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# UNIVERSITY OF PERPETUAL HELP SYSTEM DALTA

Calamba Campus

SY 2016-2017 Second Semester

Lesson 1
Complex Analysis: Geometry and Arithmetic of Complex Numbers
PREPARED BY ENGR. MARK BRYAN R. FABON

This part is devoted to the calculus of functions that act on complex numbers to produce complex numbers.
Often our first encounter with complex numbers is in finding roots of polynomials. For example, the equation x2 + 1 = 0 has
no real solutions, but is easily solved if we use complex quantities. Once complex numbers were understood, it was not long before
complex functions and an associated calculus of derivatives and integrals were developed.
Although complex analysis is interesting in its own right, there are also important and sometimes surprising applications to
problems we might initially think of as belonging to the real domain. This included the evaluation of real integrals and summation of
series by complex integration techniques, as well as the use of complex quantities such as the Fourier transform and discrete Fourier
transform to solve problems in wave motion, heat propagation, and signal analysis, whose solutions are real-valued. The use of
conformal mappings between domains in the complex plane is also a significant technique for solving certain partial differentia
equations.
We will begin with the algebra and geometry of complex plane.
COMPLEX NUMBERS
A complex number is a symbol of the form x + iy, or x + yi, in which x and y are real numbers and i2 = -1. Arithmetic of complex
numbers is defined by equality: a + ib = c + id exactly when a = c and b = d, addition: (a + ib) + (c + id) = (a + c) + i(b+d), and
multiplication: (a + ib) + (c + id) = ac bd + i(ad + bc).
In multiplying complex numbers, we proceed exactly as we would with first-order polynomials a+bx and c+dx, but with i in place of x:
(a + bi)(c + di)

## = ac + adi + bci + bdi2

= ac bd + (ad + bc)i

## Because i2 = -1. For example,

(6 4i)(8 + 13i) = (6)(8) (-4)(13) + i[(6)(13) + (-4)(8)] = 100 + 46i

The real number a is called the real part of a+bi and is denoted by Re(a+bi). The real number b is the imaginary part, denoted by
Im(a + b). For example, Re(-23 + 7i) = -23 and Im(-23+7i) = 7. Both the real and imaginary part of any complex number are real
numbers. We may think of the complex number system as an extension of the real number system in the sense that every real
number a is a complex number a + 0i. This extension of the reals to the complex numbers has profound consequences, both for
algebra and analysis. For example, the polynomial equation x2 + 1 = 0 has no real solution, but it has two complex solutions, i and i.
More generally, the fundamental theorem of algebra states that every polynomial of positive degree n, having complex coefficients
(some or all of which may be real), has exactly n roots in the complex numbers, counting repeated roots. This means that we need
never extend beyond the complex numbers to find roots of polynomials having complex coefficients, as we have to extend beyond the
reals to find the roots of a simple polynomial such as x2 + 1.
Complex addition obeys many of the same ruels of arithmetic as real numbers. Specifically, for any complex numbers z, w,
and u.
z+w=w+z
z(w + u) = zw + zu
(distributivity)
z+0=0+z
zw = wz
(commutativity of multiplication)
zx1=1xz
z + (w + u) = (z + w) + u (associativity of addition)
z(wu) = (zw)u
(associativity of multiplication)
THE COMPLEX PLANE
Complex numbers admit two natural geometric interpretations.
First, we may identify the complex number a + bi with the point (a, b) in the plane, as shown Figure 1.1. In this
interpretation, each real number a or a + 0i, is identified with the point (a, 0) on the horizontal axis, which is therefore called the real
axis. A number 0 + bi, or just called bi, is called pure imaginary number and is associated with the point (0, b) on the vertical axis.
This axis is called imaginary axis. Because of this correspondence between complex numbers and points in the plane, we often refer
to the x, y plane as the complex plane.
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE
Engineering Department

## UNIVERSITY OF PERPETUAL HELP SYSTEM DALTA

Calamba Campus

SY 2016-2017 Second Semester

When complex numbers were first noticed (in solving polynomial equations), mathematicians were suspicious of them, and
even the great eighteenth-century Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler, who used them in calculations with unparalleled proficiency,
did not recognized them as legitimate numbers. It was the nineteenth-century German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss who fully
appreciated their geometric significance and used his standing in the scientific community for promote their legitimacy to other
mathematicians and natural philosophers.
The second geometric interpretation of complex numbers is in terms of vectors. The complex number z = a + bi, or the
point (a, b), may be thought of as a vector ai + bj in the plane, which may in turn be represented as an arrow from the origin to (a, b),
as shown in Figure 1.2. The first component of this vector is Re(z) and the second component is Im(z). In this interpretation, the
their respective components.
THE COMPLEX PLANE
The magnitude of a + bi is denoted |a + bi| and is defined by |a + bi| = + . Of course, the magnitude of zero is zero, As the
Figure 1.3 suggests, if z = a + ib is a non-zero complex number, then |z| is the distance from the origin to the point (a, b).
Alternatively, |z| is the length of the vector ai + bj representing z. For example, |2 5i| = 2 + 5 = 4 + 25 = 29. The
magnitude of a complex number is also called its modulus.
The complex conjugate is a + bi is the number denoted bar a + bi and defined by bar a + bi = a bi. We get the conjugate of z by
changing the sign of the imaginary part of z. For example, 3 8 = 3 + 8 , =
and 25 = 25. This operation does not change
the real part of z. We have
+
= = ( + ) and
+
=
=
( +
.The operation of taking the
conjugate can be interpreted as a reflection across the real axis of the point (a, b) associated with a + ib as shown in Figure 1.4.

FIGURE 1.1
The Complex Plane

FIGURE 1.2
Complex numbers as vectors in Plane

FIGURE 1.4
Magnitude of a complex number

## COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

Engineering Department

FIGURE 1.3
Parallelogram law for addition of complex
numbers

FIGURE 1.5
Conjugate of a complex number