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PLCS & SCADA

PLCS & SCADA


THEORY AND PRACTICE

By
VIKRANT VIJ
Faculty (JPTC),
Jaypee University of Information Technology,
Himachal Pradesh

RAJESH MEHRA
Faculty
Department of Electronics and
Communication Engineering
National Institute of Technical Teachers,
Training and Research, Chandigarh

UNIVERSITY SCIENCE PRESS


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CONTENTS
Chapters

Pages

1. Programmable Logic Controllers

114

1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6

Introduction
Programmable Logic Controllers
Basic Operation
PLC Architecture and Components
Programming Languages
PLC Applications and Manufactures
Summary
Review Questions

2. Numeric Systems and Logic Concepts


2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9

Introduction
Number Systems
Number System Conversions
Binary Arithmetic
Signed Numbers
Binary Codes
Boolean Algebra
Logic Gates
IC 7400 Family
Summary
Review Questions

3. Introduction to Ladder Logic


3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5

Introduction
Basic Components and their Symbols
Fundamentals of Ladder Diagrams
Ladder Logic Functions
Boolean Logic and Relay Logic
Summary
Review Questions

4. File Structure and Addressing Formats


4.1 Introduction
4.2 Output and Input Data Files (Files O0: and I1:)
(v)

1
2
3
4
11
13
14
14
1541
15
16
18
20
23
25
29
32
39
40
40
4257
42
42
46
50
55
57
57
5865
58
59

(vi)
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9

Status File (File S2:)


Bit Data File (B3:)
Timer Data File (T4:)
Counter Data File Elements (C5:)
Control Data File (R6:)
Integer Data File (N7:)
Float Data File (F8:)
Summary
Review Questions

5. PLC Project Development


5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5

Introduction
Software Installation
Driver Configuration
Project Development
Ladsim Based Simulation
Summary
Review Questions

6. Instruction Set-I
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5

Introduction
Bit Instructions
Timer Instructions
Counter Instructions
Reset (RES)
Summary
Review Questions

7. Instruction Set-II
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4

Introduction
Data Handling Instructions
Comparison Instructions
Sequencer Instructions
Summary
Review Questions

8. PLC Applications
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7

Introduction
Switching ON-OFF Light
Liquid Level Control
Process Control
Main Door Control
Vehicle Parking Control
Bottling Plant

60
61
62
62
63
64
64
65
65
6695
66
66
75
80
90
95
95
96112
96
96
101
107
112
112
112
113124
113
113
117
120
124
124
125145
125
125
127
128
130
132
135

(vii)
8.8 Drink Dispenser
8.9 Traffic Light Control
Summary
Review Questions
9. PLC & SCADA Interface
9.1 Introduction
9.2 SCADA Software Installation
9.3 SCADA Project Development
Summary
Review Questions
10. SCADA Animations
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
10.9
10.10
10.11
10.12
10.13
10.14
10.15
10.16
10.17

Introduction
Animation Dialog Box
Project Creation using Memory Tags
Visibility Animation
Text Animation
Numeric Display and Numeric Input
String Display and String Input
Fill Animation
Label
Arrow
Vertical Slider
Horizontal Slider
Horizontal Position Animations
Vertical Position Animation
Width Animation
Height Animation
Touch Animation
Summary
Review Questions

11. Alarming and Data Logging


11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6

Alarming
Alarm Configuration
Alarm Setup
Alarm Startup and Display
Alarm Summary
Data Logging
Summary
Review Questions

138
142
144
145
146181
146
146
152
180
181
182228
182
182
184
193
196
197
203
208
212
214
215
217
220
222
223
223
225
227
228
229259
229
229
236
241
245
248
258
258

(viii)
12. SCADA Supplements
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
12.7
12.8

Introduction
Event Detection
Derived Tags
Macros
Key Definitions
Trends
OLE
Security
Summary
Review Questions

260296
260
260
263
267
269
281
288
291
296
296

Glossary

297317

Index

319320

PREFACE
I find the great thing in this world is not so much where we stand, as in what direction we are moving.
Oliver Wendell Holmes
Control engineering has evolved overtime. In the past humans were the main methods for
controlling a system. More recently electricity has been used for control and early electrical control
was based on relays. The development of low cost computer has brought the most recent revolution,
the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). The advent of the PLC began in the 1970s, and has
become the most common choice for manufacturing controls.
Since the development of first logic controllers, the capabilities of programmable logic controllers
have grown by leaps and bounds. Likewise, the applications of PLCs have grown with them. In
fact, in todays increasingly computer controlled environment, it is almost impossible to find a
technical industry that does not use programmable controllers in one form or another. This book,
provides a comprehensive theoretical, yet practical, look at all aspects of PLCs and their associated
devices and systems.
After finishing the book, the student will most likely be employed in a position designing,
programming and maintaining systems using PLCs of some brand or model, or even more likely,
many machines with many different brands and models of PLC. The authors desire that this text
not only be used to learn programmable logic controllers, but also that this text will become part
of the students personal technical reference library.
The organized material that resulted in this book is our attempt at providing a reasonable
degree of balance between rigor, clarity of presentation and at the same time keeping the length of
book at manageable level. The principal objective of the book is to provide an introduction to
various PLC concepts and to develop a foundation that can be used as basis for research and
further study in this field.

Organization of this Book


Chapter 1 is on PLC introduction highlighting evolution of PLCs, Advantages of PLC, PLC components, PLC Programming techniques, PLC applications and manufacturers.
Chapter 2 is on Fundamental concepts of Digital electronics incorporating number systems, conversions, Logic gates and Boolean Algebra.
Chapter 3 is on Ladder Logic concepts incorporating Basic Control system components and their
symbols, Ladder logic input, output and programming concepts,Basic and Advanced Ladder Logic
Functions. Relay logic and Boolean logic concepts.
Chapter 4 is on File structure and Addressing Formats, highlighting fundamental concepts of SLC
500 BASED SYSTEM, Addressing formats and elements of output and Input, Timer data, Bit data,
Counter data and various other associated files.
Chapter 5 is on PLC Project development, including features of RS Logix 500 and RS Linx software,
Various installation steps, Micrologix, SLC 5 /03 driver configurations, Various phases in developing
a New Project, followed by LADSIM based simulation.
(ix)

(x)
Chapters 6 and 7 are on Instruction set highlighting operation and significance of various Bit,
Timer, Counter, Comparison and sequencing Instructions.
Chapter 8 is on PLC Applications highlighting the use of RS Logix software to program and develop
some of PLC applications like Liquid level control, Process control, Drink dispenser.
Chapter 9 is PLC & SCADA interface with emphasis on SCADA software Installation, SCADA
Project Development, Basics of PLC interfacing with SCADA working with developed projects.
Chapter 10 is on SCADA animations highlighting various SCADA animations like Visibility
animation, text animation, Numeric display, Numeric input and Project creation using memory tags.
Chapter 11 is on Alarming and Data logging highlighting the Use of Alarm, Alarm configurations
Procedure for Alarm set up, Alarm start up and operation and Concept of Alarm summary and
Data logging.
Chapter 12 is on SCADA Supplements highlighting Various SCADA supplement like Event detection,
Derived tags, Tens, OLE, Security and its significance in PLC Control.
The book has been written to position itself within the marketplace midway between a number
of texts in this subject area which may be regarded as comprehensive, and a number of other texts
which are rather brief and tend to be merely primers. Reference texts can be too detailed and large
for a newcomer to the topic and the primer type of text can lack information and be rather bland for
many readers. With this in mind the book is written to appeal to two broad ranges of readers:
1. Students of electronics/instrumentation engineering undergraduate and postgraduate courses
who are studying Programmable Logic Controllers.
2. Professional engineer who has basic knowledge of operation and control of PLCs and for the
new engineer embarking on an exciting career in electronics design and control.
Utmost care was exercised to eliminate errors; Effort has been made, as far as possible, to make each
chapter self contained. Suggestions for the improvement of this book shall be gratefully acknowledged.
Authors

CREDIT WHERE CREDIT

IS

DUE

On completing a book of this nature, it becomes clear to the author(s) that the work would not have
been possible without the support of others.
Becoming an electronics engineer and, consequently, writing this book was spurred on by our
early interest in electronics and computers that was fully supported and encouraged by our families.
Whether it was the attic turned into a laboratory, a trip to the electronic supply store, or
accompaniment to the science fair, our families have always been behind us. We wish to express
gratitude to Our loving parents for their support and blessings throughout our life.
More directly, several friends and colleagues were kind enough to review the initial draft, provide
feedback on the content, and bring to our attention details that required correction and clarification.
We are grateful to our friends and colleagues for their suggestions during the course of our work.
We are thankful to our mentors for teaching us the essence of learning and keeping up with
emerging technology.
Authors

(xi)

PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS

1
PROGRAMMABLE
LOGIC CONTROLLERS
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After reading this chapter, you will be able to explain:
1.
2.
3.
4.

1.1

Evolution of PLCs, programmable logic controller basics, and its advantages


PLC architecture and system components
PLC programming techniques
PLCs application list

INTRODUCTION

For automation in industries, many manufacturing processes demand a sequence of operations,


which are to be performed repetitively. Early automation systems were mechanical in design, timing
and sequencing being effected by gears and cams. Slowly these design concepts were replaced by
electrical drives, which were controlled by relays. The relay provided many benefits since its operation
was well established, it was immune to electrical interference and able to handle typical industrial
input and output signals without special interfacing. The electromagnetic relays have provided
control mechanism over a long period of time. But the relay does have a number of limitations:
1. It suffers from contact wear and reliability problems.
2. Being single input, multi-output, it is often completely unsuited for controlling sequencing in
industrial processes.
3. The relays are hardwired i.e., relays are wired to perform specific functions. When the system
needs to be modified the relays have to be rewired. In large systems this would mean replacing
complete control panels because it is not economical to rewire the old panels.
4. Hardwired systems are very expensive to produce due to the high labour content and
modification is difficult and time consuming.
In order to control ever-increasing configurations of systems, engineers turned to computers.
The computer however was not suited to the industrial environment and the use of the computer
on the factory floor, was not possible, unless costly interference filtering was used. The other major
problem with computers was the need to program it using a high level language. Engineers who
understood a process and its control using relay ladder logic could not readily convey this to a
computer programmer. So, a system similar to electromechanical relays using logical programming
to control the process called PLC found favourable.
1

2 PLCs & SCADA

1.2

PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS

A programmable Logic Controller shown in Fig. 1.1 is a solid-state device, designed to operate in
noisy industrial environments and perform all the logic functions previously achieved using electromechanical relays, drum switches, mechanical timers and counters. Microprocessor technology
now provides a more reliable and maintenance free alternative to the relay. It contains software
relays in place of actual relays or conventional relays. Solid-state relays based on silicon technology
with no moving parts may be used to switch on the large loads to control a process. Hence, this
replaces the electromechanical relays or hardwired solid-state logic blocks.

Fig. 1.1

Programmable Logic Controllers

Programmable logic controllers are sometimes also called programmable controllers as it consists
of microprocessor based systems. They make technologically advanced control systems having
the inherent flexibility and advantages of other programmable controllers, but with an important
difference of simplicity. It is a dedicated computer that can be programmed to perform controlling
functions in harsh industrial environment.
Todays industrial control problems are much more sophisticated and may need modification in
their control strategy from time-to-time. A PLC can easily handle those kinds of problems because
it gives required flexibility whereas hardwired devices would be very complicated and provides
negligible flexibility towards changes in control strategies. PLCs have replaced old electromechanical relay type systems and have provided with noise free reliable control systems. PLCs
have many advantages:
1. It uses simple programming language e.g., ladder diagrams. The program can also be
transferred to PLC installed on the factory floor by a programming device.
2. The outputs may be a mixture of conventional relays and solid-state relays.
3. They are designed for an electrically noisy environment no extra filtering is required.
4. They are smaller, faster and more reliable than hardwired systems.
5. All devices like drum switches, timers, and counters are implemented using software
programs. No such physical devices exist.
6. PLCs have incorporated object-oriented programming tools and multiple languages based
on the IEC 1131-3 standard.
7. Small PLCs have been provided with powerful instructions, which extend the area of
application for these small controllers.

PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS

8. If system requirements call for flexibility or future growth, a programmable controller brings
returns that outweigh any initial cost advantage of a relay control system. Even in a case
where no flexibility or future expansion is required, a large system can benefit tremendously
from the troubleshooting and maintenance aids provided by a PLC.

1.3

BASIC OPERATION

PLC forms the nucleus of control system. It interfaces input devices to capture the data and actuates
control through interfaced output devices. Input parameters are acquired after weak signals from
sensors which are conditioned and digitized before use with PLCs. The digital outputs can be converted
into analog equivalents if required. Figure 1.2 shows the PLC basic operation to control a machine or plant.

Input Devices

Programmable Logic
Controller

Output Devices

Machine or Process Being Controlled

Fig. 1.2

Basic PLC Operation

The input devices are sensors that monitor the machine or the process being controlled. The
status of these sensors which can be ON or OFF is fed to the PLC. Depending upon the input status
of these sensors the outputs of the PLC may be switched on to energize motors, relays, valves etc.
to control the machine or process.
During its operation, the PLC (CPU) completes three processes: (1) it reads, or accepts, the input
data from the field devices via the input interfaces, (2) it executes, or performs, the control program
stored in the memory system, and (3) it writes, or updates, the output devices via the output
interfaces. This process of sequentially reading the inputs, executing the program in memory, and
updating the outputs is known as scanning. Figure 1.3 illustrates a graphical representation of a scan.
SCAN

Fig. 1.3

READ

(1)

EXECUTE

(2)

WRITE

(3)

Illustration of a Scan

4 PLCs & SCADA


Although not generally considered a part of the controller, the programming device, usually a
personal computer or a manufacturers mini-programmer unit, is required to enter the control
program into memory.

1.4 PLC ARCHITECTURE AND COMPONENTS


The PLC, like a computer, employs a microprocessor chip to do the processing and memory chips to
store the program. The PLC consists of:
1. A processor
2. Memory
3. Inputs
4. Outputs
5. Programming devices
6. Power supply
The inputs and outputs are connected via proper interfaces. Each input and output has its own
address. An interface is a medium where two systems come together and interact or communicate,
i.e., communication between the plant being controlled and the PLC. Figure 1.4 shows the basic
architecture of a PLC. It contains a processor e.g., a microprocessor chip and memory chips. It also
contains all the input and output interfacing. The programming devices can be either handheld or
desktop which are remote from the PLC.
Outputs To Plant
(Indicator Lamps, Motor Starters, Solenoids, Valves etc)

Output Interface

Programmer
Keypad and
Display

Processor

PLC

Memory

Input Interface

Inputs from Plant


(Push Buttons, Limit Switches, Sensors, Toggle Switches )

Fig. 1.4 PLC Architecture

1.4.1

Processor

Very small microprocessors (or micros)integrated circuits with tremendous computing and
control capabilityprovide the intelligence of todays programmable controllers. The processor
unit contains a microprocessor chip e.g., Zilog Z80, 8085, 8086 or any 16 or 32-bit microprocessor as
shown in Fig. 1.5 and necessary circuits to communicate with the devices inside the PLC as well as
outside the PLC. This word length affects the speed at which the processor performs most operations.
For example, a 32-bit microprocessor can manipulate data faster than a 16-bit microprocessor,
since it manipulates twice as much data in one operation. Word length correlates with the capability
and degree of sophistication of the controller (i.e., the larger the word length, the more sophisticated
the controller). The processor can initiate the operation of counters, sequences, timers and the
control relays although no actual physical devices exist. These operations are performed using

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