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, which means group or partners.

on the scientific study of human social behavior.

ciologists are interested in the ways in which people act toward, respond to, and
influence on another.
cience of social organization and social change

4. Subject Matter of Sociology: 1. Society - the broadest grouping of people who share a common set of
habits, ideas, and attitudes, who live in a definite territory and consider themselves as a social unit. 2.
Human Social Interaction - a process by which the individual notices, responds to or perceives others
who in turn notice, respond and perceives him.
-1800s, the study of
sociology was the domain of social philosophers.
cipline of sociology began to emerge in the middle of the 19th century in the
ologies and industries
changed the face of the social and physical environment.
sciences 2. Exposure of Europeans to the radically different societies in Africa, Asia, and Americas that
their colonial empires had engulfed.
8. Emergence of Sociology Henri St. Simon (1760 1825) - a French socialist theorist. - Opposed feudal
and military system and advocated a form of state-technocratic socialism, an arrangement where
industrialists would lead society and found a national community based upon cooperation and
technological progress, which would be capable of eliminating poverty of the lower classes.
9. August Comte ( 1798philosophy of Positivism, he identified three stages in understanding society: Law of 3 stages: a.)
Theological or Fictitious b.) Metaphysical or Abstract c.) Scientific or Positivism
10. Karl Marx (1818conomic
would bring about the desired change.
11. Herbert Spencer (1820which conti

means that through natural selection (a gradual weeding out of the weak and malfunctioning parts) only
the optimal social arrangement would eventually remain.
12. Emile Durkheim (1855titled Suicide, when society over- regulates and there is
suicide will occur.(Unstable due to moral breakdown/alienation)
13. Max Weber (1864understand the behavior of the individual, we have to understand the meaning of individual attributes
n Sociology. Verstehen is a German word
common acceptance of reasons and legal rules. (too rigid)
14. William Graham Sumner (1840-

course in sociology at Yale University in

greatest contribution is the study of folkways and mores.

15. Lester Frank Ward (1841-

ong American sociologist who was a

of the American Journal of Sociology.

Macaraig was the first Filipino sociologist who obtained a doctoral degree in sociology.
18. The development of sociology in the Philippines is brought about by two realities, namely: a.)
sociology as a course in the tertiary level and b.) the use of sociological knowledge to applied disciplines.
19. The development of sociology may de divided into 3 stages or how sociology was viewed: a.)
sociology as social philosophy was taught from the normative point of view. b.) sociology as problem
oriented or welfare oriented was viewed as a solution to social problem. c.) sociology as scientific
discipline served as a tool of the government and private sectors in their expansion and developmental
20. SCOPE OF SOCIOLOGY 1. Social Interaction - a social process wherein one notice, perceive and
respond to another who in turn notice, perceive and respond to. 2. Social Organization - an ordered
social relationship of person or group composed of system of norms, system of roles and system of
sanction as well as ranking system. 3. Social Change - refers to variation or modification in the pattern of
social organization, groups or entire society.
21. 4. Social Structure - it is an interdependent network of roles and hierarchy of statuses w/c define the
reciprocal expectation and the power arrangement of the members of the total unit guided by norms. 5.

Social Acts - refers to the action done by man collectively. 6. Social Relation - refers to the logical or
natural association between two or more person/s.
22. AREAS OF SOCIOLOGY 1. Social Organization - this area investigates social group, institution,
stratification and social mobility. 2. Social Psychology - this area studies human nature as the outcome
or result of group life, personality formation, social attitudes and collective behavior.
23. 3. Social Change - this area studies the changes in culture and social relations as well as current
social problems. 4. Human Ecology - this area studies the behavior of a given population and its
relationship to the groups present social institution.
24. 5. Population Studies - this area is concerned with population numbers, composition, change and
quantity as they influence the economic, political and social system. 6. Sociological Theory and Method this area is concerned with testing the applicability of the principles of group life as bases for the
regulation of mans social environment.
25. 7. Applied Sociology - this area is concerned with the application of the findings of pure sociological
research to various fields, example: criminology, penology, social works.
26. Importance of Sociology: 1. To obtain factual information about our society and the different aspect
of our social life. 2. To learn the application of scientific information to daily life and problems. 3. It
broadens our experience as we learn to discard our prejudices and becomes more tolerant of the
custom of other people.
27. APPROACHES IN SOCIOLOGY 1. Evolutionary Approach - it is an approach which offers a satisfying
explanation on how groups exist, grow and develop. - This early theoretical approach was based on the
work of August Comte and Herbert Spencer. - Sociologists used this approach as a frame of reference to
look for pattern of change. The change may be seen in the context of the development of cycle or in
terms of levels or stages of completeness.
28. 2. Inter-actionist Approach - an approach which stresses the social origin of personality development
and human behavior. - This approach offers no grand theories of society since society and institutions
are conceptual abstraction and only people and their interaction can be studied directly.
which include signs, gestures, and most
development and human behavior.
f cooperating
tend to maintain a balanced and harmonious equating system because most members share a set of
rt Merton, two contemporary sociologists, maintained that
every institution fulfills certain functions
olars but is most directly based from the book of
Karl Marx who saw that class conflict and class exploitation are the prime moving forces in the history of

other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. (Most quoted definition given by
Edward B. Tylor, an English anthropologist)
state of refinement, of being well-versed in the arts, philosophy and languages. This refers to an
individuals taste, inclination and interest in the fine arts. (Popular meaning)
34. Various definition of culture. Descriptive with emphasis on social heritage Normative with
emphasis on rules or ways Psychological with emphasis on adjustment Structural with emphasis on
the pattern or organization of culture Generic with emphasis on culture as a product or artifact.
tage (anything that has been transmitted from the past or handed down
by tradition) which has been transmitted to communicate, that is, to carry our ideas, thought, and
feelings from one person to another so that they are understood.
36. Culture tells man what to do, what not to do and how to do things. Culture represents the design or
recipe for living. Mans culture is unique to man; but culture in various societies differ. Culture is closely
associated with civilization.