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# Book Practice Problem Solution

## 12.4 (revised October 2, 2013)

Looking at a hybrid rocket fuels burning rate under mass flux and acceleration. Worst case is
that there is sufficient oxidizer available for complete rb augmentation due to an .
Well need to iterate between the two mechanisms of burning, given that each mechanism is
dependent on the other mechanism as a base burning rate.
Effect of mass flux G:
From Prob. 12.3 (b),

h*

0.0118
k
f 0.205
Re d Pr 1 / 3
4.926 10 6 (0.730.333 )
=16766 W/m2@K, remains constant.
8
0.08
8
d

## Begin iteration, guess rb = 1.630.01165 m/s = 0.019 m/s:

h
exp(

s rb C p
s rb C p

rb ro ,an

1100(2083)rb
2.291 10 6 rb

= 3506 W/m2@K
1100(2083)rb
exp(136.66rb ) 1
) 1
) 1 exp(
16766
h*
h(TF TS )
h(2725 800)
ro ,an 1.709 10 6 h
ro ,an
s C s (TS Ti ) s H S
1100(2000)(800 288) 0

= ro ,an + 0.006 = (0.019 0.006) + 0.006 = 0.013 + 0.006 = 0.019 m/s, tentatively. Need to
check via remaining equations, to bring convergence to the solution. For now, ro,G = 0.006 m/s.
Effect of normal acceleration an:
0

C p (T F TS )
2083(1925)
1.4255 10 7
k
0.205
]
n[1
n[1
]
s ro C p
C S (TS Ti ) H S
ro,G
2000(512) 0
1100(ro,G )2083

= 2.37610-5 m
Ga

rb

## a n p o ro 4905(8.0 10 6 ) 1.4255 10 7 ro.G

5.678 10 3

= -15.73 kg/s@m2
2
rb RT F rb
rb
361.5(2725) ro,G rb
rb

C p (T F TS )
C S (TS Ti ) H S

rb G a / s

exp[

C p o s
k

(rb G a / s )] 1

rb

= 3.92
exp[

rb2

2083(1.4255 10 7 )1100
5.162 10 6
(rb
)] 1
0.205ro,G
rb2
rb

3.92

5.162 10 6

5.162 10 6
rb2

1.5934
5.162 10 6
exp[
(rb
)] 1
ro,G
rb2

## . 0.00742 m/s, so guessed incorrectly on rb

To potentially speed things up a bit, one can note that there is a transitional reference value for rb
at a given an, as prescribed by the above equation (same expression in numerator and
denominator), such that the expression is presumed to go to zero at the same time at a crossover
value for an:
rb ,lim

5.162 10 6
rb2,lim

Or in other words,
rb,lim {

C p (T F TS )
an p
k
]}1 / 3
n[1
2
RT F s C p
C s (TS Ti ) H s

Again, one must point out that rb = rb,lim at only one specific an value when incorporating the
mass-flux burning component into the coupled problem, in this case the crossover an being
around 550 g. Depending on the influence of other factors, the overall actual rb may be above,
at (i.e., at the ref. crossover point), or indeed, below rb,lim for a given value of an. In this case, it
turns out that rb is by coincidence close to the rb,lim actual crossover value (around 550 g) at the
problems specified value of 500 g, hence equal to around 0.0173 m/s. The base burn rate ro (i.e.,
due to axial mass flux alone) for the 500 g case is 0.00703 m/s, solvable directly once rb is
known. One can note that the ref. value given by rb,lim for any an of interest may be useful as a
first guess for any iterative solution process for the actual value of rb, especially at higher values
for an when rb and rb,lim in relative terms arent too far apart in value.
Thus,

rb
0.0173

ro 0.00703

## to radial vibration of 500 g.

Note how much mass-flux base burning was brought down by the vibration from 0.01165 m/s
down to 0.00703 m/s (about a 40% decrease). Referencing the pre-vibration state, the
augmentation ratio would in that case be 0.0173/0.01165 = 1.49 hence not quite as impressive
a value as the previous ratio. See the graph below for further reference to this problem:

## Regression Rate, cm/s

3
rb
ro

0
0

500

1000

Normal Acceleration, g

1500