left them to their fate. The Kurds in Iraq Clinton was recruited while he was a Rhodes Scholar
must be getting reconciled to it - this certainly isn't the at Oxford, possibly by a friend named Richard Steams.
first time it has happened to them. When the Iraqi army Steams was an International Vice President of the
rolled into Erbil at the end of August, CIA officers National Student Association which for many years
retreated, leaving behind a large number ofpeople they received CIA funding. Clinton's efforts to avoid the
had backed against Saddam Hussein. Nearly a hundred draft may have been assisted by an understanding with
employees of a CIA funded radio station that broadcast the spooks. Some people believe Clinton's trips to
anti-Saddam propaganda were interrogated and Eastern Europe in 1969-70 were CIA-sponsored.
executed. Other rebels had to flee to the mountains. To NameBase refers to evidence from a recent biography
add to the ignominy, much of the disaster was due to of the Clinlons by Roger Morris, who worked for the
the failure of the intelligence agency to predict that National Security Council until the bombing of
Saddam would send his forces to take an active part in Cambodia in 1970 when he became a peace activist.
the Kurdish disputes. Commentators say that the CIA's Morris cites inside intelligence sources for his assertion
reputation in Iraq has been thoroughly demolished. Last and says Clinton's tolerance of CIA drug-running and
June an anti-government paramilitary organisation money-laundering in Arkansas during the 1980s
backed by the CIA had most ofits members in Baghdad supports this conclusion.
captured. Many were tortured and executed. [See Time
Magazine, 23 September 1996J I RAN BLAMED AGAIN
In August stories were released blaming Iran for the
C ENTRAL STUP I DITY AGENCY crash of TWA Flight 800 which killed 230 people off
The CIA was forced to close down its World Wide New York in July. Senior US intelligence officials were
Web site in September when a hacker broke in and given as the source for reports that the CIA was linking
altered the content of its home pages. The amended Iran to the disaster. In spite of intensive investigation
version accused the agency of lying, and replaced the efforts no confirmed reason for the crash has yet been
main heading with "Welcome to the Central Stupidity revealed. The event, however, has been useful as
Agency". The embarrassed spooks hastened to assure another means of establishiug Iran and terrorism in the
people that there was no access to any computers that public mind as enemies which justify the CIA empire.
held files containing security information. A group has
been set up to find ways to protect the site in future. EX-SPOOKS ALLEGE COVER-UP
[Press, 2 1 September 1996J Two former CIA analysts have written a book which
says the CIA and Pentagon are behind the smokescreen
CRACK AGENCY put up over veterans' exposure to chemical agents in
While spook-backers are saying that the CIA has used the GulfWar. They say documents point to as many as
traffickers, drug smugglers and criminals in its 60 incidents of possible releases of chemical agents
operations, but there is no "proof" that this was near US troops. Over a thousand documents relating to
sanctioned by the Langley headquarters. Black the Gulf War were released to the public last year but
Americans have taken up the story of the CIA since then more than half have been reclassified with
originating much of the crack problem in California the CIA claiming some· of them revealed its sources
with great interest. [See story, PR 10J According to and methods. In August of this year the New York Times
Time Magazine [30 September 1996] a web site dealing reported that a 1991 intelligence document had alerted
with this issue has been getting 100,000 entries each the White House, CIA and State Department to the fact
day. An authority on the way information spreads in that American troops may have been exposed to

Peace Researcher Page 75

chemical weapons when an Iraqi ammunition dump aid to family planning programmes around the world
was blown up in March 1991. On April 26 1995 when were blocked on orders from the President. From the
the then Assistant Secretary of Defense John Deutch CIA the Vaticau received intelligence information
was testifying at confirmation hearings for his about priests and bishops in Central and South America
appointment as CIA Director he repeatedly denied there who advocated liberation theology. Oliver North made
was evidence of chemical weapons. At the end of payments to priests loyal to the Pope in these areas,
October this year the Pentagon announced it will notify though it is not certain that Wojtyla knew of this. [See
20,000 US Gulf War veterans they may have been review in Sunday Star-Times, 3 November 1996]
exposed to chemical agents when the ammunition depot
A recent article in the Bulletin ofthe Atomic Scientists
CiA H EALTH CHECK [Sept/Oct J 996] tells us that reform of US intelligence
"The CIA has infonnants at overseas hospitals who is uulikely to result from Congressional iuquiries into
watch for foreign officials checking in for treatment. It the system. John Prados writes that although one
employs a dozen doctors and psychiatrists to review Senator wanted to abolish the CIA the investigating
videos of world leaders for signs of physical or mental Aspin-Brown Commission was mostly made up of
ailments .... For example, agency physicians privately people "little disposed to question traditional roles and
concluded that the late French President Francois missions". Control of spending has been given very
Mitterrand had cancer more than a decade before he minor attention. Intelligence spending tripled between
made it public." But apparently the CIA missed the 1980 and 1990 and in 1996 money is spent on
big one - they didn't learn how ill Yeltsin was until his intelligence "at a rate 80 percent higher than in 1980".
doctor admitted weeks later on TV that he had suffered The Pentagon spends 85% of intelligence allocations,
a heart attack [Time, 28 October 1996] the biggest share going to the National Security Agency
for electronic eavesdropping and the National
CIA " K ILLS" BUT DOES NOT Recounaissance Office for satellite operations. (The
"ASSASSI NATE" same issue of the Bulletin contains an excellent Jeffrey
After William Buckley, CIA Head of Station, was Riche1son article describing the current capabilities of
kidnapped and killed in Beirut in 1984, Reagan issued sky spy systems.) Clandestine operations will remain
a new secret Presidential Directive. According to the province of the CIA. Prados says "Recent
Covert Action Quarterly [Fall 1996] still-classified revelations of how the CIA station in Guatemala misled
portions of the directive authorised establishing secret its own headquarters about actions undertaken with the
FBI and CIA paramilitary squads and use of existing Guatemalan military make it plain that persisting with
Pentagon units to conduct guerrilla war against this course is dangerous". One of the better aspects of
guerillas. This meant sabotage, killing (though not the Aspin-Brown report is that it recommends retaining
assassination) preemptive and retaliatory raids, separate Congressional intelligence committees in the
deception and a significantly expanded intelligence House and the Senate. But accordiug to this article,
collection programme aimed at suspected radicals and many key issues - including declassification of secret
people regarded as sympathisers. '" Assassiuation' in records - have simply not beeu addressed.
CIA parlance, referred to the murder of heads of state
and was barred by a presidential order first issued ANOTHER CIA MOLE
during the Ford Administration. Killing suspected As this issue of Peace Researcher goes to press it
guerrillas and lower-level state officials, in contrast, is reported that another major security scandal
was regarded as 'preemptive self-defense. '" threatens the CIA. Harold Nicholson, an instructor
at the ageucy's training centre in Virginia, has been
MORE O N THE U N HOlY ALLIANCE arrested for selling secrets to Moscow. Nicholson,
The story of the alliance between the Vatican and the variously described as bcing a former chief in
CIA gets a full airing in a new book by Carl Bernstein counter-terrorism, and a former head of station in
and Marco Politi [His Holiness, Doubleday, 1996] Romania and Malaysia, has been sel ling
From early 1981, the Reagan administration maintained information about CIA spies for cash since 1994.
an intelligence shuttle at the highest level between the His job at the training centre would have given
White House and Pope Jobn Paul lI. The Pope was the him information on every uewly trained officer.
beneficiary of some of the United States' most carefully Having just finished brushing away the debris from
guarded secrets and sophisticated political analysis, the Ames betrayals, the bosses at Langley will now
from satellites, intelligence agents, and electronic face more big battles to defend the agency from its
eavesdropping. During the 1980s, while the covert detractors.
collusion proceeded, millions of dollars in American

Page 76 Peace Researcher

"United States' military equipment intended for anti­ ANOTHER lOCKERSIE THEORY -
drug operations in Colombia had been diverted to IT WAS SOUTH AFRICA
counter-insurgency units responsible for the deaths of An Austrian newspaper says that apartheid covert
thousands of civilians, Amnesty International said operatives were also behind the bombing of the Pan
yesterday." [Sydney Morning Herald, 3 1 October 1996J Am airliner destroyed over Scotland in December 1988,
Amnesty says the "aid" from Washington was going Kronen Zeitung believes the real target was Bernt
to paramilitary squads who had killed large numbers Carlsson, a close associate ofOlofPalme and the man
of people, particularly trade union leaders and human nominated by the United Nations as the first governor
rights activists. According to the British Observer, of an independent Namibia. Carlsson, who died in the
intelligence on some of those killed was provided to bombing along with 270 others, was an outspoken
the army by the giant BP oil conglomerate which opponent of the apartheid regime and thought to have
operates extensively in Colombia. Workers striking at supported secret weapons deliveries to the African
the BP plant in Casanare have been identified, beaten, National Congress. [Press, 9 October 1 996J
and sometimes killed. BP pays tbe army to protect its
interests. President Clinton has recently given the go­ HUGE INCREASE I N NSW BUGGING
ahead for another SUS 40 million aid to Colombia and The New South Wales Government has ordered a
the sale of seven helicopters. review of the state's wide powers to monitor telephone
and other conversations secretly, the Sydney Morning
CRI M I NALS' H I-TECH INTElliGENCE Herald has reported . [3 1 October 1996J The review
According to Time Magazine [23 September 1996J follows a big increase in the number of bugging
some of the massive Colombian drug cartels possess a operations by law endorcement agencies and the
level of intelligence sophistication "about at the level frequency of their use. More than a thousand devices
ofthe KGB when the Soviet Union fell apart". Police are being installed each year compared with about 300
and Drug Enforcement Agency raids have found signal in 1990. There are about 200 phone taps per year where
scanning equipment to intercept phone calls, fax there were about 90 three years ago. The Independent
messages and air traffic control communications. A Commission Against Corruption has doubled its use
mainframe computer has been used to store phone of listening devices and court warrants have been
records of millions ofcitizens and routinely cross-check obtained to insta11 40 of these since January.
them against calls made to the US Embassy or Ministry
of Defence to identify Colombians cooperating with SPOOK TAKES H E R PLACE I N
the government. Time says that Italian police are NSW PARLIAMENT
seriously concerned about the Mafia's use ofencryption A New Zealand-born woman has confirmed her seat
to protect it from government surveillance, and that as a Liberal MP after revealing her spook credentials
the Russian Mafia are using the latest technology to in defence of her right to hold the seat. Iackie KeUy
rapidly expand their empire. won the traditionally Labor electorate of Lindsay in
the March election, but the Labor Party appealed,
5TH AFRICAN H I TMAN KILLED SWEDISH PM saying she was a New Zealand citizen and not entitled
Swedish Prime Minister, OlofPalme, an outspoken foe to take the seat. Kelly says she served six years in !be
of the white apartheid regime, was assassinated as a Australian military and worked as a "legal advisor to
result of covert South African operations according to the Australian Air Force". She claims a top-secret
courtroom testimony in South Africa. Two leading security clearance, and that she has "had to kick Kiwis
participants in former death squads have testified that off courses when discussing intelligence they're not
the killing was part of 'Operation Long Reach' under meant to have access to." [Press, 5 June 1996] A full
the control of a South African spook named Craig CV might prove fascinating!
Williamson. Williamson has admitted carrying out
bombings and murders of anti-aparthied activists, but SWEDEN VERSUS RUSSIA
denies involvement in the Palme murder. The Swedish A Swedish aircraft on a surveillance mission crashed
leader was gunned down in a Stockholm street in into the Baltic Sea last October after an undisclosed
February 1986. [AucklandHerald, 28 and 30 September incident involving a Russian plane. The Swedish
1996J Viggen had been shadowing a nuclear-powered Russian

Peace Researcher Page 17

warship about 120 kilometres of the coast of Sweden, searched their homes and those of their relatives. In
and hit the water only a few hundred metres from its spite of confiscating most of lhe material collected the
surveillance target. The pilot was killed. FSB was not able to stop the report going out - it was
sent to the Norwegian headquarters by E-Mail. The
KOREA: NORTH VERSUS SOUTH report details the environmetal threats presented by
While Western spooks yawn over business documents naval nuclear reactors and waste. A leading Bellona
and computer screens, spy-games seem much more employee has been charged with treason. Although the
entertaining in the East. An American being held by defendant, Alexander Nikitin, based his work on
North Korea on spying charges is said by his family to publicly available sources the FSB and Defence
be a missionary who was drunk when he accidentally Ministry claim they are subject to classification.
swam across the Amnok River and into North Korean [Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Sept 1996]
territory. His captors claim he cannot be a missionary
because he does not know the Ten Commandments, or UNARMED IRA SUSPECT KILLED
how to pray. [Press, 26 October 1996] In recent weeks A person alleged by British police to be a dangerous
South Korean troops have been hnnting and executing terrorist was shot during a dawn raid in London in
North Koreans they claim are infiltraters who landed September. Evidence in a coroner's court has shown
from a submarine that impaled itself on the South that Diarmuid O'Neill was unarmed when he died of
Korean coast. Last July counter-intelligence officers multiple gnnshot wounds. Several people were arrested
in Seoul arrested a respected nniversity historian whom and police say they seized almost ten tonnes of
they said had disguised himself as a Filipino for many explosives in a series of raids in the city.
years in order to spy for the North.
A French weekly magazine, L'Express, has claimed When the Falklands War began, Argentina had five
that Charle Hernu, defence minister in France when Exocet Missiles. Three of the first four fired hit their
the Rainbow Warrior was bombed, was an agent of the targets sinking two British ships. Acquisition of more
Soviet Union. The magazine alleges Hernu was Exocets by the Argentines would have forced the
recruited by the Bulgarians in 1953 and spied for the British to withdraw, especially if their aircraft carriers
Eastern Bloc. Former President Mitterand was told were threatened. A story in Time magazine [9
about this and covered it up. Hernu resigned after it September 1996] relates that President Mitterrand
became public that France was responsible for the immediately offered London assistance at the opening
terrorism that killed a Greenpeace activist on the of hostilities. He stopped Exocets going to Peru, which
Rainbow Warrior at Auckland. Silly us. We should have may have handed them on to Argentina. He then
known all along that Moscow was behind it. ordered his Defence Ministry to supply Britain with
technical details that would help defence against the
KGB DISINFORMATION missiles, and French intelligence organisations handed
A recently published book by German Chancellor MI6 information from communications intercepts that
Helmut Kohl says that the KGB and the East German enabled covert operations to prevent procurement of
Stasi tried to preveut German unification after the missiles on the blackmarket. With the Americans
Berlin Wall collapsed by sending false reports of supplying Britain with intelligence from its
upheaval to Gorbachev. Kohl writes that the KGB and communication intercepts, and Chile allowing the SAS
the Stasi wanted to provoke military intervention by to operate from its territory, Argentina had little chance.
Soviet troops stationed in East Germany. To do this
they gave false reports to the Russian leader that US OFFICER FOU N D DEAD
outraged masses were storming Soviet military The body of a 27 year-old "Foreign Service Officer"
facilities. The book relates that Gorbachev took the has been found dead in the Shenandoah National Park
word of a Kohl aide and kept the Russian troops in in Washington State. lames Schneider had been nnder
their barracks. [Press, I October 1996] suspicion "about his handling of secrets while aboard
the USS Chancellorsville during the Gulf War". [Press,
THE MORE THINGS CHANGE . . . . 19 October 1996] Schneider was being investigated for
I n February the Russian Federal Security Service (FSB) mishandling missile secrets. He is reported to have
tried to stop the Oslo-based Bellona Foundation from committed suicide. What's the real story behind the
publishing a report on nuclear pollution in Northern presence of a "Foreign Service Officer" with access to
Russia. Agents arrested Russian employees of the missile secrets on board a major ship in a war zone?
Foundation, including a retired Soviet admiral, and

Page 18 Peace Researcher

Most people who protest against nuclear weapons don't 1 996) carried a brief report from a San Francisco paper
expect to be zapped by one, at least not while protesting. that a Soviet submarine that sank in 1 986 spilled
But that may have happened indirectly at Greenham plutonium from broken nuclear warheads into the
Common airbase as a result of an accident in 1 958. Atlantic Ocean. "Despite Soviet and US assurances at
British Ministry of Defence scientists concluded in a the time that there was no radioactive contamination,
classified 1 961 report " ...that the contamination the paper said it had learnt this was the first case in
originated from a fire which engulfed a parked US Air which weapons-grade plutonium leaked from a
Force B-47 bomber containing a nuclear weapon, after submarine in the ocean."
a tank of fuel was jettisoned by another bomber with
engine trouble on 28 February 1 958". (New Scientist,
20 July 1996). HAVE YOU HEA RD
Although the article in NS doesn't mention risks to the THE ONE A BOUT . . . ?
Greenham Common women being exposed to radiation This is the transcript of a n actual radio
during their long vigils at the base, it is a clear conversation of a US naval ship with Canadian
possibility. Excessive numbers of leukemia victims authorities off the coast of Newfoundland in
among children in the region surrounding Greenham October 1995.
were investigated in 1 989 with no definite conclusions
being drawn. That investigation is expected to be Radio conversation released by the Chief of Naval
reopened in light of the revelations about the accident Operations 1 0 October 1 995 -
in 1 958. "Scientists detected uranium-235
contamination in two large circles to the east and west Americans: "Please divert your course 1 5
of Greenham Common. They calculated that between degrees to the North to avoid a
1 0 and 20 grams of powdered uranium-235 dust must collision."
have been released into the environment.. .. Canadians: "Recommend you divert YOUR
Contaminated dust would subsequently have been course 1 5 degrees to the South to
distnrbed by aircraft taking off and landing at the base. avoid a collision."
Foliage up to 1 3 kilometres away from Greenham Americans: "This is the Captain of a US Navy
Common was contaminated with uranium-235." ship. I say again, divert YOUR
The usual denials of various kinds came from both Canadians: "No. I say again, you divert YOUR
American and British authorities over the years. course."
Initially they denied that a nuclear weapon was involved Americans: "THIS IS THE AIRCRAFT
in the accident. "The MoD insists that there was never CARRIER USS MISSOURI. WE
any risk to public health." But cancer researchers in ARE A LARGE WARSHIP OF
Glasgow cite this "... as another instance when THE US NAVY. DIVERT YOUR
information was not passed on to us when it should COURSE NOW!
have been". In a separate incident, The Press (26 Nov Canadians: "This is a lighthouse. Your call."

About Peace Researcher

Peace Researcher is published quarterly b y the Anti-Bases campaign, Christchurch. The editors are
Warren Thomson and Bob Leonard. Our journal covers a range of peace issues with emphasis on foreign
military bases and intelligence topics. Contributed articles will be considered for publication based on
subject matter and space requirements. We are particularly interested in reports of original research on
peace topics in Aotearoa and the wider region of Australasia and the Pacific. Our address is:

Peace Researcher
P.O. Box 2258
Aotearoal New Zealand

Peace Researcher Page 79

November is a busy time for science and logistics Deep Freeze with its big Starlifter and Galaxy cargo
support in the Antarctic. A recent Press report (27 planes for many years. AMC also has a vital military/
N ov 1996) described the mix of Hercules aircraft intelligence role with its Channel flights through
present at Christchurch Airport on a recent day: Christchurch in support of major US bases in Australia,
Wheeled Hercules from the RNZAF's Operation including Pine Gap. Those flights operate under the
Icecube and from the Italian program, and ski-equipped cover of Operation Deep Freeze and continue to be a
Hercules from the US Navy and the New York Air major concern of the Anti-Bases Campaign.
National Guard. The article erroneously describes the
109th Air Mobility Wing (AMC) as part of the Air MAC or AMC is taking over all navy logistics functions
National Guard. at Deep Freeze in a phased operation over the next few
years (see PR 9). Many of the "temporary" wooden
AMC is of course the new anagram for the old Military buildings that have been used by seasonal navy workers
Airlift Command (MAC) whose name has been over the years are being removed. The air force sees
cleansed of military connotations. AMC is mainstream itself as an elite arm of the US military; its personnel
US air force, not national guard, and has supported wouldn't be caught dead using old navy barracks.

The US Military at Christchurch Airport
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Page 20 Peace Researcher