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Uploaded by Raúl Torres Gómez

This compact guide provides the very basics of measuring related concepts, accuracy, precision, mean, variable deviation, etc.

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Accuracy

Accuracy is how close a measured value is to the actual (true) value.

Precision

Precision is how close the measured values are to each other.

Low Accuracy

High Precision

High Accuracy

Low Precision

High Accuracy

High Precision

So, if you are playing soccer and you always hit the left goal post

instead of scoring, then you are not accurate, but you are precise!

How to Remember?

pRecise is Repeating (hitting the same spot, but maybe not the

correct spot)

When we measure something several times and all values are close,

they may all be wrong if there is a "Bias"

Bias is a systematic (built-in) error which makes all measurements

wrong by a certain amount.

Examples of Bias

You always measure your height wearing shoes with thick soles.

In each case all measurements are wrong by the same amount. That is

bias.

Degree of Accuracy

Accuracy depends on the instrument we are measuring with. But as a

general rule:

The degree of accuracy is half a unit each side of the unit of measure

Examples:

any value between 6 and 7 is measured as "7"

any value between 7 and 9 is measured as "8"

(Notice that the arrow points to the same spot, but the measured values

are different!

Errors in Measurement

Error?

No ... you didn't measure it wrong ... this is

about accuracy.

Measuring instruments are not exact!

Degree of Accuracy

Accuracy depends on the instrument you are measuring with. But as a

general rule:

The degree of accuracy is half a unit each side of the unit of measure

Examples:

then any value between 6 and 7 is measured

as "7"

then any value between 7 and 9 is measured as "8"

Plus or Minus

We can show the error using the "Plus or Minus" sign:

7 0.5

The error is 0.5

8 1

The error is 1

to 0.1 of a meter

Accurate to 0.1 m means it could be up to 0.05 m either way:

So it could really be anywhere between 12.45 m and 12.55 m long.

The Absolute Error is the difference between

the actual and measured value

use the maximum possible error.

In the example above the Absolute Error is 0.05 m

What happened to the ... ? Well, we just want the size

(the absolute value ) of the difference.

The Relative Error is the Absolute Error divided by the actual

measurement.

We don't know the actual measurement, so the best we can do

is use the measured value:

Relative Error =

Absolute Error

Measured Value

The Percentage Error is the Relative Error shown as a

percentage (see Percentage Error).

Let us see them in an example:

Length = 12.5 0.05 m

So:

And:

Relative Error =

And:

0.05 m

12.5 m

= 0.004

More examples:

degrees. The temperature was measured as 38 C

The temperature could be up to 1 either side of 38 (i.e. between 37

and 39)

Temperature = 38 1

So:

Absolute Error = 1

And:

Relative Error =

1

38

= 0.0263...

And:

nearest cm)

This means you could be up to 0.5 cm wrong (the plant could be

between 79.5 and 80.5 cm high)

Height = 80 0.5 cm

So:

And:

Relative Error =

0.5 cm

80 cm

= 0.00625

And:

Area

When working out areas you need to think about both the width and

length ... they could both be the smallest possible measure, or both the

largest.

got a width of 6 m and a length of 8 m.

Measuring to the nearest meter means the true value could be up

to half a meter smaller or larger.

The length (l) could be from 7.5m to 8.5m:

The area is width length:

A=wl

The smallest possible area is: 5.5m 7.5m = 41.25 m2

The measured area is: 6m 8m = 48 m2

And the largest possible area is: 6.5m 8.5m = 55.25 m2

Absolute, Relative and Percentage Error for Areas

The only tricky thing here is ... which is the absolute error?

Relative Error =

7.25 m2

48 m2

= 0.151...

(Which is not very accurate, is it?)

Volume

And volume has three measurements: width, length and height!

got 24 cm 24 cm 20 cm

Measuring to the nearest 2 cm means the true value could be up to 1

cm smaller or larger.

The three measurements are:

24 1 cm

24 1 cm

20 1 cm

V=wlh

The smallest possible Volume is: 23cm 23cm 19cm = 10051 cm3

The measured Volume is: 24cm 24cm 20cm = 11520 cm3

The largest possible Volume is: 25cm 25cm 21cm = 13125 cm3

And so we get:

Absolute error:

Relative Error =

1605 cm3

11520 cm3

= 0.139...

Absolute Value

Absolute Value means ...

... only how far a number is from zero:

and "6" is also 6 away from zero.

So the absolute value of 6 is 6,

and the absolute value of 6 is also 6

More Examples:

No Negatives!

So in practice "absolute value" means to remove any negative sign in

front of a number, and to think of all numbers as positive (or zero).

To show that we want the absolute value of something, we put "|" marks

either side (they are called "bars" and are found on the right side of a

keyboard), like these examples:

|5| = 5

|7| = 7

the same as |1| = 1

Try It Yourself

2015 MathsIsFun.com v0.77

And it doesn't matter which way around we do a subtraction, the

absolute value will always be the same:

|83| = 5

|38| = 5

(83 = 5)

More Examples

Here are some more examples of how to handle absolute values:

|36| = 18

(36 = 18, and |18| = 18)

|52| = 3

(52 = 3 and then the first minus gets you 3)

|25| = 3

(25 = 3 , |3| = 3, and then the first minus gets you 3)

|12| = 12

(|12| = 12 and then the first minus gets you 12)

Percentage Error

as a percentage of the Exact Value.

"Error": Subtract Approximate value from Exact value. Ignore any minus sign.

Example: I estimated 260 people, but 325 came.

260 325 = 65, ignore the "" sign, so my error is 65

"Percentage Error": show the error as a percent of the exact value ... so

divide by the exact value and make it a percentage:

65/325 = 0.2 = 20%

value. See percentage change, difference and error for other options.

How to Calculate

Here is the way to calculate a percentage error:

Step 1: Calculate the error (subtract one value from the other) ignore any minus sign.

Step 2: Divide the error by the exact value (we get a decimal number)

Step 3: Convert that to a percentage (by multiplying by 100 and adding a "%" sign)

As A Formula

This is the formula for "Percentage Error":

100%

|Exact Value|

(The "|" symbols mean absolute value , so negatives become positive)

80 did!

|70 80||80| 100% = 1080 100% = 12.5%

I was in error by 12.5%

Example: The report said the carpark held 240 cars, but we counted only

200 parking spaces.

|240 200||200| 100% = 40200 100% = 20%

The report had a 20% error.

We can also use a theoretical value (when it is well known) instead of

an exact value.

an apple to drop 2 meters.

The theoretical value (using physics formulas) is 0.64 seconds.

But Sam measures 0.62 seconds, which is an approximate value.

|0.62 0.64||0.64| 100% = 0.020.64 100%

We can also use the formula without "Absolute Value". This can give a

positive or negative result, which may be useful to know.

Approximate Value Exact Value

100%

Exact Value

Example: They forecast 20 mm of rain, but we really got 25 mm.

20 2525 100% = 525 100%

= 20%

They were in error by 20% (their estimate was too low)

In Measurement

Measuring instruments are not exact!

And we can use Percentage Error to estimate the possible error when

measuring.

nearest cm)

between 79.5 and 80.5 cm high)

So your percentage error is:

0.580 100% = 0.625%

(We don't know the exact value, so we divided by the measured value

instead.)

Deviation just means how far from the normal

Standard Deviation

The Standard Deviation is a measure of how spread out numbers are.

Its symbol is (the greek letter sigma)

The formula is easy: it is the square root of the Variance. So now you

ask, "What is the Variance?"

Variance

The Variance is defined as:

The average of the squared differences from the Mean.

To calculate the variance follow these steps:

Then for each number: subtract the Mean and square the

result (the squared difference).

(Why Square?)

Example

You and your friends have just measured the heights of your dogs (in

millimeters):

The heights (at the shoulders) are: 600mm, 470mm, 170mm, 430mm

and 300mm.

Find out the Mean, the Variance, and the Standard Deviation.

Your first step is to find the Mean:

Answer:

Mean = 600 + 470 + 170 + 430 + 3005 = 19705 = 394

so the mean (average) height is 394 mm. Let's plot this on the chart:

To calculate the Variance, take each difference, square it, and then

average the result:

And the Standard Deviation is just the square root of Variance, so:

Standard Deviation

= 21,704

= 147.32...

= 147 (to the nearest mm)

And the good thing about the Standard Deviation is that it is useful. Now

we can show which heights are within one Standard Deviation (147mm)

of the Mean:

what is normal, and what is extra large or extra small.

Rottweilers are tall dogs. And Dachshunds are a bit short ... but don't

tell them!

Now try the Standard Deviation Calculator .

with Sample Data

Our example has been for a Population (the 5 dogs are the only dogs

we are interested in).

But if the data is a Sample (a selection taken from a bigger Population),

then the calculation changes!

(like we did)

All other calculations stay the same, including how we calculated the

mean.

we divide by 4 instead of 5 like this:

Sample Standard Deviation = 27,130 = 164 (to the nearest

mm)

Think of it as a "correction" when your data is only a sample.

Formulas

Here are the two formulas, explained at Standard Deviation Formulas if

you want to know more:

divide by N-1 (instead of N) when calculating a Sample Variance.

If we just add up the differences from the mean ... the negatives cancel

the positives:

4 + 4 4 44 = 0

That looks good (and is the Mean Deviation ), but what about this case:

Oh No! It also gives a value of 4, Even though the differences are more

spread out.

So let us try squaring each difference (and taking the square root at the

end):

That is nice! The Standard Deviation is bigger when the differences are

more spread out ... just what we want.

In fact this method is a similar idea to distance between points , just

applied in a different way.

And it is easier to use algebra on squares and square roots than absolute

values, which makes the standard deviation easy to use in other areas of

mathematics.

Here is how to calculate the distance between two points when you know

their coordinates:

A and B

Angled Triangle .

And with a little help from Pythagoras we know that:

a2 + b2 = c2

Right

yA means the y-coordinate of point A

The horizontal distance

The vertical distance

a is (xA xB)

b is (yA yB)

Start with:

Examples

Example 1

c2 = a2 + b2

Example 2

It doesn't matter what order the points are in, because squaring

removes any negatives:

Example 3

And here is another example with some negative coordinates ... it all still

works:

It works perfectly well in 3 (or more dimensions) !

Square the difference for each axis, then sum them up and take the

square root:

The distance between the two points (9,2,7) and (4,8,10) is:

Yes, we use "mean" twice: Find the mean ... use it to work out

distances ... then find the mean of those distances!

Three steps:

2. Find the distance of each value from that mean (subtract the

mean from each value, ignore minus signs)

Like this:

Step 1: Find the mean:

Mean = 3 + 6 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 11 + 15 + 16 = 72 = 9

Value

Distance

from 9

11

15

16

Mean Deviation =

6+3+3+2+1+2+6+7

8

30

8

= 3.75

It tells us how far, on average, all values are from the middle.

In that example the values are, on average, 3.75 away from the middle.

For deviation just think distance

Formula

The formula is:

Mean Deviation =

|x - |

N

Firstly:

Absolute Deviation

Each distance we calculated is called an Absolute Deviation, because it

is the Absolute Value of the deviation (how far from the mean).

like this: |-3| = 3

For any value x:

Absolute Deviation = |x - |

|16 - 9| = |7| = 7

And now let's add them all up ...

Sigma

Divide by how many values N and we have:

Mean Deviation =

|x - |

N

Step 1: Find the mean:

=

3 + 6 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 11 + 15 + 16

8

|x - |

11

15

16

|x - | = 30

72

8

=9

Mean Deviation =

|x - |

N

30

= 3.75

Deviation (MAD) because it is the mean of the absolute deviations.

Mean Deviation tells us how far, on average, all values are from the

middle.

Here is an example (using the same data as on the Standard

Deviation page):

heights of your dogs (in millimeters):

The heights (at the shoulders) are: 600mm, 470mm, 170mm, 430mm

and 300mm.

=

5

1970

5

= 394

|x - |

600

206

470

76

170

224

430

36

300

94

|x - | = 636

Mean Deviation =

|x - |

N

636

5

= 127.2

So, on average, the dogs' heights are 127.2 mm from the mean.

(Compare that with the Standard Deviation of 147 mm)

A Useful Check

The deviations on one side of the mean should equal the deviations on

the other side.

From our first example:

The deviations are:

6+3+3+2+1 = 2+6+7

15 = 15

Likewise:

Example: Dogs

Deviations left of mean: 224 + 94 = 318

Deviations right of mean: 206 + 76 + 36 = 318

If they are not equal ... you may have made a mistake!

Absolute Value

Absolute Value means ...

... only how far a number is from zero:

and "6" is also 6 away from zero.

So the absolute value of 6 is 6,

and the absolute value of 6 is also 6

More Examples:

No Negatives!

So in practice "absolute value" means to remove any negative sign in

front of a number, and to think of all numbers as positive (or zero).

To show that we want the absolute value of something, we put "|" marks

either side (they are called "bars" and are found on the right side of a

keyboard), like these examples:

|5| = 5

|7| = 7

the same as |1| = 1

Try It Yourself

2015 MathsIsFun.com v0.77

And it doesn't matter which way around we do a subtraction, the

absolute value will always be the same:

|83| = 5

|38| = 5

(83 = 5)

More Examples

Here are some more examples of how to handle absolute values:

|36| = 18

(36 = 18, and |18| = 18)

|52| = 3

(52 = 3 and then the first minus gets you 3)

|25| = 3

(25 = 3 , |3| = 3, and then the first minus gets you 3)

|12| = 12

(|12| = 12 and then the first minus gets you 12)

Deviation just means how far from the normal

Standard Deviation

The Standard Deviation is a measure of how spread out numbers are.

You might like to read this simpler page on Standard Deviation first.

But here we explain the formulas.

The symbol for Standard Deviation is (the Greek letter sigma).

This is the formula for Standard Deviation:

OK. Let us explain it step by step.

Say we have a bunch of numbers like 9, 2, 5, 4, 12, 7, 8, 11.

To calculate the standard deviation of those numbers:

2. Then for each number: subtract the Mean and square the

result

The formula actually says all of that, and I will show you how.

First, let us have some example values to work on:

The number of flowers on each bush is

Work out the Standard Deviation.

In the formula above

values ...

6, 9, 4

9+2+5+4+12+7+8+11+9+3+7+4+12+5+4+10+9+6+9+420

= 14020 = 7

So:

=7

Step 2. Then for each number: subtract the Mean and square

the result

This is the part of the formula that says:

In other words x1 = 9, x2 = 2, x3 = 5, etc.

So it says "for each value, subtract the mean and square the result", like

this

Example (continued):

(9 - 7)2 = (2)2 = 4

(2 - 7)2 = (-5)2 = 25

(5 - 7)2 = (-2)2 = 4

(4 - 7)2 = (-3)2 = 9

(12 - 7)2 = (5)2 = 25

(7 - 7)2 = (0)2 = 0

(8 - 7)2 = (1)2 = 1

... etc ...

And we get these results:

To work out the mean, add up all the values then divide by how

many.

First add up all the values from the previous step.

But how do we say "add them all up" in mathematics? We use

"Sigma":

The handy Sigma Notation says to sum up as many terms as we want:

Sigma Notation

We want to add up all the values from 1 to N, where N=20 in our case

because there are 20 values:

Example (continued):

them up:

= 4+25+4+9+25+0+1+16+4+16+0+9+25+4+9+9+4+1+4+9

= 178

But that isn't the mean yet, we need to divide by how many, which is

simply done by multiplying by "1/N":

Example (continued):

(Note: this value is called the "Variance")

Example (concluded):

= (8.9) = 2.983...

DONE!

... sometimes our data is only a sample of the whole population.

flowers on 6 of them!

The "population" is all 20 rose bushes,

and the "sample" is the 6 bushes that Sam counted the flowers of.

Let us say Sam's flower counts are:

9, 2, 5, 4, 12, 7

We can still estimate the Standard Deviation.

But when we use the sample as an estimate of the whole population,

the Standard Deviation formula changes to this:

The formula for Sample Standard Deviation:

"Bessel's correction").

The symbols also change to reflect that we are working on a sample

instead of the whole population:

mean),

But that does not affect the calculations. Only N-1 instead of N

changes the calculations.

Example 2: Using sampled values 9, 2, 5, 4, 12, 7

The mean is (9+2+5+4+12+7) / 6 = 39/6 = 6.5

So:

x = 6.5

Step 2. Then for each number: subtract the Mean and square

the result

Example 2 (continued):

(9 - 6.5)2 = (2.5)2 = 6.25

(2 - 6.5)2 = (-4.5)2 = 20.25

(5 - 6.5)2 = (-1.5)2 = 2.25

(4 - 6.5)2 = (-2.5)2 = 6.25

(12 - 6.5)2 = (5.5)2 = 30.25

(7 - 6.5)2 = (0.5)2 = 0.25

To work out the mean, add up all the values then divide by how

many.

But hang on ... we are calculating the Sample Standard Deviation, so

instead of dividing by how many (N), we will divide by N-1

Example 2 (continued):

Sum = 6.25 + 20.25 + 2.25 + 6.25 + 30.25 + 0.25 = 65.5

Divide by N-1: (1/5) 65.5 = 13.1

(This value is called the "Sample Variance")

Example 2 (concluded):

s = (13.1) = 3.619...

DONE!

Comparing

When we used the whole population we got: Mean = 7, Standard

Deviation = 2.983...

Standard Deviation = 3.619...

Our Sample Mean was wrong by 7%, and our Sample Standard

Deviation was wrong by 21%.

Mostly because it is easier and cheaper.

Imagine you want to know what the whole country thinks ... you can't

ask millions of people, so instead you ask maybe 1,000 people.

There is a nice quote (possibly by Samuel Johnson):

"You don't have to eat the whole ox to know that the meat is tough."

This is the essential idea of sampling. To find out information about the

population (such as mean and standard deviation), we do not need to

look at all members of the population; we only need a sample.

But when we take a sample, we lose some accuracy.

Summary

The Population Standard Deviation:

Here are the step-by-step calculations to work out the Standard

Deviation (see below for formulas).

Enter your numbers below, the answer is calculated "live":

Numbers:

Count:

5

(How many numbers)

Sum:

13

(All the numbers added up)

Mean:

2.6

(Arithmetic mean = Sum / Count)

Then, take each number, subtract the mean and square the result:

Differences:

Differences2:

109.2

Sum of Differences2:

21.84

Variance:

Standard Deviation:

4.673328578

(The square root of the Variance)

2015 MathsIsFun.com v0.75

the formula is:

(The "Population Standard Deviation")

When your data is a sample the formula

is:

(The "Sample Standard Deviation")

The important difference is "N-1" instead of "N" ...

Deviation just means how far from the normal

Standard Deviation

The Standard Deviation is a measure of how spread out numbers are.

Its symbol is (the greek letter sigma)

The formula is easy: it is the square root of the Variance. So now you

ask, "What is the Variance?"

Variance

The Variance is defined as:

The average of the squared differences from the Mean.

To calculate the variance follow these steps:

Then for each number: subtract the Mean and square the

result (the squared difference).

(Why Square?)

Example

You and your friends have just measured the heights of your dogs (in

millimeters):

The heights (at the shoulders) are: 600mm, 470mm, 170mm, 430mm

and 300mm.

Find out the Mean, the Variance, and the Standard Deviation.

Your first step is to find the Mean:

Answer:

Mean = 600 + 470 + 170 + 430 + 3005 = 19705 = 394

so the mean (average) height is 394 mm. Let's plot this on the chart:

To calculate the Variance, take each difference, square it, and then

average the result:

And the Standard Deviation is just the square root of Variance, so:

Standard Deviation

= 21,704

= 147.32...

= 147 (to the nearest mm)

And the good thing about the Standard Deviation is that it is useful. Now

we can show which heights are within one Standard Deviation (147mm)

of the Mean:

what is normal, and what is extra large or extra small.

Rottweilers are tall dogs. And Dachshunds are a bit short ... but don't

tell them!

Now try the Standard Deviation Calculator .

with Sample Data

Our example has been for a Population (the 5 dogs are the only dogs

we are interested in).

But if the data is a Sample (a selection taken from a bigger Population),

then the calculation changes!

we did)

All other calculations stay the same, including how we calculated the

mean.

Example: if our 5 dogs are just a sample of a bigger population of dogs,

we divide by 4 instead of 5 like this:

Sample Standard Deviation = 27,130 = 164 (to the nearest

mm)

Think of it as a "correction" when your data is only a sample.

Formulas

Here are the two formulas, explained at Standard Deviation Formulas if

you want to know more:

divide by N-1 (instead of N) when calculating a Sample Variance.

If we just add up the differences from the mean ... the negatives cancel

the positives:

4 + 4 4 44 = 0

That looks good (and is the Mean Deviation ), but what about this case:

Oh No! It also gives a value of 4, Even though the differences are more

spread out.

So let us try squaring each difference (and taking the square root at the

end):

That is nice! The Standard Deviation is bigger when the differences are

more spread out ... just what we want.

applied in a different way.

And it is easier to use algebra on squares and square roots than absolute

values, which makes the standard deviation easy to use in other areas of

mathematics.

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