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# Design calculation sheet

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## Determine the system type and configuration

Determine the hazard class of occupancy
Determine the area protected by each sprinkler
Determine the type of sprinkler used in each area, get K factor
Determine pipe sizing method
a- Pipe schedule method
b- Hydraulic calculation
1Determine the area of sprinkler operation (ft2)
2Select a hydraulic design density (gpm/ft2)
3Calculate minimum flow and pressure at the hydraulically most demanding sprinkler
4-

Calculation Steps

Calculation Steps

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System Types

System Types

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## NFPA 13, 2002, CHAP V Classification of Occupancies.

Occupancy classifications for this standard shall relate to sprinkler design, installation, and water supply requirements only.
They shall not be intended to be a general classification of occupancy hazards.
5.2 Light Hazard Occupancies.
Light hazard occupancies shall be occupancies or portions of other occupancies where the quantity and/or combustibility of contents
is low and fires with relatively low rates of heat release are expected.

## 5.3 Ordinary Hazard Occupancies.

5.3.1* Ordinary Hazard (Group 1).
Ordinary hazard (Group 1) occupancies shall be occupancies or portions of other occupancies where combustibility is low, quantity of combu
stockpiles of combustibles do not exceed 8 ft (2.4 m), and fires with moderate rates of heat release are expected.
5.3.2* Ordinary Hazard (Group 2).
Ordinary hazard (Group 2) occupancies shall be occupancies or portions of other occupancies where the quantity and combustibility of conte
stockpiles do not exceed 12 ft (3.7 m), and fires with moderate to high rates of heat release are expected.

## 5.4 Extra Hazard Occupancies.

5.4.1* Extra Hazard (Group 1).
Extra hazard (Group 1) occupancies shall be occupancies or portions of other occupancies where the quantity and combustibility of contents
lints, or other materials are present, introducing the probability of rapidly developing fires with high rates of heat release
but with little or no combustible or flammable liquids.
5.4.2* Extra Hazard (Group 2).
Extra hazard (Group 2) occupancies shall include occupancies with moderate to substantial amounts of flammable or combustible liquids or
where shielding of combustibles is extensive.

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## NFPA 13, 2002, Appendix A, A-5-2.

Light hazard occupancies include occupancies having uses and conditions similar to the following:
Churches, Clubs, Eaves and overhangs, if of combustible construction with no combustibles beneath, Educational, Hospitals, Institut
except large stack rooms, Museums, Nursing or convalescent homes, Offices, including data processing, Residential, Restaurant sea
Theaters and auditoriums, excluding stages and prosceniums, Unused attics

Ordinary hazard occupancies (Group 1) include occupancies having uses and conditions similar to the following:
Automobile parking and showrooms, Bakeries, Beverage manufacturing, Canneries, Dairy products manufacturing and processing, E
Glass and glass products manufacturing, Laundries, Restaurant service areas

Ordinary hazard occupancies (Group 2) include occupancies having uses and conditions similar to the following:
Cereal mills, Chemical plants ordinary, Confectionery products, Distilleries, Dry cleaners, Feed mills, Horse stables, Leather goods
Libraries large stack room areas, Machine shops, Metal working, Mercantile, Paper and pulp mills, Paper process plants, Piers and
Post offices, Printing and publishing, Repair garages, Resin application area, Stages, Textile manufacturing, Tire manufacturing,
Tobacco products manufacturing, Wood machining, Wood product assembly

Extra hazard occupancies (Group 1) include occupancies having uses and conditions similar to the following:
Aircraft hangars (except as governed by NFPA 409, Standard on Aircraft Hangars), Combustible hydraulic fluid use areas, Die casting
Metal extruding, Plywood and particle board manufacturing, Printing [using inks having flash points below 100F (38C)], Rubber rec
compounding, drying, milling, vulcanizing, Saw mills, Textile picking, opening, blending, garnetting, or carding, combining of cotton,
synthetics, wool shoddy, or burlap, Upholstering with plastic foams

Extra hazard occupancies (Group 2) include occupancies having uses and conditions similar to the following:
Asphalt saturating, Flammable liquids spraying, Flow coating, Manufactured home or modular building assemblies (where finished e
is present and has combustible interiors), Open oil quenching, Plastics processing, Solvent cleaning, Varnish and paint dipping

## er occupancies where the quantity and combustibility of contents is moderate to high,

ccupancies where the quantity and combustibility of contents is very high and dust, lint

## with no combustibles beneath, Educational, Hospitals, Institutional, Libraries

Offices, including data processing, Residential, Restaurant seating areas,

## g, Canneries, Dairy products manufacturing and processing, Electronic plants,

lleries, Dry cleaners, Feed mills, Horse stables, Leather goods manufacturing,
cantile, Paper and pulp mills, Paper process plants, Piers and wharves,
area, Stages, Textile manufacturing, Tire manufacturing,

## t Hangars), Combustible hydraulic fluid use areas, Die casting,

sing inks having flash points below 100F (38C)], Rubber reclaiming,
pening, blending, garnetting, or carding, combining of cotton,

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## Maximum area limitation per sprinkler

System

Light Hazard
Ordinary Hazard
Extra Hazard

Sprinklers Coverage

Type
Hydraulically calculated
Pipe schedule
Building of combustible construction

Area
ft2
225
200
168
130
100

m2
20.9
18.6
15.6
12.1
9.3

## Maximum Spacing between branch lines

and maximum Spacing between sprinklers
ft
m
15

4.6

15
12

4.6
3.7

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Pendant
UpRight

3400
3400

3400
3400

4800

3.4

## Max between sprinklers : 4.6 m

Min between sprinklers : 1.8 m
Sprinklers Coverage

4800

3.4

11.6

m2

## Max between sprinklers & wall : 2.6 m

Min distance from wall : 4 in (102mm)

## Design calculation sheet

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Table 8.6.2.2.1(a) Protection Areas and Maximum Spacing (Standard Spray Upright/Standard Spray Pendent) for Light Hazard
Protection Area
Spacing (maximum)
2
2
Construction Type
System Type ft
m
ft
m
Noncombustible obstructed Pipe schedule 200
18.6
15
4.6
unobstructed and combustible
unobstructed with member 3ft
or more on center
Noncombustible obstructed Hydraulically 225
20.9
15
4.6
unobstructed and combustib calculated
unobstructed with member 3ft
or more on center
Combustible obstructed with All
168
15.6
15
4.6
members 3ft or more on center
Combustible obstructed or
All
130
12.1
15
4.6
unobstructed with members less than
3 ft on center
Unoccupied attics having co All
120
11.1
8 x 15
4.6
wood joist or wood truss construction
(minimum psi)
with members less than 3 ft on center
10 x 12
with slopes having a pitch of 4 in 12
(minimum 20 psi)
Sprinklers Coverage

or greater
arrangements for Hydraulically calculated systems :

4.5
4.2

x
x

4.5
4.2

=
=

20.3
17.6

## Design calculation sheet

Project no0

Date:

12/30/1899

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Table 8.6.2.2.1(b) Protection Areas and Maximum Spacing (Standard Spray Upright/Standard Spray Pendent) for Ordinary Hazard
Protection Area
Spacing (maximum)
2
2
ft
Construction Type
System Type
ft
m
m
All
All
130
12.1
15
4.6
ossible arrangements for ordinary hazard systems :

3
3.4
2.7
3.5

x
x
x
x

4
3.4
4.4
3.3

=
=
=
=

12.0
11.6
11.9
11.6

Table 8.6.2.2.1(c) Protection Areas and Maximum Spacing (Standard Spray Upright/Standard Spray Pendent) for Extra Hazard
Protection Area
Spacing (maximum)
Construction Type
System Type
ft2
m2
m
ft
All
Pipe schedule
90
8.4
12
3.7
[In buildings with storage bays 25 ft (7.6 m) wide,
12 ft 6 in. (3.8 m) shall be permitted]
All
Hydraulically calculated
100
9.3
12
3.7
with density >= 0.25
[In buildings with storage bays 25 ft (7.6 m) wide,
Sprinklers Coverage

All

Hydraulically calculated
with density < 0.25
arrangements for Hydraulically calculated systems :
with density < 0.25 gpm/ft2

130

15
4.6

12.1
3
3.4
2.5

x
x
x

4
3.4
4.5

=
=
=

12.0
11.6
11.3

## Design calculation sheet

Project no0

Date:

12/30/1899

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Table 8.6.2.2.1(d) Protection Areas and Maximum Spacing (Standard Spray Upright/Standard Spray Pendent) for High Piled Storage
Protection Area
Spacing (maximum)
2
2
Construction Type
System Type
ft
m
m
ft
All
Hydraulically calculated
100
9.3
12
3.7
with density >=0.25
[In buildings with storage bays 25 ft (7.6 m) wide,
12 ft 6 in. (3.8 m) shall be permitted]
All
Hydraulically calculated
130
12.1
15
4.6
with density <0.25

## Table 8.12.2.2.1 Protection Areas and Maximum Spacing of ESFR Sprinklers

Ceiling Roof Heights up to 30 ft (9.1 m)
Protection AreaSpacing (maximum)
Construction Type
ft2
NonCombustible Unobstruct 100
NonCombustible Obstructed 100
Combustible Unobstructed
100
Sprinklers Coverage

m2
9.3
9.3
9.3

ft
12
12
12

m
3.7
3.7
3.7

## Ceiling Roof Heights up to 30 ft (9.1 m)

Protection AreaSpacing (maximum)
ft2
100
100
100

m2
9.3
9.3
9.3

ft
10
10
10

m
3.1
3.1
3.1

Combustible Obstructed
N/A
Minimum protection area 80 ft2 (7.4 m2)
arrangements for Hydraulically calculated systems :

Sprinklers Coverage

N/A

N/A

9.0

m2

N/A

Sprinkler Type

Sidewall Sprinkler

## Standard Spray Pendent

Sprinkler
Used in locations with
false ceiling
Standard Spray Upright
Sprinkler
Used in locations without
false ceiling

Window Sprinkler

Normal

Recessed

Concealed

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## Table 14.5.2.2.1 Light Hazard Pipe Schedules

Steel
1 in.
1 in.
1 in.
2 in.
2 in.
3 in.
3 in.
4 in.

25
32
40
50
65
80
100

2 sprinklers
3 sprinklers
5 sprinklers
10 sprinklers
30 sprinklers
60 sprinklers
100 sprinklers
See Section 8.2
For SI units, 1 in. =

Copper
1 in.
1 in.
1 in.
2 in.
2 in.
3 in.
3 in.
4 in.
25.4 mm.

2 sprinklers
3 sprinklers
5 sprinklers
12 sprinklers
40 sprinklers
65 sprinklers
115 sprinklers
See Section 8.2

## Table 14.5.3.4 Ordinary Hazard Pipe Schedule

Steel
1 in.
1 in.
1 in.
2 in.
2 in..
3 in.
3 in.
4 in.
5 in.
6 in.
8 in.

25
32
40
50
65
80
100
125
150
200

Copper
2 sprinklers
1 in.
2 sprinklers
3 sprinklers
1 in.
3 sprinklers
5 sprinklers
1 in.
5 sprinklers
10 sprinklers
2 in.
12 sprinklers
20 sprinklers
2 in.
25 sprinklers
40 sprinklers
3 in.
45 sprinklers
65 sprinklers
3 in.
75 sprinklers
100 sprinklers
4 in.
115 sprinklers
160 sprinklers
5 in.
180 sprinklers
275 sprinklers
6 in.
300 sprinklers
See Section 8.2
8 in.
See Section 8.2
For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm.

## Design calculation sheet

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Hydraulic Calculation:

Hazard Type
Light
Ordinary
Extra

ft2
m2
1500
139.4
1500
139.4
2500
232.3

## 2- Select a hydraulic design density (gpm/ft2) from chart

3- Calculate minimum flow and pressure at the hydraulically most demanding sprinkler
Flow

Pressure

Design Density
(

Sprinkler Flow

/

Q=K P
2
Q
P=
K

()

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## Water Requirements for Non-Hangar protection (offices, etc)

NFPA 14 - 5-9.1.3 Combined Systems.
5-9.1.3.1*For a building protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system, the system demand established by Section 5-7 a
also shall be permitted to serve the sprinkler system. A separate sprinkler demand shall not be required.

Exception: Where the sprinkler system water supply requirement, including the hose stream allowance as determined in accordance with
Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, exceeds the system demand established by Section 5-7 and 5-9.1,
the larger of the two values shall be provided.
The flow rate required for the standpipe demand of a combined system in a building protected throughout by an automatic sprinkler system
shall not be required to exceed 1000 gpm (3785 L/min) unless required by the authority having jurisdiction.
WATER REQUIREMENTS ACCORDING TO NFPA 14

## 5-9 Minimum Flow Rates.

5-9.1 Class I and Class III Systems.
5-9.1.1* Minimum Flow Rate.
For Class I and Class III systems, the minimum flow rate for the hydraulically most remote standpipe shall be 500 gpm (1893 L/min). The mi
for additional standpipes shall be 250 gpm (946 L/min) per standpipe, with the total not to exceed 1250 gpm (4731 L/min). For combined sy
Exception: When the floor area exceeds 80,000 ft2 (7432 m2), the second most remote standpipe shall be designed to accommodate 500
7-2 Minimum Supply for Class I and Class III Systems.
The water supply shall be sufficient to provide the system demand established by Section 5-7 and 5-9.1 for at least 30 min

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## WATER REQUIREMENTS ACCORDING TO NFPA 13

NFPA 13 - Chapter 11 Design Approaches - 11-1 General.
11.1.1 Water demand requirements shall be determined from the following:
1- Occupancy hazard fire control approach
2- Storage design approaches of Chapter 12
3- Special design approaches of Chapter 13
NFPA 101 - APPENDIX A Explanatory Material A-2-1.1
Ordinary 2

## NFPA 13 - 11.2.3 Water Demand Requirements Hydraulic Calculation Methods.

11.2.3.1 General - 11.2.3.1.1
The minimum water supply requirements for a hydraulically designed occupancy hazard fire
control sprinkler system shall be determined by adding the hose stream demand from
Table 11.2.3.1.1 to the water supply for sprinklers determined in 11.2.3.1.5.
Table 11.2.3.1.1 Hose Stream Demand and Water Supply Duration Requirements for Hydraulically Calculated Systems
Occupancy
Inside Hose (gpm)
Total Combined Inside & Outside Hose
Duration
Light Hazard
0, 50, or 100
100
30
Ordinary Hazard
0, 50, or 100
250
60 - 90
Extra Hazard
0, 50, or 100
500
90 - 120

rinkler system, the system demand established by Section 5-7 and 5-9.1

## a building protected throughout by an automatic sprinkler system

y most remote standpipe shall be 500 gpm (1893 L/min). The minimum flow rate
the total not to exceed 1250 gpm (4731 L/min). For combined systems, see 5-9.1.3.
d most remote standpipe shall be designed to accommodate 500 gpm (1893 L/min).

Project no.:

D0414

Computed by:

R.G.H

Subject:

Checked by:

U.M

Approved by:

U.M

Date:

25/11/2004

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of 1

## Table 11.2.3.1.1 Hose Stream Demand and Water

Supply Duration Requirements for Hydraulically
Calculated Systems
Total Combined
Occupancy

## Inside Hose (gpm) Inside & Outside Duration

Hose
Light Hazard
0, 50, or 100
100
30
Ordinary Hazar 0, 50, or 100
250
60 - 90
Extra Hazard
0, 50, or 100
500
90 - 120
Light hazard
Ordinary hazard
Extra hazard
Pipe schedule
Hydraulically Calculat
Storage

Zone

Warehouse

## 52,000 ft2 (4831 m2)

52,000 ft2 (4831 m2)
25,000 ft2 (2323 m2)
40,000 ft2 (3716 m2)
40,000 ft2 (3716 m2)

## Calculations as per NFPA 13

Area
Area
Hazard
Density Area Flow Hose
m2
ft2
gpm/ft2 ft2 gpm gpm
0
0
0
0
0
2500 26896Extra Hazard Group I 0.3 2500 750 100
In Racks Sprinklers De
14 sprinklers x
30
=
Fire Hydrants Demand (1 acting hydrant)

## Calculations as per NFPA 14

Actual Data
Total Duratio Total Risers FlowDuration Total
Flow NFPA Storage
gpm
min gallons #
gpm min gallons gpm
gal
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
850
90
76500
4 1250 60
75000 1250
14 76500
420
90
37800
250
120 30000
1520
gpm
### gallons
545
m3

Storage

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Area Limitations

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## 8-2 System Protection Area Limitations

The maximum floor area on any one floor to be protected by sprinklers supplied by any one sprinkl
system riser or combined system riser shall be as follows:
Light hazard
52,000 ft2 (4831 m2)
Ordinary hazard 52,000 ft2 (4831 m2)
Extra hazard
Pipe schedule
25,000 ft2 (2323 m2)
Hydraulically calculat 40,000 ft2 (3716 m2)

Storage High-piled storage (as defined in 1-4.2) and storage covered by other NFPA standards
40,000 ft2 (3716 m2)
Exception No. 1: The floor area occupied by mezzanines shall not be included in the above area.
Exception No. 2: Where single systems protect extra hazard, high-piled storage, or storage covered
other NFPA standards, and ordinary or light hazard areas, the extra hazard or storage area
coverage shall not exceed the floor area specified for that hazard and the total area covera
shall not exceed 52,000 ft2 (4831 m2).

Pendant
Upright

## y mezzanines shall not be included in the above area.

tect extra hazard, high-piled storage, or storage covered by
y or light hazard areas, the extra hazard or storage area
r area specified for that hazard and the total area coverage

Hazard
Density Area of Sprinkler operation
Light
0.10
1500
Ordinary Group I
0.15
1500
Ordinary Group II
0.20
1500
Extra Hazard Group I 0.30
2500
Extra Hazard Group II 0.40
2500