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Usedboats Boatshow VideoNautica Articleby AngeloSinisi MANEUVERABILITY InpreviousarticlesIdiscussedthe
simplewords,shipmaneuverability. Shipmaneuverabilityisconsidered

Shipmaneuverabilityisconsidered

tobethecapabilityofmaintaining

andchangingspeedanddirection

withsuitablemeans,dependingon

theneedsresultingfromthenatureoftheship.Ofcourse,theshiprespondsin

severalwaystoasteeringcommandandthisdependsonhergeometric,kinematic

anddynamiccharacteristics,onthetypeandsizeofthecontrolunits,onthereciprocal

interactionbetweencontrolelementsandship,andfinally,onallexternalforces

occurringatseathatdisturbthemotion.

Examiningthestraightandevolutionarymotionoftheshiponthehorizontalplane,

onemustidentifythemostimportantaspectsbothoftheship'sreactionstocontrol

actionswhentheseareintendedtochangetheship'sdirection,aswellasofher

tendencytomaintainornottheastraightlinepath,followingactionscausedby

externalforces.

Thesereactions,identifiedasphysicallyrepresentativeofthevariousaspectsof

directionsteeringarecalledsteering"qualities"andallowtoevaluate,isolatedlyor

comparatively,theeffectivepossibilitiesandcapabilitiesoftheshipandofher

steeringunits,whilemaintainingorchangingagivendirection.

Tryingtoexaminethisveryimportantchapterofshipdynamicsinthesimplestway

possibledoesnotseemuseless.Shipdynamicstogetherwithseakeepingarevery

oftenignoredoratleastunsuitablyinterpretedbywayofempiricalrelationships,

which,isobvious,scarcelyrepresentthecompletenessoftheproblem.Thedesignof

steeringunitsisjustapartofthestudyofmaneuverabilityanditwouldbeirrationalto

carryitoutonitsown,separatelyfromthehullonwhichtheyhavetobeinstalled.

Thesteeringqualitiesaredefinedasfollows:DIRECTIONALSTABILITY,

MANEUVERABILITYandSTEADYTURNCAPABILITY.

DIRECTIONALSTABILITYisassociatedwiththebasicconceptofstableequilibrium

ofaphysicalphenomenon,whentheinitialconditionsofthephenomenon,changed

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Themaneuveringcharacteristicsof

shipshavebeentheobjectof

extendedstudiesandexperiences

allovertheworld,mainlyforbig

ships,which,fortheirnature,

generallyhaveapoormaneuvering

abilityandamoreorless

emphasizeddirectionalinstability.

Thisnotonlyisharmfultothe

efficiencyoftheship,butitalso

affectsitssafetyqualities,whichare

importantespeciallywhenthehull

hasfullshapeaftandwhensailing

withfollowingsea.

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withtheonsetofanaccidentalcause,arereestablishedwhentheperturbingcause

Close­up

disappears.

 

MANEUVERABILITYisthemoreorlessaccentuatedcapacitythatashiphasof

respondingtothesteeringcontrols,whichmaytendtomakeherchangedirection

fromthestraightlinepathmotionortoreturntotheoriginalheading,ifsome

disturbancemayhavemodifiedit.

STEADYTURNCAPABILITYisthecapabilityofashipofinvertingdirection,underthe

actionofsteeringcontrolsinrestrictedstretchesofwaters.

Onecanalsoaddtosuchqualitiesthecapabilityofbeingabletochangethespeedof

themotioninagivenperiodoftime,thatisthecapabilityofacceleratingand

decelerating.Eventhoughsuchcapabilityispartofthemaneuverabilityinageneral

sense,itgreatlydependsonthepoweroftheengineandonthetypeofpropulsion.

Fig.1

MARESUDYACHTING Fig.1 Otheradvertisers

Theconditionsofastraightlinepathofaship,oncetheperturbingcausesdisappear, maybespontaneouslyreestablishedinthreedifferentways,asshownbythefigure

shownonFig.1,andtheseare:

CaseI:straightlinepathstabilitywhentheship,oncethedisturbancedisappears,

spontaneouslyfollowsthestraightlinepathwithadifferentheadingfromtheoriginal

one.

CaseIIandIII:directionalstabilitywhentheship,oncethedisturbancedisappears,

afteraphaseduringwhichmotionisinseveraldirections,followstheoriginal

directionbutonadifferentpathascomparedwiththeoriginalone.

CaseIV:positionalmotionstabilitywhentheship,oncethedisturbancedisappears,

followsthesameoriginalpath.

Inthefourabove­mentionedcases,theactionscarriedoutbycontrolunitsarenot

considered,because,fromthehydrodynamicpointofview,theconceptofstraightline

pathisassociatedwiththespontaneouscapabilityoftheshipofreturningtotheinitial

conditions.Inpractice,oneshouldobservethatashipmayhave,atthemost,the

intrinsicqualityofstraightlinepath.

Fig.2

Fig.2 Thestraightlinepathstabilitymaybeincreasedwithfixedsteeringmeans,suchas

Thestraightlinepathstabilitymaybeincreasedwithfixedsteeringmeans,suchas

deadwoods(Fig.2),thusobtaining,sometimes,shipsthataretoostable.Inthiscase

ruddermaneuverabilitymaybejeopardized.

Ingeneral,thestabilitycharacteristicsonthehorizontalplanewithfixedsteering

meansareindependentfromspeed,thatis,ifashiphasastraightlinepathstability

atlowspeed,thesameistrueforhigherspeedsandviceversa.

Ashipwithahighmomentofmassinertia(bigmassesdistributedatbowandstern)

shallnotsuddenlychangeitsheadingandshallnoteasilyreturntoit.Ashipwitha

lowmomentofmassinertiashallimmediatelychangeitsheading,neverthelessitwill

alsoreturntoitmoreeasily.Inthefirstcase,inordertochangeheadingmoreeasily,

arudderthatwithsmallrudderanglesgeneratesbigforcesshallbeinstalled;onthe

otherhand,inthesecondcasearudderthatatthesamerudderangleswillgenerate

smallerforcesshallbeinstalled.

Veryoftendissymmetryofthepropellingsystemthrustsand/orresistanceto

progress,thelatterduetothedissymmetryoftheflowonthehull,allowthestraight

linepathtobemaintainedonlywithagivenrudderangle.

Theflowalongashipwithahullhavingsymmetricalsidesandwhichmoveswithout

rudders,incalmwater,issymmetrical.Theathwartshipforces,whichmaybe

producedbythemotionofthewateralongthehull,fortheshipsymmetry,are

reciprocallybalanced.Assoonastherudderistakentoarudderangleα,aforceP

thatdoesnotlieonthesymmetryplaneoftheshipisgenerated.Generally,thisforce

generatesanathwartshipmotionoftheshipandrotationsaroundthreereciprocally

perpendicularaxes.

Onlyrotationaroundtheverticalaxisshallbemaintained;theothertypesofrotation

aretobeconsideredsecondaryandundesirable.

Fig.3

Fig.3 Theforcesthatgeneratetheship'smotiononthehorizontalplanegeneratethree differentphasesofthemotion.(Fig.3).

Theforcesthatgeneratetheship'smotiononthehorizontalplanegeneratethree

differentphasesofthemotion.(Fig.3).

Thefirstphasestartswhentherudderisturnedadanangleandendsassoonasthe

shipstartsrotatingaroundtheverticalaxis.

Duringthesecondphase,theangularspeedofrotationincreases,whileinthethird

onetheangularspeedisconstantandtheshipdescribestheso­called"steadyturn".

Assoonastherudderismovedatanangleandthefirstphasestarts,forcePis

generatedanditactsperpendicularlytotheruddersymmetryplane.

Fig.4

Fig.4 ThelongitudinalcomponentofforceP,generatedbytherudder,Psenα,actsinthe

ThelongitudinalcomponentofforceP,generatedbytherudder,Psenα,actsinthe samedirectionastheship'sdragorresistanceand,therefore,itslowsdownits speed.Theathwartshipcomponent,Pcosα,givestheshipanathwartshipmotion anditalsogeneratesacouplewhichmustovercomethemomentofinertiaofthe ship'smass.Initially,forcePsenαpredominatessothattheshipmakesleewayto theleftifthetillerispushedtotheright,withoutanyconsiderablerotationaroundthe

verticalaxis(Fig.4).

Inthesecondphase,asaconsequenceoftheleeway,occurringinthefirstphase, andofthebeginningofrotation,dragWtotheship'sprogress,originallyactingonthe longitudinalplaneofsymmetry,graduallychangesintodragW'andactsatanangleβ withthelongitudinalplaneofsymmetry,ontheleftsideoftherudderifthetilleris pushedtotheright.ThelongitudinalcomponentW'cosβ,togetherwithforcePsenα ,slowsdowntheship'smotion,andtheathwartshipcomponentW'senβopposes

forcePcosα,sothattheleewaytotheleft,occurringinthefirstphase,stops(Fig.4).

Nowtheshipfollowsaroundpath,whoseturningradiusdiminishesastheangular

velocityincreases.

BecauseforceW'actsonapointincludedbetweenthecenterofgravityGandthe

bow,theshipadvanceswiththebowontheinsideandthesternontheoutsideofthe

trajectoryofthecenterofgravity.

Inthefirsttwophasestheforcesandthemotionsvary,whileinthethirdphasethe

conditionsareconstant.Oncethetwoforces,occurringinthefirsttwophasesare

balanced,thethirdphasestarts.Bothpositiveandnegativeangularaccelerationsin

theoppositedirectiontothatoftangentspeedVtstop,whilethecentrifugalforceis

balancedbythehydrodynamicforcesthataregeneratedwithmotion.Theturning

radiusRbecomesconstantandthecenterofgravityoftheshiptracesasteadyturn.

Theship'sspeed,whichdiminishedinthefirsttwophases,nowremainsconstant.

Oneoftheundesirablesecondaryresultsofusingtherudderistheship'sheeling

aroundalongitudinalaxis.Thisisduetothefactthattheathwartshipforcesacton

differentverticalpositions.Moreover,theseforcesvaryastheshippassesthrough

phasesoneandtwo,sothattheheelingdepends,inallinstances,onthephasein

whichtheshipisinthatmoment.

Fig.5

Fig.5 Inthefirstphase,theathwartshipforcesinvolvedarethecomponentoftheforce

Inthefirstphase,theathwartshipforcesinvolvedarethecomponentoftheforce generatedbytherudder,Pcosα,andthecomponentofdragW'senβ.AsW'senβ issmallatthebeginningoftheturn,andthereforeofminorimportance,Pcosα provokestheheelingtotherightwhenthetillerispushedtotherightandviceversa.

Then,forceW'senβgraduallyincreasesandtheheelingslowlydiminishes(Fig.5).

Fig.6

Fig.6

Assoonastheshipstartsturninginthesecondphase,thecentrifugalforce(D'/g) (Vt²/R)cosδ(δ=leewayangle)comesintoplay.Asaconsequence,theshiptends toheeltotheleftifinthefirstphasethetillerispushedtotherightandviceversa(Fig.

6).Thegreatestangleofheelingφisreachedimmediatelyaftertheheelingchanges

fromrighttoleftbecauseduetoitsmassinertia,theshipheelsbeyonditspositionof

staticbalance.Inthiscondition,ifthetillerwastakenbackatmidships,therudder

forcePcosαwoulddisappearanditwouldnotcounteractforceW'senβ,thus

increasingtheheelingtotheleft.

Thisistobeconsideredwithattention,becausethehelmsman,fearinganexcessive

heeling,couldsetthetillerbackatmidshipsorworse,pushthetillertotheopposite

sidethusworseningthesituation;theonlysafeactionwouldbe,onthecontrary,to

slowdowntheshipbystoppingthepropellingsystems.Itisclearthattheriskof

capsizinginsuchcircumstancesisgreateronshipsthathavesomeorallofthe

followingcharacteristics:ahighcenterofgravity,alittlemetacentricheight,ahigh

speedorasmallsteadyturningradius.

SteadyturningdiameterRisapproximately3to7timestheship'slength.Thisample

variationofdiameterRmaybeinfluencedbythehullshapeorbytheruddershape

andtype.

 

Fig.7

 
 

Above,wehaveseenthatinordertoincreasestraightlinepathstabilitythedeadwood mustbethegreatestpossible,viceversaforsmallsteadyturningdiametersthe deadwoodshouldberemoved.Thismeansthatstraightlinepathstabilityandasmall steadyturndiameteraretwocharacteristicsthatcannotbeobtainedsimultaneously. Therefore,speedreductionresultingduringasteadyturnisafunctionofthesizeof thediameteroftheturnandofthetypeofhull,thatisofherblockcoefficientCb(Fig.

7).

Theotherteststhathighlightthesteadyturningqualitiesofavesselarethe"spiral"

 

and"zig­zag"maneuvers.

Thespiralmaneuveristhemostpropertesttoidentifythedirectionalqualities,

 

becauseitalsoprovidesthequantityofthetypeofinstability,whenitexists.

Thezig­zagmaneuverprovidestheindexesofthesteadyturningcapabilityandof

maneuverabilitywhenthemotionisnotuniform,thereforeitismorerealistic.

Itisimportanttonotethatthesuitablyanalyzeddatacollectedduringthevarioustests

 

supplythenecessaryelementsforproportioningtheservomechanismsofthe

 

automaticsteeringsystems.

 

Afterexplainingmaneuverability,withoutspecifyingthedetailsandwithoutdeveloping

 

mathematicalformulasrelativetothedifferentcasesandtests,Irememberedan

 

interviewmadebyajournalisttoanarchitect.Tothequestion"Isthestudyofthehull

important?"theanswerwas"No.Everythingisoptimizedbythecomputerprograms

"

Yet,Iaskmyselfhowcanacomputerprogramdecideon:adeadwood,asmallorbig

 

radiusstempost,aratherfullshapeaftcombinedwithhydrodynamicsternorvice

 

versa(thegeometricalshapeonthethreeplanesisverywellcarriedoutbythe

computer),abeamthatmaysatisfythestabilityrequirements(forcrewsafety),the

hydrodynamiccriteria,etc.?Letalonethestructure!

 
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