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Procedia Engineering 125 (2015) 89 – 94

The 5th International Conference of Euro Asia Civil Engineering Forum (EACEF-5)

Knowledge management maturity in construction companies
Mochamad Agung Wibowoa,*, Rudi Waluyob
a
Civil Engineering Program, Engineering Faculty, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof.Soedarto, Tembalang, Semarang 50275, Indonesia
Civil Engineering Program, Engineering Faculty, Palangka Raya University, Jl. H. Timang, Tunjung Nyaho, Palangka Raya 73112, Indonesia

b

Abstract
Knowledge management is a concept of managing of knowledge in the company. The implementation of concept has different
levels in each company. Knowledge management maturity is a guide or measure of the company's position in managing of
knowledge. The objective of the study is to identify knowledge management maturity in Indonesian construction companies. This
study used a survey method and conducted by distributing questionnaires to large construction companies that implement
knowledge management activities. Four level of knowledge management maturity was proposed on this study. The results show
that 29 contractors at the practiced level, 20 contractors at managed level and 5 contractors at continuously improved level.
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under responsibility of organizing committee of The 5th International Conference of Euro Asia Civil Engineering
Forum (EACEF-5).
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Keywords: Knowledge, knowledge management, knowledge management maturity, construction companies

1. Introduction
Competition among companies in the construction business is growth. It is characterized by the increasing
requirements of the customers desired, limited resources, environmental stewardship and increasing competition [1].
Now, construction companies must have ability to compete and create new business opportunities [2]. Competition
between construction companies is more increasing. So, every company is expected have ability to improve the
efficiency and effectiveness so that success can be achieved. For long term success, all of construction companies
depend on the performance improvements made by absorbing and applying new sciences continuously [3]. It is
reinforced by [4] which states that success in business, including the construction business, is highly depend on the
quality of human resources. Human resources are unique production factors, if it managed properly so that can

* Corresponding author. E-mail address: agungwibowo360@gmail.com

1877-7058 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Peer-review under responsibility of organizing committee of The 5th International Conference of Euro Asia Civil Engineering Forum (EACEF-5)

doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2015.11.014

1. imperfect or incomplete [16]. 2.13. [18] define knowledge management maturity as the extent to which knowledge management is explicitly defined. Knowledge Knowledge is an information that completed with relationship mode comprehension from information with individual and group experience. Management of knowledge in Indonesian construction companies especially in contractors is unknown. experience. It identifies the quality and effectiveness of knowledge management process and the appropriateness of socio-technical environment for managing knowledge in an organization at the moment. Applying the concept of maturity to a person it might refer to the state of being physically. more competitive and profitable. Maturity modeling is a generic approach which describes the development of an entity over time progressing through levels towards an idealistic .9. fullness of development. Another resources are very important too.6]. Tacit knowledge is a human knowledge that can be a intuition. knowledge creation. or ready. In the case of knowledge management. knowledge acquisition.10]. judgement. communicated. a maturity modeling can be effectively used. managed. willingness and ability to take responsibility. product specification.14. knowledge documentation. 2. On the contrary. There are some levels in management of knowledge and it called maturity. shared and utilized for business aspects [5. ‘immaturity’ is the state of being unripe.3. In order to assess the progress of knowledge management development. security and management of information within organizations [11]. perfect. knowledge sharing. Knowledge management is an organization way to manage knowledge. Thus organizational maturity in the context of knowledge management is achieved at the advanced level when knowledge management processes are managed well and performed effectively. body language. knowledge application. Knowledge management Knowledge Management is a term applied to techniques used for the systematic collection. transferred. programs or projects effectively. distributed and gave in systematic and formal way in data. the maturity might refer to the state of organization’s effectiveness at managing and leveraging its knowledge assets through performing the effective knowledge management processes. [17] note that the knowledge management maturity of an organization is the extent to which that organization consistently manages its knowledge assets and leverages them effectively. skill. i.8.e. numbers. create values and improve competitive advantage or firm performance [12]. wisdom. Literature review 2. to work towards achieving the goals. controlled and effected. transfer. and knowledge dissemination [8. to be serious and emotionally stable. organizational maturity might be similarly conceptualized. knowledge formula. While maturing. the performance of an organization is becoming better. and an organization is becoming more productive and effective. underlying the state of perfection of an organization. or shared with other people. Just as personal maturity means the perfection of an individual. In general knowledge divided into tacit and explicit knowledge. Thus the concept of maturity can be used for defining the state of effectiveness of an organization or the state of its capability and competency in managing the processes. ‘maturity’ is the state of being complete.2.90 Mochamad Agung Wibowo and Rudi Waluyo / Procedia Engineering 125 (2015) 89 – 94 generate added value to other resources. values. looked as a core competence of organization that can captured. 2. It can be added. Knowledge management maturity In general. This study aims to know knowledge management maturity in contractors. independence.15]. responsiveness to knowledge. Personal maturity can be defined in terms of a person’s experience. emotionally and mentally mature. belief and tule of thumb. context and experience. It is very difficult to be formulated. Combination of information.10. but many companies are not managing it well is knowledge. Knowledge management have activities and we can call it knowledge management processes. knowledge transfer. manuals and universal principles [7. The maturity of knowledge management therefore is defined as the state of development of knowledge management. Explicit knowledge is a knowledge that can be expressed in words.

3. 3) levels are ordered sequentially. stage 4 quantitatively managed or knowledge management performance has been measured . Questionnaires were sent to selected contractors purposively. While some maturity models in the field of knowledge management have been proposed in the literature. There are several levels or stages in the knowledge management maturity. level 1 (initial) or there is awareness. but when viewed more deeply then there are only four levels of maturity in KM. Respondents are first line. middle and top managers of the large contractors. According [21]. level 4 (managed) at this stage. There are 38 activities of knowledge management maturity and divided into 4 stages. stage 3 formation established. level 3 (quantitative development) is knowledge management activity measured quantitatively. stage 2 awareness in the development of knowledge management. from an initial level up to an ending level (the latter is the level of perfection). there has been a structured process. In knowledge management mention that there is no fixed standard for the level of maturity. many of them are still debated.e. level 2 (encouraged) at this stage there is recognition of the sharing of knowledge. 2) levels are characterized by certain requirements. [22] mentions that there are 5 levels knowledge management maturity is level 0 (the default) or no organizational support for knowledge management. The respondents were asked to indicate by giving a checklist based on their experience toward knowledge management activities that implemented in the contractors. level 3 (coordinated ) or the development of knowledge management has been well coordinated.Mochamad Agung Wibowo and Rudi Waluyo / Procedia Engineering 125 (2015) 89 – 94 ultimate state [19]. level 5 (extended) at this stage knowledge management integrated with external partner organizations. condition.e. stage 2 91 . According to Klimko [19]. which the entity has to achieve on that level. level 2 (repeatable but intuitive) or partially identified. level 3 (defined process) or there is a standard procedure. namely: level 0 (default) is the basic level. or beginning. which is level 1 (possible) at this stage there is a desire to make sharing. level 4 (proactive) or an increase knowledge management processes continuously. level 1 (chaotic) or still chaotic. and the parameters that outline this level of development. Although generally knowledge management maturity is divided into six levels. integration and linking KM with external partners (networking). level 2 (qualitative development) is measured qualitatively knowledge management activity. stage 1 initial has 11 activities. stage 5 optimizing or knowledge management has been awakened and continuously improved. the entity progresses forward from one level to the next. [17] agree there are 5 levels of knowledge management maturity. 3) managed (has been well managed and supported tools). or fully developed. level 5 (continuously improved) at this stage. namely: level 0 (non-existent) or no awareness. The levels of maturity represent a developmental continuum arranged from initial. reviewing knowledge management maturity based on four levels. and 4) continuously improved (has been carried out thoroughly and do continuous improvement). in general. sharing of knowledge assets put into practice and is a formal activity. level 4 (managed and measurable) or no tool support. condition to mature. While opinions [23] says there are 6 levels in the knowledge management. level 2 (fragmented) or early stage of knowledge management practices. from level 0 to level 5. maturity models have the following properties: 1) the development of a single entity is simplified and described with a limited number of maturity levels. level 4 (maturity) at this stage there is increasing continuously knowledge management. Various studies of knowledge management maturity above confirm that the knowledge management is divided into several levels. employees can easily share knowledge assets or there is a tool that supports KM activities. stage 1 initial. level 3 (practiced) in this phase. In this study. i. various researchers assign different levels. [19] stated that there are four stages in the KMM. propagation. Mechanisms and tools to leverage knowledge assets are widely acceptable. level 5 (optimized) or comprehensive and sustainable. namely: 1) initial (identified but not regularly). Researchers assume that no generally accepted methodology exists for assessing the maturity of an organization with respect to knowledge management [17]. 100 questionnaires were distributed toward large contractors that implement knowledge management formally. 2) practiced (had practiced formally). level 1 (initial) is the initial level. Contractors were identified based on contractors that implement knowledge management and just large contractors implement it formally. there are six levels of knowledge management maturity. Knowledge management maturity model can be defined as a model that shows the level of qualitative development of knowledge management. namely phase of initiation. [20] argues that there are five stages of maturity in KM. Research methodology A questionnaire survey was used to elicit the attitude of contractors towards knowledge management maturity. i. 4) during development.

Knowledge Management Maturity on Contractors Contractor Contractor Maturity on KM (1) K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 K8 K9 K 10 K 11 K 12 K 13 K 14 K 15 K 16 K 17 K 18 K 19 K 20 K 21 K 22 K 23 K 24 K 25 (2) Practiced Practiced Practiced Practiced Practiced Practiced Practiced Practiced Practiced Practiced Practiced Practiced Practiced Practiced Practiced Practiced Practiced Practiced Practiced Practiced Practiced Practiced Practiced Practiced Practiced Stage 1 Initial (11 Activities) (3) 10 9 8 7 8 9 7 9 7 9 9 7 10 8 7 7 9 7 8 9 9 9 8 8 8 Stages of Knowledge Management Maturity Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Practiced Managed Continously Improved (10 Activities) (9 Activities) (8 Activities) (4) (5) (6) 7 1 0 6 0 0 6 1 0 7 0 0 8 1 0 7 0 0 6 1 0 9 0 0 7 1 0 8 0 0 8 1 0 6 0 0 8 1 0 5 1 1 6 1 1 7 0 0 8 1 0 7 0 0 8 1 0 9 0 0 8 1 0 7 0 1 8 1 0 8 0 1 6 1 1 . but only 54 completed forms were further analyzed. 38 activities of knowledge management believed to affect business process in large contractors. and stage 4 continuously improved has 8 activities. Total of activities of knowledge management maturity that implemented by contractors at each stage and the maturity that can be reached by contractors can be seen in Table 1. 2) the form was completed not by leading executives.92 Mochamad Agung Wibowo and Rudi Waluyo / Procedia Engineering 125 (2015) 89 – 94 practiced has 10 activities. The others were rejected because of the following reasons: 1) the form was not fully completed. Adhi Karya and Wijaya Karya. Table 1. Research results and discussion Data of knowledge management maturity analyzed descriptively. middle and top managers (with average experience of 15 years in the construction companies). 3) the form was completed by managers not from business companies. Number of activities that implemented by large contractors at each stage of knowledge management maturity is different. In total. 4. Bank Indonesia. The respondents were experienced first line. Descriptive analysis is intended to provide an overview of the number of activities carried out contractors in each stage of knowledge management maturity. 4) the company may not be defined as a knowledge organization. Activities of knowledge management that implemented in large contractors were summarized and collected according to stages of knowledge management maturity. 60 large contractors have completed the questionnaire survey. stage 3 managed has 9 activities. The questionnaire has been validated by four managers who understand about the implementation of knowledge management in CIMB Niaga.

4. x Contractors K30 until K49 are at knowledge management maturity 'managed'.Mochamad Agung Wibowo and Rudi Waluyo / Procedia Engineering 125 (2015) 89 – 94 Contractor Contractor Maturity on KM K 26 K 27 K 28 K 29 K 30 K 31 K 32 K 33 K 34 K 35 K 36 K 37 K 38 K 39 K 40 K 41 K 42 K 43 K 44 K 45 K 46 K 47 K 48 K 49 K 50 K 51 K 52 K 53 K 54 Practiced Practiced Practiced Practiced Managed Managed Managed Managed Managed Managed Managed Managed Managed Managed Managed Managed Managed Managed Managed Managed Managed Managed Managed Managed Continously Improved Continously Improved Continously Improved Continously Improved Continously Improved Stage 1 Initial (11 Activities) 8 7 7 7 9 8 7 6 9 9 8 7 6 7 8 9 7 6 8 9 7 8 8 8 8 9 8 7 7 Stages of Knowledge Management Maturity Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Practiced Managed Continously Improved (10 Activities) (9 Activities) (8 Activities) 5 0 0 6 1 0 7 1 0 5 0 0 7 7 1 7 6 1 6 7 0 5 5 0 8 7 0 8 7 0 7 7 0 7 7 0 6 6 0 7 7 1 7 7 1 7 7 1 7 7 1 6 6 1 5 6 0 5 5 0 6 6 0 7 5 0 7 7 0 7 6 0 8 7 5 8 7 6 6 6 5 7 5 5 7 6 6 Table 1. 5 until 8 activities carried out from 10 activities in phase 2. and 5 until 7 activities carried out from 9 existing activities stage 3. Contractors K30 until K49 carry out many activities knowledge management from the stage of 1 until 3. stage 4 while the few activities that are carried out at only one activity. 5 and 6). indicates the number of activities carried out contractors at each stage of knowledge management maturity (columns 3. There are 7 until 10 activities carried out from 11 activities in phase 1 and 5 until 9 activities carried out from 10 activities in phase 2. Level of knowledge management maturity contractor (column 2) which can be explained as follows: x Contractors K1 until K29 are at knowledge management maturity ‘practiced’. while on stage 3 and 4 only 1 activity carried out and there is not. There are 6 until 9 activities carried out from 11 activities in phase 1. 93 . This shows that the contractor K30 until K49 in carrying out the activities of knowledge management only up to the stage 3 or stage managed or as many as 20 contractors are at knowledge management maturity 3 'managed'. Contractors K1 until K29 carry out many activities of knowledge management in stages 1 and 2. This shows that the contractor K1until K29 in carrying out the activities of knowledge management only up to the stage 2 or stage practiced and 29 contractors are at knowledge management maturity 2 'practiced'.

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