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1.

BASIC ELECTRONIC COMPONENT

1.0 introduction :-

The component which is used in electronic circuit or

device are known as electronics component. It is basically two types.

1.1. Passive component


Resistor
Capacitor
Inductor

1.1.1 Resistor:- Resistor is a two terminal electronic passive component


which oppose flow of current in any circuit .Its SI unit is ohm (). It is
denoted
by
R
.Its
circuit
symbol
is
.

Feature of resistor
These are two terminal passive element
The effect of resistance is same for both ac and dc

Type of resistor

Fixed resistor
Variable resistor
Wire wound resistor
Potentiometer resistor
Rheostats resistor

Application of resistor

It is used to limit the current


It is used to provide the load
It is used to provide the biasing
It is used in filter circuit
It is used to establish proper value of circuit voltage due to IR drop

1.1.2 Capacitor: - A capacitor is a two terminal electronics passive


component component . Which has the asbility to store electric charge . It is
dinoted by C . Its unit is fared (F).

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Feature of capacitor ;
It store electric charge between two plates
Oppose the instantaneous change of voltage in the which it is connected

Block the passage of direct current(DC) and allow the alternating


current(AC)
Types of capacitor
Fixed capacitor
Variable capacitor
Polarized capacitorNon polarized capacitor
Electrolytic capacitor

Application of capacitor

It is use in bypassing
It is use as coupling
It is use in filter circuit
It is use in amplifier
It is use in Ics
It is use in high voltage dc circuit

1.1.3 Inductor: - Inductor is a two terminal electronic passive component


which oppose the flow of alternating current and permit the flow of direct
current . It is denoted by L . Its SI unit is Henry (H). Its circuit symbol is
.

Feature of inductor :
It oppose the ac and allow the dc
Its oppose the instantaneous change of current in the circuit in which it is
connected

Types of inductor:

Air core inductor


Iron core inductor
Ferrite core inductor
Fixed coil inductor
Variable coil inductor
Audio frequency coils inductor
Radio frequency coils inductor

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Application of inductor

It is used in filter circuit


It is used in transformer
It is used in oscillator
It is used in motor
It is used in loudspeaker

1.2. Active component

Semiconductor diode
Transistor
Fet ; mosfet
Op-amp

1.2.1 Semiconductor diode:- When a P-type semiconductor is suitable


joined to N-type semiconductor, the contact surface is called P N junction. The
total unit called P-N junction diode or semiconductor diode or simply diode. Its
circuit symbol is

Transfer characteristics with low (ideally zero) resistance to current flow in


one direction, and high (ideally infinite) resistance in the other. The most
common function of In Electronics ,a diode is a two terminal electronic
component with an asymmetric a diode is to allow an electric current to
pass in one direction (called the diode's forward direction), while blocking
current in the opposite direction (the reverse direction).

p-type

n-type

DIODE TYPES

Semiconductor or rectification diode


Zener diode
Led(light emitting diode)
Varactor diode
Photo diode
Tunnel diode

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DIODE RATINGS

Peak inverse voltage (PIV)


Maximum forward current (IF)
Maximum forward voltage drop (VF)
Reverse leakage current (IR)

CURRENT DIRECTION:
A PN junction (or diode) is a switch or component through which
electrons will flow easily in one direction but not in the opposite
direction.
In P-type semiconductor, Holes are Majority Charge Carriers
In N-Type semiconductor, Electron are Majority Charge Carriers

Application of diode

It is used in rectifier for convert AC to DC


It is used as voltage regulator
It is used in clamper
It is used in clipper
It is used logic gate
It is used in memory
It is used in emergency light
It is used in Ics
It is used in power supply circuit
It is used in voltage stabilizer

1.2.2 Transistor
Transistor was invented in 1948 by J. Bardeen and W. H. Brattain
of Bell Telephone Laboratories, USA. Transistor has now become the
heart of most electronic application.
A transistor is a three terminal, two junction electronic active
components which amplified the low signal into high signal. A transistor
consist of two PN junction formed by sandwiching either p-type or nMD SHAKIR RAHMANI
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type semiconductor between a pair of opposite type. It is a voltage


control device.

TYPES OF TRANSISTOR
There are two basic types of transistors depending of the arrangement of
the material.
PNP
NPN
An easy phrase to help remember the appropriate symbol is to look at the
arrow.
PNP pointing in proudly.
NPN not pointing in.
The only operational difference is the source polarity.

PNP

NPN

TERMINALS OF TRANSISTOR
Its a three terminal & two Junction Device, transfer the signal from low
resistance region to high resistance region.

Emitter

Base

Collector

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FEW FACTS ABOUT TRANSISTORS


Transistors are versatile, highly non-linear devices
Two frequent modes of operation:
amplifiers/buffers
Switches
Two main flavors:
npn (more common) or pnp, describing doping structure
Also many varieties:
bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) such as npn, pnp
field effect transistors (FETs): n-channel and p-channel
metal-oxide-semiconductor FETs (MOSFETs)
Current control device Bipolar device.
Low input resistance, temperature sensitive device.
Having both majority and minority charge carriers

THREE OPERATING REGIONS


Transistor work in three region
Active region (Ic=Ib)
Saturation region (Ic=Isat) ; ON as switch
Cut off region (Ic=0) ; OFF as switch

APPLICATIONS OF TRANSISTOR:

It is used Switching
It is used in audio Amplifier
It is used in Oscillator
It is used in Comparator
It is used in Series Voltage Regulator

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It is used in Sensors
It is used in micro phone
It is used in loud speaker
It is used in power amplifier
It is used in logic gate
It is used in memory

1.2.3 JFet (Junction Field Effect Transistor)


A junction field effect transistor is a three terminal semiconductor device in
which current conduction is by one type of carrier i.e., electron or hole. It is a
current controled device.

TERMINALS OF JFET
Its a three terminal & two Junction Device
Drain
Gate
Source

FEW FACT ABOUT JFET


In a JFET there is only one types of carrier , hole in p-type channel and
electron in n-type channel. For this reason, it is also called a unipolar transistor
As the input circuit (I.e., gate to source) of a JFET is reverse biased,
therefore, the device has high input impedance.
As the gate is reverse biased, therefore, it carries very small current.
In JFET there are no junction as in an ordinary transistor. The conduction is
through an n-type or p-type semi-conductor material. For this reason, noise
level in JFET is very small.

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ADVANTAGES OF JFET

It has a very high input impedance (of the order of 1000M).


It has a negative temperature co-efficient of resistance.
It has a very high power gain.
It has a longer life, smaller size, and high efficiency.

APPLICATION OF JFET

It is used as RF amplifier
It is used as buffer amplifier
It is used as Phase shift oscillator
It is used in analog switch or gate
It is used in differential amplifier
It is used voltage controlled resistor
It is used in constant current source
It is used in low noise amplifier

1.2.4 MOSFET(METAL OXIDE SEMICONDUCTOR FIELD EFFECT


TRASISTOR)
The metaloxidesemiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or
MOS FET) is a transistor used for amplifying or switching electronic signals.
Although the MOSFET is a four-terminal device with source (S), gate (G), drain
(D), and body (B) terminals, the body (or substrate) of the MOSFET often is
connected to the source terminal, making it a three-terminal device like other
field-effect transistors. Because these two terminals are normally connected
to each other (short-circuited) internally, only three terminals appear in
electrical diagrams.

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FEW FACTS ABOUT MOSFET:


The most common field effect transistor in both digital and analog
circuits.
Uses channel of n or p-type semiconductor, named NMOSFET and
PMOSFET, respectively.
Silicon is the main choice of semiconductor used, however SiGe is
used by some chip manufacturers.
Some other more common semiconductors such as GaAs are not
useful in MOSFETs because they do not form good gate oxides.
At the gate terminal is composed a of a layer of polysilicon with a thin
layer of silicon dioxide which acts as an insulator between the gate
and the conducting channel.
When in operation a potential is applied between the source and gate,
generating an electric field through the oxide layer, creating an
inversion channel in the conducting channel, also known as a
depletion region.
By varying the potential between the gate and body, this channel in
which current flows can be altered to allow more or less or current to
flow through, depending on its size.

CIRCUIT SYMBOLS

MODES OF OPERATION:
The operation of a MOSFET can be separated into three different modes,
depending on the voltages at the terminals.

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For an enhancement-mode, n-channel MOSFET, the three operational


modes are:
, subthreshold, Cutoff or weak-inversion mode
Triode mode or linear region
Saturation or active mode

APPLICATION OF MOSFET

It is used in switching
It is used in amplifier
It is used in SMPS
It is used in power supply
It is used in motor control

1.2.5 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER (OP AMP):-

An operational amplifier is, or op-amp, is a very high gain


differential amplifier with high input impedance and low output
impedance.
An op-amp contain a number of differential amplifier
stages to achieve a very high voltage gain.
Basic and most common circuit building device. Ideally,
No current can enter terminals V+ or V- because of infinite input
impedance.
Vout=A(V+ - V-) with A
In a circuit V+ is forced equal to V-. This is the virtual ground
property
An op-amp needs two voltages to power it Vcc and -Vee. These
are called the rails.

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CIRCUIT SYMBOL

Properties
open-loop gain: Ideally infinite: practical values 20k-200k
high open-loop gain Virtual short between + and - inputs
input impedance: Ideally infinite: CMOS op amps are close to
ideal
output impedance: Ideally zero: practical values 20-100
zero output offset: Ideally zero: practical value <1mV
gain-bandwidth product (GB): Practical values ~MHz

Commercial op-amps provide many different properties

low noise
low input current
low power
high bandwidth
low/high supply voltage

APPLICATION OP OP-AMP

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It is used in inverter
It is used in summing amplifier
It is used in integrator
It is used in differentiator
It is used in multiplier
It is used in comparator
It is used in Ics

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2.PCB ASSEMBLING
2.0 Introduction:- Printed circuit board is known as PCB .PCB consist
of printed conductor . Copper is mostly used for conductor material . The
thikness of conducting material is depends on the current carring
capacity of the circuit .

2.1 NEED OF PCB:- Before the invention of printed circuit board,the


electrical connection between different components and devices was
made by using wire and cable.these large number of wire make it
difficult to identify the connection between different components or
parts of circuit.

2.2 Features of PCB :


Surpri singly Affordable
Highly reliable
Compact

2.3 Advantage of PCB :

Cost reduction
Saving of time
Rapid production
Uniform Simple system design
product
Higher reliability
Reduction in space requirement
Controllable and predictable electrical and mechanical
properties

Reduction in weight

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2.4 Classification of PCB


1.

2.

3.

4.

Based on flexibility of load


Rigid
Flexible
Based on deposition of conducting material
Single side PCB
Double side PCB
Based on material used for conducting layer
copper clad
nickel clad
Silver clad
Aluminum clad
Based on layers of PCB
Single layer PCB
Multilayer PCB

2.5 Step involved in preparation of PCB

Layout preparation
Transferring layout
Etching
Cleaning
Drilling

2.5.1 Layout preparation :The layout of a PCB is the pencil sketched component and conductor
drawing on a white paper or graph shit. The layout of a PCB has to
incorporate all the information such as size of the circuit, track position,
pad size, input and output connections of the circuit.
The layout should be produced at a 1:1 or 2:1 or even 4:1 scale. The
commonly applied scale is 2:1. The 4:1 scale is applied only where very
high precision is required.

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2.5.2 Transferring layout:The conductor pattern, which is on the master film, is


transferred on copper clad laminate by two method
Photo print
Screen print
Photo printing:It is an extremely accurate process. This method is also applied
to the fabrication of semiconductor and integrated circuit where
the conductor widths are typically in the region of just a few
microns (m). photo printing is the method of pattern transfer
for PCB used in professional application.

Screen printing
It is a comparatively cheap and simple method for pattern
transfer although less precise than photo printing. The majority
of PCB produced world wide are screen printed. It is the method
of pattern transfer of PCB in cheap, mass consumer electronics
where the ultimate in accuracy and precision in not necessary .

2.5.3 Etching:Etching is one of most important step in the preparation of PCBs.


Etching is a chemical process by which unwanted copper is
removed. After drawing the PCB it is washed in ferric etchants
because it has short etching time and other etchant available are
ferric chloride, cupric chloride, chromic acid and alkine ammonia
chloride.
During the etching process it is expected that the etching
processes vertically
After completion of etching process the etch resist material is
removed chemically.

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2.5.4 Cleaning:After etching is over, the ferric chloride contaminated surface


should be cleaned. A simple spray water rinse is used for cleaning
. however it is not sufficient effective. A usual practice after the
first water rinse is a dip in a 5% (volume) muriatic or oxalic asid
solution to remove the iron and copper salts.

2.5.5 Drilling:It is an important mechanical operation in PCB production


process. Drilling s used to creat the component lead holes and
through holes in a PCB. These hole pass through land area and
should be positioned properly.
The drilling process can be performed by using CNC drilling
machine. The later is generally used by professional PCB
manufactures.

2.6 Soldering materials:Soldering material are widely used for soldering components.
Solder material are soldering alloy, flux and contain two or more
elements.

(1)Solder alloy:Soldering alloys are special alloy which are used to get either a
mechanically stong joint or electric joint if low contact resistance.

(2)Fluxes:These are auxiliary material used in soldering. They are used to


(a) Dissolve and remove oxides and contamination from
surface metals to be soldered.
(b) Protect the metal surface and molten solder from
oxidation.
(c) Reduce the surface tension of molten solder and spread
well.

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2.7 PCB specification:1. Physical characteristics:

Board sizes
Conductor width
Spacing between conductor
Minimum plated hole diameters

2. Electrical characteristics:

Rated current
Break down voltage
Insulation resistance
Contact resistance

3. Environmental characteristics:

Ambient temperature
Vibration resistance
Shock resistance
Contact material

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3 LED (LIGHT EMITTING DIODE)


3.0 Introduction:The Light Emitting Diode (LED) is a PN junction diode which emits light
when forward biased, by a phenomenon called electroluminescence.
A light emitting diode (LED) is essentially a PN junction optosemiconductor that emits a monochromatic (single color) light when
operated in a forward biased direction.
LEDs convert electrical energy into light energy. They are frequently
used as "pilot" lights in electronic appliances to indicate whether the
circuit is closed or not.

3.1 Construction:The semiconductor material is gallium arsenide (GaAs), gallium arsenide


phosphide (GaAsP), or gallium phosphide (GaP). An n-type epitaxial layer
is grown upon a substrate and the p-region is created by diffusion.
Charge carrier recombination occur in the p-region is kept upper most to
allow the light to escape. The metal film anode connection is patterned
to allow most of the light to emitted. A gold film is applied to the bottom
of the substrate to reflect as much of the light as possible toward the
surface of the device and also to provide cathode connection.

3.2 Working principle:When an LED is forward biased, charge carrier recombination occur at a
forward biased PN-junction as electron from n-side cross the junction
and recombine with the hole on the p-side. As a result of recombination,
the electron lying in the conduction band of p-region. The difference of
energy between the condution band and valance band is radiated in the
firm of light energy. If the semiconductor material is translucent, the
light is emitted from the surface of the device. The brightness of the
emitted light is directly proportional to the forward biased current.
LEDs emit no light when reverse biased. LEDs operate at voltage levels
from 1.5v to 3.3v, with the current of some ten mA. The power
requirement is typically from 10 to 150 mW. LEDs can be switched ON
and OFF at very fast speed of 1 ns.
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3.3 LED characteristics:When an LED is forward biased to the threshold of conduction, its current
increases rapidly and must be controlled to prevent destruction of the device.
The light output is quite linearly proportional to the current within its active
region, so the light output can be precisely modulated to send an undistorted
signal through a fiber optic cable.

3.4 LEDTesting s:Never connect an LED directly to a battery or power supply! It will be
destroyed almost instantly because too much current will pass through
and burn it out.
LEDs must have a resistor in series to limit the current to a safe value,
for quick testing purposes a 1k resistor is suitable for most LEDs if your
supply voltage is 12V or less.

How Much Energy Does an LED Emit?


The energy (E) of the light emitted by an LED is related to the electric
charge (q) of an electron and the voltage (V) required to light the LED by
the expression: E = qV Joules.
This expression simply says that the voltage is proportional to the
electric energy, and is a general statement which applies to any circuit,
as well as to LED's. The constant q is the electric charge of a single
electron, -1.6 x 10-19 Coulomb.

3.5 LED Voltage and current:The forward voltage rating of most LEDs is fron 1v to 3v forward current
rating range from 20mA to 100mA. In order that current through the LED
does not exceed the safe value, a resistor Rs is connected in series with
it.
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3.6 Advantage of LED: Low voltage


Longer life (more than 20 year)
Fast ON OFF switching

3.7 Application of LED: Sensor Applications


Mobile Applications
Sign Applications
Automative Uses
LED Signals
Illuminations
Indicators

3.7.1 Sensor Applications:

Medical Instrumentation
Bar Code Readers
Color & Money Sensors
Encoders
Optical Switches
Fiber Optic Communication

3.7.2 Mobile Applications:

Mobile Phone
PDA's
Digital Cameras
Lap Tops
General Backlighting

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3.7.3 Sign Applications:

Color
White light
Intensity
Eye safety information
Visibility
Operating Life
Voltage/Design Current

3.7.4 Signal Appications: Traffic


Rail
Aviation
Tower Lights
Runway Lights
Emergency/Police Vehicle Lighting
LEDs offer enormous benefits over traditional incandescent lamps
including:
Energy savings (up to 85% less power than incandescent)
Reduction in maintenance costs
Increased visibility in daylight and adverse weather conditions

3.8 Illumination :

Architectural Lighting
Signage (Channel Letters)
Machine Vision
Retail Displays
Emergency Lighting (Exit Signs)
Neon Replacement
Bulb Replacements
Flashlights
Outdoor Accent Lighting - Pathway, Marker Lights

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3.9 Indication:

Household appliances
VCR/ DVD/ Stereo and other audio and video devices
Toys/Games
Instrumentation
Security Equipment
Switchess

3.10 Colours of LEDs:LEDs are made from gallium-based crystals that contain one or more
additional materials such as phosphorous to produce a distinct color.
Different LED chip technologies emit light in specific regions of the visible
light spectrum and produce different intensity levels.
LEDs are available in red, orange, amber, yellow, green, blue and white.
Blue and white LEDs are much more expensive than the other colours.
The colour of an LED is determined by the semiconductor material, not
by the colouring of the 'package' (the plastic body). LEDs of all colours
are available in uncoloured packages which may be diffused (milky) or
clear (often described as 'water clear'). The coloured packages are also
available as diffused (the standard type) or transparent.

3.11 Bi-colour LEDs:A bi-colour LED has two LEDs wired in 'inverse parallel' (one forwards, one
backwards) combined in one package with two leads. Only one of the LEDs
can be lit at one time and they are less useful than the tri-colour LEDs
described above.

3.12 LED Performance:LED performance is based on a few primary characteristics:


Colour
White light
Intensity
Eye safety information
Visibility
Operating Life
Voltage/Design Curren
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4.ESD(ELECTROSTATIC DISCHARGE)
4.0 Introduction:-Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is the sudden flow of
electricity between two objects caused by contact, an electrical shock,
or dielectric breakdown. ESD can be caused by a build-up of static
electricity by tribocharging, or by electrostatic induction.

4.1 Causes of ESD:One of the causes of ESD events is static electricity. Static electricity is often
generated through tribocharging, the separation of electric charges that occurs
when two materials are brought into contact and then separated. Examples of
tribocharging include walking on a rug, rubbing a plastic comb against dry hair
Another cause of ESD damage is through electrostatic induction. This occurs
when an electrically charged object is placed near a conductive object isolated
from ground. The presence of the charged object creates an electrostatic field
that causes electrical charges on the surface of the other object to redistribute.
Even though the net electrostatic charge of the object has not changed, it now
has regions of excess positive and negative charges.
4.2 Types of ESD:The most spectacular form of ESD is the spark, which occurs when a heavy
electric field creates an ionized conductive channel in air. This can cause minor
discomfort to people, severe damage to electronic equipment, and fires and
explosions if the air contains combustible gases or particles. However, many
ESD events occur without a visible or audible spark. A person carrying a
relatively small electric charge may not feel a discharge that is sufficient to
damage sensitive electronic components

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4.3 ESD control:ESD controls come in a vast variety of forms. However, they may be classified
into three major categories:
1) Prevention of static charge build-up;
2) Safe dissipation of any charge build-up; and
3) Improvements in the ESD robustness of the product
Everything in the production line, from equipment to work tables to cabinets
and racks, must be connected to this common ground. If the factory uses
conductive flooring, then this should also be connected at regular intervals to
this common ground. Having a single or common ground will ensure that
everything in the production floor will remain at the same potential.

Examples of personnel grounding accessories:


wrist strap, sole grounder, and conductive shoes

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5.SMT(SURFACE MOUNT TECHNOLOGY)


5.0 Introduction:- SMT is a method for making electronic circuits in which
the components are mounted or placed directly onto the surface of printed
circuit boards (PCBs). An electronic device so made is called a surface-mount
device (SMD). In the industry it has largely replaced the through-hole
technology construction method of fitting components with wire leads into
holes in the circuit board. Both technologies can be used on the same board
for components not suited to surface mounting such as transformers and
heat-sinked power semiconductors.
An SMT component is usually smaller than its through-hole counterpart
because it has either smaller leads or no leads at all. It may have short pins or
leads of various styles, flat contacts, a matrix of solder balls (BGAs), or
terminations on the body of the component.
5.1 Processes involved in SMT:

Screen Printing

Pick & Place

Reflow Process
5.1.1 Screen printing:- it is a process where when components are to be
placed, the printed circuit board normally has flat, usually tin-lead, silver,
or gold plated copper pads without holes, called solder pads. Solder
paste, a sticky mixture of flux and tiny solder particles, is first applied to
all the solder pads with a stainless steel or nickel stencil using a screen
printing process. It can also be applied by a jet-printing mechanism,
similar to an inkjet printer.

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Screen printing machine


Steps for screen printing m/c are:

Place the board with proper alignment with stencil cut on the pasting
platform.

Set the height/thickness of the board.

Mix the solar paste.

Set the squeeze pressure.

Squeeze the solder paste.

Pass the board to visual inspection.

Wait for the approval of mass production.

Then do it for mass production


5.1.2 Pick & place :It is a process in which when solder paste is applied on the screen printed
board, then m/c automatically pick & place the components,ics to its correct
position with the help of cameras ,sensors with very high speed. It is approx
25-30 thousand component per hour
.

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Pick & place machine


Pick & Place m/c are of two types: Single headed m/c (HS180,CP140) [4200 CPH]
Multi headed m/c (SP 120) [7200 CPH]

5.1.3 Reflow process:- it is process of passing the board of pcb with


placed components pacing through the different temperature
zones so the components are jointed in ckt correctly with the help
of soldring paste.

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Different zones in reflow m/c are:


6

Pre-heating zone(25o -70o C)

Thermal soak zone(100o 160o C)

Reflow zone(205o 235o C)

Cooling zone(20o - 40o C)

Profiler/Data logger is use to automatically determine the time for


different zones.
5.2 Steps for reflow m/c are:-:
10

A clean / dry air supply of sufficient CFM

11

A correct and clean voltage supply with a phase to phase differential within
the manufacturer's specification, measurable with a Volt meter.

12

Proper exhaust CFM, which can be verified with an anemometers, and


balanced utilizing dampers in the individual exhaust ducts.

13

If the oven is fitted with edge carrying rails, verify these have not been
damaged in the move. A simple way to accomplish this
to string a line from one end to the other, looking for dips or bows in the
rail.

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6. PROJECT OF POWER SUPLLY


6.0 Introduction:- Most of the day electronic circuit work on low
voltage direct current, whereas the domestic power available in India is
high voltage alternating current at 230v.

6.1 Types of power supply


Regulated power supply
Un regulated power supply

Regulated power supply


6.1.1 Introduction:-

Regulated power supply is defined as the


power supply which output is constant and not fluctuation or vibration
due to change in input or change in load resistance or change in
temperature.

6.2 Component used


Component
Range

Quantity

Diode (4007)

(---------------------)

04

Resistor

(100R, 120R 47K)

03

Capacitot

03

Ics (7805)

(2200F,0.1F,
1000F)
5v

LED

(3v, 20mA)

01

Pcb

(-------------------------)

01

Connecting wire

(-------------------------)

09

Soldering iron

(0-65 watt)

01

Flux

(------------------------)

01

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Solder wire

(------------------------)

01

Transformer (90-9)
Multimeter

(18v)

01

(-----------------------)

01

6.3 Circuit diagram

6.4 Circuit details:6.4.1 Pcb:- PCB stand for printed circuit board. Component are
located on these board. Pcb are sold with copper dots with hole on a
sutable grid.

6.4.2 Multimeter:- It is used to find the value of Resistor, Capacitor


and check the value of voltage and current in circuit.

6.4.3 Transformer :- transformer is a static device which transfer the


electrical power from one circuit to another circuit without change in
its frequency. It is a ( 9-0-9 transformer) step down transformer that is
used to step down the high voltage AC to low voltage AC.

6.4.4 Soldering iron:- soldering iron is a electrical device. That are


used to sold the electronic component on PCB.

6.4.5 Connecting wire:- it is a special wire that are used to connect


the different electronic component on Pcb.

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6.4.6 Diode :- Diode is a two terminal electronic component that are


used to rectification when it is connected in forward biased because its
forward resistance is ideally zero. It is made by semiconductor (i.e., si or
ge) material.

6.4.7 Capacitor:- It is a two terminal electronic passive component


which block the DC and allow the AC. Its used in this circuit to filter the
ripple from pulsating DC. As a result it output is pure DC.

6.4.8 Resistor:- it is a two terminal electronic passive component


which oppose the flow of current. The use of resistor in this circuit to
provide the load.

6.4.9 Ics:- Ic stand for integrated circuit. Integrated circuit actually


consist of a number of active electronic component such as transistor
and diode . in this circuit used ics is 7805 that work is to provide a
constant current across the load.

6.4.10 Led:- Led stand for light emitting diode. It is a PN junction


diode its emit the light when it is connected in forward bised. Its made
by a special semiconductor material i.e., phosphorus or gallium. In this
circuit used of Led such as indicator.

6.5 Working of power supply


During the +ve positive half cycle of input diode D1 and diode D3 are
forward biased and diode D2 and diode D4 are reversed biased. So the
current flow along D1 and D3 as shon in fig. there will be voltage drop
across Rl.
During the ve negative half cycle the diode D1 and diode D3 are
reversed biased and diode D2 and diode D4 are forward biased. So the
current flows along D2 and diode D4 as shon in fig. the current produce
a voltage drop across Rl.
It is seen from the fig. that current in load Resistor is the same direction
during both half cycle of the input AC supply.
The output from bridge rectifier is not pure DC but also have some AC
components called ripple. Such supply is not useful for sophisticated
electronics devise or circuit. This achived by used by filter circuit. A

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filter is a circuit that converts DC output of rectifier into a steady DC


level. The filter is used in this circuit is RC filter.
The regulation of DC output voltage as a function of DC load current is
called regulation. We have used a regulator in this circuit is 7805 Ic
voltage regulator. Its provide constant output voltage irrespective o the
variation in the input voltage. After then use of these component we
have get 5volt DC voltage.

6.6 Advantage of power supply


It gives regulated DC voltage
6.7 Application of power supply

It is used in UPS.
It is used in battry charger.
It is used in emergency light.
It is used in water level alarm.
It is used in fire alarm.
It is used in Led flasher light.
It is used in digital camera.
It is used in Led driver.
It is used in Smps.
It is used in Tv.

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6. PROJECT OF WATER LEVEL INDICATOR OR


ALARM
7.0 Introduction:- It is a basic electronic circuit which shows the
level of water in our water tank. This can be used as an alarm when
filling overhead tanks. Quite some time ago, I used it as an indication
when then municipal water used to flowing to my pipeline. When we
used this alarm then we can save water.

7.1 Component used:Components

Range

Quantit
y

Diode (4007)

(-----------------)

04

Transistor (NPN)

(-----------------)

02

Resistor
Capacitor

(120k,
220k,)
(1000f)

LED

(2 -3v)

01

Ics (7809)

(9v)

01

Connecting wire

(-----------------)

08

Soldering iron

(30-65 watt)

01

Flux

(-----------------)

01

Solder wire

(-----------------)

01

Diode (4007)

(-----------------)

04

Transistor (NPN)

(-----------------)

02

Resistor

(120k,

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1k,

04
01

1k,

04
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Capacitor

220k,)
(1000f)

01

LED

(2 -3v)

01

Ics (7809)

(9v)

01

7.2 Circuit diagram:-

7.3 Circuit details:7.3.1 Pcb:- PCB stand for printed circuit board. Component are
located on these board. Pcb are sold with copper dots with hole on a
sutable grid.

7.3.2 Multimeter:- It is used to find the value of Resistor, Capacitor


and check the value of voltage and current in circuit.

7.3.3 Transformer :- transformer is a static device which transfer the


electrical power from one circuit to another circuit without change in
its frequency. It is a ( 9-0-9 transformer) step down transformer that is
used to step down the high voltage AC to low voltage AC.

7.3.4 Soldering iron:- soldering iron is a electrical device. Those are


used to sold the electronic component on PCB.

7.3.5 Connecting wire:- it is a special wire that are used to connect


the different electronic component on Pcb.
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7.3.6 Diode :- Diode is a two terminal electronic component that are


used to rectification when it is connected in forward biased because its
forward resistance is ideally zero. It is made by semiconductor (i.e., si or
ge) material.

7.3.7 Capacitor:- It is a two terminal electronic passive component


which block the DC and allow the AC. Its used in this circuit to filter the
ripple from pulsating DC. As a result it output is pure DC.

7.3.8 Resistor:- it is a two terminal electronic passive component


which oppose the flow of current. The use of resistor in this circuit to
provide the load.

7.3.9Led:- Led stand for light emitting diode. It is a PN junction diode


its emit the light when it is connected in forward bised. Its made by a
special semiconductor material i.e., phosphorus or gallium. In this
circuit used of Led.

7.3.10 Buzzer:- Buzzer is a special loudspeaker which is used in


an alarm circuit like door bell, water level indicator, fire alarm
for inform people.

7.4 Working principle:- When the probe that is connected to the BC547
transistor via 100 resistor is covered by water, the potential at the point A
is 0V (ground potential).

Thus the transistor remains in OFF state. So buzzer wont produce any
sound.

If the water level goes below the Low liquid level probe, the potential at
the point A becomes almost equal to Vcc.

This turns ON the BC547 transistor, then a current will start to flow from Vcc
to ground through the transistor.

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Thus the buzzer produces a beep sound, indicating that the water level

inside the tank has reached to bottom and you need to switch ON the water
pump set.

6.5 Application of water level indicator


It is used in water tank

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8.PROJECT OF LED FLASHER


8.0 Introduction:- LED flasher is an electronic circuit which
works on the principle of Astable Multivibrator.
8.1

Component used:Compone
nt

Range

Quantit
y

Transistor

(--------------)

02

Resistor

(100K , 470)

04

Capacitot

(10F)

02

Battery

9v

01

LED

(3v, 20mA)

02

Pcb

(-----------------)

01

8.2 Circuit diagram:-

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8.3 Theory:8.3.1 Capacitor:- It is a two terminal electronic passive component


which block the DC and allow the AC. Its used in this circuit to filter the
ripple from pulsating DC. As a result it output is pure DC.

8.3.2 Resistor:- it is a two terminal electronic passive component


which oppose the flow of current. The use of resistor in this circuit to
provide the load.

8.3.3 Led:- Led stand for light emitting diode. It is a PN junction diode
its emit the light when it is connected in forward bised. Its made by a
special semiconductor material i.e., phosphorus or gallium. In this
circuit used of Led.

8.3.4 Transistor
A transistor is a three terminal, two junction electronic active
components which amplified the low signal into high signal. A transistor
consist of two PN junction formed by sandwiching either p-type or ntype semiconductor between a pair of opposite type. It is a voltage
control device.
8.4 Working principle:LED Flasher work on principle of Astble Multivibrator. Here transistor
work as a switch. It switch back and forth from one state to other, remaining
in each state for a time determine by circuit constant.
In other word, at first one transistor conduct (i.e. ON state) then LED
(D1) is glow and other transistor is off state then LED (i.e. D2) is off.
After the some period of time other transistor is is conduct (i.e. ON
state) then LED (i.e. D2) is glow and at this time first transistor is off state then
LED (i.e.D1) is off.
8.5 Application of LED Flasher: It is used in traffic signal
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9. PROJECT OF EMERGENCY LIGHT


9.0 Introduction:- Emergency light is a specially light which is used
after the absence of electricity. When electricity is available then its
battery is charging. It is very easy to implement on your home and work
areas. Our circuit is capable of turns on the light automatically when
power failure occurs and turns off if main supply is return.

9.1 Component used:Components

Range

Quan
tity

Diode (4007)

(------------)

05

Resistor

(1k )

02

Capacitor

(470f)

01

LED

(2 -3v)

07

Zener diode

(9v)

01

Relay

(12v)

01

Battery

(09v)

01

9.2 Circuit diagram:-

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9.4 Working principle:

Two 12V relays are used to switch the charger and emergency LED lights
accordingly.

Consider the main supply is on, then the step down transformer reduce the

ac voltage level to 15V AC

Bridge rectifier converts this to 15V DC and 4700F capacitor removes the ac
ripples to make a perfect DC.

Green LED indicates the presents of main power, 1K resistor used


as current limiting resistor for LED.

The relay connected to the LED is always ON if the main power is present, so
the LEDs are remain in OFF since those are connected to NO (Normally
Open) terminal of the Relay. (Read our Relay connection diagram to know

more about Relay connection and configuration)

The variable resistor is meant for set the voltage level for the charger
activation, a 13.8V Zener diode is used to turns off the charger circuit if the
battery voltage reach at 13.8 volt which helps to Lead Acid batterys long

life.

Negative terminal of the lower comparator is connected with battery


voltage to compare the battery voltage level is below the pre-set level
(voltage level to ON the charger can be set by varying the variable resistor).

If the battery voltage reaches at below the pre-set level the lower
comparator will reset the flip flop in the 555, which turns ON the charger.

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The battery is also connected with positive terminal of the upper


comparator, which compare the battery voltage level with the reference
voltage 13.8V, if the battery voltage reach at this level which set the flip flop
thus turns OFF the charger.

LEDs provide long life, because LEDs drawn very low current which depend
on the number of LED connected in parallel.

At the time of power failure all the charger circuit will inactive and the
relayRL2 connects the battery to LEDs, thus it glows.

9.4 Application of Emergency light: It is used in Library


It is used in Hospital
It is used in all commercial place

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