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SAUDI ARAMCO

Drilling Technical Department

WORKOVER MANUAL

September 2010

CHAPTER

2

WORKOVER PRACTICES

SECTION

G

ABANDONMENT GUIDELINES

PRACTICES SECTION G ABANDONMENT GUIDELINES ABANDONMENT GUIDELINES 1. CEMENT PLUGS 1.1 Introduction

ABANDONMENT GUIDELINES

1.

CEMENT PLUGS

1.1 Introduction

1.2 General P&A Practices

1.3 Open Hole

1.3.1 Hydrocarbon Bearing Formations

1.3.2 Porous Aquifers

1.3.3 Last Casing Shoe

1.3.4 Extended Open Hole

1.4 Cased Hole

1.4.1 Casing-to-Formation Annulus

1.4.2 Hydrocarbon Zones

1.4.3 Water Source Zones

1.4.4 Isolation of Shallow Water Resource Zones

1.4.4.1 Isolation of Wasia and UER

1.4.4.2 Isolation of UER and Khobar/Alat/Dammam Aquifers

1.4.5 Injection Zones

1.4.6 Extended Cased Hole

1.4.7 Casing-To-Casing Annuli

1.4.8 Other Protective Plugs

2. MARKERS

2.1 Onshore

2.2 Offshore

3. RADIOACTIVE TOOLS (Lost in Hole)

3.1 General Information

3.2 Procedures

4. SUSPENSION GUIDELINES

SAUDI ARAMCO

Drilling Technical Department

WORKOVER MANUAL

September 2010

CHAPTER

2

WORKOVER PRACTICES

SECTION

G

ABANDONMENT GUIDELINES

PRACTICES SECTION G ABANDONMENT GUIDELINES ABANDONMENT GUIDELINES 1.0 CEMENT PLUGS 1.1 Introduction

ABANDONMENT GUIDELINES

1.0 CEMENT PLUGS

1.1 Introduction

Proper abandonment is a combination of sound judgment and applicable oilfield practices tailored to a particular well. Factors affecting abandonment programming include:

a) Mechanical condition

b) Hole problems while drilling

c) Location

d) Casing configuration and cementation integrity

e) Productive nature and interrelation of porous aquifers and/or hydrocarbon bearing zones

f) Corrosion considerations

g) Local development plans

h) Governmental directives

i) Economic considerations

The guidelines presented herein are intended to establish uniform abandonment objectives while recognizing practical limits often imposed by well conditions.

1.2 General P&A Practices

General P&A practices include the following:

a) The cement plugs should be spotted with kill fluid in the hole. Displacement to lighter fluid can only be done when it has been confirmed that all the zones that are capable to flow have been isolated.

b) Balanced cement plugs should not exceed 500’ in length. Longer plugs risk sticking the work string in the thickening cement when pulling out of the plug.

c) Where practical, run 500’ or 600’ of 2-3/8”, 2-7/8” or 3-1/2” tubing below the DP. In case of stuck pipe, the tubing can be severed and left in the hole.

d) Run compatible spacers ahead and behind the cement.

SAUDI ARAMCO

Drilling Technical Department

WORKOVER MANUAL

September 2010

CHAPTER

2

WORKOVER PRACTICES

SECTION

G

ABANDONMENT GUIDELINES

PRACTICES SECTION G ABANDONMENT GUIDELINES e) In case of large hole diameters (> 8- 1/2”) a

e) In case of large hole diameters (> 8-1/2”) a hi-vis pill must be spotted below the desired depth of cement plug to prevent the plug from dropping down the hole.

f) The final P&A report and well cross section(s) should include the following:

All casing and liner depths (top and bottom), including accessory equipment such as DVs, ECPs, etc.

Depths of any problem points (casing parts, splits, patches, side tracks, prior remedial cement jobs, etc).

The description of any fish left inside the wellbore.

The geological names and depths (top and bottom) of all water and hydrocarbon formations from surface to TD.

For exploratory wells, zones that were tested and the results of the test should be included.

The top of cement (TOC) in all casing/casing annuli (CCA) and casing/formation annuli (CFA) from the primary cementing operations. The TOC can be determined from cementing and displacement volumes, estimated OH sizes, percent circulation, lost circulation, temperature logs, cement bond logs, etc

Cement placement depths and details of all plugs pumped into the well.

The depths of all cement retainers (CR), P&A kits, perforations (including injection rates), etc. that were set/performed during the course of the P&A program.

Report of each casing primary (and remedial) cement job(s) including any problems during the job such as shut down, DV problem, plug launch or plug bump problem, partial returns, lost returns, no cement returns, no cement above liner hanger, wet shoe, etc.

1.3 Open Hole

1.3.1 Hydrocarbon Bearing Formations

Cement plugs are placed across all hydrocarbon bearing formations and extend at least 100’ below and 100’ above each formation. The presence of the plug across the hydrocarbon formation nearest the last casing shoe is to be confirmed by setting down the string weight on the plug after waiting on cement (WOC). Presence of all plugs isolating gas reservoirs should be checked in the same manner.

Note: In case of horizontal open hole across one reservoir and the injection is good, a cement retainer can be set at least 100’ above the casing shoe and the open hole is squeezed off

SAUDI ARAMCO

Drilling Technical Department

WORKOVER MANUAL

September 2010

CHAPTER

2

WORKOVER PRACTICES

SECTION

G

ABANDONMENT GUIDELINES

PRACTICES SECTION G ABANDONMENT GUIDELINES though the Cement Retainer (CR). The volume of cement is

though the Cement Retainer (CR). The volume of cement is calculated based on the injectivity test. Do not over displace the cement below the CR. Spot excess cement on top of the CR.

1.3.2 Porous Aquifers

Porous aquifers are to be isolated by cement plug placed across and/or between zones resulting in at least 100' of plug height separation between zones where possible. Check integrity (drill string weight) of the plugs as follows:

a) Separating aquifers from uphole hydrocarbon zones

b) Separating aquifers, which are potable or suitable for irrigation purposes. The workover engineer should check with the Hydrology Dept. for this information

c) Separating all abnormally pressured water bearing zones

1.3.3 Last Casing Shoe

A 300' cement plug should be placed across the last casing shoe and will extend at least 150' above the shoe. The plug should be tagged with the drill string and pressure tested to at least the maximum equivalent mud weight used in the open hole plus 25%. The tag up and pressure test should be witnessed by the Aramco representative on the rig and noted in the tour report.

1.3.4 Extended Open Hole

In long vertical sections of open hole which would not be plugged for reasons above, a 300' cement plug should be placed at no greater than 2000' intervals. The plug placement should be tagged with the drill string. Long open hole sections are common on deep exploratory wells.

SAUDI ARAMCO

Drilling Technical Department

WORKOVER MANUAL

September 2010

CHAPTER

2

WORKOVER PRACTICES

SECTION

G

ABANDONMENT GUIDELINES

PRACTICES SECTION G ABANDONMENT GUIDELINES 1.4 Cased Hole 1.4.1 Casing to Formation Annulus a) Where

1.4 Cased Hole

1.4.1 Casing to Formation Annulus

a) Where cement is not returned to surface during a cement job, the top of cement can be estimated from volumes of cement pumped, fluid returned and the hole diameter. Cement bond logs and/or temperature surveys can be run to determine the cement top and should normally be adequate confirmation of annular shut off integrity in critical situations. Under certain circumstances, however, perforating, cement squeezing and a dry test may be warranted.

b) If the bond is questionable, the annulus should be cement squeezed between hydrocarbon reservoirs, between hydrocarbon and separate porous aquifers, and between separate porous aquifers. The UER is usually isolated from the Khobar by cement squeezing the RUS whereas the Wasia is isolated from the upper aquifers by cement squeezing the LAS as described in 1.4.4 below.

1.4.2 Hydrocarbon Zones

All hydrocarbon zones tested or commercially produced then abandoned should be squeeze cemented after ensuring annular shut off and pressure tested to at least 50% above the balance mud weight equivalent (not to exceed the derated casing burst pressure). Gas zones are to be squeezed through a cement retainer, capped with at least 50' of cement, tagged and pressure tested as above. Depending upon the condition of the casing, a retrievable isolation test packer may be run for this pressure test if required.

1.4.3 Water Source Zones

Annular shut-off (formation to casing) should be ensured prior to squeeze cementing water source zones. If squeezing is unfeasible, an interior cement plug extending at least 100' below and 100' above will be placed, tagged, and pressure tested to the safe casing limit.

1.4.4 Isolation of Shallow Water Resource Zones

During the course of abandonment, it is important to ensure isolation between three major water resource aquifers. These include the:

Khobar/Alat/Dammam group

SAUDI ARAMCO

Drilling Technical Department

WORKOVER MANUAL

September 2010

CHAPTER

2

WORKOVER PRACTICES

SECTION

G

ABANDONMENT GUIDELINES

PRACTICES SECTION G ABANDONMENT GUIDELINES  UER  Wasia group Failure to ensure isolation may

UER

Wasia group

Failure to ensure isolation may result in cross flow, communication and contamination from one aquifer to another.

Where good casing to casing annulus (CCA), or casing to formation annulus (CFA) isolation between the water zones described above is confirmed, then cement plugs should be set opposite the Lower Aruma and RUS formations as shown in Figure 1. The cement plug should extend (as minimum) to 150’ below and above top and bottom of UER. This will isolate the aquifers in case they gain entry to the wellbore due to severe casing corrosion.

Where poor casing to casing annulus (CCA), or casing to formation annulus (CFA) isolation is suspected, then steps must be taken to ensure annular shut-off between the zones as described below.

1.4.4.1 Isolation of Wasia and UER

If the CCA or CFA cement isolation integrity is questionable between the Wasia and UER aquifers, then the Wasia must be isolated from the UER by perforating (a casing gun with 4 shots over 5 foot at 90 degree phasing will suffice) and squeezing cement into the annulus opposite the Lower Aruma Shale (LAS) as shown in Figure 1. This can be performed as follows:

Balance/squeeze a plug across the perforations. Take precautions not to initiate a fracture. WOC. Drill cement across perforations and test to 500 psi. Repeat squeeze job if necessary. Spot cement plug across the perforations that extend to at least 150’ above the bottom of UER.

In case of a high injection rate, set a CR above the perforations and perform a cement squeeze, being careful not to initiate a fracture. Do not over displace cement below the CR. Unsting and leave cement on top of the CR.

Drill cement across the perforations and test to 500 psi. Repeat squeeze job, if necessary. Spot cement plug across the perforations that extends at least 150’ above the bottom of UER.

SAUDI ARAMCO

Drilling Technical Department

WORKOVER MANUAL

September 2010

CHAPTER

2

WORKOVER PRACTICES

SECTION

G

ABANDONMENT GUIDELINES

PRACTICES SECTION G ABANDONMENT GUIDELINES Note: There is no need to drill cement across the squeezed

Note: There is no need to drill cement across the squeezed perforations if the cement had locked up during the squeeze job and it was not possible to inject cement into the perforations. In such case, make sure the top of the cement extends at least 150’ above the bottom of UER.

1.4.4.2 Isolation of UER and Khobar/Alat/Damman Aquifers

If the CCA or CFA cement is questionable between the UER and Khobar, then the UER aquifer must be isolated from the Khobar by perforating and squeezing cement into RUS as shown in Figure 1. This can be performed as follows.

Balance/squeeze a plug across the perforations. Take precautions not to initiate a fracture. WOC. Drill cement across perforations and test to 300 psi. Repeat squeeze job if necessary. Spot cement plug across the perforations that extend to at least 150’ above the top of UER.

In case of a high injection rate, set a CR above the perforations and perform a cement squeeze, being careful not to initiate a fracture. Do not over displace cement below the CR. Unsting and leave cement on top of the CR.

Drill cement across the perforations and test to 300 psi. Repeat squeeze job if necessary. Spot cement plug across the perforation that extends to at least 150’ above the top of UER.

Note: There is no need to drill cement across the squeezed perforations if the cement had locked up during the squeeze job and it was not possible to inject cement into the perforations. In such case, make sure the top of the cement extends at least 150’ above the top of UER.

1.4.5 Injection Zones

Abandoned injection zones (water injection, disposal, product injection) should be cement-squeezed after confirming annular shut off above and below the zone. Squeeze integrity should be pressure tested to BH injection pressure + 25% equivalent.

SAUDI ARAMCO

Drilling Technical Department

WORKOVER MANUAL

September 2010

CHAPTER

2

WORKOVER PRACTICES

SECTION

G

ABANDONMENT GUIDELINES

PRACTICES SECTION G ABANDONMENT GUIDELINES Note: In case of horizontal open hole across one reservoir

Note: In case of horizontal open hole across one reservoir and the injection is good, a cement retainer can be set at least 100’ above the casing shoe and the open hole is squeezed off though the Cement Retainer (CR). The volume of cement is calculated based on the injectivity test. Do not over displace the cement below the CR. Spot excess cement on top of the CR.

1.4.6 Extended Cased Hole

In long sections of cased hole which would not be plugged for reasons above, a 300' cement plug should be placed at no greater than 3000' intervals. The plug placement should be tagged with the work string.

1.4.7 Casing to Casing Annuli

In some cases, an attempt should be made to cement sections of previously uncemented casing to casing annuli particularly when such section lie opposite hydrocarbon zones or corrosive aquifers having no cement rise on the outside string.

1.4.8 Other Protective Plugs

Abandonment cement plugs should be spotted across other susceptible points in the well as follows:

a) 300' cement plug centered on any exposed liner top(s)

b) 300' cement plugs centered across exposed stage cementing equipment

c) Cement plug having adequate height to extend 100' below and above any problem points (casing parts, splits, patches, prior remedial perforations, etc.) in the innermost string

d) From surface to 350' depth (onshore) and to 300’ below mudline (offshore).

e) All the CCA’s to be tested with inhibited water and squeezed with cement if possible before blind flanging.

SAUDI ARAMCO

Drilling Technical Department

WORKOVER MANUAL

September 2010

CHAPTER

2

WORKOVER PRACTICES

SECTION

G

ABANDONMENT GUIDELINES

PRACTICES SECTION G ABANDONMENT GUIDELINES 2.0 MARKERS Once a well has been plugged with cement

2.0

MARKERS

Once a well has been plugged with cement to the surface, an abandonment marker is installed for future identification. All landing base and casing spool side outlets to be blind flanged if the casing is not cut-off.

2.1 Onshore

Install blind flange on last casing spool/landing base (or steel plate if the casing is cut-off). A 4-1/2" OD steel post is to be welded on top of the blind flange/steel plate; a sign marker will be installed on top of the post. The post should be at least 4' long and extend at least 4' above ground level. The well name and abandonment date should be clearly embossed on both the post and sign marker, with weld material.

2.2 Offshore

Offshore markers are similar to onshore markers except there is no post or abandonment marker. The blind flange is labelled with the well name and abandonment date.

3.0

RADIOACTIVE TOOLS (LOST IN HOLE)

3.1 General Information

When a radioactive source becomes stuck in a well during workover operations (as in re-entry sidetracks or deepenings), every reasonable attempt should be made to recover the source. If the attempt fails, the source should be abandoned properly per the following procedure in section 3.2. This procedure does not call for the well to be entirely abandoned, only the radioactive source. The decision whether or not to salvage the upper portion of the well should be made on a case-by-case basis.

SAUDI ARAMCO

Drilling Technical Department

WORKOVER MANUAL

September 2010

CHAPTER

2

WORKOVER PRACTICES

SECTION

G

ABANDONMENT GUIDELINES

PRACTICES SECTION G ABANDONMENT GUIDELINES RUS UER Aruma Fm Wasia Biyadh Sulaiy Hith Arab Fm
RUS UER Aruma Fm Wasia Biyadh Sulaiy Hith Arab Fm
RUS
UER
Aruma Fm
Wasia
Biyadh
Sulaiy
Hith
Arab Fm

FIGURE 1: TYPICAL WELL ABANDONMENT SCHEMATIC

SAUDI ARAMCO

Drilling Technical Department

WORKOVER MANUAL

September 2010

CHAPTER

2

WORKOVER PRACTICES ABANDONMENT GUIDELINES

CHAPTER 2 WORKOVER PRACTICES ABANDONMENT GUIDELINES

SECTION

G

3.2

Procedures

 

The following is the procedure for abandoning radioactive tools.

a) Manager Workover Department or GDD&WD will submit a statement to the logging company. A copy of this statement will be forwarded to Environment Protection Department (EPD) and Government Affairs managers. The statement is to include the following:

i. Source description; radio-isotope, quantity & activity

ii. The depth at which the source is stuck

iii. A summary of the attempts to retrieve the source

iv. A plan for the abandonment of the source in the well

b) Spot a ±120-127 pcf dyed red cement plug directly above the fish. The plug is to be dressed to a minimum of 50’ above the radioactive

source.

c) Place a steel object of adequate size, such as a used bit or whipstock, on top of the plug to prevent the inadvertent re-entry of the abandoned hole interval. The bit or whipstock may be placed using a shear sub. See wellbore schematic below:

d) There is no need to place a steel object in horizontal holes where the well is sidetracked after abandoning the radioactive source with

cement.

e) Install a permanent plaque on the wellhead. It must include:

i.

The word “Caution”

ii.

The radiation symbol

iii.

The words “Saudi Aramco”

iv.

The field name and well number

v.

Total depth of the well

vi.

Date that the source was abandoned

vii.

Depth of the source

viii.

Depth of the plug

ix.

Radio-Isotope, quantity & activity of the source

SAUDI ARAMCO

Drilling Technical Department

WORKOVER MANUAL

September 2010

CHAPTER

2

WORKOVER PRACTICES

SECTION

G

ABANDONMENT GUIDELINES

WORKOVER MANUAL September 2010 CHAPTER 2 WORKOVER PRACTICES SECTION G ABANDONMENT GUIDELINES 11 of 13
WORKOVER MANUAL September 2010 CHAPTER 2 WORKOVER PRACTICES SECTION G ABANDONMENT GUIDELINES 11 of 13

SAUDI ARAMCO

Drilling Technical Department

WORKOVER MANUAL

September 2010

CHAPTER

2

WORKOVER PRACTICES

SECTION

G

ABANDONMENT GUIDELINES

PRACTICES SECTION G ABANDONMENT GUIDELINES The plaque is to be corrosion resistant. It is usually made

The plaque is to be corrosion resistant. It is usually made of engraved stainless steel, provided by the logging company and is to be installed by Saudi Aramco. See schematic below.

and is to be installed by Saudi Aramco. See schematic below. f) The Workover/Drilling Engineer is

f) The Workover/Drilling Engineer is to include at least 3 references to the lost radioactive source in the well’s Completion Report.

i. Lost tools section on the Cover Page (page 1)

ii. Plugs/junk section in the Summary of Operations (page 2)

iii. Discussion section in the Summary of Operations

SAUDI ARAMCO

Drilling Technical Department

WORKOVER MANUAL

September 2010

CHAPTER

2

WORKOVER PRACTICES

SECTION

G

ABANDONMENT GUIDELINES

PRACTICES SECTION G ABANDONMENT GUIDELINES 4.0 SUSPENSION GUIDELINES Wells are sometimes suspended for

4.0 SUSPENSION GUIDELINES

Wells are sometimes suspended for later intervention by another or same rig for various reasons. Examples include suspension waiting on completion equipment, operational difficulties, and later completion by a smaller rig. Also, exploration wells with discoveries are suspended until filed development.

Wells that has any oil, water or gas bearing formations capable of flowing to surface whether behind casing or below the last casing shoe must be suspended as follows:

a) Down hole cement plugs and/or mechanical barriers.

b) Kill string ending +/- 200’ above PBTD. The kill string may be equipped with nipple(s) depending on well type and required well control barriers as per GI

1853.001.

c) Wellhead consisting of a tubing spool, a tubing hanger equipped with BPV,

bonnet, and tree. The minimum requirement is a bonnet with a compatible gate valve blind flanged, tapped, and fitted with needle.

d) Inhibited kill fluid.

Wells that are abandoned for all practical reasons but are designated for other reasons as suspended should be equipped with wellhead consisting of a tubing spool, a bonnet and a tree. The minimum requirement is a bonnet with a compatible gate valve blind flanged, tapped, and fitted with needle valve. Moreover, the last cement plug to extend no shallower than 300’.