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Pini is a great grammarian who succeeded in recording the form and

meaning of every word in Sankrit through his monumental work Adhyy. But
the way of description of Adhyy suffered in its interpretation from the very
beginning of its composition. There were generations of grammarians who tried to
simplify or who struggled to make the book ideal. Candra, Bhoja etc. were some
of the great Sanskrit grammarians who tried to make the grammar uncomplicated
and perfect. Candragomin's grammar attempted to remove the techniques used by
Pini. But Bhoja was in the way to make the Adhyy complete.

The present study focuses on the concept of Krakas accepted by Pini,

Candra and Bhoja. Scholars like Melputtr, Murrimisra and Srhara have
accepted the usages justified by the scholars other than Munitraya .
Candrcrya has tried to simplify the grammar of Pini. Candra himself
comments that P{]{hSi nIh*' This means that his grammar
is brief, complete, and intelligible. In the case of Krakas also Candra followed
the same methodology and allocates only cases without defining the Krakas.
Bhoja in turn tries to include the suggestions of Candra also wherever he found it
to be acceptable. He included the Vrtikas and certain Pinian concepts into
Stras. Bhoja defines the Krakas with almost the same Stras of Pini. Bhoja's
intention was to keep the full fledged study of grammar alive with an objective to
protect the tradition preserved by Pini, Ktyyana and Patajali. To make it


brief, the observations of Candra and Bhoja regarding Krakas are still
noteworthy. The first chapter in the present study is a general introduction
depicting the life and works of Pini, Candra and Bhoja. The second chapter
describes the concept of Krakas of different grammarians. The third chapter
treats in detail the Stras of Candra regarding Krakas and they are compared
with those of Pini. The fourth chapter explains in detail the Stras of Bhoja on
the topic of Krakas and they are compared with those of Pini and Candra.
Finally conclusion is given depicting the new findings of the thesis. In translating
Adhyy the translation by ra Candra Vasu is used at some places and the
translation of Vkyapadya by K.A. Subrahmania Iyer is also utilized at some
I carried out this research work under the guidance of Dr. P. Narayanan
Namboodiri, Prof. & H.O.D. Department of Sanskrit, University of Calicut. I am
deeply indebted to him for his encouragement and valuable guidance. I owe a
special debt of gratitude to all my teachers of the Department of Sanskrit,
University of Calicut, for their constant support and encouragement for the
completion of the work. I got the original work of Saraswatkahbharaa from
the library of Madras. I could get this with the help of late. Dr. K. Kunjunni Raja.
I take this opportunity to remember the great help offered by him with gratitude.
Some portions of the book were got from the Manuscript Library, Trivandrum. I
also express my heartfelt thanks to P.L. Shaji, Oriental Manuscript Library,
Trivandrum for his sincere help. At this moment of the completion of the thesis, I


place on record my sense of gratitude to my bellowed teacher M. Radhakrishna

Banergi, Sr. scale lecturer, Govt. Sanskrit College, Tripunithura for his whole
hearted help and support. I am also thankful to Dr. C.M. Neelakanthan, Professor
in Shitya in charge of Vedic Studies, Dr. C.H. Surendran Nambiar who is great
scholar in Vykaraa, Sri. Krishnakumar, Sel.Gr. Lecturer Govt. Sanskrit
College, Tripunithura, Sri. Udayakumar.V.P., Lecturer, Govt. Sanskrit College,
Tripunithura for their help and guidance given to me in different phases of the
completion of the thesis.

Finally heart felt thanks are due to all my colleagues, friends and teachers
who supported in many ways for the completion of the thesis.

Calicut University,