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Internet Protocol (IPv4) Subnet Chart


Posted on 08-16-2003 06:23:00 UTC | Updated on 03-02-2012 22:43:11 UTC
Section: /software/tcpip/ | Permanent Link

Ths is an Internet Protocol (IPv4) Subnet Chart. You can use this to quickly look up how your
might need to subnet your network. At the bottom there is a quick how-to on calculating
subnets.
For more information on subnetting, see RFC 1817 and RFC 1812.
Class address ranges:
Class A = 1.0.0.0 to 126.0.0.0
Class B = 128.0.0.0 to 191.255.0.0
Class C = 192.0.1.0 to 223.255.255.0
Reserved address ranges for private (non-routed) use (see RFC 1918):
10.0.0.0 -> 10.255.255.255
172.16.0.0 -> 172.31.255.255
192.168.0.0 -> 192.168.255.255
Other reserved addresses:
127.0.0.0 is reserved for loopback and IPC on the local host
224.0.0.0 -> 239.255.255.255 is reserved for multicast addresses
Chart notes:
Number of Subnets - "( )" Refers to the number of effective subnets, since the use of
subnet numbers of all 0s or all 1s is highly frowned upon and RFC non-compliant.
Number of Hosts - Refers to the number of effective hosts, excluding the network and
broadcast address.

Class A
Network Bits

Subnet Mask

Number of Subnets

Number of Hosts

/8

255.0.0.0

16777214

/9

255.128.0.0

2 (0)

8388606

/10

255.192.0.0

4 (2)

4194302

/11

255.224.0.0

8 (6)

2097150

/12

255.240.0.0

16 (14)

1048574

/13

255.248.0.0

32 (30)

524286

/14

255.252.0.0

64 (62)

262142

/15

255.254.0.0

128 (126)

131070

/16

255.255.0.0

256 (254)

65534

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html
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kde
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kickstart
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kubuntu
kvm
lame
ldap
linux
logfile
lp
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/17

255.255.128.0

512 (510)

32766

/18

255.255.192.0

1024 (1022)

16382

/19

255.255.224.0

2048 (2046)

8190

/20

255.255.240.0

4096 (4094)

4094

/21

255.255.248.0

8192 (8190)

2046

/22

255.255.252.0

16384 (16382)

1022

/23

255.255.254.0

32768 (32766)

510

/24

255.255.255.0

65536 (65534)

254

/25

255.255.255.128

131072 (131070)

126

/26

255.255.255.192

262144 (262142)

62

/27

255.255.255.224

524288 (524286)

30

/28

255.255.255.240

1048576 (1048574)

14

/29

255.255.255.248

2097152 (2097150)

/30

255.255.255.252

4194304 (4194302)

Network Bits

Subnet Mask

Number of Subnets

Number of Hosts

/16

255.255.0.0

65534

/17

255.255.128.0

2 (0)

32766

/18

255.255.192.0

4 (2)

16382

/19

255.255.224.0

8 (6)

8190

/20

255.255.240.0

16 (14)

4094

/21

255.255.248.0

32 (30)

2046

/22

255.255.252.0

64 (62)

1022

/23

255.255.254.0

128 (126)

510

/24

255.255.255.0

256 (254)

254

/25

255.255.255.128

512 (510)

126

/26

255.255.255.192

1024 (1022)

62

/27

255.255.255.224

2048 (2046)

30

/28

255.255.255.240

4096 (4094)

14

/29

255.255.255.248

8192 (8190)

/30

255.255.255.252

16384 (16382)

Subnet Mask

Number of Subnets

Number of Hosts

Class B

Class C
Network Bits

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mencoder
mhdd
mkinitrd
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moinmoin
motherboard
mouse
movemail
mplayer
multitail
mutt
myodbc
mysql
mythtv
nagios
nameserver
netflow
nginx
nic
ntfs
ntp
nvidia
odbc
openbsd
openntpd
openoffice
openssh
openssl
opteron
parted
partimage
patch
perl
pf
pfflowd
pfsync
photorec
php
pop3
pop3s
ports
postfix
power
procmail
proftpd
proxy
pulseaudio
putty
pxe
python
qemu
r-studio
raid
recovery
redhat
router
rpc
rsync
samba
schedule
scsi
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seatools
sed
sendmail
sgi
shell

/24

255.255.255.0

254

/25

255.255.255.128

2 (0)

126

/26

255.255.255.192

4 (2)

62

/27

255.255.255.224

8 (6)

30

/28

255.255.255.240

16 (14)

14

/29

255.255.255.248

32 (30)

/30

255.255.255.252

64 (62)

Supernetting (CIDR) Chart


CIDR - Classless Inter-Domain Routing.
Note: The Number of Class C networks must be contiguous.
For example, 192.169.1.0/22 represents the following block of addresses:
192.169.1.0, 192.169.2.0, 192.169.3.0 and 192.169.4.0.
Class C
CIDR Block

Supernet Mask

Number of Class C Addresses

Number of Hosts

/14

255.252.0.0

1024

262144

/15

255.254.0.0

512

131072

/16

255.255.0.0

256

65536

/17

255.255.128.0

128

32768

/18

255.255.192.0

64

16384

/19

255.255.224.0

32

8192

/20

255.255.240.0

16

4096

/21

255.255.248.0

2048

/22

255.255.252.0

1024

/23

255.255.254.0

512

Quick Subnetting How-To (Thanks to Jason@ GeekVenue.)

[Understanding decimal - Base 10]


The first thing you must know is that the common number system used world wide is the
decimal system (otherwise known as base 10). What makes the decimal system a base
10 system is that it is based on grouping numbers by 10's. It is believed that the
system evolved because we have ten fingers and ten toes which over the years we have
used for counting. I use mine all the time (grin). We name the ten digits: zero, one, two,
three, four, five, six, seven, eight and nine.
The decimal system has a 1's place, a 10's place, a 100's place, a 1000's place and so on.
We say the number places are grouped by 10's because multiplying each number place
by 10 gives you the next number place. So: 1x10=10 (the 10's place), 10x10=100 (the

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100's place), 100x10=1000 (the 1000's place) etc.


Let's look at the decimal number 103 by place.
103 <- read from right to left
We have a 3 in the 1's place
We have a 0in the 10's place
We have a 1 in the 100's place
Thus: 100+0+3=103
By now you probably feel like you have attended Kindergarten for the second time in your
life? Sorry about that but it is very important that you understand the concept of what a
number system is, and what it is based on before we look at binary.
[Understanding binary - base 2]
Binary is a base 2 system, and thus groups numbers by 2's and not by 10's like the decimal
system. We name the two digits: zero and one. The binary system has a 1's place, a 2's
place, a 4's place, an 8's place, a 16's place and so on. We say the number places are
grouped by 2's because multiplying each number place by 2 gives you the next
number place. So: 1x2=2 (the 2's place), 2x2=4 (the 4's place), 4x2=8 (the 8's place),
8x2=16 (the 16's place) etc.
Let's look at the decimal number Let's look at the decimal number 103 in binary format:
01100111 <- read from right to left
We
We
We
We
We
We
We
We

have
have
have
have
have
have
have
have

a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a

1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0

in
in
in
in
in
in
in
in

the
the
the
the
the
the
the
the

1's place
2's place
4's place
8's place
16's place
32's place
64's place
128's place

Thus: 0+64+32+0+0+4+2+1=103
Okay, Let's test your skills. Here is a list of binary numbers, try converting them to decimal
and check your answers at the end of this post.
10000000
11000000
11100000
01000000
10000011
10010001
11111111
If you were able to convert these numbers to decimal then congratulations! You're ready to
move on to the next section.
[Understanding a subnet mask]
Now that you understand what binary is, let's have a look at our two subnet masks from the
beginning of my post:
192.168.1.0 / 255.255.255.0
192.168.1.0/24
The concept of a subnet mask is simple. You have a network and you have hosts on the
network (anything with an IP address is a host). The subnet mask determines what
portion of the TCP/IP address represents your network and what portion can be
used for your hosts. Because I am a simple person, I think of it like this; The network
number represents the street I live on, and the host portion is used for the numbers on all
the houses on my street.

A subnet mask of 255.255.255.0 means that the first three octets of the address will be
used for the network, and thus our network number is 192.168.1. This means we can have
254 computers on this network, because the fourth octet is not being used by the network
portion of the address. We know this because of the 0 in the subnet mask (255.255.255.0).
We call each of the number sections an octet because we think of them in binary, and there
are eight possible bits in each section. Eight bits is an octet. 11111111 in binary is 255 in
decimal (did you do the conversions?). So our decimal subnet mask 255.255.255.0
displayed in binary is going to be:
11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000
If you count all the ones, you will find that there are 24 of them. Now look at the subnet
mask examples again.
192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0
192.168.1.0/24
Do you see why both subnet masks are the same? The number 24 is the number of bits
used in the network portion of the address, and is short-hand for writing the address/subnet
mask combination. It becomes important to understand this when you start dividing your
network into multiple sub networks.
[Understanding Subnetting]
Before reading this section, you should have a good understanding of what a subnet mask is
and how binary bits represent the subnet mask.
Simply put, subnetting is dividing your network into multiple sub networks. To go back to
my silly example about houses and streets, subnetting gives you multiple streets in your
neighborhood.
There are two methods for dividing your network into multiple sub networks; One is to
simply change your network numbers keeping the same subnet mask. The other is to
subnet your network into smaller sub networks.
Keeping the same mask:
Your network could be divided into two or more networks by changing the network portion
of the address such as 192.168.1 and 192.168.2 and keeping the same subnet mask.
Example:
192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0
192.168.2.0/255.255.255.0
Doing this would give you two separate networks with 254 hosts per network. This is a
very common method of dealing with multiple networks. However, back in the good old days
you had to pay for every IP address you used, and if you had 25 computers on your
network you probably would not want to pay for 254 addresses! The answer to the problem
is...subnetting.
Subnetting a network:
Subnetting is when you use bits from the host portion of your address as part of
your network number. This let's you subdivide your network at the cost of host
addresses, which is great if you're paying for every host IP address. It will save you money
because you pay for fewer TCP/IP addresses. Confused? Here is where understanding binary
is important.
Lets look at a new subnet mask:
255.255.255.224
As you can see in the fourth octet, some of the host portion of this subnet mask is now
being used for part of the network address. Which means we are now using some of the
binary bits in the fourth octet for our network numbers, and that gives us fewer hosts
than our old mask (which gave us 254), but gives us more networks (which is why we call it
subnetting).
How can we tell how many networks and hosts per network this new subnet mask will give
us? Well... we shall have to use some of our newly acquired binary skills.

The first task is to find out how many bits in the fourth octet are being used? The
decimal number is 224, what is the decimal number 224 as represented in binary?
The decimal number 224 in binary is:
11100000
We
We
We
We
We
We
We
We

have
have
have
have
have
have
have
have

a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a

0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1

in
in
in
in
in
in
in
in

the
the
the
the
the
the
the
the

1's place
2's place
4's place
8's place
16's place
32's place
64's place
128's place

Thus: 128+64+32+0+0+0+0+0=224
So our complete subnet mask in binary is:
1111111.11111111.11111111.11100000
We now know that three bits from the fourth octet are used. How can we tell how many sub
networks we're going to have? This requires some math - sorry. The formula is: 2n-2,
where n is the number of bits being used from the host portion of our subnet mask.
Important Note:We subtract 2 networks (the first and last subnets) from the total unless
we have equipment that supports IP Subnet-Zero in which case we use the formula 2n please see the addendum at the end of this lesson for more details.
The formula for three bits is:
23-2=6
In simpler terms:
(2x2x2)-2=6
So our network is sub divided into 6 networks. Next, we want to know what the network
numbers are, and how many hosts we can have on each of the 6 networks?
What is the first subnet? Let's have a look at the bits in our fourth octet again. The bit that
gives us the answer is the (1) closest to the first zero, and in this case it is the 3rd bit from
the left.
11100000
The 3rd bit will start our first network, and the 3rd bit is in the 32's place (remember
binary). Start adding the value 32 to itself six times to get the six network numbers.
Note: A quicker way to find our starting network number is to subtract our mask from 256.
256-224=32
Here are our network numbers:
32
64
96
128
160
192
A better way to display this is:
192.168.1.32
192.168.1.64
192.168.1.96
192.168.1.128
192.168.1.160
192.168.1.192
The host addresses will fall between the network numbers, so we will have 30 hosts per
network. You're probably wondering why it's not 31? The answer is that the last address of

each subnet is used as the broadcast address for that subnet.


Example:
Subnet:192.168.1.32 / 255.255.255.224
Address Range: 192.168.1.33 through 192.168.1.62 (30 hosts)
Subnet Broadcast Address:192.168.1.63
Quiz:
Let's test your skills- write the address range and broadcast address for the following
subnet. You will find the answer at the end of this post.
Subnet: 192.168.1.128 / 255.255.255.224
Address Range?
Subnet Broadcast Address?
If we we're paying for our TCP/IP addresses, we would only pay for one network and host
combination, thus paying for 30 hosts and not 254. It could mean some real savings, it also
frees up the remaining addresses for other organizations to use.
Let's look at another subnet mask:
255.255.255.240
How many bits are used from the host portion? To find this out, we need to know how the
decimal number 240 is represented in binary.
The answer is:
11110000
So four bits are taken from the host portion of our mask. We do the same math as before:
24-2=14
In simpler terms:
(2x2x2x2)-2=14
We will have 14 sub networks, and what will the network numbers be? Look at the fourth
bit, it's in the 16's place:
11110000
Note: A quicker way to find our starting network number is to subtract the value of our
mask from 256. So: 256-240=16
Start adding 16 to itself- fourteen times to get all 14 network numbers:
16
32
48
64
80
96
112
128
144
160
176
192
208
224
A better way to display our subnets is:
192.168.1.16
192.168.1.32
192.168.1.48
192.168.1.64
192.168.1.80
192.168.1.96
192.168.1.112
192.168.1.128
192.168.1.144

192.168.1.160
192.168.1.176
192.168.1.192
192.168.1.208
192.168.1.224
The host addresses fall between the network numbers. So we will have 14 host addresses
on each of our 14 sub networks (remember: the last or 15th address is the broadcast
address for that subnet).
If you had a small company with 10 hosts and needed to have a static IP address for all of
your hosts, you would be assigned a network/subnet mask and a valid IP address range.
Here is an example of what that might look like:
Network: 205.112.10.16/.255.255.255.240
Address Range: 205.112.10.17 through 205.112.10.30
Subnet Broadcast Address: 205.112.10.31
Important Addendum: There may be concerns about why the first and last subnets were
not used in any of the examples above. What happened to them? Did they get scared and
run away? The answer is simple - nothing happend to them it's just that some older
routing equipment and software does not support the use of the first and last subnets. This
is documented in the older TCP/IP doc rfc 950. The newer standard outlined in rfc 1812
allows for the use of the first and last subnets- making it the current standard in IPv4
subnetting.
[Answers to Binary Conversions]
10000000
11000000
11100000
01000000
10000011
10010001
11111111

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

128
192
224
64
131
145
255

[Answer to Subnet Question]


Subnet:192.168.1.128 / 255.255.255.224
Address Range: 192.168.1.129 through 192.168.1.158
Subnet Broadcast Address: 192.168.1.159

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