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XXII COPINAVAL Buenos Aires, 30 September 2011

THE DESIGN AND CLASSIFICATION OF


FLOATING REGASIFICATION UNITS
FOCUS ON NOVEL ASPECTS
Dino Ettore Cervetto
Head of RINA Technical Services

traditional scheme of gas import by the sea


EXTRACTION SITE

GAS LIQUEFACTION

LOADING ON BOARD
SHIPS (LNG CARRIERS)

traditional scheme of gas import by the sea


LNG CARRIERS

ONSHORE/SHELTERED WATER
TERMINALS

REGASSIFICATION
PLANTS

NATIONAL NETWORK

LNG ships discharging at offshore terminals


 Potentially lower costs when compared to some
onshore alternatives.
 Reduced construction and delivery risks.
 Reduced safety, security, and navigational risks.
 Increased terminal availability.
 More flexible location selection.
 Simplified decommissioning.
 Possibility of re-using of existing oil terminals

LNG ships discharging at onshore terminals

LNG ships discharging at offshore terminals

LNG ships discharging at offshore terminals


LNG CARRIER WITH
REGASSIFICATION
MODULE

OFFSHORE
BUOY OR
TERMINAL

NATIONAL
NETWORK

FSRU located offshore


LNG SHUTTLE
CARRIER

OFFSHORE FLOATING
STORAGE TERMINAL WITH
REGASSIFICATION MODULE (FSRU)

NATIONAL
NETWORK

Floating Storage and Regasification Units

LNG carrier ships converted:


 Permanently moored units
Purposely new built ships:


Sailing vessels

Disconnectable SPM

Permanently moored units

regasification sites
Brazil-1

Brazil-2

Livorno
OLT

Dubai

Regasification

2.5 bcm/yr

5.1 bcm/yr

5.1 bcm/yr

4.0bcm/yr

Storage

129,000m3

138,000m3

137,000m3

125,000m3

Location

Existing Pier

New Pier

Offshore

New Pier

LNG Transfer

Over jetty /
loading arms
on jetty

Over Jetty /
Loading arms
on FSRU

Gas Transfer

HP Arms on
Jetty

HP Arms on
Jetty

Riser to
subsea p/l

HP Arms on
Jetty

Vaporization

Closed Loop

Closed/Open
Loop

Open Loop

Open Loop

Mooring
System

Conventional

Conventional

Turret
Mooring

Flexibility

LNGC

LNGC

Rovigo

Neptune

Triton

Port
Dolphin

5.0 bcm/yr

GBS Offshore

Side by Side
Side by Side / Side by Side /
/ Loading
Loading arms Loading arms
arms on
on FSRU
on GBS
FSRU

147,000m3

147,000m3

147,000m3

Offshore

Offshore

Offshore

Side by Side /
Loading arms
on FSRU

No Transfer
LNGRV used

No Transfer
LNGRV used

Pipeline

HP Pipe via
STL

HP Pipe via
STL

HP Pipe via
STL

Conventional

GBS Fixed

STL Mooring

STL Mooring

STL Mooring

LNGC

LNGC

LNGC

LNGC

offshore regasification

Energy Bridge Exmar/Excelerate


Neptune LNG GdF Hoegh
 Conventional loading
 On board regasification
 Send out via STL or conventional manifold
 Enhancement: Ship to Ship Transfer with hoses
(in sheltered waters or moderate sea
environment)

offshore regasification

fixed floating terminal

Brazil FSRU Projects Petrobras/Golar


Dubai FSRU - Shell
 Permanently moored to jetty
 LNG loading via conventional loading arm
 Send out via manifold
 No direct ship to ship transfer

fixed floating terminal

FSRU located offshore

Technical Challenges
Authority Engineering

XXII COPINAVAL Buenos Aires, 30 September 2011

FSRU
TECHNICAL CHALLENGES
NOVEL TECHNOLIGIES

FSRU design challenges

 Location & sea condition


 Type of vessel & containment
 Mooring of the facility
 Access for export / import vessels (tugs &
pilotage)
 Method of transfer of cargo
 Novel Technology use
 What if the LNG supply vessel must leave part
full?

FSRU design challenges


 Corrosion Protection System and Inspection
Access
 Structure following site specific loads
 Additional loads: Flare tower, Mooring
system, Risers, Topsides, Lifting Appliances,
Helideck
 No drydock, repairs limited over design life
 Dynamic loading-unloading sequences
 Transit condition
 Flag and local requirements

FSRU novel technologies

OFFSHORE STORAGE MOORED UNITS


 Transfer of LNG in open sea

Semi-rigid transfer arms (Loading arms)

Full flexible hoses

Ship-to-ship mooring in open sea

Regasification process on board in an


open sea environment

transfer of LNG

transfer of LNG
 Loading arms: well proven for transfer
between ship and shore for LNG, but never
used in open sea conditions between two
moving objects
 Flexible hoses: no evidence of previous
experiences
 The following aspects are to be investigated
Operating envelope
Reliability (maintenance)
Operations connection/disconnection
Availability
Failure modes
Technology Qualification

ship-to-ship mooring
 Ships motions model testing & verification
 Verify mooring system in offshore conditions
Operating limits
Operations (mooring/unmooring)
Reliability
Availability of ships
Failure modes
Technology Qualification

regasification process
The following ship motions-related
issues are to be investigated:
 Fatigue
 Additional stress on
supports/saddles
 Impact on heat transfer area
due to liquid motions inside
the shell
 Technology Qualification

certification issues
 Ship arrangement  Class Rules (new RINA Rules for
the Classification of Offshore Installations) and
International regulations, National Laws and
Standards
 Process  Marinization of on-shore existing
technologies Technology Qualification Process
 Unit-to-ship mooring and LNG transfer  Class
Rules - Technology Qualification Process

RINA experience

Experience gained from the application of a


rational approach:
 Class Rules and International Regulations safety criteria
 Risk assessment
 Technology qualification as a systematic approach to the
qualification of novel technologies, to ensure that they
are fit for their intended service

XXII COPINAVAL Buenos Aires, 30 September 2011

RINA REFERENCES

our last projects


 Adriatic LNG, offshore regasification GBS, Rovigo
 OLT offshore FSRU, Livorno
 Nuove Energie, onshore regasification plant, Porto Empedocle
 EET, offshore regasification plant, Morocco
 ENI, offshore ORSA project, Adriatic Sea
 API Nva Energia, offshore FSRU, Ancona
 Ionio Gas, onshore regasificatino plant, Priolo
 Terminal Alpi Adriatico, offshore regasification GBS, Monfalcone
 Medgas, onshore regasification plant, Gioia Tauro
 Triton, offshore FSRU, Porto Recanati
 Enel, offshore storage and transhipment unit, Porto Tolle
 Fiamma 2000, LPG offshore terminal, Ardea
 Humpuss, Pomalaa, Mandiodo and Halmahera FSRU projects, Indonesia
 Blue Mgmt, CNG technology development project, Italy

ADRIATIC LNG, Rovigo

Type
offshore GBS
Capacity
8 bcmy
Status
In service

Services provided:
 Support during authorization phase
 Certification of structural design and marine operations
 Notified body for PED CE marking
 Direzione Lavori according to Law 1086/71
 Preparation of inspection strategy and procedures according
to RBI techniques
 Loading master
 Security Assessment, PFSP preparation, training to personnel

The first regasification terminal


Offshore Gravity Based

OLT FSRU TOSCANA. Livorno


Type
FSRU, Floating
Storage
Regasification Unit
Capacity
3,75 bcmy
Status
In reconversion

Services provided:
 Authority engineering
 Owner engineering
 FSRU unit classification
 Technology qualification
 Specialist studies (ship handling, seakeeping, mooring,
fatigue, )
 RISP (Port Integrated Safety Report) preparation
 Support for definition of O&M and SSVV

The first offshore FSRU

TRITON, Porto Recanati


Type
Offshore FSRU
Capacity
5 bcmy
Status
Authorisation phase

Services provided:
 Classification of the unit
 Risk assessment
 Technology qualification

The first offshore FSRU with internal turret

XXII COPINAVAL Buenos Aires, 30 September 2011

RINA TOOLS TO ADDRESS NOVEL


TECHNOLOGIES
TECHNOLOGY QUALIFICATION
RULES AND STANDARDS

technology qualification certification


Why do we need Technology Qualification?
 The main reason is to satisfy banks/insurances. In the current
credit crisis the new complex technology or new uses of existing
complex technology is seen as high risk
 Secondly permitting (Safety)
 The technology qualification by independent 3rd party reduces
this risk

technology qualification certification


TQ certificate includes:
RINA Guide on TQ Processes
 Safety
 Fitness for service
 Functionality
 Verification of compliance with Client-defined
targets
 Verification of interfaces between the new
technology and the existing systems

technology qualification certification


Define Qualification Basis with stakeholders
 System description
System types, capacities and interfaces
Environmental data of operation,
Functional requirements,
RAMS,
Codes and standards

 Inherent uncertainties
Materials,
Dynamic responses, loads,
Installation, tests,

technology qualification certification

Technology assessment
 Manageable elements
 Degree of novelty

Classification of equipment according


to the degree of novelty
1) No new technical uncertainties
2) New technical uncertainties
3) New technical challenges
4) Demanding new technical challenges

technology qualification certification

Experience with Loading Arms


 Well proven for transfer between ship and shore for
LNG
 Never used in open water between two moving objects
 The following to be investigated

Operating envelope
Reliability (maintenance)
Operations connection/disconnection
Availability
Failure modes

 Design out problems

technology qualification certification

Loading arms: novelty challenges










Relative unit-ship motions


LNG release
Clash between loading arms
LNG spill during emergency release
Pressure surge
Structural issues
Integration with onboard systems

technology qualification certification

Qualification of flexible hose material


Novelty challenges (to be refined on the basis of the actual hose design)
 Materials (compatibility with LNG, at sea conditions, deformation and stresses,
ageing)
 LNG release
 Pressure surge
 Drop of hose

technology qualification certification

Qualification of hose with ERC and QC/DC valves


Novelty challenges (to be refined on the basis of the actual hose design)
 Materials (compatibility with LNG, at sea conditions, deformation and stresses,
ageing)
 LNG release
 Pressure surge
 Drop of hose
 Operational practice and interfaces
 Swinging motions
 Relative unit-ship motions
 Amplitude drop during emergency release
 LNG spill during emergency release
 Release during purging/pressure test
 Integration with onboard system

technology qualification certification

Qualification of hose with ERC and QC/DC valves and


mast structures or pipe deck skid
Novelty challenges (to be refined on the basis of the actual hose design)
 Materials (compatibility with LNG, at sea conditions, deformation and stresses,
ageing)
 LNG release
 Pressure surge
 Drop of hose
 Operational practice and interfaces
 Swinging motions
 Relative unit-ship motions (allowable working envelope)
 Amplitude drop during emergency release
 LNG spill during emergency release
 Release during purging/pressure test
 Integration with onboard system
 Mast structures or pipe deck skid

technology qualification certification

Qualification of the hose overall transfer system


Novelty challenges (to be refined on the basis of the actual hose design)















Materials (compatibility with LNG, at sea, deformation and stresses, ageing)


LNG release
Pressure surge
Drop of hose
Operational practice and interfaces
Swinging motions
Relative unit-ship motions (allowable working envelope)
Amplitude drop during emergency release
LNG spill during emergency release
Release during purging/pressure test
Integration with onboard system
Mast structures or pipe deck skid
Reliability / availability requirements
Hose interference

technology qualification certification

Qualification methods
 Risk assessment, HAZID, FMECA (failure causes, functional
elements, interfacing)
 Engineering analyses (to reduce the risks limiting the
uncertainties)
 Tests on materials and hoses
 Maintenance policy in order to fulfil the availability
targets, through cost benefit analysis

technology qualification certification


Risk assessment is based on the
estimation of probability and
consequences of events, such as:
 Fire
 Hazardous gas dispersions
 Hazardous liquid spills
 Propagation effects
Suggest mitigation measures ALARP

RINA Guide on Risk Analyses

Overall consistency of safety


requirements in International and
National Regulations

Extensive application of risk assessment


techniques (HAZID, FMECA, consequence
models etc.)

technology qualification certification


Data collection and deliverables
 Analysis of measurements and tests
to verify the engineering analysis
 Functionality assessment
 Deliverables
Technology Assessment
Qualification Plan
Qualification Report
Approval

technology qualification certification

Final Certificate after


satisfactory completion of final
tests on board

engineering analyses: LNG transfer system


Marinization of Liquefied Gases
loading arms fitted on the FSRU:
Identification of critical aspects due to
the novel offshore application:
 Side-by-side mooring (clash studies)
 Emergency release disconnection
(testing of timing and liquid release)
 Fatigue (material testing,
calculations)
 Automation and alarms (FMEA and
field tests)
 Interface with safety systems (ESD) of
the FSRU topside and LNGC
Target performance:
- 20 years design life
- Transfer allowed within a limiting
environmental condition
- maximization of the availability of the
transfer

engineering analyses: LNG transfer system

Motion
envelope
(loading arms)

engineering analyses: LNG transfer system

Motion
envelope
(flexible hoses)

engineering analyses: LNG transfer system

Motion
envelope
(flexible hoses)

engineering analyses: LNG transfer system


Envelope Quick
Comparison

Range Based on our experience based


on 137,000m3 ship moored to FSRU
(similar size)

Vertical: Vessel motion +/- 2m

Dynamic: +/-: 2m
Static (between two decks) +/-1.3m
Total: +/-3.3m

Transverse pre alarm: 3.25m

Static Tolerance Fender: +/- 0.25


Dynamic Displacement:+/- 2.0m
Total: +/- 2.25m

Longitudinal pre alarm: 3.25m

Mooring tolerances: +/- 1.0m


Dynamic tolerances: +/- 3.25m
Total: +/- 4.25m

engineering analyses: side by side mooring

Mooring Arrangements
 Ships motions (model testing
& verification)
 Verify mooring system

Operating limits
Operations (mooring/unmooring)
Reliability
Availability of ship
Failure modes

engineering analyses: fluid vaporizers


Identification of major risks:
 Fatigue of structural internal
details and interface with the
hull :
inertial loads due to wave
motions in operation / survival /
transit conditions
thermal stresses

 Sloshing issue with regards to


internal baffles arrangement and
minimum filling level
3D CFD direct assessment
Target performance:
- 20 years design life
- Process continuity (no limitations due to
the environmental conditions)

XXII COPINAVAL Buenos Aires, 30 September 2011

RULES AND STANDARDS

certification issues
 Ship arrangement  Class Rules (new RINA Rules for
the Classification of Offshore Installations) and
International regulations, National Laws and
Standards
 Process  Marinization of on-shore existing
technologies Technology Qualification Process
 Unit-to-ship mooring and LNG transfer  Class
Rules - Technology Qualification Process

Rules & Standards


 Floating
Units
fall
between
traditional marine and onshore
regulations
 The scope of each may vary
depending upon location
 One solution will not fit all
 Experience will help to ease this
process
 Class & Regulatory Bodies need to
be consulted at a very early stage

International regulations

Typically:





SOLAS
MARPOL
IGC
STCW (depending on location)

As none of these rules have been


written with offshore gas in mind,
they need to be carefully studied to
determine what is applicable based
upon the specific project

Regional regulations

 European Union (EU) Directives


Pressure Equipment Directive (PED)
Marine Equipment Directive (MED)

 EN1474-1 for LNG loading arms


 EN1474-2 for LNG flexible hoses
 EN1474-3 for offshore LNG transfer
systems

standard for transfer systems


2008: adoption of:


EN1474-2:2008 qualification
standard for LNG flexible
hoses

EN1474-3:2008 qualification
standard for offshore LNG
transfer systems

This standard is incorporated in the RINA Rules For


Offshore Units and already applied for the FSRU
project (loading arms)

RINA rules
NEW RINA RULES FOR THE CLASSIFICATION OF
FLOATING OFFSHORE UNITS AT FIXED LOCATIONS AND
MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS
entered
into force in March 2010

 appropriate for the new projects, to entail


the use of advanced technologies
 based on RINA experience gained in
classification of floating units, especially of
FSRU TOSCANA
 include the existing Rules for the
classification of mobile offshore drilling
units, duly modified
 eliminate the necessity to refer to other
Rules

RINA rules
Six different parts:
PART A

Classification and Surveys

PART B

Hull and Stability

PART C

Machinery, Systems and Fire Protection

PART D

Materials and Welding

PART E

Service Notations

PART F

Additional Class Notations

RINA rules
Application:
FSO

Storage and off-loading of liquid hydrocarbons

FPSO

Production, storage and off-loading of liquid hydrocarbons

FSRU

Off-loading, Storage and/or regasification of liquefied


natural gases

MODU

Mobile Offshore Drilling Units

FLNG

Floating LNG (Liquefaction units)


C X [Hull] X [Mach] [FSO] [FPSO] [FSRU] [MODU] [FLNG]
Operating area notation Additional Class Notations

RINA rules and guides


 Guide for Risk Analyses
 Guide for Technology Qualification
Processes
 RINA Guide on Software Acceptance in
Marine Applications
 RINA Guide for the Design and
Operation of Liquefied Natural Gas
(LNG) Carriers
 RINA Guide for structural design of oil
tankers

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