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GGS Indraprastha University

BBA 112: Personality Development and
Communication Skill
Course Contents:
Unit I
Project and report writing, and proposalshow to write an effective report, basics
of project writing, paragraph writing, paper reading and voice modulation, basics
of project presentation.

Unit II
How to make a presentation, the various presentation tools, along with guidelines
of effective presentation, boredom factors in presentation and how to overcome
them, interactive presentation & presentation as part of a job interview, art of
effective listening.

Unit III
Resume writing skills, guidelines for a good resume, how to face an interview
board, proper body posture, importance of gestures and steps to succeed in
interviews. Practice mock interview in classrooms with presentations on self. Self
introduction-highlighting positive and negative traits and dealing with people with
face to face.

Unit IV
Leadership quality of a leader, leadership quiz with case study, knowing your
skills and abilities. Introduction to group discussion techniques with debate and
extempore, increase your professionalism.
Audio Video recording and dialogue sessions on current topics, economy,
education system, environment, politics.

Unit I
1.1 Meaning of a Project
1.2 Scope of a Project
1.3 Purpose of a Report
1.4 Basics of Project Writing
1.5 Concept of a Proposal
1.5.1 Parts of a Proposal (Adapted from NEBIU 2002)
1.5.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Proposal Writing

1.6 Paragraph Writing

1.6.1 How to Write a Paragraph Using the Four Essential Elements

1.7 Paper Reading and Voice Modulation

1.8 Project Presentation
1.8.1 How to Give Project Presentation

Chapter 1.Basics of Project and Report Writing

1.1Meaning of a ProjectA project refers to:

a planned piece of work that has a specific purpose (such as to find information or to
make something new) and that usually requires a lot of time.

a task or problem in school that requires careful work over a long period of time .

1.2 Scope of a ProjectTo define a project scope, you must first identify the following things:

Project objectives







Once you've established these things, you'll then need to clarify the limitations or
parameters of the project and clearly identify any aspects that are not to be included. In
specifying what will and will not be included, the project scope must make clear to the
stakeholders, senior management and team members involved as to what product or
service will be delivered.

Alongside of this, the project scope should have a tangible objective for the organization
that is undertaking the project. The purpose may be to create a better product for a
company to sell, upgrade a company's internal software so that they can deliver better
service to their customers or to create a new service model for an organization. These
things are integral to defining the project scope, because they will play a part in how
project methodologies are applied to the project to bring it to completion.
As a project manager, understanding and being able to define project scope will give you
a focus and sense of purpose when executing the project. Understanding the scope
provides you with the foundations for managing project change and risk management. It
enables goal setting and a timeline to work towards, as well as key points for reporting on
the progress of the project to senior management and other stakeholders.

1.3 Purpose of Report

The most essential thing to keep in mind right through your report writing process is that a report
is written to be read, by someone else. This is the central goal of report-writing. A report which
is written for the sake of being written has very little value.
Before you start writing your report, you need to have in mind the intended audience. In the
narrowest of possibilities, your report is meant for reading by yourselves, and by your
advisor/instructor, and perhaps by your evaluation committee. This has value, but only shortterm. The next broader possibility is that your report is readable by your peers or your juniors
down the line. This has greater value since someone else can continue on your work and improve
it, or learn from your work. In the best case possibility, your report is of publishable quality. That
is, readable and useful for the technical community in general.

1.4 Basics of Project Report WritingThough not mandatory, there are good reasons for the usual format of a report.
Sections that you need to include are:

Table of contents
Experimental techniques and methods
Results and discussion
Appendices (if used)

Title Page
The title of the report should be presented on a separate cover page and contain:

* The title: this must be brief, but must also convey something of the subject of the report to the
* The company's/organization's name
* The date of issue
* The circulation list
* The name of the author(s)
* The authority for circulation, for example, "produced at the request of..." or "commissioned
Some people give their reports titles like Preliminary Report, Interim Report, Inspection Report,
and so on. However, this often forces the author to prejudge the aims of the report. It is better to
approach the writing of a report by thinking about the information to be conveyed.
A foreword is only needed if a statement is to be made by some person other than the author.
This is sometimes done to give more authority to the report.

This section allows the people who were indispensable in writing the report to be thanked or
This part of the report summarises the ground covered in the body of the report so that anyone
wanting a quick review of what the report is about can quickly get the gist of the findings. The
summary must state:
* The aims of the report
* The depth of study that went into the research
* Whether the objective was achieved.

The summary must be no more than 10% of the length of the report and mustn't introduce any
information that isn't contained in the report body. The summary should be created once the rest
of the report has been written.
Table of Contents
A table of contents is essential for any report that is longer than about ten pages.
The table of contents must be on a page of its own and the page references must match those in
the text.
List of Illustrations/figures/tables
All illustrations, that is, figures, photos, diagrams, graphs, charts and tables etc., will be listed in
separate pages after the Table of Contents. They will be listed according to their number and title,
and the page references must match those in the text.
The introduction gives a broad, general overview of the subject. Its length depends upon the
target reader's existing knowledge. Try to condense the information to:
What is the problem?
What is the cause?
What will you be doing to address these two points?

However long the introduction, it must clearly state the purpose (Objective) of the report. This
will help the readers to judge the document's success. Use the introduction to provide the
necessary background information, like the sequence of events leading to the problem. Outline
the scope of the report. Finally, especially for longer reports, tell the readers how the discussion
in the body of the report will be developed.

Body of the Report

This is where the issues outlined in the introduction are expanded. The development of the
arguments must be logical, the evidence relevant and the reasoning clear.
Sections include:
Literature Review
Method and Materials
Results [Discussion of Results]
The information in the body of a report can be organised in one of several ways, for example:
Sequential: where the most important facts are presented first; other points are expounded in
order of diminishing importance.
Hierarchical: where general statements are worked down into subsidiary points.
Comparative: where one idea is compared with another. It is usually combined with another
method of organisation.
The conclusion summarises the findings and inferences in the body of the report. The conclusion
must not contain any new idea that has not been previously mentioned in the report.
After analysing all the facts, the author of the report is the person most likely to be able to make
recommendations on courses of action. However, you should always consider your relationship
with the reader: if you have no authority to make recommendations, the reader may be hostile. In
such cases, the recommendations should take a more advisory tone.
This section is sometimes dealt together with the Conclusions [Conclusions and

Throughout the text, it will be necessary to refer to other documents. Readers can then turn to
them for confirmation and further study. Indicate a reference by placing an appropriate mark in
the text. (See the section on Literature Review.)
These are notes at the bottom of the page (footnotes) or at the end of the report (endnotes),
divided off from the main text, that serve as short appendices or glossary entries. They should be
used sparingly and be brief since they can detract from the main flow of the text. Make sure that
footnote marks can be distinguished from reference marks.

Sometimes the author may want to include supporting information in the report. This kind of
information should be placed in an appendix.
If there is more than one appendix they should be designated A, B and so on.

This is the list of books, periodicals and other reference sources from which the author has
drawn. A bibliography helps to show the readers how widely the author has researched the
subject and gives authority to the findings of the report.
If all the readers of the report might not understand some of the terms and abbreviations used,

you must include a glossary of terms. Sometimes it is best to explain any new terms and
abbreviations as they are encountered.
Small illustrations may be placed within the body of the report, adjacent to the text referring to
them. It may be found, however, that larger illustrations may break up the layout of the report:
these should be placed toward the rear of the document.
This section allows the people who have helped write the report to be thanked or mentioned.

1.5 Concept of ProposalA proposal is a request for financial assistance to implement a project. The proposal outlines the
plan of the implementing organization about the project, giving extensive information about the
intention, for implementing it, the ways to manage it and the results to be delivered from it
(FUNDS FOR NGOS 2010).How well you plan the action is critical to the success of the project.
A project proposal is a detailed description of a series of activities aimed at solving a certain
problem (NEBIU 2002). In order to be successful, the document should (REPOA 2007):

provide a logical presentation of a research idea

illustrate the significance of the idea

show the idea's relationship to past actions

articulate the activities for the proposed project

Designing a project is a process consisting of two elements, which are equally important and thus
essential to forming a solid project proposal:

project planning (formulation of project elements)

proposal writing (converting the plan into a project document)

The project proposal should be a detailed and directed manifestation of the project design. It is a
means of presenting the project to the outside world in a format that is immediately recognised
and accepted.

1.5.1 A full proposal should have the following parts

(Adapted from NEBIU 2002) :

Title page: A title page should appear on proposals longer than three to four pages. The
title page should indicate the project title, the name of the lead organisation (and potential
partners, if any), the place and date of project preparation and the name of the donor
agency to whom the proposal is addressed.

Project title: The project title should be short, concise, and preferably refer to a certain
key project result or the leading project activity. Project titles that are too long or too
general fail to give the reader an effective snapshot of what is inside.

Abstract/Executive Summary: Many readers lack the time needed to read the whole
project proposal. It is therefore useful to insert a short project summary, an abstract or
executive summary. The abstract should include: the problem statement, the projects
objectives, implementing organisations; key project activities; and potentially the total
project budget. Theoretically, the abstract should be compiled after the relevant items
already exist in their long form. For a small project the abstract may not be longer than 10
lines. Bigger projects often provide abstracts as long as two pages.

Context: This part of the project describes the social, economic, political and cultural
background from which the project is initiated. It should contain relevant data from
research carried out in the project planning phase or collected from other sources.

Project justification: A rationale should be provided for the project. Due to its importance,
this section is sometimes divided into four or more sub-sections:

Problem statement: The problem statement provides a description of the specific

problem(s) the project is trying to solve, in order to make a case for the project.
Furthermore, the project proposal should point out why a certain issue is a
problem for the community or society as a whole, i.e. what negative implications
affect the target group. There should also be an explanation of the needs of the
target group that appear as a direct consequence of the described problem.

Priority needs: The needs of the target group that have arisen as a direct negative
impact of the problem should be prioritised. An explanation as to how this
decision was reached must also be included.

The proposed approach (type of intervention): The project proposal should

describe the strategy chosen for solving the problem and precisely how it will
lead to improvement.

The implementing organisation: This section should describe the capabilities of

your organisation by referring to its capacity and previous project record.
Describe why exactly your organisation is the most appropriate to run the project,
its connexion to the local community, the constituency behind the organisation
and what kind of expertise the organisation can provide. If other partners are
involved in implementation provide some information on their capacity as well.

Project aims: This information should be obtained from the Logframe Matrix,
including the project goal (a general aim that should explain what the core
problem is and why the project is important, i.e. what the long-term benefits to the
target group are), project purpose (that should address the core problem in terms
of the benefits to be received by the project beneficiaries or target group as a

direct result of the project) and the outputs (i.e. results describe the services or
products to be delivered to the intended beneficiaries).

Target group: define the target group and show how it will benefit from the project. The
project should provide a detailed description of the size and characteristics of the target
groups, and especially of direct project beneficiaries.

Project implementation: The implementation plan should describe activities and resource
allocation in as much detail as possible. It is exceptionally important to provide a good
overview of who is going to implement the projects activities, as well as when and
where. The implementation plan may be divided into two key elements: the activity plan
and the resource plan. The activity plan should include specific information and
explanations of each of the planned project activities. The duration of the project should
be clearly stated, with considerable detail on the beginning and the end of the project. In
general, two main formats are used to express the activity plan: a simple table (a simple
table with columns for activities, sub-activities, tasks, timing and responsibility in a clear
and readily understandable format) and the Gantt chart (a universal format for presenting
activities in certain times frames, shows the dependence and sequence for each activity,
see project management for more info. The resource plan should provide information on
the means necessary to undertake the project. Cost categories are established at this stage
in order to aggregate and summarise the cost information for budgeting.

Budget: An itemised summary of an organisations expected income and expenses over a

specified period of time.

Monitoring and evaluation: The basis for monitoring is set when the indicators for results
are set. The project proposal should indicate: how and when the project management
team will conduct activities to monitor the projects progress; which methods will be used
to monitor and evaluate; and who will do the evaluation.

Reporting: The schedule of project progress and financial report could be set in the
project proposal. Often these obligations are determined by the standard requirements of
the donor agency. The project report may be compiled in different versions, with regard
to the audience they are targeting.

Management and personnel: A brief description should be given of the project personnel,
the individual roles each one has assumed, and the communication mechanisms that exist
between them. All the additional information (such as CVs) should be attached to the

1.5.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Proposal Writing


A proposal is an essential marketing document that helps cultivate an initial professional

relationship between an organisation and a donor over a project to be implemented

A proposal facilitates appropriate words for the conception of an idea

The proposal has a framework that establishes ideas formally for a clear understanding of
the project for the donor

Successful proposals mean financial aid for the organisation to grow for the replication of
project and ideas


Planning problems: Although a good idea exists, yet when we try to plan it out
extensively, we face many unexpected challenges

There are often tight deadlines, and proposals may be rejected.

1.6 Paragraph WritingParagraph writing is the foundation of all essay writing, whether the form is expository,
persuasive, narrative, or creative. In order to write a good paragraph, students need to understand
the four essential elements of paragraph writing and how each element contributes to the whole.
At Time4Writing, a certified teacher acts as an online writing tutor to help students build writing

skills by focusing on the fundamentals. And nothing in the writing process is more fundamental
than writing a solid paragraph.
The four elements essential to good paragraph writing are: unity, order, coherence, and
completeness. The following example illustrates the importance of these elements in paragraph

1.6.1 How to Write a Paragraph Using the Four Essential Elements

A basic paragraph structure usually consists of five sentences: the topic sentence, three
supporting sentences, and a concluding sentence. But the secrets to paragraph writing lay in four
essential elements, which when used correctly, can make a okay paragraph into a great
1. Element #1: Unity. Unity in a paragraph begins with the topic sentence. Every paragraph
has one single, controlling idea that is expressed in its topic sentence, which is typically
the first sentence of the paragraph. A paragraph is unified around this main idea, with the
supporting sentences providing detail and discussion. In order to write a good topic
sentence, think about your theme and all the points you want to make. Decide which
point drives the rest, and then write it as your topic sentence.
2. Element #2: Order. Order refers to the way you organize your supporting sentences.
Whether you choose chronological order, order of importance, or another logical
presentation of detail, a solid paragraph always has a definite organization. In a wellordered paragraph, the reader follows along easily, aided by the pattern youve
established. Order helps the reader grasp your meaning and avoid confusion.
3. Element #3: Coherence. Coherence is the quality that makes your writing
understandable. Sentences within a paragraph need to connect to each other and work
together as a whole. One of the best ways to achieve coherency is to use transition words.
These words create bridges from one sentence to the next. You can use transition words
that show order (first, second, third); spatial relationships (above, below) or logic
(furthermore, in addition, in fact). Also, in writing a paragraph, using a consistent verb
tense and point of view are important ingredients for coherency.

4. Element #4: Completeness. Completeness means a paragraph is well-developed. If all

sentences clearly and sufficiently support the main idea, then your paragraph is complete.
If there are not enough sentences or enough information to prove your thesis, then the
paragraph is incomplete. Usually three supporting sentences, in addition to a topic
sentence and concluding sentence, are needed for a paragraph to be complete. The
concluding sentence or last sentence of the paragraph should summarize your main idea
by reinforcing your topic sentence.

1.7 Paper Reading and Voice ModulationInflection or Voice Modulation, is change in the pitch or tone of the voice. Varying your tone
throughout the speech raising your voice slightly to indicate a question, lowering it to end a
declarative sentence, speaking louder to indicate excitement or softer to express sadness will
help keep your audience awake and alert!
There are several kinds of inflection: Upward Downward Level and Circumflex.
Lets look at each of them:
Upward Inflection

This is when there is a change in pitch going from a lower to a higher note within the

Most often, this change in pitch indicates questioning, insincerity, surprise or


Examples: Raise the pitch at the end of these words, keeping in mind what
they convey with a downward inflection.




Downward Inflection

This is when there is a change in pitch going from a higher to a lower note within the

Most ofter, this change in pitch indicates confidence, finality, power and certainty.

Examples: Lower the pitch at the end of these words. keeping in mind
what they convey with a downward inflection.




Level Inflection

This is when there is no change in pitch within the vowel.


Most often, this indicates disinterest and indecision.

Examples: Dont vary the pitch in these words.




Double or Circumflex Inflection

This is when there is a rising and falling, or a falling and rising of pitch within the vowel.

Most often, this change in pitch indicates confidence, finality, power, and

Examples: Lower the pitch at the end of these words. keeping in mind
what they convey with a downward inflection.




Lowering your inflection at the end of a sentence makes it more powerful and gives the audience
the impression you believe your own message.
Use upward inflections in the middle of a sentence to make the sentence more interesting and
bring some attention to your point.
Its important to vary the pitch. It will help keep your audience in tune (no pun intended!) with
your message and understand its substance.
Try the following exercise to demonstrate the importance this can have in your delivery.
Say slowly, and out loud, this sentence: I did not say he lost the keys.
Each time you say it, put the Inflection on the underlined word.

I did not say he lost the keys.

(If not you, who said it?)

I did not say he lost the keys.

(Maybe you wrote it?)

I did not say he lost the keys.

(I guess someone else lost the keys.)

I did not say he lost the keys.

(Perhaps he gave them away?)

I did not say he lost the keys.

(Gee! I hope he didnt lose the car!)

Amazing, isnt it, how the entire meaning of a sentence can change by inflecting one of its
words? Use this tool in delivering your speech and youll see fewer yawning faces in the

One excellent way to get the attention of the audience is to lower your voice. Its a pattern
interrupt that sends out the message, Listen This is important!

1.8 Project PresentationThe presentation is for explaining your project - both the product and the process - to the evaluators. The
presentation complements the project documentation and the product demo (if any). It gives evaluators a
chance to clear up doubts by asking questions on the spot, for example.

While most evaluators are supposed to read your project documentation, there is no guarantee that they
will read it cover-to-cover. But they are guaranteed to be present at the project presentation and it is up to
you to make the best of it. Some evaluators prefer to attend the presentation first and read the report later.
In such a case, the presentation creates the first impression of your project in the mind of the evaluator. In
some cases, the whole evaluation is based solely on the presentation. Whichever the case in your course,
treat the presentation as a key determinant of your grade. Given below are some tips to make the best of
your project presentation.

1.8.1 How to Give Project Presentation1. Focus on your presentation: Having a long, rambling presentation that is hard to follow
is not going to win you any audience interest. You need to make sure that your
presentation is clear and focused and that any asides you throw into it are there to back up
the main point.
2. Less is more. You don't want to overwhelm your audience with information and
important points. Even if they're interested in your topic they'll starting spacing out and
then you've lost them. You need to stick to your 3 points and overall point and you need

to make sure that you only use the information that you need to support and clarify those
a. Pick your very best supporting facts, information, or quotes for your presentation.
b. Don't bury your audience in information.
3. Decide whether to use media or not. It isn't always necessary to use a powerpoint, or visual
representation, especially if you're already an engaging speaker and have interesting subject
matter. In fact, a lot of times, using visual media simply distracts from the focal point, that is the

4. Practice. This is one that for some reason, lack of time perhaps, people neglect to do and
it is absolutely key to giving a good presentation. Running through the presentation
before the actual event gives you time work out any kinks or problems with your notes
and with your technology and makes the presentation itself go more smoothly.
A good tip is to film yourself or audiotape of yourself giving your practice presentation
so you can see what distracting verbal and physical tics you have, so that you can work
on eliminating them before the presentation itself. (Verbs tics would be things like "um..."
and "uh..." and using "like" inappropriately; physical tics are things like shifting your
weight from foot to foot or messing with your hair.)
Just remember that rehearsals usually run about 20% shorter than your actual
presentation, so take that into account if you're running on a time limit.
5. Visualize success. It may seem like a silly thing to do, but visualizing a successful
presentation can actually help you achieve a successful presentation. You'll be more
inclined towards success if you've been prepping your brain for it. So beforehand, sit
somewhere quietly for a few minutes and picture the presentation going well
6. Dress appropriately. You want to dress for success. Wearing nicer clothes can help get
you into the mindset of giving a good presentation. You also want to be comfortable,
however, so you should try to find a reasonable medium between dressing super snazzy

and dressing comfortably.

For example, if you aren't comfortable wearing heels, don't wear them just for the
presentation. You'll be distracted by your discomfort and that will come across in the
presentation. There are plenty of good shoe choices that have no or a low heel.

Clean, nice slacks or a skirt and nice, button-down shirt in neutral colors are always good
choices for presentation wear. You also don't particularly want your clothing choice to
distract from the presentation, so perhaps avoid that brilliant hot pink shirt.


1. What is a Project? Explain the various components of a Project.

2. Explain the purpose of a Report.
3. Explain the various steps involved in writing a Project Report.
4. What is a proposal? Explain the various components of a proposal.
5. Discuss the Advantages and Disadvantages of Writing a Proposal.

6. What do you mean by Paragraph Writing? Discuss the essential components

of Paragraph Writing
7. What do you mean by Inflection? Discuss its importance in Voice
8. Explain the Concept of Project Presentation.
9. Discuss the various steps in Project Presentation.
10.Explain the importance of Project Report Writing in Business.

Unit II
1. How to make a presentation
1.1Concept of Presentation
1.2 Factors Affecting Presentation
1.3Steps for Preparing Presentation Effectively
2. Guidelines of effective presentation
2.1 How to make a presentation Effective

2.2 Ten most common mistakes in Public Speaking

3. Boredom factors in presentation
3.1 How to overcome them
4. Interactive presentation & presentation as part of a job interview
5. Art of effective listening.
5.1Types of Listening
5.2Levels of Listening
5.3Barriers to Active Listening
5.4Developing Listening Skills
5.5Tips for Effective Listening

1.How to make a presentation

1.1 Concept of Presentation:
A presentation is the process of presenting a topic to an audience. It is typically a
demonstration, introduction, lecture, or speech meant to inform, persuade, or build good will.

1.2Factors Affecting Presentation:

The various factors affecting presentation can be classified as:

Participants:Speaker,persons engaged in the event and the audience.

Setting:Time,location,emotional climate or environment of the speech.

Purpose: What the communicator is trying to achieve

1.3 Steps for Preparing Presentation effectively

Determine the purpose: The purpose for a presentation could be to inform or

instruct, to persuade or to entertain.

Analyze the Audience and situation: Whether the message is oral or written,it

should be adapted to the audience.

Choose the main ideas: The main idea that form a part of your presentation

should cover the purpose statement made earlier

Research Thoroughly: Once your purpose and audience are defined and you
have an idea of the main points you wish to cover, you can proceed to collect the
necessary facts. For Example

For overview and conceptual information: Encyclopedias, Handbooks, Dictionaries, Annual

Reporting,e.g balance sheet and sales reports
For Data: Fact books, Statistical sources, Biographical Sources
More Sources: Bibliographies, Indexes, Print Sources of Information: Books, Magazines,
Journals, Newspapers, Indexes, Government Pamphlets and Publication from special interest
groups e.g NGOs
Non-print sources of Information: Audio, Visual Materials and Interviews
Computer Searches: Electronic Catalogues and the Internet.

Organize and Write the draft: Once the data has been collected, write the draft and
complete outline or complete manuscript. It will Include:

Introduction: Your opening sentence should capture the listeners audience. It should include
the following:
Purpose Statement
Personal Story

Starting Statement
Reference to the Occasion
Humorous Story

Body(Text or Discussion):This part of the presentation develops on the major parts of the
material collected previously. One of the most common method is issue arrangement which is the
way you specified your purpose statement. Issue arrangement can take the following forms:
Spatial arrangement: A speaker sets a point of reference at some specific location and proceeds
from there onwards
Chronological or Time Arrangement: It orders information in the order they occurred in time
Topical Arrangement: Explains an idea in terms of its component parts, the arrangement are
topic and sub topic wise.
Casual Arrangement: This is the process of how one event made another event happen, i.e how
a cause led to an effect
Comparison-contrast arrangement: In this arrangement both the similarities and differences
are discussed.E.g Mobile Services by Two Companies
Problem-Solution arrangement: This method of the organization is particularly useful where
the objective is to comfort and solve the problems of life, business, industry and government.
Arrangement of major and subordinate points: This is also a method where there are major
and subordinate pointsLikewise,handle your subordinate points consistently. This is important as
sudden changes in the shift in arrangement would leave your audience confused.

Summary or Conclusion: Conclude effectively by restating the major points. Indicate that you
are ending the presentation.

Plan Visual Aids(If Necessary): Prepare handouts with your presentation. You can also
display your presentation by the use of LCD Screen. Other Visual Aids that can make the
presentation effective are:

Chalk Boards or White Boards

Flip Sheets or Charts
High Technology Visuals

Rehearse and Revise whenever necessary : To develop confidence you should know
better than everyone. Some key points are:

Stand and rehearse the presentation in front of the mirror

Imagine the audience is in front of you
Avoid long sentences and unusual words and sentence
Take main points separately.
Include Visual Aids
Stop at allotted time while rehearsing.
Allow time for questioning and rehearsing
Anticipate questions from the audience.

2. Guidelines to Effective Presentation


Dress smartly: don't let your appearance distract from what you are saying.

Smile. Don't hunch up and shuffle your feet. Have an upright posture. Try to appear
confident and enthusiastic.

Say hello and smile when you greet the audience: your audience will probably look at
you and smile back: an instinctive reaction.

Speak clearly, firmly and confidently as this makes you sound in control. Don't speak
too quickly: you are likely to speed up and raise the pitch of your voice when nervous.
Give the audience time to absorb each point. Don't talk in a monotone the whole time.
Lift your head up and address your words to someone near the back of audience. If you
think people at the back can't hear, ask them.

Use silence to emphasise points. Before you make a key point pause: this tells the
audience that something important is coming. It's also the hallmark of a confident speaker
as only these are happy with silences. Nervous speakers tend to gabble on trying to fill
every little gap.

Keep within the allotted time for your talk.

Eye contact is crucial to holding the attention of your audience. Look at everyone in
the audience from time to time, not just at your notes or at the PowerPoint slides. Try to
involve everyone, not just those directly in front of you.

Walk around a little and gesture with your hands. Bad presenters keep their hands on
the podium or in their pockets! Don't stand in one place glued to the spot hiding behind
the podium! Good presenters will walk from side to side and look at different parts of the

You could try to involve your audience by asking them a question.

Don't read out your talk, as this sounds boring and stilted, but refer to brief notes jotted
down on small (postcard sized) pieces of card. Don't look at your notes too much as
this suggests insecurity and will prevent you making eye contact with the audience.

Its OK to use humour, in moderation, but better to use anecdotes than to rattle off a
string of jokes.

Take along a wristwatch to help you keep track of time the assessor may cut you off as
soon as you have used the time allocated, whether or not you have finished.

It can be very helpful to practice at home in front of a mirror. You can also record your
presentation and play it back to yourself: don't judge yourself harshly when you replay
this - we always notice our bad points and not the good when hearing or seeing a
recording or ourselves! Time how long your talk takes. Run through the talk a few times
with a friend.

It's normal to be a little nervous. This is a good thing as it will make you more
energized. Many people have a fear of speaking in public. Practicing will make sure that
you are not too anxious. In your mind, visualize yourself giving a confident successful
performance. Take a few deep slow breaths before your talk starts and make a conscious
effort to speak slowly and clearly. Research by T Gilovich (Cornell University) found that
people who feel embarrassed are convinced their mistakes are much more
noticeable than they really are: we focus on our own behaviour more than other people
do and so overestimate it's impact. This is called the spotlight effect. If you make a
mistake, don't apologise too much, just briefly acknowledge the mistake and continue on.
For more details see "59 Seconds" by Prof. Richard Wiseman

Build variety into the talk and break it up into sections: apparently, the average person
has a three minute attention span!

2.1 How to Make a Presentation Effective:

Have a beginning, middle and an end. Use short sentences.

Who are the audience?

What points do I want to get across?

How much time have I got?

What visual aids are available? Powerpoint projector? flip chart? Don't necessarily use
these. Sometimes the best presentations are the most informal.


Welcome the audience.

Say what your presentation will be about: the aims and objectives.

The introduction should catch the attention. Perhaps a provocative statement or a

humorous anecdote:

Genetically-modified crops could save millions of people from starvation

The first day of my vacation job went with a bang, but it wasn't my fault that the
microwave exploded.

The Middle should outline your argument or develop your story

In five minutes you will only have time for two or three main points and allow
everything else to support these. List your main headings and any key phrases you will

Don't try to say pack too much content in or you will talk non- stop trying to get all
your content and the audience will switch off with information overload long before the

Use graphics or anecdotes to add variety.


Briefly summarise your main points.

Answer any questions.

Thank the audience for listening. Look at the audience again, smile and slow down.

The end should be on a strong or positive note not tailing away to ..well that's all
I've got to say so thank you very much for listening ladies and gentlemen. You could try
something along these lines:

Hang-gliding is brilliant, so try it you'll believe a man can fly!

The danger is increasing if we don't all act soon it could be too late!

The above has been neatly summarised as "Tell them what you will tell them (introduction),
tell them (development), tell them what you told them (conclusion)"
In preparing your talk, first jot down any interesting points you want to include in your talk, put
these in a logical sequence, then try to find an interesting title, and a good introduction and
For a 15 minute presentation on "Why you are the right person for the company's graduate
recruitment programme" the following might work:

1 minute introduction - what you are going to tell them

2 minutes on the challenges facing the organisation in the current market: economic
downturn, competitors, potential areas for growth.

4 minutes on "What skills the organisation requires in their graduate recruits" - see - skills tab

6 minutes on evidence showing that you have these skills

1 minute summary of your key points.

1 minute asking for and answering questions.

2.2 The ten most common mistakes in public speaking

According to Terry Gault the most common mistakes are:
Using small scale movements and gestures

Preparing too much material

Speaking with low energy


Playing it safe

Data centric presentations

Not preparing enough

Avoiding vulnerability

Not practicing enough

Taking themselves way too seriously

3. Boredom Factors in a Presentation:

Inaudible Voice and Words
Not able to bring out the meaning
Lack of Sincerity on the part of Speaker or the Audience
Technical Words or Jargons
Lack of Humour
Lack of Confidence

3.1 How to Overcome boredom factors In a Presentation:

1. Right Contents: The ideas in a presentation should be appropriate to the audience.
2. Suitable Language: The language of presentation is as important. Therefore, graphic
presentation and simple language can help the audience visualize the topic.
3. Preparation and Mastery: The presenter should be knowledgeable and credible. The
audience is clever enough to judge whether the presenter has the seriousness of the purpose or is
4. Brevity:An ideal presentation should always be brief.
5.Logical Sequence: This is very essential without which the audience cannot comprehend the
6.Lively Delivery :In a lively presentation, the presenters face is lively, his voice is modulated
and his gestures are appropriate.

4.Interactive Presentation and Presentation as a part of a Job




Some people confuse listening and hearing. Hearing is simply a physiological process in which
the frequency of sound waves produced make our eardrums vibrate. Listening, on the other hand
by involves paying close attention to the sounds that come in combinations and contrasts and
thereby form the speech and then its nature and intent is interpreted and inferred internally by the
brain with the decoding system as it is tuned.

5.1 Types of Listening:

Listening can be of the following kinds:
1. Attentive Listening: It involves paying attention on the words that are being spoken
rather than understanding the head and heart of the persons speaking. Attentive listening
is said to be an effective listening.
2. Pretending Listening: It means


through facial



communicated message is listened.Here,nothing like listening takes place just hearing is

3. Selective Listening: It means not taking the message as it is but adding or deducting
according to ones own whims and wishes.
4. Empathic Listening: It involves listening not only through ears but also through eyes
and heart.It is listening intently and intensively to understand the person fully,deeply both
emotionally as well as intellectually.
5. Listening for Mutual Creativity: It is a form of listening. The listening to inspire
mutual creativity is responsible for many breakthroughs in the world.

5.2 Levels of Listening:

There levels of listening are:
1.Marginal Listening: If the pace of speaking of the speaker is slow the listener does a
marginal listening,which means that the listener may let his/her mind stray while someone is
2.Evaluate Listening:This occurs when the listener gets some free time to evaluate the
speakers message during the oral communication.
3.Projective Listening:This listening provides the listeners with the greatest potential for
effective communication to utilize their time fully. Listeners with an empathetic gesture
attempts to project themselves into the position of the speaker and understand what is implied
in the speakers view point.

5.3 Barriers to Active Listening:

The major barriers to active listening are:
1. Sometimes the listeners drift away their attention from what the speaker is saying.
2. Criticising the speaker or the delivery.
3. Constantly trying to find some counter arguments to whatever the speaker is saying.
4. Listening only the facts and not the feelings and emotions.
5. Getting over stimulated when questioning or opposing an idea
6. Assuming in advance that the subject will be uninteresting or not important.

7. Fake Attention
8. Hearing only what they expect to hear, because of preconceived notions about the speaker
or the situation.
9. Accepting only those words that are consistent with the existing belifes.
10. Creating Distractions

5.4 Developing Listening Skills:

The important guidelines to develop listening skills are:
1.Concentration: The first skill to effective listening is the art of Concentration. A listener
while listening should inculcate the habit of concentrating on the message which a speaker is
trying to send.
2.Mental Alertness: Ones concentration can be improved by ones mental alertness. Mental
alertness is increased by physical alertness-not simply by ones physical fitness, but also the
way one positions ones body,the limbs and the head.
3.Empathy:Empathy is the ability to put ourselves in the speakers shoes and in his frame of
4.Comprehension:Good Listening is more than merely hearing the speaker.It includes
grasping and understanding.
5.Appreciation: Appreciation requires a relaxed ,receptive and imagination attitude on the
listeners part.
6.Note-taking:Note-taking has been recommended as an important aid to the listener.
7.Evaluation: Critical and analytical listening is necessary for the evaluation.

5.5 Tips for Effective Listening:

1.Establish Rapport with the Speaker: An important requisite for effective listening is to
develop a positive chemistry between the listener and the speaker.
2.Make Eye-Contact: For interpreting the non-verbal clues a proper eye contact is
particularly important.
3.Upright Posture: Posture too is very important for an effective listening.An upright
posture helps a listener to have better concentration.
4.Remove Distractions: Avoid


that suggest your




else.Distractions make the speaker feel you are bored and uninterested.
5.Be Patient: Avoid interrupting the speaker. Let the speaker complete speaking before you
6.Avoid Arguments: Avoid arguments about facts refrain from saying that just is not so.
7.Ask Questions:Analyse what you hear and ask questions.This assures and encourages the
speaker because it shows that you are listening.


1.Explain the concept of presentation and also explain the factors
affecting presentation.
2.Explain the steps for making the presentation effective.
3.Explain the guidelines for making the presentation.
4.Explain the boredom factors in a presentation and how to overcome
these factors.

5.What is effective listening? Discuss the various levels of listening.

6.Describe the techniques that help improving listening ability.
7.What is the significance of concentration in listening?
8.What are essentials of Effective Listening?

Unit III

Resume writing skills

guidelines for a good resume
how to face an interview board
proper body posture
importance of gestures
steps to succeed in interviews
Practice mock interview in classrooms with presentations on self
Self introduction-highlighting positive and negative traits and dealing
with people with face to face

3.1Resume writing skills

Types of Skills to Have on a Resume


Job-Related: These are relevant to a specific job. For example, an

accountant's job-related skills might include financial planning, budgeting
and financial reporting.


Transferable: Skills learned in one field or job that are applicable to

different ones are transferable. These skills can reflect how you deal with
things (assembly, machine operation), data (research, synthesize
information) and people (instruct, manage and negotiate).


Adaptive: These skills are the hardest to substantiate as they include

personality traits and characteristics that determine your work style.
Adaptive skills include reliability, ability to get along with colleagues,
honesty and productivity.

3.2 Guidelines for a good resume

A well written, visually pleasing resume that reads clearly and easily is enough to
be presented in an interview.Employers read resumes to determine experience and
qualifications. The resume will get a very quick initial read, so it is imperative to
convey the most important information first.
The following guidelines will help a person develop a resume that projects a
professional image:
1. Keep your resume brief and to the point- The important part of the resume
should be education and experience. Additional categories may include honors,
activities, computer experience, military service, volunteer experiences, and
scholarships or others. Prioritize information according to its relevancy. When
deciding whether to include an item, ask yourself, "Is this relevant to the job I am
seeking?" or "Does it enhance my qualifications as a candidate?"
2. The name should be the biggest item on the page- Increase the font size of
your name so that it can be read easily and clearly - even at arms length.
3. State specific degree and any certifications- Near the top of your resume, state
your specific degree, any certifications a person holds.

4. Use reverse date order-. The most relevant and sophisticated experiences will
likely be your most recent ones. List experiences in reverse date order in each
5. Emphasize what you did-. A description of the duties, responsibilities and
experience is the most important part of each experience that you include. Where
and for whom is not nearly as important and the what. Do not include other
peoples names on your resume save those for your reference page.
6. Avoid vague language- Words like numerous, various, or etc. do not convey a
professional image. Make the language concise and specific.
7. Avoid extraneous information- Do not include hobbies on a professional
resume. However, an employer may want to tap into special talents and abilities of
its employees.
8. Focus on recent activities- Include the activities you have been involved in
over the past four or five years.. Include all field experiences, organizations, offices
held, committee work, honors and awards, scholarships, and volunteer activities.
9. Keep the lay-out simple- It's okay to use some formatting such as bold and
indenting to create white space and an appealing look.
10. Keep sections together- Avoid splitting major sections between pages. Keep
all of your work experience on the same page, keep all of your field experiences on
the same page, etc.
11. Use white space appropriately- Use the full page both horizontally and
vertically, allowing for approximately a one-inch margin all the way around. The
text should look balanced all the way around and the page should look fully
utilized. Sections should be easily discernible and logical.

12. Check the spellings carefully- the resume is a representation of the best work
so it is expected to be perfect. Computer spell checks will catch many mistakes,
but will not catch all of them. Ask someone else to review it for you so a "fresh set
of eyes" can see it.
13. Mention references properly- Names, addresses and phone numbers of the
references are important pieces of information to be distributed when needed or
when requested.

3.3How to face an interview board

Interviews are stressful, but when youre facing a tribunal, the pressure is really on.
The selection interview is not a mere question and answer session which is meant
to test your knowledge in a particular subject or discipline. The interviewer will be
assessing, not merely the level of your knowledge but also your personality traits
or leadership qualities from your responses, reactions and replies.

The interview panel or board is a formal and organized interview arrangement

where a job candidate is asked questions by more than one member of
the company that's looking to make a hire. There the interviewee sits alone in front
of the room, waiting for the assembled strangers to attack you with interview

questions. Interviewee has to probably talk to each of these people individually at

some point in the process. Panel or board interviews are often characterized by a
standard set of questions for all applicants.
Below given are the tactics to follow while facing a board interview:

Interview preparation

Find out what type of interview one can expect. The recruiter setting up the job
interview can probably give an idea ahead of time. If a person gets the opportunity,
he may ask how long the interview will be and who will be on the panel? Then he
may tailor his answers depending upon the interview conditions.

Different perspectives, same purpose

How the interviewee deals with all the interviewers is very important. The best
way is to take them one at a time. The board or panel is not one entity, but several
individuals coming together with the common goal of hiring the best candidate for
the job. At the same time, each person has his own agenda or department's interest
at heart.
For example, the HR manager will be checking to make sure that a person is a
good fit with the culture and people working at the company. The hiring manager
will want to know about the technical skills or business know-how

What to expect from the panel

A person may be asked to speak about instances when he/she demonstrated

particular behaviors or skills that are key to performing a desired job. This

form of interviewing, known as a behavioral interview, relies on the premise

that past performance is the best indicator of future behavior.
Always be prepared to provide a brief summary of who you are and your career
goals. This message can include your overall mission, top-level skills and interests,
but not a recitation of your lifes history. Be ready to share your concise message at
the beginning or end of the interview.
Practicing for the interview with a video or audio recorder is extremely helpful.
Check your posture at a table and lean forward to demonstrate interest in the
position. Remember to look at each person who asks the question, and then shift
your eye contact to the other members of the interviewing team.
Lastly, follow up with individual thank-you notes afterwards.
3.4 Proper body posture

3.5 Importance of gestures:

A gesture








communication, no message can be completely sent across without the

accompaniment of facial expressions and gestures.

Gestures can convey feelings and intentions. For example facial expressions
and gestures are reliable indicators of speakers liking for the listener and
vice versa.


Gesture adds intensity to the process of communication. In the absence of

any gestures and proper eye contact, any face to face communication will
look uninspiring.


Gesture is an easily visible aspect of communication. It therefore helps the

receiver of the message in decoding the message.


Gesture language can be used to express intimacy between people. For

example touching and eye contact may indicate intimacy between two


Gesture goes a long way in improving the overall atmosphere in the

organization. A resourceful manager can make very effective use of it.

3.6 Steps to succeed in interviews


Do a pre interview preparation

Create a good first impression during the interview
Be positive and have an open attitude ina an interview
Maintain good body language during the interview
Communicate with clarity and focus
Have a post interview follow up strategy
During the interview be confident

10 Steps to Interview Success

Step 1 - Know The Company
Companies like candidates who know what they want. Make the effort to research
your target organization, and a candidate will find himself ahead of the
competition. Given two equal candidates, the one who shows the most interest
usually wins.
Step 2 - Know Yourself
In an interview, a candidates job is to sell himself. so he needs to know precisely
what he is selling. Once he defines that, he can apply these insights to the needs of

your target company. Connecting the two successfully is the best way to get
himself hired.
Most organizations want honest, smart, friendly, motivated, and responsible
employees. Do you deal well with people? Are you flexible and open to learning?
Explain your personal "assets" in a minute or two. These are the questions which
may be asked by the interviewers.
Step 3 - Practice
You can make all the lists you want, but there's no substitute for rehearsing how
you'd handle an interview. Ask your parent, sibling, or best friend to be the
interviewer, and give her or him a list of questions to throw at you. Body language
is the other thing to be well aware of. Your posture should be relaxed, but alert.
Practice does make perfect; it works for interviewing too.
Step 4 - Dress up
With any organization, the way to dress is the way you would dress if you got the
job. If you don't know what that is, ask. If you can't get any information on the
company's style of attire, dress a little more formally than you think you might
need to.
Personal grooming is part of your "dress" too. A good haircut or trim will impress.
So will clean fingernails, a fresh-scrubbed look, pleasant breath, and a white smile.
Step 5 - Get There Early
Getting there early allows you to take a few deep breaths, organize your notes,
refresh your memory on a few points that you've found difficult in your practices,
and scan any company materials that may be available in the waiting room. You'll

feel better about yourself, and you'll be more relaxed in the interview. So leave
plenty of time, and get there early.
Step 6 - Make A Good Impression
The interviewer starts forming opinions from the moment the two of you shake
hands. And by the way, that handshake is critical. Here's how to do it correctly:

Look the interviewer in the eye as you offer your hand.

Shake his or her hand firmly .

Smile at the same time, and say something enthusiastic like, "Hello Sir, it's
great to meet you!"

Step 7 - Answer Well

You're going to be asked some questions, but there are some tricks to answering
them well:

Look the interviewer in the eye when you're answering. If you don't, he or
she may think you're fabricating your answer right there on the spot.

Gather your thoughts. If you need a minute to collect your thoughts in order
to answer a specific question, feel free to say: "I need to think about that for
a moment. The interviewer will respect your honesty and your desire to
offer a thoughtful answer. If a question is a difficult one, try to remember
how to approach it. If you are blank out, be honest, but definitely put a
positive spin on your answer.

Step 8 - Ask Questions

Usually at the end of an interview, you'll be asked if you have any questions. If you
don't ask something, it can be taken as a sign of lack of interest.So prepare some
questions before the interview. There are two areas to question -- the organization

and the job itself. We recommend asking about the job first. Are you clear on the
responsibilities of the job? If not, ask for clarification.
Upon leaving, make sure to shake the person's hand again and make sincere eye
contact. And, of course, don't forget to thank him or her.
Step 9 - Be Yourself
This is the most important step. No matter what anyone says, you can't pretend to
be someone you're not. Be proud of that precious collection of talents,
motivations, and skills that make you the individual that you are. Believe in your
ability to learn, grow, and develop, and act accordingly
Step 10 - Follow Up
Your interview isn't over when you walk out the door. As soon as you get home,
write a short thank-you note to your interviewer. You appreciated the time they
spent with you and the chance to learn more about the job and the organization, so
tell them.
If you promised to send something additional --writing samples or another copy of
your resume, for example -- make sure to enclose it. Keep your note short, and
restate your understanding of the next step. If you'd like to add something you
forgot to say, this is the time and place.
You'd be surprised how many candidates never offer this simple bit of courtesy.
Send a thank-you note, and you'll stand out in the crowd.

3.7 Practice mock interview in classrooms with presentations on self

What Is a Mock Interview?

A mock interview, also known as a practice interview, is a simulation of an

actual job interview. It provides you with an opportunity to practice for an
interview and receive feedback.
During a mock interview, the interviewer may use a semi-structured
interview format rather than asking a formal list of questions.
A mock interview helps you learn how to answer difficult questions, develop
interview strategies, improve your communication skills and reduce your stress
before an actual job interview.

In Person Mock Interviews

Many college career centers and career counselors offer in-person mock
interviews. The more specific information you can provide for your mock
interviewer, the better. The mock interviewer will often record the interview with a
video camera.
Some career centers and career counselors also offer mock phone and online video
interviews, and will record your interview on a tape recorder or with a webcam.
After the mock interview (which usually lasts about 30 minutes), the interviewer
will then review the interview with you, and provide feedback.

Online Practice Interviews

Online practice interview programs provide job seekers with a pressure-free way to
prepare and practice for upcoming job interviews. Some of these programs are very
basic; users are given a series of random interview questions (either verbally or in
writing) and type in answers.

Benefits of Practice Interviews

Online practice interviews familiarize users with the interview process and allow
users to practice answering common interview questions with confidence.
Webcam practice interviews are particularly helpful in that you can review not only
your answers, but your body language, eye contact, and interview attire.
Fee Based Interview Programs
Be aware, however, that many of these online practice interview programs cost
money, particularly the programs that record your interview or involve actual
career counselors. Thoroughly review any online practice interview program; make
sure the program offers what you want at a cost that fits your budget.
Examples of Mock Interview Questions
The questions asked during a mock interview are typically the more
general employer interview questions that are asked during a first round or
screening interview.
However, for candidates who know what type of position, career field or industry
they are interested in, job specific interview questions may be asked.
If you are using a mock interview to prepare for a job interview you have
scheduled with a company, the interviewer may be able to ask you actual questions
that are asked by hiring managers at the company. When you schedule a mock
interview with your college career center or a career coach, provide them with as
much information as possible about your interests and goals. The more information

the counselor has, the better able he or she will be to tailor the questions to fit the
actual interviews you will have.
For example, if you are searching for a tech job, the interviewer can ask a series
of tech interview questions to familiarize you with the types of questions that will
be asking and to help you frame good responses.
If you're interviewing for a summer job, as another example, the interviewer can
ask you the same questions you will be asked by the people who hire for summer
Do take the time to prepare responses to the questions you will be asked during a
mock interview. This is an opportunity to practice interviewing and to make sure
that you have the interview skills to make the best impression on your interview.
How to Prepare for a Mock Interview
Be sure to take your mock interview as seriously as you would an actual interview.
Get ready for the interview just as you would for an interview with a hiring

Arrive 10-15 minutes early, and bring your resume and any other materials
you would bring to a real interview.

Bring a notebook to take notes on what your mock interviewer tells you.

Dress in professional interview attire.

Greet the interviewer with an enthusiastic handshake and smile.

Listen to the question asked. Make sure you know what the interviewer
wants to know. Ask for clarification if the question is not clear.

Keep your answers concise and to the point -- two to three minutes long.

You should also prepare answers to general interview questions before arriving.
Here's more information on mock interview questions including sample questions
and answers you can review to get ready for your interview.
Mock interviews are an ideal way to practice for real job interviews, because you
are in a situation that mirrors an actual interview with a company. When you
review your interview with the interviewer, you'll be able to modify your responses
and interview behavior, if necessary.
Set Up Your Own Mock Interview
If you're not in a situation where you can participate in a mock interview with a
professional counselor, recruit a family member or friend to help you practice
interviewing. The more you prepare, the more comfortable you will be with

3.8 Self introduction-highlighting positive and negative traits and dealing with
people with face to face
The act of introducing or the state of being introduced. In a simple language, self
introduction is where you tell people who you are, what you do, what your
interests are, where you are from, what you have done in your life.
Self introduction is concerned with telling the person in front of you about yourself

It seems quite easy to think about that yes its simple I can tell about myself but the
reality is different
Things to take care while giving self introduction::
1. Start with a smile on your face and give details about the name, Place

after greeting
If necessary only add your family details
Tell about your educational details
Share about why you want to do job
About your projectr in brief
Then about your interest and hobbies
Tell about your skills
Then conclude by saying thanks to the person who is listening to you.
Positive and negative traits:
In both the cases, the hiring manager is trying to determine what
assets you have that will help you succees in the job, if you are hired
as well as what vould be problematic
In both the cases, its important to put a positive spin on your

attributes when responding

My strengths are:
Self confidence and positive attitude
Good team worker and dedicated to my work
Can easily adapt to any situation
Good listener
Be friendly with all the people
Can work in pressure condition AND DELIEVER
My weaknesses are:

Never ashamed to ask small question from others

Sometimes get annoyed when work does not go according to my plan
I trust people very easily
I cant cram up the things , I can only learn via practical approach.

Unit IV
4.1 Leadership quality of a leader, leadership quiz with case study,
knowing your skills and abilities.
Introduction to group discussion techniques with debate and extempore,
increase your professionalism.
Audio Video recording and dialogue sessions on current topics,

economy, education system, environment, politics.

4.1 leadership
The word leadership has come from the word "lead" which means to guide,
to conduct, to direct etc. It can simply be defined as the ability to influence
Leadershiop is an art. It is the catalyst that transforms potential into

Leadership is the process of influencing and supporting others to work








"Leadership is the art of influencing people so that they will strive willingly










"The behaviour of a leader influences the work performance and





" Leadership is the situation and maintenance of structure in expectation

and interaction"
Quality of a leader
A leader has got multidimensional traits in him which makes him appealing and
effective in behavior. The following are the requisites to be present in a good
1. Intelligence - Leader should have a high level of intelligence with sound
educational and technical background.
2. Emotional Stability - A leader should be emotionally stable. He should not
lose temper at any stage.
3. Understanding Human Behavior - A leader should posses a deep
understanding about human behavior, emotions, needs etc. and he should be able to
deal with people.

4. Understanding the views of others - The leader should understand the

views of others . If he does all the things in his own way he may lose the support of
5. Motivating the Followers - It is not enough if the leader is self motivated.
He should also know how to motivate his followers.
6. Initiative and Creative Ability - The leader should take initiative because he
has to take the lead to do a work and then only others will follow.The leader should
also have have creative ability.
7. Judging Ability - Leader should be able to judge anything. Then only the
leader can anticipate the response to the actions and decisions.
8. Responsibly & Decision Making - A leader should lead from the front by
taking the responsibilities and must be a decision maker.
9. Guidance - Leader should be a good guide to his subordinates. He should tell
and demonstrate the ways of doing work.
10. Personality -The leader should have an attractive and pleasing personality.
11. Dignified - A leader should behave with his subordinates in a dignified
12. Honest - Leader should be honest, sincere, fair and reasonable in his dealings
with his subordinates.

4.2 leadership quiz with case study,

4.3 knowing your skills and abilities.

One of the most important things you can do before looking for work
or an alternative career is to consider what skills and abilities you
already have. These are your most valuable assets and are very
Three kinds of skills you need to have at work are:


transferable; and


Technical skills are the specialised skills and knowledge required

to perform specific duties, sometimes referred to as work skills. For

a forklift









Each one of these skills is made up of specific skills a person must
be able to do in order to complete technical tasks.

Transferable skills are the skills required to perform a variety of

tasks. They are your greatest asset as they can be transferred from
one area of work to another.



er service





Time management


Reasoning and






These skills can be useful when you are trying to make a career

Personal skills are the individual attributes you have such as

personality and work habits. These often describe what you are like
and how you would naturally go about doing things.



and reliable



Has initiative






Personal skills will often be related to how you fit into the team or
the culture of the workplace.

Too often, we only think about our technical skills as they are easiest
to identify. These are important; but employers want a person who
can approach the task and interact with others too. If you have a
clear understanding of your skills, it helps you to become more
confident with employers.
It also helps you to consider other patterns and forms of
employment and should enable you to explore realistic work

4.4 Introduction to group discussion techniques with debate and extempore,

Group discussion may be defined as a form of systematic and purposeful
oral process characterized by the formal and structured exchange of views
on a particular topic,issue,problem or situation for developing information
and understanding essential for decision making or problem solving.
GD is structured: the exchange of ideas in a GD takes place in a
systematic and structured way. Each of the participants gets an opportunity
to express his/her views and comments on the views expressed by other
members of the group.

GD involves a lot of group dynamics, that is, it involves both -person to

person as well as group to group interactions. Every group member has to
develop a goal oriented or group oriented interaction. A participant needs to
be aware of needs of other group members and overall objectives of the

GD does not have a formal leader, hence one of the participants is

expected to take the initiative. The leader will promote positive group
interactions; point out areas of agreement and disagreement; help keep the
discussion on the right track and lead the discussion to a positive and
successful conclusion within the stipulated time.

An extempore speech is prompt speech which the candidate is required to

make on topic given there and then. The panel provides the candidate with
about a minute or so to organize his/her thoughts before speaking. In other
cases, you will be expected to start speaking about the topic as soon the
topic is announced.
An extempore ppresentation tests the candidates on the
following:- An ability to think off the feet
- Analysis of the topic and identification of the issue to be
- Idea generation
- Prioritization and sequencing to display logical thinking
- Ability to connect with the panel
- Communication skills
- Overall presentation skills- body language, confidence,
composure etc.

For effective extempore speaking, candidates

must be fluent, erudite and articulate. Students
are suggested to prepare wellin advance so that
that impromptu speech comes out to be
spontaneously impressive

Some Tips
- Mental Preparation: Know what to speak before
delivering speech. Think over the topic for some time
and prepare the flow of delivery.Understanding the
audience, the direction they are most likely to accept ,
helps in framing the flow of speech.
- Start speaking in an even pace: Do not start really
fast, as you are likely to end up not having anything to
- Confidence: Confidence along with Knowledge always
help the candidate. Presence of mind, spontaneity and
analytical skills are required for the better delivery.
- Handle Mental blocks smartly:At times, when you
get blank about what to speak, try to maneuver
yourself out of the situation gracefully by avoiding
being nervous. Candid smiles also help and for such
situations it is better to have back up pla

Confidence:Confidence along with Knowledge always helps,

even in abstract topics where the candidate is tested on
presence of mind, spontaneity and analytical skills.

Handle Mental blocks smartly:At times, when you get

blank about what to speak, try to maneuver yourself out of the
situation gracefully by avoiding being nervous. Candid smiles
also help and for such situations it is better to have back up



speech: Don't





respective topic, avoid getting too personal on sensitive

matters, don't even deviate from the topic and talk irrelevant.
For a satisfactory performance, it is always better to use your
knowledge in an intelligent way with a control on the speech.

Presenting both sides Incase of controversial topics (e.g;

Should republic day celebrations be redefined?), the candidate
may choose to explore both sides, a stand which becomes
difficult to take in case of GDs due to challenges of group
dynamics. In an extempore, since the candidate is the only
person speaking, it becomes possible for a smart, strategic
speaker to discuss both aspects of the controversial topic.
However, one has to be careful about the time constraints while
taking this stand.







key:Work on your competence and competitive advantage

which may be either excellent vocabulary, good general

knowledge, etc. How well and quickly a candidate adapts to the
situation he/she is put in and with what enthusiasm and energy
level does he/she deliver the speech are some of the other
desirable evaluation parameters.
More often than not, you can use the following guideline to

talk on an extempore topic :o

If possible define the topic or specific terms of a topic.

If any widely known classifications exist about the

subject of the topic, talk about the classifications.
Provide supporting evidence in the form of data (if you

know) or examples.
If the topic provides scope for narrating personal

experiences, use the opportunity to do so.

Most importantly, time yourself well. If the panel has

given you one minute, try and do one or more of what has
been mentioned in points a to d and complete the
extempore logically. It may not be a good idea to be stopped
in the middle of one your sentences.

An effective group discussion generally has a number of


All members of the group have a chance to speak,

expressing their own ideas and feelings freely, and to pursue
and finish out their thoughts

All members of the group can hear others ideas and feelings
stated openly

Group members can safely test out ideas that are not yet
fully formed

Group members can receive and respond to respectful but

honest and constructive feedback. Feedback could be
positive, negative, or merely clarifying or correcting factual
questions or errors, but is in all cases delivered respectfully.

A variety of points of view are put forward and discussed

The discussion is not dominated by any one person

Arguments, while they may be spirited, are based on the

content of ideas and opinions, not on personalities

Even in disagreement, theres an understanding that the

group is working together to resolve a dispute, solve a
problem, create a plan, make a decision, find principles all
can agree on, or come to a conclusion from which it can
move on to further discussion

4.5 Increase your professionalism.

The benefits of being professional at work include raises, promotions, and the
respect from your co-workers. Sometimes its difficult to remain professional every
hour of the day, but it gets easier when you make professionalism a habit. Focus on
your own performance and youll start to see the rewards of your hard work.
1. Be on time in the morning and all day.
If your starting time is 9:00 a.m., then be in your office no later than 8:45 a.m. If
your lunch hour starts at noon, then make it a point to be back in the office by 1:00
p.m. every single day. Make it a habit to always be on time.
2. Become a resource to the people you work with.
Pay attention in departmental meetings and be sure to read the company memos
that circulate through the website and in the company mailbox. If you stay on top
of company information, then people will recognize you as a resource and respect
your professional approach to your job.
3. Avoid office politics and gossip.
It's an unfortunate truth that office politics is a way of life as you climb the
corporate ladder. But if you avoid office drama and stay far away from co-worker
gossip, then youll establish the professional reputation you want.
4. Dress professionally.
When it comes to dressing professionally, you dont need to wear a business suit
every day. Your job came with a dress code and you need to follow that code. If
your job requires a business formal dress code, then follow it. Keep yourself
professionally groomed, and always pay attention to your personal hygiene.

5. Show respect for others in your office.

You don't need to be the shoulder everyone cries on, but you do need to have
respect for others and show common courtesy to your co-workers. If theres a
fellow employee that youd rather not associate with, then avoid his company and
dont get involved in whispering behind his back.
6. Always follow company policies.
Most companies create an employee handbook that outlines the policies and
procedures you should follow. Carefully review this manual and make sure youre
getting your job done efficiently and to code. Use company policies as your
framework for how you perform your job.
7. Get your job done.
The internet makes it easy to get sidetracked and lose sight of your deadlines. But
when youre trying to be more professional at work, you need to stay focused on
your job and remain productive. Create a task list that you follow every day, and
avoid the kinds of distractions that cause you to lose sight of your responsibilities.
8. Carry a notepad with you to write down important info.
As you walk down the hall at work, a manager stops you and asks you to take care
of a quick task for him. You agree to it and then get back to your desk. The next
morning, the manager informs you that hell have to work this weekend to
complete the task that you completely forgot about.
Whether its a digital notepad or an old-fashioned pen and paper, professionals
carry something with them to write down important tasks and make sure they get

9. Never be afraid to ask questions.

Professionals are eager to learn new things, but they also want to clearly
understand whats expected of them. You need to ask questions and then use the
information you get to improve your career.
10. Look forward to each day.
A professional looks forward to the opportunities and challenges that each new day
brings. You shouldnt dread going to work every morninginstead, savor the
opportunity to learn and grow on a daily basis.
A Professional Attitude Can Have Its Own Benefits
When you take a more professional attitude towards your job, you open up new
opportunities. Visit LiveCareer and use the salary calculator to see if perhaps your
professional attitude may warrant a raise in salary.
More Ar

4.6 Audio Video recording and dialogue sessions on current topics, economy,
education system, environment, politics