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NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE
FOR AERONAUTICS
TECHNICAL NOTE 4347
A NONLINEAR, THEORY FOR PREDICTING THE EFFECTS OF UNSTEADY
LAMINAR., TURBULENT, OR TRANSITIONAL BOUNDARY LAYERS ON
THE ATTENUATION OF SHOCK WAVES IN A SHOCK TUBE
WITH EXPERIMENTAL COMPARJSON
By Robert L. Trimpi and Nathaniel B. Cohen
Langley Aeronautical Laboratory Langley Field, Va.
W
Washington
September 1958
V
NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMImE FOR AERONAUTICS
TECHNICAL NOTE 4347
A NONLINEAR THEORY FOR PREDICTING THE EFFECTS OF UNS"Y
LAMINAR, TURBULENT, OR TRANSITIONAL BOUNDARY LAYERS ON
TRE ATENUATION OF SHOCK WAVES IN A SHOCK TUBE
WITH EXPERIMENTAL COMPARISON
By Robert L. Trimpi and Nathaniel B. Cohen
SUMMARY
The linearized attenuation theory of NACA Technical Note 3375 is modified in the following manner: (a) an unsteady compressible local skinfriction coefficient is employed rather than the equivalent steady flow incompressible coefficient; (b) a nonlinear approach is used to permit application of the theory to large attenuations; and _{(}_{c}_{)} transi _{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{e}_{f}_{f}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{s} _{a}_{r}_{e} _{c}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{d}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{d}_{.} Curves are presented for predicting atten uation for shock pressure ratios up to _{2}_{0} and a range of shocktube Reynolds numbers. Comparison of theory and experimental data for shock wave strengths between 1.5 and 10 over a wide range of Reynolds numbers shows good agreement with the nonlinear theory evaluated for a transi tion Reynolds nuniber of 2.5 x 106.
INTRODUCTION
The increasingly widespread use of the shock tube as an aerodynamic
testing facility has led to the closer investigation of the flows present
in such tubes.
_{I}_{n} _{p}_{a}_{r}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{u}_{l}_{a}_{r}_{,} since the deviation of these flows from
those predicted by perfect fluid theory is often of large magnitude, these deviations have been investigated fairly thoroughly. Several such _{s}_{t}_{u}_{d}_{i}_{e}_{s}_{,} either of an experimental or theoretical nature, may be found _{i}_{n} _{r}_{e}_{f}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{c}_{e}_{s} 1 to 11. Investigations of the boundary layers in shock tubes have been made in some of the aforementioned references as well as in references 12 to 17. This list of references does not cover the complete field of literature existing on these topics but is representa
tive of the various general treatments.
Consideration of the entire flow field from the leading edge of _{t}_{h}_{e} _{e}_{x}_{p}_{a}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{w}_{a}_{v}_{e} _{t}_{o} _{t}_{h}_{e} shock wave is necessary to obtain an accurate picture of the waves traveling along the shock tube. These waves are
2
NACA TN 4347
responsible for the deviations from perfect fluid flow in shockwave strength (attenuation) with distance, _{i}_{n} pressure _{a}_{h}_{d} density _{a}_{t} a given distance with time, and so forth, which have been noted by various
_{i}_{n}_{v}_{e}_{s}_{t}_{i}_{g}_{a}_{t}_{o}_{r}_{s}_{.} _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{e}_{t}_{e} _{f}_{l}_{o}_{w}_{.}
of reference 1, is the basic wave diagram of the unperturbed shocktube
flow showing the various flow regions to be considered with typical char
_{T}_{h}_{e} analysis of reference 1 was the first to treat this
Figure 1, a reproduction with minor changes of
figure 1
acteristics and particle paths.
This linearized analysis
(ref.
1) was
based on an averaged onedimensional
nonsteady flow in which wallshear
and heattransfer effects generated pressure waves to perturb the'perfect
fluid flow.
layers.
thickness wave.
evaluation of the local skinfriction coefficient
ence 1 was assumed to be given by an equivalent incompressible steady flow. Consequently, the application of the results _{o}_{f} reference _{1} was limited
to shock pressure ratios in which this assumption for
although the analysis was
when the proper
pressibility should apparently eliminate the strong shock pressure ratios from the range of validity.
This averaging process essentially implied thick boundary
shock"
or zero
The expansion wave was treated as a "negative
The resulting perturbation
equations then hinged on the
cf,
which in refer
cf
was valid,
ratios
The assumption of incom
still applicable for other pressure
cf
was employed.
choice of
equations employing a linear
viscositytemperature relation (refs. _{2}_{,} _{3}_{,} and _{1}_{4}_{)} show that the non steady character of the flow is such that the equivalent laminar steady,
flow assumption is in error, irrespective of compressibility, for most
conditions except that existing in the coldgas region a for strong shock _{w}_{a}_{v}_{e}_{s}_{.} On the other hand, the turbulent boundary layer is not nearly so
sensitive to the unsteady character of the flow.
assumed a oneseventhpower velocity profile similar to that of refer ence 1, reported that even for infinite shock pressure ratios the effect of unsteadiness would produce only _{a} maximum variation in turbulent skin friction of 5 percent in the cold gas and of 22 percent in the hot gas.
Solutions to the
laminar boundarylayer
Reference _{1}_{5}_{,} which
The only other attenuation
analysis to date that
considers the entire
flow field is that of reference 2. This analysis is similar to that of _{r}_{e}_{f}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{c}_{e} _{1} in that it is a smallperturbation approach using traveling
waves and a negative shock, the major difference being that the pressure wave generations arise because the boundarylayerdisplacement thickness
changes with time. ref. 13 are used.)
viscositytemperature variation are required for this treatment to apply. The attenuations predicted by references _{1} and _{2} for turbulent boundary
layers agreed within 10 percent for shockpressure ratios up to 6 in spite of the marked differences assumed in the mechanism for handling the wall effects. The perturbations in the flow behind the shock show a larger difference between the two approaches.
(The boundarylayerdisplacement
thicknesses
of
Flows with thin boundary layers having a linear
NACA TN 4347
3
The deviations
from ideal theory discussed arise for the most part
from wall effects, that is, the perturbations in the shocktube flow caused by wall shear and heat transfer. Much recent work has been done using the shock tube as a testing medium to provide very hightemperature
flows of short duration.
cases, deviations from ideal fluid flow will also arise because the air
at high temperatures does not behave as an ideal fluid.
difficult to separate the realgas effects from the wall effects; there
fore, the present analysis, like those of references 1 and 2, is con cerned only with the effects of wall boundary layer upon the inviscid outer flow, the fluid being considered as an ideal gas.
(See,
for example,
refs.
9 and 18.)
In these
It would be
The turbulent
theory of
reference
1 has been compared with experi
mental data for attenuation in references 1, 7, 8, and 10 and good agree
ment has been found in general.
hot gas by the method of reference 1 agreed well with the experimental
results reported in the same paper.
_{t}_{h}_{e}_{o}_{r}_{y} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{e}_{x}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t} is reported in references 7 and 10 for the hot gas average density variation with time in the flow behind the shock _{w}_{a}_{v}_{e}_{;} poor agreement is reported for the coldgas flow where the finite expansion fan has been treated as a negative shock.
Predicted pressure perturbations
in the
Fair to good agreement between
Since the deviations from the inviscid fluid flow often become large in cases of aerodynaic shocktube testing, the linear, or small perturbation, theories of references 1 and 2 are no longer applicable and recourse must be made to some _{s}_{o}_{r}_{t} of nonlinear approach.
In order to obtain an exact theory for predicting the perturbations in a shocktube flow, a rigorous treatment would be required first to the solution of the boundarylayer flows. The boundarylayer equations would have to be solved not only in region P but also inside and after the expansion fan which is considered to be of finite extent. For laminar flows the main difficulty _{w}_{o}_{u}_{l}_{d} probably be the correct handling of the viscosity variation across the boundary layer. For turbulent flow a rigorous treatment appears to be impossible without a tremendous increase in knowledge of the mechanics of turbulence. Once the boundary _{l}_{a}_{y}_{e}_{r} _{s}_{o}_{l}_{u}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} _{w}_{e}_{r}_{e} _{d}_{e}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{m}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{d}_{,} the vertical velocity at the edge of the boundary layer could, if the boundary layers were thin, be used in the manner of reference 2 to determine the local pressure waves generated.
The second major difficulty
in obtaining a rigorous perturbation
solution would arise from the treatment
of
the entropy discontinuity.
The theoretical gressed down the
the major influence).
but
contact
surface increases in extent with distance pro
(the former is
shock tube due to mixing and diffusion
This process not only generates pressure waves
also alters the reflected and transmitted wave strengths of
the pres
sure waves generated by the boundary layers.
4
NACA TN 4347
If a rigorous solution such as that just described was available,
then it would without question be the one to be employed.
reference 1 and the theory of the present report assume that the wall
effects can be averaged across the flow.
because no such physical mechanism exists for the instantaneous trans
mission of these effects across the flow.
The theory of
This assumption introduces errors
In the absence of the rigorous
solution there is no evidence to indicate that the errors introduced by a shocktube perturbation theory based on an averaging process are of a larger magnitude than those introduced by the neglect of the aforementioned
considerations required for a rigorous solution. In addition, there is the possibility that an averaging process might be more applicable as the boundary layer fills a greater part of the shocktube crosssectional area. Consequently, the extension of the method of reference _{1} in the present analysis is justified.
In the present paper the analysis
of
reference
_{1} is first modified
to eliminate the restrictions
equivalent
steadyflow assumption for local skin friction; and then a nonlinear theory is derived which permits application of the analysis to large attenuations. It will be assumed that the reader is familiar with the
basic theory and assumptions of reference 1 so that repetition in this
paper may be avoided.
mental data covering a wide range of flow variables. The theoretical
and experimental studies reported herein were conducted at the Gas Dynamics Branch of the Langley Laboratory during 1955 and 1956.
imposed by _{t}_{h}_{e} incompressible
This modified theory will be
compared with experi
SYMBOLS
a
velocity of
sound
Cn
Cf
CV
C P
constant defined by equation
(8)
local skin f r iction coefficient ,
_{2}_{7}_{,}_{/}_{p}_{U}_{2}
coefficient
volume
coefficient
pressure
of
of
specific heat at constant
specific heat at constant
6
NACA TN 4347
m or n
N
_{N}_{~}_{I}_{o}_{r} _{T}_{,}_{n} _{o}_{r} _{T}
P,Q
AA
reciprocal of velocity exponent in boundary
layer, LAU = ($
71
I1
prn
arbitrarily denotes subdivisions I, 11, 111, etc. of hotgas region
nonlinear
attenuation with first subscript
describing boundary layer appropriate to
region a and second subscript to region
Prandtl number
characteristic parameter,  a * u
R
_{P}_{,}_{Q} 
effective characteristic wave parameter defined by equations _{(}_{4}_{3}_{)} 
P 
static pressure 
R 
gas constant; Reynolds number 5 V 
R" 
Reynolds number of transition, _{V} 
S 
entropy 
T 
temperature 
wall temperature 

Taw 
adiabatic wall temperature 
t 
time 
U 
freestream velocity 
_{U}_{S} 
shock velocity 
UW
U
X
velocity of wave which generakes flow
velocity in boundary layer
distance along shock tube from diaphragm station
NACA TN 4347
Y
ZN
r
7
A1
distance fron; surface
function defined by equation (B12)
function defined in equations (31)
ratio of specific heats, _{c}_{p}_{/}_{c}_{v}_{;} _{a}_{s}_{s}_{u}_{m}_{e}_{d} as 1.40 for computations
length of segment into which shock tube is divided for nonlinear treatment
characteristic derivative in boundary layer,
a(
ax
1 + 1 6* a(
u e
at
1
characteristic derivative in boundary layer,
+a
16*1d( )
as
U 8
E
at
6 
boundarylayer thickness; also indicates differential quantity 
6" 
boundarylayer dj.sp1acementthickness, 
characteristic derivative in potential flow,
h
contribution to attenuation due to P waves in region _{P}
recovery factor, assumed equal to 0.85 for lminar flow and 0.90 for turbulent flow
8
NACA TN 4347
e
boundarylayer momentum thickness,
boundarylayer momentum thickness at _{E} _{=} _{E}_{o}
CI
V
_{5}
coefficient of viscosity
coefficient of kinematic viscosity
distance flow has progressed along surface
distance flow has progressed along surface at entropy discontinuity
distance flow has progressed along surface
E*
P
TW
sl, Or SL,
CD
I,11,II1,etc.
when
8 = 8,
distance flow has progressed along surface at transition
density
wall shearing stress
influence coefficients defined by equation _{(}_{4}_{4}_{)}
compressibility correction
exponent in viscositytemperature law,
p=P
subdivisions of hotgas region j3 for non linear treatment ( see fig. 8)
I
NACA TN 4347
9
Subscripts : 

Letter 
subscripts not included in the synibols defined above refer, 

in general, 
to values at points or within regions 
shown in figure 1. 
Numbered subscripts refer to points
in figures 8 and 9.
Exceptions to
be noted, 
however, 
are as follows: 

m,n 
refers to velocity profile parameter 
m,n 

0 
perfectfluid value 

t 
at time 
t 

vs 
evaluated immediately behind 
shock, 
that 
is, 

point 
v 
located at 
x = 
Ust 

X 
at distance 
x 

T 
denotes attenuation with transition 
x
arbitrary
condition in
shocktube
free stream
std 
denotes NACA standard atmospheric conditions 
A prime 
on a symbol indicates a quantity evaluated at reference 
temperature. 
THEORY
Derivation of Expressions For Local
SkinFriction
Coefficient
The skinfriction
coefficient for the flow behind waveinduced
flows
will be
found by
an integral method.
An incompressible
skinfriction
coefficient will first be determined and then a simple compressibility
correction will be applied.
The integrated equation of motion for the
layer with zero pressure
gradient is (see ref.
incompressible boundary
14):
10
NACA TN 4347
The form parameter
6*/8
is assumed to be constant;
laminar
this has been
(see ref.
shown to be true for the unsteady waveinduced
flow
14)
but has not been completely established for turbulent flows. then be come s
Equation
(1)
Since the resulting
expression for
_{c}_{f}
_{w}_{i}_{l}_{l} _{u}_{l}_{t}_{i}_{m}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{l}_{y} _{b}_{e} _{u}_{s}_{e}_{d} _{i}_{n}
the attenuation formulas wherein the
integral
s
cf(k) dk
is desired,
the variable 5 is introduced. The variable 5 is defined as the dis
tance a particle
in the
free stream _{h}_{a}_{s} moved to reach the point
(x,t)
since acceleration by the passing wave which originated at 
x 
= 
0 
_{a}_{t} 

t = 0 and which travels with velocity Uw. Thus, 

In the 
case of 
flow in a shock tube, 
the value of 
Uw 
is 
Us 
for 
the flows induced by shock waves.
followed and the expansion wave replaced by a wave of zero thickness, moving with the speed of the leading edge.of the original expansion wave, then Uw _{=} aE.
If
the assumption of
reference
1 is
The differential equation (2) is transformed from the
x,t
coor
dinate
system to the
t,t
system by using the following derivatives:
\
Thus equation (2) becomes
12
NACA TN 4347
Combining equations (8) and (7) and integrating yields:
 22
n+l =
e
L
\
Substituting equation (11) into equation (8) to obtain tion of 5 yields:
cf
*3
2
n+3

as a f'unc
 2
rrt3
2
2
n+3
 2
n+3
(124
(
)
For the special case of
80
initiation at
to
there results
=
0
cf( e)
 2
= FnEn+3
at
to
which corresponds to flow
2
The values of the various Fn terms, which are directly related to
the hitherto arbitrary
solutions for certain limiting cases.
infinitely large, the solution nust _{b}_{e} the same as that for an infinite _{f}_{l}_{a}_{t} _{p}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{e} in contact with a fluid impulsively started from rest at time
Cn
values,
will now be
If
determined to match known
h/U
becomes
the ratio
t
=
0.
NACA TN 4347 

Under these 
conditions 
5

50
= ut
2
The solution,
flow over a plate is
known as the Rayleigh solution,
2
to
such an impulsive laminar
Consequently,
case
(n = 1)
in order to match the Rayleigh
1
Fl(,)'
= 1.128
solution for the laminar
or
F1 = 0.718
On the other hand,
if
&/U
becomes infinitely
small,
the
solution
must be the
same as that over a semiinfinite
flat plate
in steady flow
(that
is,
the
socalled Blasius problem).
For these conditions
E = 1.0
2 1
i
14
NACA TN 4347
whereas the
is
corresponding form of the Blasius
solution for laminar flow
 1
I
cf = 0.664k(E

Eo)]
(e)Blasius = 2.605
Thus,
if
essary for
the Blasius
solution were to be matched,
it would be nec
F1 = 0.664
Two possible incompressibleflow
solutions are then available for the laminar case depending upon which limiting value is matched:
Blasius limit e+O):
,'
(cf),=l(S)
(
= 0.664 1 + 1.605
In figure 2 the values
for
cf/
vwu
1
rEb Eofl
1
2
(1%)
as
determined by four
different means are plotted against pressure ratio across a shock in an airair shock tube. The upper branch of the curves applies to region p
behind the
shock,
and the
lower branch applies to region a behind the
zero
thickness expansion wave associated with the shock _{o}_{f} strength ppo/pm.
~~
~
NACA TN
4347
15
In addition to the values determined from equation (18), there are shown values which would be obtained, if the fluid were assumed to be incom pressible, by the integral method of reference 14 and the numerical solu tion to the Prandtl boundarylayer equations. (The results of ref. _{1}_{5} are applicable to this numerical solution.) The agreement between both the curves of equation (18)and the referenced curves is very good. How _{e}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{,} since the curve based on the Rayleigh limit gives a better approxi _{m}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{i}_{n} _{r}_{e}_{g}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{p}_{,} _{w}_{h}_{i}_{c}_{h} _{w}_{i}_{l}_{l} _{b}_{e} shown to dominate the attenuation equa tions, the Rayleigh values of F1 _{=} _{0}_{.}_{7}_{1}_{8} and _{6}_{*}_{/}_{8} _{=} _{2}_{.}_{4}_{6}_{9} shall be
used for the remainder of this paper.
malized Rayleigh velocity distribution in the treatment of flow induced
by shock waves.
For the turbulent case two analogous limiting processes are not
Reference 17 also employed a nor
available in order to determine the values of
layer theory is semiempirical and relies on experiments to supply con
stants for the resulting equations.
_{F}_{n}_{.} The turbulent boundary
Since no "Rayleightype" experiments
UW
_{} +co
U
have been performed, there is no limiting process
the turbulent case. There is, however, the semiinfinite flatplate
to apply for
solution corresponding to the limit
% 
U
+O.
This solution (see refs. 1
and 19) assumes a velocity profile E =
friction coefficient expressed as
and results in a skin
L
Cf(S) = 0.0581pE ;'.q5
The conibination of equations (16) and (19)results in a value of
F7 = 0.091.
8
_
6
= 6*
6
n
(n + l)(n + 2)
1
n+l
it may be shown that
16
NACA TN 4347
Therefore, the expression for the oneseventhpower turbulent veloc ity profile skinfriction coefficient in the nonsteady incompressible flow becomes
Since there was only a minor difference Setween the unsteadyflow
values of cf
for laninar flow when based on the limiting cases of
3 + 0
U
and 3 + ao, it is expected that the turbulentflow agreement
U
would be just as favorable if results were available for 3 +m.
U
Con
sequently, equation (21) is assumed to be a fairly close approximation
to the correct answer.
Equation (65) of reference l’j is very similar
to 
equation (21) but was derived in a different way. 

The skinfrictioncoefficient relation of equation _{(}_{1}_{9}_{)} corresponding 

to 
the 
oneseventhpower profile law is no longer valid at arbitrary large 
values of Reynolds number in incompressible steady flow.
rithmic law is often used. (See ref. 19.) However, since a power profile is easily handled by these methods, the skin friction on a semiinfinite plate for these large Reynolds numbers is found to be closely approxi mated by the relation
Instead a _{l}_{o}_{g}_{a}_{}
1
Cf =
which is compatible with the relation E = (Y/&)’/’~.
U
If for consistency
it is further assumed that
_{&}_{*}_{/}_{e} has the value 15/13 (the value for
n = l3), then the unsteady skinfriction coefficient would be given by
NO claim is advanced that a 1/13power profile actually exists at these higher Reynolds numbers; it is only necessary for equation (22) to be valid for steady flow and the value of _{6}_{*}_{/}_{8} _{t}_{o} _{b}_{e} _{1}_{5}_{/}_{1}_{3}_{.}
NACA TN
4347
_{1}_{7}
It was shown in reference 14 that the skin friction in region a is
correctly given by the method of characteristics using the boundary con
at x = act (that is, on the zerothickness
dition
expansion wave) for that part of
condition 8 = 0 for that part of
for 5 = 0 at
8 = 0 for
5.
=
0
a where x < Ute/S*
x = Ust
and the boundary
(that is, on the shock wave)
a where Ute/6* 5 x 5 Ut. Sketch (a) shows a boundary
In order to determine the unsteady fric
tion coefficient at point c in the region in question,
the boundary condition of
In the analysis which follows, the boundary condition 8 = 0 on the expansion wave (point b) is used instead. Friction coefficients are
shown qualitatively in sketch (b). The solid curve represents the case
with the boundary condition on the shock whereas the dashed curve repre
layer momentum characteristic.
8 =
Ute/fj* _{S} x _{5} Ut,
0 on the shock wave (point a) is correct.
sents the case with the boundary condition on the expansion wave.
In
the region in question it is seen that the differences are not serious. Because of the relatively small contribution of region ato attenuation as compared with the contribution of region j3 and also in the interest
of sinplicity, this error is neglected.
Boundarylayer characteristic,
At
c,
5
4 \
Cf
^{\} \
^{\} \
^{\} \
o\
I
yb
x
Sketch (a)
 a
a
e
+a
_{} 

O 
u3u 
S 
8*
X
t
Sketch (b)
In order to handle the transitional flows which occur behind the waves in a shock tube, some approximation for cf in the transition
region must be employed.
this region.
Any of a number of assumptions is possible in
However, in view of the many assumptions already present
18
NACA TN 4347
in the theory, the least complicating supposition will be employed in
this case; namely, an instantaneous transition is assumed and the value
of
_{c}_{f} in the turbulent region will be taken as the value which wocld
be present had turbulent flow existed since the initiation of flow. In
other words, at the transition point the local
from the laminar to the turbulent value and the value
in both laminar and turbulent regions. This assumption was used in the
logarithmic transitional curve for steady flow of reference _{1}_{9}_{.}
compares the integrated skinfriction coefficients of reference 19 with the curves obtained by the various power laws and the foregoing transi
tional assumption.
cf changes discontinuously
eo = 0 then applies
Figure _{3}
The agreement appears to be very good.
A simple compressibility correction will be based on the intermediate temperature or T'. semiempirical method. This correction, expounded in reference 20 for laminar boundary layers and in reference 21 for turbulent boundary layers, assumes that the incompressible skinfriction relations apply to compressible flow if the properties of the compressible flow are taken as some intermediate value between the wall and freestream values. Thus, if the relation
applies to a steady incompressible flow, then
will apply to a steady compressible flow for a certain choice of the primed state. The following values of the intermediate temperature T' are given (see refs. 20 and 21):
For laminar flow:
TI
T
 1 + 0.032M2 + 0.g
NACA TN 4347
For turbulent flow:
.
_ T  1 + 0.035M2 + 0.45
_{1}_{9}
It may be shown that for an arbitrary reference state, which may be either wall or free stream, equation (25) may be put in the form
If a temperatureviscosity relation of the form
is assumed to apply, then the steadyflow compressibility correction becomes
n+l&
sl, = ($) n+3
s2,
It is assumed that this T' method is also applicable as a compres sibility correction for the unsteadyflow skinfriction coefficients.
Compressibility corrections in hot and cold gas
shock pressure ratio in figure _{4} for an airair shock tube. cu = 0.8 has been used to compute these curves.
% are plotted against
The value
The results of this section may be summarized by the following expressions for skinfriction coefficient:
NACA TN 4347
Since
(see ref.
9.s
 ppo
pPo

7

pvs
1) the following relation results
 ppo
a€
_{2}_{1}
in which the subscript
and the subscript
The value of
K
n
applies in the laminar range applies in the turbulent range
m
Ed/!*
for
E*2 Ed

0 5
* 5
sa,p
Ea,p
1 for
ka,p
is defined as
and as
5 Ea,p
5 Ed.
*
!* 5 td.
The total linearized attenuation is thus made up of
the
sum of the
effects
as
of regions a and p.
This relation may be expressed mathematically
pvs
 ppo
pPo
= (
pvs
 ppo
Ppo
)a + (pvspp:po)p
(34)
22
NACA TN 4347
where
Now, with cf expressed in the form
or
integration of equations (33) results in the following equations. subscript X designates either region a or region j3.)
(The
.
NACA TN 4347
_{2}_{3}
Rearrangement of terms of equation (37) produces
where
I
J
_{N}_{o}_{t}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{f}_{X}_{m} is a function only of the shock pressure ratio
P$o/Pm
and the value of m
a temperatureviscosity relation which may be either an exponential type or some other form, such as the Sutherland equation.
for any region X.
The term gxm requires in addition
For the case of no transition when the flow is either completely laminar or completely turbulent, equation (39a) reduces _{t}_{o}
24
NACA TN 4347
or
is
ppo/p, obviously dependent only on the two parameters expressed as hydraulic diameters of shockwave travel 2/D and shocktube Reynolds number
The attenuation in this case for a given initial value of
case with transition three parameters are required to
describe the phenomenon at a given initial value
parameter is the transition Reynolds number analysis in the following manner:
R*
of
ppo/Poo, the third
and enters into the
When equation
(41) is substituted into equation (39a), the linear
transitional attenuation relation becomes:
where the term
am

JL 2
is a function of
p
p&.
nus,
at a given
v~ Ed 
pol 

value of 
p 
the linearized attenuation 
is a f'unction only of 
2/D, 

a,,,D/v,, 
and 
R*. 
The attenuation functions
and their products
~xm, the compressibility
corrections
are .presented in table I for
shock pressure
ratios
from 1.0 to 20.0
and for
m
equal to
1, 7,
and 13.
It may be
seen by inspection of
Reynolds number
a$/v,,
equation (40) that,
for given
shock tube
2/D,
and no transition,
the
attenuation contribution
NACA TN 4347
_{2}_{5}
of the region X is drectly proportional to the product
to demonstrate graphically the behavior of these compressible attenuation
functions, they have been plotted in figures ?(a) and 5(b).
_{(}_{a}_{)}_{%}_{.} In order
The magni
tude of the contribution of region j3 to attenuation increases monatomically _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{i}_{n}_{c}_{r}_{e}_{a}_{s}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{u}_{r}_{e} _{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{,} is always negative in sign, and thus tends _{t}_{o} _{i}_{n}_{c}_{r}_{e}_{a}_{s}_{e} _{a}_{t}_{t}_{e}_{n}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{.} On the other hand, for low pressure ratios the contribution of region a tends to increase attenuation; above a shock
pressure ratio of about 5.9, the trend is reversed and region a contri
butes compression waves that tend to decrease attenuation. is discussed more fully in reference 1.
This reversal
When no transition is considered, the attenuation function for the entire flow field is found by adding the contribirtions of regions a and _{$}_{.} For the cases where the profile exponent m is the same in both regions, the total compressible attenuation function has been computed and is
shown in table I and in figure 6 for values of function is given as
m of 1, 7, and 13. This
The results of using the methods of references 1 and 2 are also shown
in figures 6(a) and 6(b) for values of m
of 1 and 7, respectively.
For the laminar case the curve in figure 6(a) representing the method of reference 1 falls far below that of the present report, pri marily because of the importance of the neglected unsteadiness effects as discussed in the introduction. The results of reference _{2} are also below that of the present report (approximately 25 percent for shock pressure ratios from 4 to 10) and show better agreement at higher pres sure ratios (only 10 percent below for a shock pressure ratio of 20).
Agreement between the methods of references 1 and 2 and the present
The neglect
method is better for the turbulent case (m = 7; fig. 6(b)).
of unsteadiness has a smaller effect upon the results of reference 1,
although the effects of compressibility still give significant devia
_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} _{a}_{t} shock pressure ratios near 10.
results of reference 2 are in agreement within less than 15 percent for shock pressure ratios up to 10 and then diverge to a 20percent varia tion at a shock pressure ratio of 20.
The present results and the
Figures 5 and 6 show that the cold gas contributes only a small
part of the total attenuation for ppo/p, < 20. At 
= 20 the 
relative a contribution is larger than that for p 
20; however, 
26
NACA TN 4347
it is only about 4 percent, _{1}_{5} _{p}_{e}_{r}_{c}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{,} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{2}_{5} _{p}_{e}_{r}_{c}_{e}_{n}_{t} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{t}_{o}_{t}_{a}_{l} _{f}_{o}_{r}
m = 1, 7, and 13, respectively.
Evaluation of Nonlinear Attenuation Expressions
The expressions derived previously are based on a linearized or small perturbation analysis. However, for many conditions encountered
in the shock tube, the attenuation is no longer small.
In order to maxi
mize the total available experimental testing time, _{m}_{o}_{s}_{t} _{e}_{x}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{a}_{l}
work is done at values of
lowpressure side of the shock tube. At these large values of _{2} the shock strength often has decayed markedly from its value for small 1. Consequently, relations for the attenuation under these conditions would be very desirable.
An approximate method to obtain the attenuation for the cases where
2 nearly equal to the total length of the
the small perturbatioE analysis is invalid will be described.
consider parameters P and Q which are related to P and Q by
First,
p,paS h
7R
(The parameters
and 5 of this report are identical to the param
eters P' and Q' of ref. 1.) When equation (43) is substituted into
equation (60)of reference 1, the following equations result:
I
NACA TN 4347
As discussed
in reference
1, the
changes in
$
and
8
in changes by wave motion of velocity and pressure but do not
_{2}_{7}
are evident
indicate
the various 
changes in entropy. 
_{F}_{o}_{r} _{e}_{x}_{a}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{e}_{,} 
if 
equation 
(44a) is solved 
for 6P/P, 
h
The value of a velocity of
family moving at a velocity
_{t}_{h}_{e}_{o}_{r}_{y} _{i}_{t} is assumed that reflections at the shock wave and the devia
Zion in entropy rise azross the shock wave may be ignored; that is,
P is associated with waves moving with the flow at
whereas
is associated with waves of
u
+ a
the opposite
u  a. Now, for the linear attenuation
qs = %s
= Qp0
or
6€& = 6Qvs = 0. Consequently, an alternate form
for the attenuation expression is
where the three terms on the righthand
respectively, the contributions of region
in region P and reflected at the entropy discontinuity,
generated in region J3.
change 6$ along the characteristic is then
side of
a, of
the e 4 uation represent,
the
wave generatEd
and of the
P
wave
Consider now the last term only.
The incremental
NACA TN 4347
_{2}_{9}
is the ratio of the contribution of the waves generated
along the forward running characteristics to the total waves generated
the attenuation contribution of
_{i}_{n} _{r}_{e}_{g}_{i}_{o}_{n}
Thus,
K
_{$}_{.}
The remaining portion of
_{$}
at the entropy discontinuity and will be
which is equal to
The value of
K
is plotted against
shock pressure ratio
in fig
ure 7. The fact that K does not depart significantly from 1.0 means
_{p}_{h}_{y}_{s}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{y} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{p}_{r}_{i}_{n}_{c}_{i}_{p}_{a}_{l} contribution to attenuation 
in region 
$ 

h 
waves. Since figures 5 and 6 have 

arises from the 
P 
shown region 
$ 
to have a much larger effect on attenuation in general than region a, it is obvious that the theoretical dominating factors for attenuation
are the P waves of region $. This conclusion has been discussed pre viously in references _{1} and 2.
Since the ? waves of region p dominate the linearized attenuation solution, it is next assumed that a corsection for the linearized sokution
may be found by
generated in region a and transmitted at the entropy di'scontinuity as well
operating only on the
P
waves in region $.
Thus
P
waves
as the
waves generated in reglon $ and reflected at the entropy dis
continuity will retain their original linear or small perturbation values even though the attenuation is no longer small. It is further assumed that region P may be subdivided into a n&er 0: smaller regions in each of which the linear attenuation relations for P are valid. This treat ment is illustrated in figure 8. The arbitrary interval A2 determines the xwise extent along the shock wave of each of the regions designated
Each of
these regions
is bounded by the shock wave
and two fluid particle paths where each fluid particle velocity is equal, respectively, to that generated by the shock wave at the beginning of each new internal. The inviscid flow inside each of these regions is considered to be constant; and, consequently, there is a small discon tinuity in the inviscid flow across the particlepath boundaries assumed in the model. These discontinuities can not, of course, exist in the actual physical flow which requires a continuous variation throughout all the regions as well as reflections from the shock wave. The errors introduced by the assumption of constant quantities in each region are not considered to be large and should be of approximately the same order _{a}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{o}_{s}_{e} found in the fauiliar steadyflow graphical characteristic solutions of finite mesh size.
I
30
NACA TN 4347
In order to simplify the
computational procedye,
6x/6t
of
the
P
it is assumed characteristic
that for a given region the slope
of the
and
shock wave are constant both inside and outside of that region.
Thus, in figure 8, when the P contribution of region @ to attenua
tion between A2 and 2 A2 is computed, the assumption is made that
the
sect at point 2.
correct regional

chmacteristic 6,7 and the

shock path 0,l may be extended ta inter
in fig.
8.)
(Numbers refer to points
characteristic
The corresponding

and 0,1,8
line and shock paths are 6,7,8
which are shown in this
value of x as 2. This intersection at the sane value of x is only
an idealization and
ever, since the attenuation effect (generatton of @ waves) falls off rapidly with distance behind the shock _{(}_{s}_{i}_{m}_{i}_{l}_{a}_{r} to the _{f}_{a}_{l}_{l} off in local
is not the true physical picture
illustration as intersecting
also _{a}_{t} the
in general.
same
How
skin friction with distance back of
a sharp leading edge in steady flow),
the contribution to attenuation in the interval from AZ to 2 A2 due

to generation along 6,7 is much less than that due to generation along


7,8; thus, small errors in the location of 6,7 will result in very small errors in the attenuation at 2 A2. This assumption for establishing the intersection points of ‘the characteristics and the shock _{w}_{a}_{v}_{e} down
stream from a region @ without knowledge of the downstream shockwave
attenuation permits the easy computation of the influence of region
for all downstream shock locations.
A
When the regional approach described above is applied,
the attenua
tion for the first
approach.
felt.
interval from A2 to 2 At differs from its effect in the basic linear theory because of the convergence of the particle paths since _{U}_{I}_{} _{<} _{U}_{I}_{.}
This may be shown as follows.
interval
_{A}_{Z}
is identical to the coqlete linear
the vmious
secondorder
effects are
Thereafter,
however,
The effect of region @ on attenuation of the shock during the
From equation
_{(}_{4}_{8}_{)}_{,}
NACA TN 4347
_{3}_{1}
The numbers refer to the points on figure g(a).

In this figure the
_{}
_{l}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{s} _{5}_{,}_{1}_{,} lO,ll, and 6,7,2 are drawn with slope
and O,9,l,ll,2 with slope US1; the lines 0,5,10,6 and 9,7 with slope
(U + a)I;

the lines 7,lO
UI;


and the line l,7 with slope UII. Therefore, E7 = 9,7 = 0,lO =.klo.
Thus,
Thus,
the
?'
and 2
is
(from eqs.
The substitution of tion (54) yields
contribution of
region
(45) and (53))
(53)
@ to attenuation between 1
(2)
_{p}_{p}
_{I}_{,}_{O}
_{t}_{o} _{2}_{2}
 i")
pp
I,O
to
211
equation (40), with
gn
replaced by
A
gn,
(54)
into equa
^{J} NACA TN 4347
which for equal intervals
A2
becomes
33
In this form the nonlinear
attenuations
can easily be
computed.
In this manner the
influence
of region @ on attenuation at any
desired value of
2
may be
computed once the attenuation at
i1 has
been found.
by
The influence of region
0 is found in a similar manner
I1
coordinate
21
and
is,
shifting the effective origin _{o}_{f} the
(E)II for the attenuated shock strength at
system to
Zl;
finding
that

2 n+l

(
= (E)II,A2 = gnQn)I1(e)v,
n+3 22
I, 21)n+3
(58a)
to
23


I
34
or for equal intervals of
0
AI,
r
NACA TN 4347
1
1
The total nonlinear attenuation at a distance
2
from the diaphragm
station which has been
subdivided into several intervals
A2
is then
expressed as the sum of the linear contributions of region a and the reflections from region f3 added to the nonlinear contributions of region f3. The following expression is obtained for the nonlinear attenuation:
where
i
is the
index.
NACA TN 4347
35
Secondorder
attenuation
in the presence
of
transition may also be
treated by this regional
and
tion.
and,
and the
and
system.
The contributions of
a
and of
Q
S
in
p
are
still treated as entirely linear but
in its entirety to the
a
including transi
contribution;
1  rC,
Q
Equation
(39a) applies
when the first term on the righthand
S
second term by contribution of
1 
Kn,
region
p.
side is multiplied by
the resulting equation gives the
h 

The transitional 
P 
contribution 
is treated as follows: 
Let 
2* 
_{b}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{o}_{f}
_{t}_{h}_{e}
shock at which the transition
in the flow behind
the
shock first affects the
shock.
The wave diagram for transition is
shown in figure 9(b) where for illustrative purposes
it
is assumed that
Z* = 2 AZ.
Now,
in order to retain the facility of
computation afforded
by the regional
system with equal
A2
and a constant
2*, the value of
R*
will,
as a resht,
vary slightly from region to region.
_{S}_{i}_{n}_{c}_{e}
the magnitude
of
this variation may be found by examina
tion of
figure 10 which
shows the parameter
plotted against
that,
shock pressure
ratio.
From this
figure it
is evident
if
the
shock pressure
ratio
should attenuate,
for example,
from 20
decrease in
R* for a given 2* and P,,~~~/P,.The errors introduced by such a
variation
to 15, or from 5 to k, there would be about a 10percent
1
2
in
R"
are not deemed to be important enough to force the
abandonment of 
the equal 
A2 
computing scheme. 
For the remainder 
of 

this paper, 
R* 
will be 
taken 
as the value 
of the transitional Reynolds 
number in region 0.The 8; contributions for the transitional case
are expressed by the following equations which are modifications of equa tions (57), (58), and (59) (the subscripts m and n refer to condi tions before and after transition, respectively) :
_{3}_{6}
NACA TN 4347
r
 2
 n+1
for 

<Nl+2 
2* 

A1 
 
A2 

for 

>Nl+ 2 
2* 

A2 
A2 
Numerical Evaluation of
Nonlinear Theory
Several computations to determine the nonlinear
correction factors
for attenuation were performed for values of the interval
and 14. These particular values were chosen because they represent increments of A2 of 0.5 foot and 2 feet for the shock tube employed in the experiments to be described in a later section. Typical curves resulting from such computations are shown in figure 11. The ratio of the nonlinear attenuation to the linear attenuation is plotted against
Az/D
of 3.5
2/D
NACA TN 4347
_{3}_{7}
^{~}^{}
_{l}_{}
for an initial
shock pressure
ratio of
4 and a value
of
&wD of 0.01 x 106.
1)
"W
For values of 2/D > 50 the curves for   3.5 and 14 agree within
D
about 1 percent for the laminar case and within about 3 percent for the turbulent case. The low value of Q/vw accentuates any variations
_{b}_{e}_{t}_{w}_{e}_{e}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{t}_{w}_{o} _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{u}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{;}
several
thus the
in the
D = 3.5
case illustrated gives _{a} discrep
Examination
of
slight'increase
ancy near a maximum rather than near a minimum.
such pairs of
in accuracy obtained by using
curves resulted
conclusion that the
did not
justif'y the fourfold
increase in labor. Consequently, the computations with _{} _{}_{} _{1}_{4} _{a}_{r}_{e}
used to predict the nonlinear attenuation for
D
2/D
2 50.
It is obvious that the finite size of
ratios
11.)
Nb,n/b,n
However,
are small since
A1
will
2
introduce
+O
errors since the non
&,n
in the
linear and linear attenuations are identical for the first interval.
the errors introduced in the
themselves
cal flow in this region accurately would require that
Interpolation formulas giv'ing to have the form
which are largest near
l&,n
+O
as
2 +O.
(See fig.
attenuations
approach
2 +O
To represent
A2
the physi
_{0}_{.}
acceptable accuracy near
are assumed
Nonlinear
attenuation =
0.5
1
7
Linear attenuation
attenuation = (Constant )(4)"'8 attenuation
Nonlinear
Linear
J
for laminar
and turbulent
the linear attenuation
the laminar and turbulent
is proportional
flows.
to
flows,
_{(}_{2}_{/}_{D}_{)}
respectively,
since
and _{(}_{2}_{/}_{D}_{)}_{O}_{S}_{8} . for
The constants are chosen to match the computed curves .for
  14
D
at
2

D
= 56.
_{F}_{r}_{o}_{m} _{f}_{i}_{g}_{u}_{r}_{e} _{1}_{1} _{i}_{t}
is evident that the errors resulting from
the application of
this
interpolation formula are less than the
afore
mentioned
errors at
1

D
=
50
and are thus acceptable.
38
NACA TN 4347
In order to obtain curves of
ratio
the transitional
nonlinear
R"
to linear
and several
a given
~,T/L~,T'for
attenuation
shock pressure ratios,
_{s}_{h}_{o}_{c}_{k} _{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{u}_{r}_{e} _{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{v}_{a}_{l}_{u}_{e}_{s} _{o}_{f}
values of the ratio 2*/D
2/D
given
the resulting ratios for each
a constant value of
a crossplotting
to
AZ/D.
technique was used.
At
NL7,T/L7,T
were computed for several
2*
represented an
R",
R"
for a
could then
Since each
could be plotted against
R*
shock pressure ratio.
The values for a particular
be read from these plots to produce a master plot with a common value
of
R".
Plots of
the ratio of nonlinear
attenuation to linear attenuation
are shown in figures 12 to 15. In these
curves region a is always con
sidered as having turbulent flow whereas four cases are considered for
region p: namely, (a) laminar flow, (b) turbulent flow, (c) transition
with
R"
= 1.25 X 106, and (d) transition with
_{R}_{*}
_{=} _{2}_{.}_{5} _{x} _{1}_{0}_{6}_{.} The
crossplotting parameters are shocktube Reynolds number @/u, and
length of
the lower pressure ratios
shockwave
travel expressed in hydraulic diameters
ppo/pm,
curves for more values of
ratios.
2/D.
@/urn
At
are This lhnitation resulted from the validity of the theory to
and priority
cross
shown than at the higher pressure
the considerations of
an ideal gas, the region of experhntal data of this report, the most
likely general region of for computing effort.
plotting, the accuracy is assumed to be about 2 percent.
the restriction of
experiments for other facilities,
Since figures 12 to 15 are the result of
An analytic closedform
investigation has been made of the fact
that the limit of
whereas the
approaches 1.0.
indicates
tions with
_{a}
linear and nonlinear
approaches 1. Since a has only a secondary effect on attenuation and since the expansion fan has been replaced by _{a} "negative shock," the refinement of transition in region a was not deemed necessary.
NL7,l/L7,1
approaches 0 when
Pop, approaches 1.0 when
analytic
in
p
p
approaches
shocks
1
limit of
I
NL7,7 L7,7
ppo/pm
This secondorder
n
=
3
solution for <
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