A Library of Functions
Constant Function
Linear Function
Linear Function
yb
y mx b, m 0
y mx b, m 0
5
1
Squaring Function
Cubing Function
y x
y x2
3
2
y x
3
6
2
y x3
Quadratic Function
Quadratic Function
Rational Function
Rational Function
y ax 2 bx c, a 0
y ax 2 bx c, a 0
a
y ,a0
x
Exponential Function
Exponential Function
Logarithmic Function
Logarithmic Function
y a x, a 1
y a x, 0 a 1
y log b x, b 1
y log b x, 0 b 1
a
,a0
x
Intermediate
Algebra
ELEVENTH EDITION
Marvin L. Bittinger
Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis
Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River
Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montral Toronto
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Editorial Director
Editor in Chief
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Art Editor and Photo Researcher
Senior Media Producer
Associate Media Producer
Content Development Managers
Executive Marketing Manager
Marketing Assistants
Prepress Supervisor
Manufacturing Manager
Senior Manufacturing Buyer
Senior Media Buyer
Text Designer
Senior Designer/Cover Design
Cover Photograph
Christine Hoag
Maureen OConnor
Cathy Cantin
Kari Heen
Joanna Doxey and
Christine Whitlock
Jonathan Wooding
Ron Hampton
PrePress PMG
Martha K. Morong/Quadrata, Inc.
Geri Davis/The Davis Group, Inc.
Ceci Fleming
Nathaniel Koven
Rebecca Williams (MathXL),
Mary Durnwald (TestGen)
Michelle Renda
Margaret Wheeler and Alicia Frankel
Caroline Fell
Evelyn Beaton
Carol Melville
Ginny Michaud
Geri Davis/The Davis Group, Inc.
Beth Paquin
Jim Wehtje
Photo Credits
Photo credits appear on p. 838.
NOTICE:
This work is
protected by U.S.
copyright laws and
is provided solely for
the use of college
instructors in reviewing course materials
for classroom use.
Dissemination or sale
of this work, or any
part (including on the
World Wide Web),
will destroy the
integrity of the work
and is not permitted.
The work and materials from it should
never be made available to students
except by instructors
using the accompanying text in their
classes. All recipients of this work are
expected to abide by
these restrictions
and to honor the
intended pedagogical
purposes and the
needs of other
instructors who rely
on these materials.
AddisonWesley
is an imprint of
www.pearsonhighered.com
ISBN13: 9780321613363
ISBN10: 0321613368
Contents
Index of Applications
vii
1.4
xi
xii
1.5
Part 1 Operations
R.1 The Set of Real Numbers
2
R.2 Operations with Real Numbers
12
R.3 Exponential Notation and Order of
Operations
23
Part 2 Manipulations
R.4 Introduction to Algebraic Expressions
32
R.5 Equivalent Algebraic Expressions
38
R.6 Simplifying Algebraic Expressions
46
R.7 Properties of Exponents and Scientific
Notation
54
SUMMARY AND REVIEW
TEST
66
1.6
TEST
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
1.1
1.2
1.3
157
Graphs, Functions,
and Applications
159
Graphs of Equations
160
Functions and Graphs
174
Finding Domain and Range
188
193
71
152
MIDCHAPTER REVIEW
2.4
2.5
122
2.6
195
206
213
229
238
241
97
111
iii
Systems of Equations
243
4.7
4.8
Systems of Equations
in Two Variables
244
Solving by Substitution
253
Solving by Elimination
259
Solving Applied Problems:
Two Equations
268
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
277
282
Systems of Equations
in Three Variables
284
Solving Applied Problems:
Three Equations
291
Systems of Inequalities
in Two Variables
299
3.5
3.6
3.7
5.1
5.2
395
401
407
5.3
5.4
308
Rational Expressions,
Equations, and
Functions
319
321
5.5
5.6
450
452
460
Polynomials and
Polynomial Functions
5.7
5.8
323
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
MIDCHAPTER REVIEW
360
Factoring Trinomials:
ax2 + bx + c, a Z 1
362
Special Factoring
370
4.5
4.6
iv
Contents
377
411
313
409
468
474
478
489
495
497
Radical Expressions,
Equations, and
Functions
499
6.1
6.2
6.3
500
511
518
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
533
6.8
Exponential and
Logarithmic Functions
671
8.1
8.2
Exponential Functions
672
Inverse Functions and Composite
Functions
686
Logarithmic Functions
703
Properties of Logarithmic Functions
714
8.3
8.4
553
MIDCHAPTER REVIEW
558
8.5
575
8.6
577
8.7
7.1
7.2
7.3
Quadratic Equations
and Functions
7.5
7.6
7.8
607
622
624
633
638
746
752
760
TEST
613
7.7
579
722
727
7.4
569
720
661
9.1
9.2
Conic Sections
765
766
MIDCHAPTER REVIEW
9.3
Hyperbolas
787
789
9.4
763
793
797
807
813
815
667
669
Contents
Appendixes
Handling Dimension Symbols
822
Determinants and Cramers Rule
825
Elimination Using Matrices
830
The Algebra of Functions
835
A
B
C
D
vi
Contents
Photo Credits
Answers
A1
Glossary
Index
G1
I1
838
Index of Applications
Agriculture
Blending flower seeds, 270271
Bordered garden, 642643
Composting, 650
Corral design, 649
Farm income, 3233
Feed lot, 608
Fencedin land, 643
Filling a grain bin, 578
Garden design, 650, 805
Grain flow, 746
Harvesting time, 578
Livestock feed, 278
Mixing fertilizers, 272274
Vegetable garden, 555, 812
Astronomy
Alpha Centauri, 65
Brightest star in the sky, 65
Distance from the earth to the sun, 59
Distance from the sun to the planet
Saturn, 58
Light from the sun to a planet, 60
Lunar eclipses, 474475
Mass of Jupiter, 60
Mass of Pluto, 72
Mass of the sun, 60
Orbit of Venus, 64
Planetary orbit, 783
Satellites escape velocity, 477
Weight of an astronaut, 487
Weight on Mars, 471, 485
Weight on the moon, 471
Automotive
Auto dealers, 228
Automobile pricing, 295
Automotive maintenance, 279, 281
Automotive repair, 573
Daytime accidents, 651
Fuel economy, 281
Gas mileage, 463, 473
Horsepower of an engine, 96
Median age of cars, 238
Models of Indy Cars, 470
Nighttime accidents, 651
Stopping distance of a car, 487
Biology
Bees and honey, 480
Diameter of a helium atom, 58
Fish population, 468
Chemistry
Business
Artists prints, 103
Book club, 818
Breakeven point, 806
Catering, 278
Changing marketing strategies, 100101
Chicken dinner sales, 319
Chocolate making, 763
Copy budget, 157
Delivering leaflets, 550
Delivery service, 126
Dry cleaners, 279
Falling DVD sales, 112
Filling sandbags, 411, 460461
Food and drink sales, 816
Haircutting, 203
Homespun Jellies, 237
Inventory, 322
iPod sales, 746
Laptop and desktop computer sales, 108
Lens production, 297
Manufacturing, 151
Maximizing profit, 650
Minimizing cost, 649
Newspaper circulation, 203
Newspaper delivery, 470
Office expense, 277
Organic food sales, 748
Patents issued, 108
PDQ shopping network, 468
Pizza sales, 73, 112, 395
Placing wrappers on canned goods, 470
Printing and engraving, 65
Printing tee shirts, 469
Producing bearings, 409
Radio advertising, 242, 322
Railing sales, 806
Retail pricing, 106
Retail sales, 269, 278
Retail trade, 224225
Sales promotion, 267
Sales, 646
Shipping, 485
Telemarketing, 295
Construction
Architecture, 255256, 649, 670, 801802
Beam weight, 486
Box construction, 609
Carpentry, 394
Clearing a lot, 469
Covered bridges, 750
Cross section of a roof, 98
Cutting a board, 102
Doorway construction, 778
Fencing, 122
Footer of a house, 552
Grade of a stairway, 205
Home construction, 750
Installing seamless guttering, 102
Jackhammer noise, 747
Ladder location, 398, 408, 602, 603
Lot dimensions, 242
Molding plastics, 649
Painting, 469, 470, 493, 550, 557
Patio design, 649
Pitch of a roof, 204
Plank height, 553
Plumbing, 556, 750
Predicting paint needs, 496
Retaining wall, 471
Road grade, 202
Roofing, 557
Room dimensions, 157
vii
Consumer
Aluminum usage, 485
Bottled water consumption, 128
Carpet cleaning, 107
Cellphone subscribers, 63
Coffee consumption, 470
Cost of a necklace, 159, 223224
Cost of a service call, 224
Coupon redemptions, 63
Deluxe cable TV service, 227
Firstclass postage cost, 688, 749
Gasoline prices, 607
Hot dog consumption, 65
Household gas bill, 646
Insurance benefits, 127
Insurance claims, 126
Mothers Day spending, 244245
Moving costs, 155, 158, 227
Pet spending, 58
Pizza prices, 652
Price of cross training shoes, 99
Price of a mountain bike, 9899
Purchase price, 106
Real estate prices, 109
Repair rates, 320
School photos, 107
Spending choices, 317
Tax preparation cost, 749
Taxi fare, 173
Utility cost, 322
Volume and cost, 488
Wedding costs, 127, 205
Economics
Demand for earphones, 651
efiling taxpayers, 759
Salvage value, 684, 748
Stimulating the hometown economy,
243, 264
Stock prices, 650
Supply and demand, 128
Tax code, 449
Tax revenue, 70
World demand for lumber, 815
Education
Cost of higher education, 120
Ecofriendly schools, 684
Exam scores, 386
Forgetting on a final exam, 763
Fulltime equivalent students, 95
Grades, 126
Quiz scores, 122
Reading assignment, 122
SAT scores, 277
Scholastic aptitude test, 294
School lunches, 268269
viii
Index of Applications
Engineering
Antenna wires, 398
Beam load, 819
Bridge expansion, 555
Conductance, 22
Current and resistance, 486
Design, 258
Distance over water, 556
Guy wire, 554, 607
Height of a tower, 548
Nuclear energy, 751
Ohms Law, 479
Parking lot design, 399
Power of an electric current, 494
Resistance, 475, 484
Solar panel support, 9798
Solar power, 750
Town planning, 602603
TV signal, 484
Wind power, 684
Environment
Amazon River water flow, 65
Corona Arch in Moab, Utah, 471
Dewpoint spread, 128
Greenhouse gases, 156
Head of a river, 204
Hurricane losses, 105
Hurricanes in the Atlantic basin, 651
Melting snow, 184, 479
Recycling aluminum cans, 685
River depth, 652
Temperature conversions, 184
Waste generation, 498
Wind chill temperature, 557
Winddriven forest fires, 783, 788
Finance
Charitable contributions, 105, 746
Checking account rates, 127
Coin value, 477
Compound interest, 344, 678, 679, 680,
683, 684, 720, 722, 740, 816
FICO credit scores, 160
Fundraising, 278
Interest, 477
Interest compounded continuously,
741742, 748, 759, 762
Investment, 37, 127, 155, 272, 279, 280,
283, 293, 295, 320, 759, 806, 814
Making change, 279
Money borrowed, 553
Money remaining after a purchase, 36
Simple interest, 37, 91, 96
Teller work, 279
Government
Average age of House members, 183
Average age of senators, 183
Cost of health care in the
United States, 762
Lobbying expenses, 228
U.S. senators, 175
Geometry
Health/Medicine
Acidosis, 740
Alkalosis, 747
Audiology, 739
Labor
Adjusted wages, 109
Bonuses, 264
Commission, 122, 192
Earnings, 478, 550
Income vs. time, 496
Labor union members, 64
Median income by age, 332
Real estate commission, 99100,
106, 173
Salary, 107, 122, 242
Salary plans, 121, 127, 192
Sports salaries, 751
Unemployment benefits, 459
Wages, 359
Work rate, 486
Working alone, 462463, 468, 470, 496,
550, 612
Working together, 461, 469, 553, 763, 819
Miscellaneous
Ages, 298
Bird collisions, 459
Blending coffees, 271
Blending granola, 278
Cannoli, 462463
Cappuccinos, 295
Childs block, 394
Cleaning bleachers, 481
Clock hands, 473
Coffee beans, 621
Coin mixture, 553, 607, 746
Completing a puzzle, 496
Converting dress sizes, 127, 136, 701
Physics
Acoustics, 739
Atmospheric drag, 487
Centripetal force, 819
Combined gas law, 474, 487
Doppler effect, 475
Falling distance, 331, 484, 605606
Fireworks, 369, 400
Freefalling objects, 592, 667
Height of a rocket, 349
Height of a thrown object, 348349, 660
Hookes Law, 485
Intensity of light, 487
Social Science
Crying rate, 295
Foreign adoptions to the United States,
651, 668
Ramps for the disabled, 556
Siblings, 281
Spread of a rumor, 748
Sports/Entertainment
Art masterpieces, 751
Baseball diamond, 552
Basketball scoring, 266, 297
Bicycling, 465466, 468, 610
Bungee jumping, 612
Chess ratings, 9192
Display of a sports card, 410
Distance from the finish line, 205
Earned run average, 477, 487
Female Olympians, 671, 743744
Football field, 50
Games in a sports league, 408, 410
Golf, 297, 669
Golf ball stacks, 331
Grade of a treadmill, 202, 204
Hang time, 589, 591, 605, 664, 667
Height of a baseball, 352, 369
Hiking, 472
Hockey, 258, 266, 468, 498
Iditarod, 105
Magic number in sports, 333
Marching band performance, 546
Media usage, 650
NBA court, 106
NBA shot clock, 110
News/talk radio stations, 186
Olympic marathon, 105
Outdoor concert, 499, 546
Racquetball court, 257
Radio airplay, 278
Records in the 1500meter run, 241
Records in the 400meter run,
228, 237
Running distances, 277
Sharing raffle tickets, 298
Snowboarding, 778
Soccer field, 257
Softball diamond, 554
Swimming, 109
Tennis court, 106, 319
Index of Applications
ix
Statistics/Demographics
Average number of motorcyclists killed
per hour on the weekend, 646
Decline in milk deliveries, 750
Life expectancy for women, 646
Live births by age, 666
Median age of men at first marriage, 240
Mine deaths, 205
Number of active servicemen who are
overweight, 205
Per capita consumption of meats and
poultry, 160
Population, 645, 646
Population change, 110
Population decay in Pittsburgh, 750
Population decrease, 122, 157
Population growth, 155, 741, 749, 762,
763, 820
Record births, 592
World population, 181, 749
Technology
Computer calculations, 65
Computer repair, 237
Computer screens, 806
Digital photographs, 186
DVD player screen, 664
Index of Applications
Transportation
Air travel, 108, 276, 280, 281, 319, 346,
610, 819
Airplane seating, 258
Auto travel, 275
Average speed, 822, 824
Bicycle travel, 268, 496, 550
Boat travel, 493, 553
Boating, 108, 112, 157, 280, 283, 472,
526, 593
Bus travel, 480
Canoe depth, 579, 647648
Canoeing, 280, 610
Car speed, 610, 623
Car travel, 280, 346, 395, 473, 607, 746
Car trips, 610
Cargo area of a van, 805
Chartering a bus, 759
Commuter travel, 556
Cruising altitude, 108
Distance traveled, 36, 318, 494
Escape ramp on an airliner, 202
Flight into a headwind, 108
Authors Note
to Students
Welcome to Intermediate Algebra. Having a solid grasp of the mathematical skills taught in this book will enrich your life in many ways, both personally and professionally, including increasing your earning power and enabling
you to make wise decisions about your personal finances.
As I wrote this text, I was guided by the desire to do everything possible to help you learn its concepts and skills. The material in this book has
been developed and refined with feedback from users of the ten previous
editions so that you can benefit from their classtested strategies for
success. Regardless of your past experiences in mathematics courses, I
encourage you to consider this course as a fresh start and to approach
it with a positive attitude.
One of the most important things you can do to ensure your success
in this course is to allow enough time for it. This includes time spent in
class and time spent out of class studying and doing homework. To help
you derive the greatest benefit from this textbook, from your study time,
and from the many other learning resources available to you, I have
included an organizer card at the front of the book. This card serves as a
handy reference for contact information for your instructor, fellow
students, and campus learning resources, as well as a weekly planner. It
also includes a list of the Study Tips that appear throughout the text. You
might find it helpful to read all of these tips as you begin your course work.
Knowing that your time is both valuable and limited, I have designed
this objectivebased text to help you learn quickly and efficiently. You
are led through the development of each concept, then presented with one
or more examples of the corresponding skills, and finally given the opportunity to use these skills by doing the interactive margin exercises that
appear on the page beside the examples. For quick assessment of your
understanding, you can check your answers with the answers placed at
the bottom of the page. This innovative feature, along with illustrations
designed to help you visualize mathematical concepts and the extensive
exercise sets keyed to section objectives, gives you the support and
reinforcement you need to be successful in your math course.
To help apply and retain your knowledge, take advantage of the new Skill
to Review exercises when they appear at the beginning of a section and the
comprehensive midchapter reviews, summary and reviews, and cumulative
reviews. Read through the list of supplementary material available to
students that appears in the preface to make sure you get the most out of
your learning experience, and investigate other learning resources that may
be available to you.
Give yourself the best opportunity to succeed by spending the time
required to learn. I hope you enjoy learning this material and that you will
find it of benefit.
xi
Preface
New in This Edition
To maximize retention of the concepts and skills presented, five highly effective review features
are included in the 11th edition. Student success is increased when review is integrated throughout each chapter.
Key Terms, Properties, and Formulas are highlighted, with page references for convenient
review.
Important Concepts are listed by section objectives, followed by workedout examples for
reference and review and similar practice exercises for students to solve.
Review Exercises, including Synthesis exercises and two new multiplechoice exercises, are
organized by objective and cover the whole chapter.
xii
A Cumulative Review after every chapter starting with Chapter 2 revisits skills and concepts
from all preceding chapters to help students recall previously learned material and prepare for
exams. Answers to all Cumulative Review exercises are coded by section and objective at the back
of the book to help students identify areas where additional practice is needed.
A new design enhances the Bittinger guidedlearning approach. Margin exercises are now
located next to examples for easier navigation, and answers for those exercises are given at the
bottom of the page for immediate feedback.
Hallmark Features
Revised! The Bittinger Student Organizer card at the front of the text helps students keep track
of important contacts and dates and provides a weekly planner to help schedule time for classes,
studying, and homework. A helpful list of study tips found in each chapter is also included.
New! Chapter Openers feature motivating realworld applications that are revisited later in
the chapters. This feature engages students and prepares them for the upcoming chapter
material. (See pages 159, 411, and 579.)
New! RealData Applications encourage students to see and interpret the mathematics that
appears every day in the world around them. (See pages 100, 183, 264, 460, 646, and 672.)
Many applications are drawn from the fields of business and economics, life and physical
sciences, social sciences, medicine, and areas of general interest such as sports and daily life.
Study Tips appear throughout the text to give students pointers on how to develop good study
habits as they progress through the course, encouraging them to get involved in the learning
process. (See pages 166, 221, 366, and 457.) For easy reference, a list of Study Tips by chapter,
section, and page number is included in the Bittinger Student Organizer.
AlgebraicGraphical Connections To provide a visual understanding of algebra, algebraic
graphical connections are included in each chapter beginning with Chapter 3. This feature gives
the algebra more meaning by connecting it to a graphical interpretation. (See pages 248249,
390, and 595.)
Caution Boxes are found at relevant points throughout the text. The heading Caution! alerts
students to coverage of a common misconception or an error often made in performing a
particular mathematics operation or skill. (See pages 115, 388, and 504.)
Revised! Optional Calculator Corners are located where appropriate throughout the text.
These streamlined Calculator Corners are written to be accessible to students and to represent current calculators. A calculator icon indicates exercises suitable for calculator use. (See
pages 83, 177, 391, and 598.)
EXPOSITION
EXAMPLES WITH DETAILED
MARGIN EXERCISES
EXERCISE SETS
Objective Boxes begin each section. A boxed list of objectives is keyed by letter not only to section
subheadings, but also to the section exercise sets and the MidChapter Review and the Summary
and Review exercises, as well as to the answers to the questions in the Chapter Tests and Cumulative Reviews. This correlation enables students to easily find appropriate review material if they
need help with a particular exercise or skill at the objective level. (See pages 324, 435, and 624.)
New! Skill to Review exercises, found at the beginning of most sections, link to a section
objective and offer students a justintime review of a previously presented skill that relates to
new material in the section. For convenient studying, objective references are followed by two
practice exercises for immediate review and reinforcement. Answers to these exercises are given
at the bottom of the page for immediate feedback. (See pages 253, 527, and 633.)
Preface
xiii
Revised! Annotated Examples provide annotations and color highlighting to lead students
through the structured steps of the examples. The level of detail in these annotations is a significant reason for students success with this book. This edition contains over 160 new examples.
(See pages 389, 428, and 514.)
Revised! The art and photo program is designed to help students visualize mathematical
concepts and realdata applications. Many applications include source lines and feature graphs
and drawings similar to those students see in the media. The use of color is carried out in a methodical and precise manner so that it conveys a consistent meaning, which enhances the readability of the text. For example, the use of both red and blue in mathematical art increases
understanding of the concepts. When two lines are graphed using the same set of axes, one is
usually red and the other blue. Note that equation labels are the same color as the corresponding line to aid in understanding. (See pages 129, 160, 189, 467, 624, and 647.)
Revised! Margin Exercises, now located next to examples for easier navigation, accompany
examples throughout the text and give students the opportunity to work similar problems for
immediate practice and reinforcement of the concept just learned. Answers are now available at
the bottom of the page. (See pages 356, 521, and 706.)
Exercise Sets
To give students ample opportunity to practice what they have learned, each section is followed by an extensive exercise set keyed by letter to the section objectives for easy review and
remediation. In addition, students also have the opportunity to synthesize the objectives
from the current section with those from preceding sections. For Extra Help icons, shown at
the beginning of each exercise set, indicate supplementary learning resources that students
may need. This edition contains over 1000 new exercises.
Skill Maintenance Exercises, found in each exercise set, review concepts from other sections
in the text to prepare students for their final examination. Section and objective codes
appear next to each Skill Maintenance exercise for easy reference. All Skill Maintenance
answers are included in the text. (See pages 359, 532, and 592593.)
Vocabulary Reinforcement Exercises provide an integrated review of key terms that
students must know to communicate effectively in the language of mathematics.
These appear once per chapter in the Skill Maintenance portion of an exercise set.
(See pages 187, 353, and 568.)
Synthesis Exercises help build criticalthinking skills by requiring students to use what
they know to synthesize, or combine, learning objectives from the current section with
those from previous sections. These are available in most exercise sets. (See pages 267,
381, and 737.)
MidChapter Review
New!
A MidChapter Review gives students the opportunity to reinforce their understanding of the mathematical skills and concepts just covered before they move on to new material.
Section and objective references are included for convenient studying, and answers to all the
MidChapter Review exercises are included in the text. The types of exercises are as follows:
Concept Reinforcement are true/false questions that enhance students understanding of
mathematical concepts. These are also available in the Summary and Review at the end of the
chapter. (See pages 282, 450, and 622.)
Guided Solutions present workedout problems with blanks for students to fill in the correct
expressions to complete the solution. (See pages 282, 450, and 622.)
Mixed Review provides freeresponse exercises, similar to those in the preceding sections in
the chapter, reinforcing mastery of skills and concepts. (See pages 282, 450, and 622.)
Understanding Through Discussion and Writing lets students demonstrate their understanding of mathematical concepts by expressing their thoughts in spoken and written
form. This type of exercise is also found in each Chapter Summary and Review. (See
pages 283, 451, and 623.)
xiv
Preface
Matching Feature
Translating for Success problem sets give extra practice with the important Translate step of
the process for solving word problems. After translating each of ten problems into its appropriate equation or inequality, students are asked to choose from fifteen possible translations,
encouraging them to comprehend the problem before matching. (See pages 277, 468, and 746.)
Visualizing for Success problem sets ask students to match an equation or inequality with its
graph by focusing on characteristics of the equation or inequality and the corresponding attributes of the graph. This feature appears at least once in each chapter that contains graphing instruction and reviews graphing skills and concepts with exercises from all preceding chapters.
(See pages 213, 308, and 377.)
EndofChapter Material
Revised!
The Chapter Summary and Review at the end of each chapter is expanded to
provide more comprehensive intext practice and review. Section and objective references
and answers to all the Chapter Summary and Review exercises are included in the text.
(See pages 229, 401, and 661.)
Key Terms, Properties, and Formulas are highlighted, with page references for convenient
review. (See pages 229, 401, and 661.)
Concept Reinforcement offers true/false questions to enhance student understanding of
mathematical concepts. (See pages 229, 401, and 661.)
New! Important Concepts are listed by section objectives, followed by a workedout
example for reference and review and a similar practice exercise for students to solve.
(See pages 229234, 401404, and 661664.)
Review Exercises, including Synthesis exercises and two new multiplechoice exercises,
covering the whole chapter are organized by objective. (See pages 235237, 404406,
and 664666.)
Understanding Through Discussion and Writing exercises strengthen understanding by
giving students a chance to express their thoughts in spoken or written form. (See pages
237, 406, and 666.)
Chapter Tests, including Synthesis questions and a new multiplechoice question, allow students to review and test their comprehension of chapter skills prior to taking an instructors
exam. Answers to all questions in the Chapter Test are given at the back of the book. Section
and objective references for each question are included with the answers. (See pages 319, 495,
and 667.)
New! A Cumulative Review now follows every chapter starting with Chapter 2; this review
revisits skills and concepts from all preceding chapters to help students recall previously learned
material and prepare for exams. Answers to all Cumulative Review exercises are coded by section
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Preface
xv
Instructor Supplements
(ISBN: 9780321613745)
These classroom and labfriendly workbooks offer the
following resources for every section of the text: a list of
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Students Solutions Manual (ISBN: 9780321613752)
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Contains completely workedout annotated solutions for all
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evennumbered) in the MidChapter Reviews, the Summary
and Reviews, the Chapter Tests, and the Cumulative Reviews.
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xvi
Preface
a
o
n
h
e
sa
in
d
ce
sh
to
.p
w
sria
fn
u
ctInstructors
Irecd
xltsers
Resource Manual
(ISBN: 9780321613769)
Features resources and teaching tips designed to help both
new and adjunct faculty with course preparation and
classroom management.
New! Includes a minilecture for each section of the text
with objectives, key examples, and teaching tips.
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create and assign their own online exercises and import TestGen tests for added flexibility.
maintain records of all student work tracked in MathXLs online gradebook.
With MathXL, students can
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use the study plan to link directly to tutorial exercises for the objectives they need to study
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MathXL is available to qualified adopters. For information, visit our website at www.mathxl.com,
or contact your Pearson sales representative.
TestGen (www.pearsoned.com/testgen) enables instructors to build, edit, and print tests using
a computerized bank of questions developed to cover all the objectives of the text. TestGen is
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PowerPoint Lecture Slides present key concepts and definitions from the text. Slides are
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Preface
xvii
Acknowledgments
Our deepest appreciation to all of you who helped to shape this edition by reviewing and spending time with us on your campuses. In particular, we would like to thank the following reviewers
of Intermediate Algebra and Introductory and Intermediate Algebra:
Chris Copple, Northwest State Community College
Shreyas Desai, Atlanta Metropolitan College
Hope Essien, Malcolm X College
Karen S. Hale, Onondaga Community College
Dianne Hendrickson, Becker College
Vivian Olivia Jones, Valencia Community College
Qiana T. Lewis, Wilbur Wright College
Marcia Venzon, Texas A&M UniversityCorpus Christi
Ethel Wheland, University of Akron
The endless hours of hard work by Martha Morong, Geri Davis, and Judy Beecher have led to
products of which we are immensely proud. We also want to thank Judy Penna for writing the
Students and Instructors Solutions Manuals and for her strong leadership in the preparation of
the printed supplements and video lectures with Barbara Johnson. Other strong support has
come from Laurie Hurley for the Printed Test Forms and for accuracy checking, along with
checkers Holly Martinez and Barbara Johnson and proofreader Patty LaGree. Michelle Lanosga
assisted with applications research. We also wish to recognize Tom Atwater, Margaret Donlan,
and Patty Schwarzkopf, who wrote video scripts.
In addition, a number of people at Pearson have contributed in special ways to the development
and production of this textbook including the Developmental Math team: Vice President, Executive Director of Development Carol Trueheart, Senior Development Editor Dawn Nuttall, Production Manager Ron Hampton, Senior Designer Beth Paquin, Associate Editors Joanna Doxey
and Christine Whitlock, Editorial Assistant Jonathan Wooding, Associate Media Producer
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Kari Heen, Executive Project Manager, deserves special recognition for overseeing every phase
of the project and keeping it moving.
xviii
Preface
CONTACT
NAME
PHONE
FAX
OFFICE HOURS
LOCATION
Instructor
Campus Tutor
Campus Math Lab
Classmate
Classmate
Online resources
(learning resources in red, time management in blue, testtaking tips in green, other helpful tips in black)
Chapter 1
Chapter 5
1.2
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.4
1.4
Chapter 2
2.1 Small Steps Lead to Great
Success (p. 162)
2.1 QuizTest FollowUp (p. 166)
2.2 Asking Questions (p. 176)
2.4 Homework Tips (p. 198)
2.6 Highlighting (p. 221)
Chapter 3
3.2
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.5
Chapter 4
4.1
4.2
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
Chapter 6
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.6
6.8
Chapter 7
7.1
7.2
7.4
7.5
7.6
Chapter 8
8.6 Beginning to Study for the Final Exam:
Three Days to Two Weeks of
Study Time (p. 735)
8.7 Beginning to Study for the Final Exam:
One or Two Days of Study Time (p. 745)
Chapter 9
9.1 Budget Your Time (p. 770)
9.2 Final Study Tip (p. 779)
Visit mypearsonstore.com for more information on this text and its supplements.
Scheduling Success
Weekly Planner
Plan to succeed!
On this page, plan
a typical week.
Consider issues such
as class time, study
time, work time, travel
time, family time, and
relaxation time.
TIME
Sun.
Mon.
Tues.
Wed.
Thurs.
Fri.
6:00 AM
6:30
7:00
7:30
8:00
8:30
9:00
Important Dates
9:30
MidTerm Exam
10:00
10:30
Final Exam
11:00
11:30
12:00 PM
Holidays
12:30
1:00
1:30
2:00
2:30
3:00
Other
(Assignments, Quizzes, etc.)
3:30
4:00
4:30
5:00
5:30
6:00
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8:00
8:30
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9:30
10:00
10:30
11:00
11:30
12:00 AM
Visit mypearsonstore.com for more information on this text and its supplements.
Sat.
Review of
Basic Algebra
CHAPTER
PART 1 OPERATIONS
R.1
MANIPULATIONS
Properties of Exponents
and Scientific Notation
RealWorld Application
161.8
The rate of triplet and higherorder multiple births in the United States is 100,000
.
Write scientific notation for this birth rate.
R.1
PART 1 OPERATIONS
OBJECTIVES
a
WHOLE NUMBERS
Whole numbers are the set of natural numbers with 0 included:
50, 1, 2, 3, 6.
INTEGERS
To the student:
At the front of the text, you will
find a Student Organizer card.
This pullout card will help you
keep track of important dates
and useful contact information.
You can also use it to plan time
for class, study, work, and relaxation. By managing your time
wisely, you will provide yourself
the best possible opportunity to
be successful in this course.
Positive integers
0
Opposites
The set of integers extends infinitely to the left and to the right of 0. The
opposite of a number is found by reflecting it across the number 0. Thus the
opposite of 3 is 3. The opposite of  4 is 4. The opposite of 0 is 0. We read a
symbol like 3 as either the opposite of 3 or negative 3.
The natural numbers are called positive integers. The opposites of the
natural numbers (those to the left of 0) are called negative integers. Zero is
neither positive nor negative.
2. 6
3. 0
Answers
1.  9
2. 6
3. 0
CHAPTER R
EXAMPLE 1 Name the set consisting of the first six even whole numbers
using both roster notation and setbuilder notation.
Roster notation: 50, 2, 4, 6, 8, 106
Do Exercise 4.
The advantage of setbuilder notation is that we can use it to describe
very large sets that may be difficult to describe using roster notation. Such is
the case when we try to name the set of rational numbers. Rational numbers
can be named using fraction notation. The following are examples of rational
numbers:
5
,
8
12
,
7
17
9
,  ,
15
7
39
,
1
0
.
6
RATIONAL NUMBERS
A rational number can be expressed as an integer divided by a nonzero
integer. The set of rational numbers is
e
p
` p is an integer, q is an integer, and q Z 0 f.
q
Terminating
6
= 0.545454 = 0.54.
11
5
= 0.625 and
8
5.
11
16
6.
14
13
Repeating
The bar in 0.54 indicates the repeating block of digits in decimal notation.
Note that 39
1 = 39. Thus the set of rational numbers contains the integers.
Do Exercises 5 and 6.
Answers
R.1
2
1
4.13
4
However, there are many points on the line for which there is no rational
number. These points correspond to what are called irrational numbers.
1.898898889
10
5 4 3 2 1
2
0
p
2
13
4
IRRATIONAL NUMBERS
Irrational numbers are numbers whose decimal representation
neither terminates nor has a repeating block of digits. They cannot be
represented as the quotient of two integers.
CHAPTER R
The set of all rational numbers, combined with the set of all irrational
numbers, gives us the set of real numbers.
Real Numbers
Rational Numbers
Irrational Numbers
REAL NUMBERS
The set of real numbers is
5x x is a rational number or x is an irrational number6.
Every point on the number line represents some real number and every
real number is represented by some point on the number line.
Real
Numbers
Rational numbers
Irrational numbers
1.4
15
Rational numbers:
4
5, 7 , 0,
Irrational numbers:
7
, 9.45, 8.734
8
10,
3,
,
Integers:
19, 1, 0, 5, 23
Rational numbers
that are not integers:
5
, 2
, 19
,
8 3 7
15,
9.34334333433334 :
7.161161116 . . .
3.4
Negative integers:
Whole numbers:
19, 3, 1
0, 1, 2, 3, 29
Zero:
0
Positive integers
or natural numbers:
1, 2, 3, 29
Answer
Do Exercise 7.
R.1
2 7
1
4
10. 87
to write a true
4
11.  9.8
12. 6.78
6.77
14.
14
29
15. 
12
13
16. 1.8
 0.86
5
6.  2.7
1
4
4.97
8. 4.79
10.
5
8
3
2
 2.7
9.  8.45
17
32
5.  21
7. 1
4
5
 12
4. 7
67
3.  8
1
2
2
4
3
13. 
2. 4
1.32
7
11
14
15
1
The answer is 1 >2.7.
4
The answer is 4.79<4.97.
The answer is  8.45<1.32.
We convert to decimal notation a
5
= 0.625 and
8
7
5
7
= 0.6363 b and compare. Thus, < .
11
8
11
Do Exercises 816.
1.08
All positive real numbers are greater than zero and all negative real numbers are less than zero.
Note that  8 6 5 and 5 7  8 are both true. These are inequalities. Every
true inequality yields another true inequality if we interchange the numbers
or variables and reverse the direction of the inequality sign.
9. 7
10. 7
11. 6
12. 7
14. 6
15. 7
16. 7
CHAPTER R
12. 3 7  8
17. x 7 6
18.  4 6 7
19. 6  9.4
13. 8 5.7
14. 8  8
15.  7 4 13
 23
16.
 54
20.  18  18
Do Exercises 1922.
21. 7.6  10
22. 
4
5
25
24
27
28
4 3 2 1
The graph represents the solution set 5x x 7  36. Numbers in this set
include  2.6,  1, 0, p, 12, 3 78 , 5, and 123.
24. x 5
5 4 3 2 1
We make a drawing that represents the solution set 5x x 26. The graph
consists of 2 as well as the numbers less than 2. We shade all numbers to the
left of 2 and use a bracket at 2 to indicate that it is also a solution.
4 3 2 1
Answers
17. 6 6 x
20. True
23.
18. 7 7  4
19. True
21. False
22. True
1 0
24.
0
R.1
26. x 7 0
27. 4 7 x
28. 2 x
25. x 
d Absolute Value
We see that numbers like  6 and 6 are the same distance from 0 on the
number line. We call the distance of a number from 0 on the number line
the absolute value of the number. Since distance is always a nonnegative
number, the absolute value of a number is always greater than or equal to 0.
a)
4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
b)
6
c)
0
6 units
4 3 2 1
6
6 units
ABSOLUTE VALUE*
d)
4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
e)
f)
g)
h)
1
`
4
30. 2
19.  7
20. 12
21. 0
22. `
4
4
` =
5
5
32.  2.3
Do Exercises 2932.
Answers
25. (a)
1
4
29.
26. (c)
30. 2
27. (g)
28. (d)
3
32. 2.3
2
31.
CHAPTER R
R.1
a
Exercise Set
Given the numbers  6, 0, 1,  12,  4, 79, 12,  65, 3.45, 5 12, 13, 125,  12
3 , 0.131331333133331 :
7
Given the numbers  15,  3.43,  11, 12, 0, 11
34 ,  13 , p,  3.565665666566665 :
R.1
25. 13
26. 18
27. 8
28. 7
29.  8
30. 0
11
31. 8
3
32. 6
33.  2
12
34.  7
37. 37
1
5
1
67
100
35. 9.9
10
38.  13.99
8.45
39.
6
13
 2.2
7
36. 13
13
25
40. 
1
5
11
250
14
15
3
27
53
2
t
3
42. x 6 7
43.  12.7 y
44. 10
46. 7  7
47. 5  8.4
48.  11  13
49. x 6  2
50. x 6  1
4
51. x  2
52. x  1
4
10
CHAPTER R
1
2
53. x 7  3.3
54. x 6 0
55. x 2
56. x 0
4
57. 6
58.  3
62. 127
63. ` 
67. 986
68. 465
2
`
3
59. 28
60. 16
61.  35
64. ` 
65. 42.8
66. 16.4
69. `
13
`
8
0
`
7
70. `
0
`
 15
Synthesis
To the student and the instructor : The Synthesis exercises found at the end of every exercise set challenge students to combine
concepts or skills studied in that section or in preceding parts of the text.
Use either or for
71.  3
2
73. 4
7
74. 8
99
1
, 0.286,
, 1%,
1000
8
9
100
R.1
11
R.2
OBJECTIVES
a
a Addition
To gain an understanding of addition of real numbers, we first add using the
number line.
EXAMPLES
1. 6 + 182 =  2: We begin at 0 and move 6 units right since 6 is positive.
Then we move 8 units left since 8 is negative. The answer is 2.
8
6
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
6 (8) 2
1.  5 + 9
3
6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
2. 4 + 1 22
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
3 7 4
6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
3. 3 + 1 82
3.  2 + 1 52 =  7: We begin at 0 and move 2 units left since 2 is negative. Then we move 5 units further left since  5 is negative. The answer
is  7.
6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
4.  5 + 5
6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
2 (5) 7
Answers
1. 4
2. 2
12
3. 5
4. 0
CHAPTER R
Do Exercises 14.
Review of Basic Algebra
You may have noticed some patterns in the preceding examples. These
lead us to rules for adding without using the number line.
Rule 4 is known as the identity property of 0. It says that for any real
number a, a + 0 = a.
6.  48 + 31 =  17
7. 2.6 + 1 2.62 = 0
Add.
5. 7 + 1 112
6. 8.9 + 1  9.72
7. 
23
6
+ a b
5
5
8. 
2
3
+ a b
10
5
10. 7.4 + 0
11. 4 + 1  72
9.  7 + 7
8. 
5
5
+ 0 = 9
9
9. 
3
9
6
3
+
=
=
4
4
4
2
13.
2
5
16
15
1
+
= +
= 3
8
24
24
24
14. 
10. 
5
3
+ a b
8
8
3
7
+
5
10
Do Exercises 514.
Answers
5.  18
9. 0
13. 
R.2
1
4
6.  18.6
7. 
10. 7.4
11. 3
1
14.
10
29
5
7
10
12. 3.3
8. 
13
Suppose we add two numbers that are opposites, such as 4 and  4. The
result is 0. When opposites are added, the result is always 0. Such numbers are
also called additive inverses. Every real number has an opposite, or additive
inverse.
15. 14
2
3
16.
17. 0
Caution!
A symbol such as  8 is usually
read negative 8. It could be read
the opposite of 8, because the
opposite of 8 is  8. It could also
be read the additive inverse of 8,
because the additive inverse of 8 is
8. When a variable is involved, as
in a symbol like  x, it can be read
the opposite of x or the additive
inverse of x but not negative x,
because we do not know whether
the symbol represents a positive
number, a negative number, or 0.
It is never correct to read 8 as
minus 8.
12. 0
13.
 79
3
19. Evaluate  a when a =  .
5
20. Evaluate 1  a2 when a =  5.9.
21. Evaluate  1 a2 when a =
2
.
3
= 0.
To name the opposite, or additive inverse, we use the symbol  , and read
the symbolism a as the opposite of a or the additive inverse of a.
Do Exercises 1517.
7
9
b) If x =  5, then x =  1 52 = 5.
If x =  5, then 1 x2 =  11 522 =  152 =  5.
Answers
15. 14
19.
3
5
16. 
2
3
20.  5.9
14
17. 0
21.
18.  9
2
3
CHAPTER R
Signs of Numbers
A negative number is sometimes said to have a negative sign. A positive
number is said to have a positive sign. When we replace a number with its
opposite, or additive inverse, we can say that we have changed its sign.
22. Change the sign.
 1 32 = 3
16.
17. 0
0 = 0
18. 14
 38
A
 38
B =
a) 11
b)  17
3
8
 1142 =  14
c) 0
d) x
Do Exercise 22.
e)  x
We can now use the concept of opposite to give a more formal definition
of absolute value.
ABSOLUTE VALUE
For any real number a, the absolute value of a, denoted a , is given by
a = b
a,
if a 0, For example, 8 = 8 and 0 = 0.
 a, if a 6 0. For example,  5 =  152 = 5.
c Subtraction
SUBTRACTION
The difference a  b is the unique number c for which a = b + c.
That is, a  b = c if c is the number such that a = b + c.
Subtract.
23. 8  1  92
24. 10  6
For example, 3  5 = 2 because 3 = 5 + 1 22. That is, 2 is the number that when added to 5 gives 3. Although this illustrates the formal definition of subtraction, we generally use the following when we subtract.
25. 5  8
26. 23.7  5.9
27. 2  1 52
28. 
a  b = a + 1b2.
(We can subtract by adding the opposite (additive inverse) of the
number being subtracted.)
29.
23
11
 a b
12
12
2
5
 a b
3
6
30. a) 17  23
EXAMPLES Subtract.
19. 3  5 = 3 + 1 52 =  2
20. 7  1 32 = 7 + 132 = 10
b)  17  23
c)  17  1 232
Changing the sign of 5 and adding
Changing the sign of  3 and adding
Answers
22. (a) 11; (b) 17; (c) 0; (d)  x; (e) x
23. 17
24.  16
25.  3
26.  29.6
27. 3
3
28. 1
29.
30. (a)  6; (b)  40; (c) 6
2
4
2
4
2
20
6
14
 a b =  +
= +
= 3
5
3
5
15
15
15
R.2
15
2 # 5 =
3 # 5 = 15
3 # 5 =
2 5 =
4 # 5 =
5 # 5 =
6 # 5 =
#
#
#
#
1 5 =
0 5 =
d Multiplication
We know how to multiply positive numbers. What happens when we multiply
a positive number and a negative number?
Do Exercise 31.
1 5 =
Multiply.
32.  4 # 6
33. 13.521 8.12
34. 
EXAMPLES Multiply.
23.  3 # 5 =  15
4 #
10
5
24. 6 # 172 =  42
26. 3 # A  12 B =
3
1
# A  12 B =  32
41 52 =  20  11 52 =
31 52 =  15  21 52 =
21 52 =
 31 52 =
11 52 =
 41 52 =
01  52 =
 51 52 =
Do Exercise 35.
Multiply.
EXAMPLES Multiply.
36.  81 92
27.  3 # 1 52 = 15
4
2
37. a  b # a  b
5
3
A  34 B # A  52 B =
15
8
Do Exercises 3638.
e Division
DIVISION
The quotient a , b, or
a
, where b Z 0, is that unique real number c
b
for which a = b # c.
Answers
31. 10, 5, 0,  5,  10,  15,  20,  25,  30
32.  24
33.  28.35
34.  8
35.  10,
8
 5, 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25
36. 72
37.
15
38. 42.77
16
CHAPTER R
The definition of division parallels the one for subtraction. Using this
definition and the rules for multiplying, we can see how to handle signs when
dividing.
EXAMPLES Divide.
31.
10
=  5, because 5 # 1 22 = 10
2
32.
32
=  8, because 8 # 142 =  32
4
33.
25
= 5, because 5 # 1 52 =  25
5
34.
40
=  10
4
35.  10 , 5 =  2
36.
 10
1
= , or 0.25
 40
4
37.
10
10
=
, or 3.3
3
3
28
 14
40. 125 , 1 52
41.
 75
25
Do Exercises 3942.
Divide, if possible.
43.
8
0
44.
0
9
45.
17
2x  2x
46.
3x  3x
x  x
7
0
39.
0
= 0
7
40.
4
x  x
38.
Do Exercises 4346.
3
8
49. 18
48. 
4
5
50.  4.3
51. 0.5
PROPERTIES OF RECIPROCALS
Answers
39. 2
40. 25
43. Not defined
41. 3
42. 0.2
44. 0
45. Not defined
1
8
5
46. Not defined
47.
48. 49.
3
4
18
1
10
1
, or , or 2
50. 51.
4.3
43
0.5
R.2
17
NUMBER
OPPOSITE
(Additive
Inverse)
2
3
2
3
3
2
4 5
5
The reciprocal is , because # = 1.
4
5 4
42. 8
1
1
The reciprocal is , because 8 # = 1.
8
8
43. 
4
9

4
5
41.
RECIPROCAL
(Multiplicative
Inverse)
2
3
44. 0.25
2
3
3
The reciprocal is  , because  # a  b = 1.
2
3
2
The reciprocal is
1
or 4, because 0.25 # 4 = 1.
0.25
3
4
0.25
8
5
a
1
= a# .
b
b
7
3
,
4
8
7
12
54. , a b
5
15
55. 
56.
3
, 1  52
8
45.
1
3
1 5
5
,
= # =
4
5
4 3
12
46.
3
2
4
2
18
9
, a  b = # a  b =  , or 3
9
3
4
12
2
47. 
4
1
, a b
5
10
3
Inverting the divisor, , and multiplying
5
5
5 1
5
, 3 =  # = 7
7 3
21
Do Exercises 5356.
The following properties can be used to make sign changes.
and
a
a
= .
b
b
Answers
4 9 3 4
1
1
, ; ,  ;  0.25,
, or 4;  8, ; 5,
9 4 4 3
0.25
8
36
1
6
 ; 0, does not exist
53. 54.
5
7
7
3
55.
56.  8
40
52. 
18
CHAPTER R
and
4
4
= .
9
9
R.2
a
Exercise Set
Add.
1.  10 + 1 182
2. 13 + 1  122
3. 7 + 1 22
4. 7 + 1 52
5.  8 + 1 82
6.  6 + 1  62
7. 7 + 1 112
8. 9 + 1 122
9. 16 + 6
10.  21 + 11
11.  26 + 0
12. 0 + 1  322
17. 
21.
5
2
+
9
9
3
2
+ a b
5
10
18. 
3
1
+
7
7
19. 
5
11
+ a b
12
12
20. 
3
7
+ a b
8
8
22. 
3
1
+
4
8
23. 
2
3
+
5
4
24. 
7
5
+ a b
6
8
25. a =  4
26. a =  9
27. a = 3.7
28. a = 0
31. 0
32.  2x
30. 
2
3
Subtract.
33. 3  7
34. 8  13
35.  5  9
36. 6  14
37. 23  23
38. 23  1  232
39.  23  23
41.  6  1  112
42.  7  1 122
43. 10  1 52
44. 28  1 162
R.2
19
49. 
7
21
 a b
4
4
50. 
16
3
 a b
5
5
51. 
53. 
5
3
4
6
54. 
2
4
3
5
55.
Multiply.
1
1
 a b
3
12
1
4
3
5
52. 
7
5
 a b
8
2
56. 
4
5
 a b
7
9
57. 31 72
58. 51 82
59. 2 # 4
60.  5 # 9
62.  51 72
63.  7 # 16
64.  8 # 19
67. 
2
69.  3 a  b
3
3
70. 5 a  b
5
71.  31 42152
73. 1  4.2216.32
76. 
5
13 #
a b
7
2
20
CHAPTER R
77. 
2
2
2 #
a b # a b
3
3
3
3 # 4
5 7
68. 
5 # 11
4 3
75. 
11
9 #
a b
11
9
78. 
4
4
4 #
a b # a b
5
5
5
e
79.
Divide, if possible.
8
4
84. 48 , 1 62
89.
0
32
80.
16
2
81.
56
8
82.
63
7
85.
 5.4
 18
86.
 8.4
12
87.
5
0
88.
90.
0
17
91.
9
y  y
92.
2x  2x
2x  2x
92
0
3
4
94.
98. 65
7
8
96. 
5
6
100. 0.8
101. 
a
b
9
10
95. 
99. 0.2
97. 25
102.
1
8x
Divide.
103.
2
11
, a b
7
3
104.
6
3
, a b
5
7
105. 
10
2
, a b
3
15
106. 
113.
2
3
, a b
4
3
115. 
3
5
, a b
4
4
116. 
5
5
, a b
9
6
117. 
119. 
3
8
, a b
8
3
120. 
5
5
, a b
8
6
114.
2
4
, a b
3
9
12
3
, a b
5
10
5
1
, a b
8
2
118. 
3
5
, a b
5
8
R.2
21
123.
 12
 13
124.
1.9
20
125.
48.6
30
126.
17.8
3.2
127.
9
17  17
128.
8
6 + 6
NUMBER
OPPOSITE
(Additive
Inverse)
RECIPROCAL
(Multiplicative
Inverse)
NUMBER
2
3

5
4
OPPOSITE
(Additive
Inverse)
RECIPROCAL
(Multiplicative
Inverse)
3
8
7
10
1
 4.5
 6.4
x, x Z 0
a, a Z 0
Skill Maintenance
This heading indicates that the exercises that follow are Skill Maintenance exercises, which review any skill previously studied in
the text. You can expect such exercises in every exercise set. Answers to all skill maintenance exercises are found at the back of
the book. If you miss an exercise, restudy the objective shown in red.
Given the numbers 13,  12.47,  13, 26, p, 0, 
23 7
,
, 4.57557555755557 :
32 11
[R.1a]
3
8
139.  45.6
 23.8
140. 123
 10
Synthesis
1
1
+
.
r1
r2
r1
r2
22
CHAPTER R
R.3
a Exponential Notation
OBJECTIVES
EXPONENTIAL NOTATION
a # a # a a # a.
n factors
Caution!
an does not mean to multiply n times a. For example, 32 means 3 # 3, or 9,
not 3 # 2, or 6.
1. 7 # 7 # 7 = 73
1. 8 # 8 # 8 # 8
2. xxxxx = x5
3.
2 4
2 # 2 # 2 # 2
= a b
3 3 3 3
3
2. mmmmmm
Do Exercises 13.
3.
7 # 7 # 7
8 8 8
EXAMPLES Evaluate.
4. 92 = 9 # 9 = 81
1 3
1 1 1
1
5. a b = # # =
2
2 2 2
8
Evaluate.
7 2
7 7
49
6. a b = # =
8
8 8
64
4. 34
1 2
5. a b
4
6. 1 1026
7. 10.223
8. 15.824
9.  44
10. 1 324
R.3
Answers
7 3
1
3. a b
4. 81
5.
8
16
6. 1,000,000
7. 0.008
8. 1131.6496
9.  256
10. 81
1. 84
2. m6
23
104 = 10 # 10 # 10 # 10 = 10,000
103 = 10 # 10 # 10 = 1000
102 = 10 # 10 = 100
On this side,
we divide by 10
at each step.
101 = ?
100 = ?
In order for the pattern to continue, 101 would have to be 10 and 100 would
have to be 1. We will agree that exponents of 1 and 0 have that meaning.
EXPONENTS OF 0 AND 1
For any number a, we agree that a1 means a.
For any nonzero number a, we agree that a0 means 1.
13. 1 9721 =  97
12. 41 = 4
11. 81
15. 1 37.420 = 1
14. 60 = 1
12. 1  3121
Lets consider a justification for not defining 00. By examining the pattern
= 1, 20 = 1, and 10 = 1, we might think that 00 should be 1. However, by
examining the pattern 03 = 0, 02 = 0, and 01 = 0, we might think that 00
should be 0. To avoid this confusion, mathematicians agree not to define 00.
30
13. 30
14. 1  720
15. y 0, where y Z 0
Do Exercises 1115.
102 = 100
101 = 10
100 = 1
On this side,
we divide by 10
at each step.
101 = ?
102 = ?
1
In order for the pattern to continue, 101 would have to be 10
and 102 would
1
have to be 100. This leads to the following agreement.
NEGATIVE EXPONENTS
For any real number a that is nonzero and any integer n,
a n =
Answers
11. 8
12.  31
24
13. 1
14. 1
CHAPTER R
15. 1
1
.
an
1
y5
18. 1223 =
1 3
19. a b =
2
2
20. a b
5
17.
1
1
1
1
=
=
= 3
8
8
1221  221  22
1 22
1
A B
1
=
1 3
2
2
1
= t4
t 4
A B
2 2
5
1
8
1
=
4
25
8
= 1# = 8
1
25
25
= 1#
=
4
4
Caution!
A negative exponent does not necessarily indicate that an answer is
negative! For example, 32 means 1>32, or 1>9, not  9.
Do Exercises 1620.
16. m4
17. 1 423
1
18. 3
x
1 3
19. a b
5
3 2
20. a b
4
1
= x 2
x2
22.
1
= 1 724
1 724
21.
22.
a3
1 524
c Order of Operations
What does 8 + 2 # 53 mean? If we add 8 and 2 and multiply by 53, or 125, we
get 1250. If we multiply 2 times 125 and add 8, we get 258. Both results cannot
be correct. To avoid such difficulties, we make agreements about which
operations should be done first.
Answers
16.
m4
16
20.
9
17. 
1
64
21. a 3
18. x 3
19. 125
22. 1524
25
= 8 + 250
= 258
Adding
82  102 = 64  100 =  36
Simplify.
23. 43  52 # 80
24.
35
34
32
25. 62 # 8 + 4 3  152  64 , 42
= 34 + 62 # 8  2129 + 1322
= 34 + 62 # 8  211612
= 81 + 62 # 8  211612
= 81 + 496  211612
= 81 + 496  322
= 577  322
= 255
17  422 and 72  4 2.
Do Exercises 2326.
When parentheses occur within parentheses, we can make them different
shapes, such as 3 4 (also called brackets) and 5 6 (usually called braces).
Parentheses, brackets, and braces all have the same meaning. When parentheses occur within parentheses, computations in the innermost ones are to be
done first.
5  56  33  17 + 3246 = 5  56  33  1046
= 5  56  3 746
= 5  13
= 8
Answers
23.  4117
26
24. 27
25. 551
CHAPTER R
26. 9; 33
Adding 7 + 3
Subtracting 3  10
Subtracting
6  3 74
= 7  3 9  204
= 7  3294
Simplify.
27. 6  55  32  18 + 20246
= 36
Do Exercises 27 and 28.
28. 5 + 56  32 + 15  2246
EXAMPLE 29 Calculate:
12 7  9 + 8 # 5
32 + 2 3
12 2 + 8 # 5
9 + 8
#
12122 + 8 5
17
Simplify.
29.
64
24 + 40
=
.
17
17
Do Exercises 29 and 30.
30.
8 # 7  6  8 
52 + 63
18  322 + 17  1022
32  2 3
Calculator Corner
Order of Operations Computations are usually entered on a graphing calculator in the same way in which we would
write them. To calculate 5 + 3 # 4, for example, we press 5 a 3 b 4 [. The result is 17.
53 4
When an expression contains grouping symbols, we enter them using the ( and ) keys. To calculate
7(112)24
7111  22  24, we press 7 ( 1 1 c 2 ) c 2 4 [. The result is 39.
(45135)/(217)
Since a fraction bar acts as a grouping symbol, we must supply parentheses when entering some fraction
45 + 135
expressions. To calculate
, for example, we enter it as 145 + 1352 , 12  172. The result is 12.
2  17
Exercises: Calculate.
1. 48 , 2 # 3  4 # 4
2. 48 , 12 # 3  42 # 4
4.
17
39
12
172  311
16  7
Answers
27. 25
28. 6
29.
54
241
30. 34
27
R.3
a
Exercise Set
1. 4 # 4 # 4 # 4 # 4
2. 6 # 6 # 6
3. 5 # 5 # 5 # 5 # 5 # 5
4. x # x # x # x
5. mmm
6. ttttt
8. 13.8213.8213.8213.8213.82
7 # 7 # 7 # 7
12 12 12 12
4
4
4
10. a  b a  b a  b
5
5
5
9. 1123.721123.72
Evaluate.
11. 2 7
12. 93
13. 1 225
14. 1 722
1 4
15. a b
3
16. 10.126
17. 1 423
18. 1 324
19. 1  5.622
2 4
20. a b
3
21. 51
22. A 16 B 1
23. 34 0
5 1
24. a b
2
25. A 16 B 0
26. 1 420
7 1
27. a b
8
28. 1 8720
5 4
32. a b
2
1 2
29. a b
4
1 3
30. a b
5
2 3
31. a b
3
33. y 5
34. x 6
35.
37. 1  1121
38. 1 423
28
CHAPTER R
1
a 2
36.
1
y 7
7.
42.
1
40. 2
9
34
1
n5
43.
41.
1  1622
44.
1
b3
1  826
Simplify.
45. 12  415  12
46. 6  418  52
1
52. 348 , 1 324 , a  b
4
54. 30 # 10  18 # 25
55. 15 + 722; 52 + 72
56. 19  1222; 92  12 2
57. 2 3 + 2 4  20 # 30
58. 7 # 8  32  2 3
59. 53 + 36 # 72  118 + 25 # 42
60. 4 3 + 20 # 10 + 72  23
62. 19 # 8 + 3 # 322
67. 18  2 # 3  9
68. 18  12 # 3  92
29
1
71. 324 , 1  324 , a  b
2
73. 15 # 1 242 + 50
74. 30 # 20  15 # 24
75. 4 , 18  1022 + 1
77. 63 + 25 # 71  116 + 25 # 42
78. 53 + 20 # 40 + 82  29
81. 4 # 5  2 # 6 + 4
83. 4 # 16 + 82>14 + 32
84. 4 3>8
85. 32 # 15  3242
86. 53  72
89. 19  51  32 + 3
90. 14  21 62 + 7
91. 9 , 1 32 + 16 , 8
92.  32  8 , 4  1 22
93. 7 + 10  1 10 , 22
94. 13  822
95. 52  82
96. 28  103
97. 20 + 4 3 , 1 82
30
CHAPTER R
69. 118  2 # 32  9
99.  71342 + 18
102. 1000 , 1 1002 , 10
105.
107.
104.
52  4 3  8
92
22
106.
15
3018  32  4110  32
108.
10 2  6  215 + 22
20  62
92 + 32
46  7  5 # 4
6 # 7  84  1
53  32 + 12 # 5
 32 , 1 162 , 1 42
Skill Maintenance
Find the absolute value.
109. ` 
[R.1d]
9
`
7
110. 2.3
111. 0
112.  900
113. 23  56
114. 23  56
115.  23  1 562
116.  23 + 1 562
117. 1 10212.32
15
2
120. a  b a  b
3
16
Compute. [R.2a, c, d]
Synthesis
Simplify.
The symbol
124.
125.
Find 10.2210.22 .
1
126.
127. Find 12 + 321 and 2 1 + 3 1 and determine whether they are equivalent.
31
R.4
PART 2 MANIPULATIONS
OBJECTIVES
a
Translate a phrase to an
algebraic expression.
Evaluate an algebraic
expression by substitution.
7
, and 52  32.
8
ALGEBRAIC
EXPRESSIONS
EQUATIONS
10
x  5
11x
y 2 + 2y
t = 10
x  5 = 10
x  5 = 11x
y 2 + 2y = 1 + y
d
, and
t
When a letter is used to stand for various numbers, it is called a variable. Let
t = the number of hours that a passenger jet has been flying. Then t is a variable, because t changes as the flight continues. If a letter represents one particular number, it is called a constant. Let d = the number of hours in a day. Then
d is a constant.
An algebraic expression consists of variables, numbers, and operation
signs, such as +, , # , ,. All the expressions above are examples of algebraic
expressions. When an equals sign, = , is placed between two expressions, an
equation is formed.
We compare algebraic expressions with equations in the table at left.
Note that none of the expressions has an equals sign 1 =2.
Do Exercise 1.
Equations can be used to solve applied problems. To illustrate this, consider the bar graph below, which shows farm income for several recent years.
b) 3x  7 = 18
c)  31x  52 + 17
Farm Income
d) 7 = t  4
$100
$88.7
$92.3
2007
2008
75
$59.0
50
25
0
2006
Year
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Agriculture
Answer
1. (b) and (d)
32
CHAPTER R
x 2  y 2.
88.7
Farm income
in 2008
is
Farm income
How much
in 2007
plus
more
92.3.
To find the number that x represents, we subtract 88.7 on both sides of the
equation:
88.7 + x = 92.3
88.7 + x  88.7 = 92.3  88.7
Subtracting 88.7
x = 3.6.
We see that farm income was $3.6 billion higher in 2008 than in 2007.
Do Exercise 2.
KEY WORDS
ADDITION
SUBTRACTION
MULTIPLICATION
DIVISION
add
sum
plus
total
increased by
more than
subtract
difference
minus
decreased by
less than
multiply
product
times
twice
of
divide
quotient
divided by
ratio
per
Answer
2. 59.0 + x = 92.3; $33.3 billion
R.4
33
43% = 0.43
r
10.432 #  5
s
Half of a number
Five more than three times some number
The difference of two numbers
Six less than the product of two numbers
ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION
n + 5, or 5 + n
t
1
t, or
2
2
3p + 5, or 5 + 3p
x  y
rs  6
76
0.76z, or
z
100
2x  8
Do Exercises 38.
34
CHAPTER R
5. 16  x
We substitute and carry out the calculations according to the rules for
order of operations:
Do Exercises 914.
Geometric formulas must often be evaluated in applied problems. In the
next example, we use the formula for the area A of a triangle with a base of
length b and a height of length h:
A = 12 bh.
1
2
bh =
1
2
# 6.4 # 8
= 25.6 m2.
Do Exercise 15.
Substituting
= 5 + 21322
= 5 + 2192
Simplifying 32
= 5 + 18
Multiplying
= 23
Adding
Substituting
= 9  8 + 6 , 2 # 25
Simplifying 2 3 and 52
= 9  8 + 3 # 25
Dividing
= 9  8 + 75
Multiplying
= 1 + 75
Subtracting
= 76
Adding
Do Exercises 1618.
18. Evaluate 8  x 3 + 10 , 5y 2
when x = 4 and y = 6.
Answers
R.4
9. 84
10.  126
11. 50
12. 120
13. 42
14.  146
15. 96 ft2
16. 64
17. 64
18. 16
35
Exercise Set
R.4
1. 8 more than b
2. 11 more than t
5. 5 increased by q
6. 18 increased by z
7. b more than a
8. c more than d
9. x divided by y
10. c divided by h
11. x plus w
12. s added to t
18. Twice z
Evaluate.
29.
a
, when a =  24 and b =  8
b
30.
x
, when x = 30 and y =  6
y
31.
m  n
, when m = 36 and n = 4
8
32.
5
, when p = 20 and q = 30
p + q
33.
5z
, when z = 9 and y = 2
y
34.
18m
, when m = 7 and n = 18
n
36
CHAPTER R
Simple Interest.
The simple interest I on a principal of P dollars at interest rate r for t years is given by I = Prt.
r 27 in.
Skill Maintenance
Evaluate.
[R.3a]
35
46. 1 325
47. 1  1022
48. 1  1024
49. 1  5.322
3 2
50. a b
5
51. 14.520
52. 14.521
53. 13x21
54. 13x20
45.
Synthesis
Translate to an equation.
55. The distance d that a rapid transit train in the Denver
airport travels in time t at a speed r is given by speed
times time. Write an equation for d.
Evaluate.
57.
x + y
3y
, when x = 2 and y = 4
+
2
2
58.
2.56y
, when y = 3 and x = 4
3.2x
R.4
37
R.5
OBJECTIVES
a
EQUIVALENT EXPRESSIONS
Two expressions that have the same value for all allowable
replacements are called equivalent expressions.
x 2x
3x
8x x
x = 2
x = 5
Complete each table by evaluating
each expression for the given values.
Then look for expressions that may
be equivalent.
x = 0
We substitute and find the value of each expression. For example, for
x =  2,
1.
VALUE
6x x
5x
8x x
x + 2x = 2 + 2122 =  2  4 =  6,
x = 2
3x = 31 22 =  6,
and
x = 8
x = 0
VALUE
x 2x
3x
8x x
x = 2
2.
VALUE
x = 2
1x 322
x = 5
x2 9
x = 0
x = 5
Note that the values of x + 2x and 3x are the same for the given values of x. Indeed, they are the same for any allowable realnumber replacement of x, though we cannot substitute them all to find out. The
expressions x + 2x and 3x are equivalent. But the expressions x + 2x
and 8x  x are not equivalent, and the expressions 3x and 8x  x are not
equivalent. Although 3x and 8x  x have the same value for x = 0, they are
not equivalent since values are not the same for all x.
x = 4.8
Answers
1.  10,  10, 18; 40, 40, 72; 0, 0, 0; 6x  x and
5x are equivalent.
2. 1, 13; 64, 34; 60.84,
32.04; the expressions are not equivalent.
38
CHAPTER R
Do Exercises 1 and 2.
Note that the expressions 3>5 and 6x>110x2 are equivalent. They have the
same value for any allowable replacement. Note too that 0 is not an allowable
replacement in 6x>110x2, but for all nonzero real numbers, the expressions
3>5 and 6x>110x2 have the same value.
Do Exercises 3 and 4.
EXAMPLE 3 Simplify:
7x
.
9x
7 # x
9 x
7 #
1
9
x
= 1
x
7
.
9
EXAMPLE 4 Simplify: 
Simplify.
2y
5.
3y
24y
.
16y
6. 
24y
3 # 8y
3 8y
3
3
=  #
=  #
=  #1 = 16y
2 8y
2 8y
2
2
20m
12m
Answers
Do Exercises 5 and 6.
R.5
3.
2y
7y
4.
8x
44x
5.
2
3
6. 
5
3
39
y + x = 8 + 5 = 13.
yx = 3 # 4 = 12.
Do Exercises 7 and 8.
Note that the expressions x + y and y + x have the same values no
matter what the variables stand for. Thus they are equivalent. They illustrate
that when we add two numbers, the order in which we add does not matter.
Similarly, when we multiply two numbers, the order in which we multiply
does not matter. Thus the expressions xy and yx are equivalent. They have
the same values no matter what the variables stand for. These are examples
of general patterns or laws.
a + 1b + c2 = 4 + 18 + 52
= 4 + 13
= 17;
1a + b2 + c = 14 + 82 + 5
= 12 + 5
Answers
7. 2; 2
= 17
8. 14;  14
40
CHAPTER R
Substituting
Calculating within parentheses first:
adding 8 and 5
Substituting
Calculating within parentheses first:
adding 4 and 8
a # 1b # c2 = 7 # 14 # 22 = 7 # 8 = 56;
9. Evaluate
a + 1b + c2 and 1a + b2 + c
1a # b2 # c = 17 # 42 # 2 = 28 # 2 = 56
10. Evaluate
a # 1b # c2 and 1a # b2 # c
Since grouping symbols can be placed any way we please when only additions or only multiplications are involved, we often omit them. For example,
x + 1y + 32 means x + y + 3,
and
b) 1x + 82 + y = y + 1x + 82
= y + 18 + x2
c) 1x + 82 + y = 18 + x2 + y
= 8 + 1x + y2
8x + 8y = 8 # 4 + 8 # 5
= 8192
= 32 + 40
= 72;
= 72
Answers
9. 21; 21
10. 440; 440
11. 5 + y ; ba;
mn + 8, or nm + 8, or 8 + nm
12. 2 # 1x # y2;
12 # y2 # x; 1y # 22 # x; answers may vary
R.5
41
 b2 = 12 142  782
=
1
2 1 362
1
2a
=  18;
 12 b =
1
2
# 42 
1
2
# 78
= 21  39
=  18
Multiply.
17. 81y  102
18. a1x + y  z2
1
19. 10 a 4x  6y + z b
2
EXAMPLES Multiply.
12. 41x  22 = 4 # x  4 # 2 = 4x  8
13. b1s  t + f 2 = bs  bt + bf
Answers
13. 180; 180
14. 27; 27; 27
15. 10; 10
16. 24; 24
17. 8y  80
18. ax + ay  az
19. 40x  60y + 5z
42
CHAPTER R
 5x  7y + 67t 
Do Exercise 20.
4
.
5
FACTORS
To factor an expression is to find an equivalent expression that is a
product. If N = ab, then a and b are factors of N.
EXAMPLES Factor.
17. 8x + 8y = 81x + y2
18. cx  cy = c1x  y2
= P11 + rt2
21. 9x + 9y
22. ac  ay
Factor.
23. 6x  12
Do Exercises 2125.
Answers
4
21. 91x + y2
5
22. a1c  y2
23. 61x  22
24. 517x  5y + 3w + 12
25. b1s + t  w2
20. 5x,  7y, 67t, 
R.5
43
Exercise Set
R.5
a
Complete each table by evaluating each expression for the given values. Then look for expressions that are equivalent.
1.
VALUE
2x 3x
2.
VALUE
x = 2
x = 2
x = 5
x = 5
x = 0
x = 0
3.
4x 8x
VALUE
x = 1
41x 3x2
41x 2x2
4.
VALUE
x = 1
x = 3.2
x = 4.6
x = 0
x = 0
b
5.
2x 3x
5x
7x 2x
5x
7x 2x
51x 22
5x 2
5x 10
6.
4
; 3a
3
7.
3
; 8a
4
8.
3
; 50y
10
12.
 625t
15t
Simplify.
25x
15x
10.
36y
18y
11. 
100a
25a
13. w + 3
14. y + 5
15. rt
16. cd
17. 4 + cd
18. pq + 14
19. yz + x
20. s + qt
23. 17 # x2 # y
24. 17 + p2 + q
22. 5 # 1p # q2
Use the commutative and the associative laws to find three equivalent expressions.
25. 1a + b2 + 8
26. 14 + x2 + y
27. 7 # 1a # b2
28. 18 # m2 # n
30. 31c + 12
31. 81x  y2
32. 71b  c2
Multiply.
29. 41a + 12
44
CHAPTER R
9.
35. 2a1b  c + d2
37. 2pr1h + 12
39.
36. 5x1y  z + w2
1
h1a + b2
2
40.
1
pr11 + s2
4
43. 2x  3y  2z
44. 5a  7b  9c
46. 9a + 9b
47. 7p  7
48. 22x  22
49. 7x  21
50. 6y  36
51. xy + x
52. ab + a
53. 2x  2y + 2z
54. 3x + 3y  3z
55. 3x + 6y  3
56. 4a + 8b  4
57. 4w  12z + 8
58. 8m + 4n  24
61. ab + ac  ad
62. xy  xz + xw
63.
41. 4a  5b + 6
Factor.
1
1
prr + prs
4
4
64.
1
1
ah + bh
2
2
Skill Maintenance
Translate to an algebraic expression. [R.4a]
65. The square of the sum of two numbers
Subtract.
[R.2c]
68. 
11
17
 a b
5
10
69. 
1
1
a b
4
2
Synthesis
Make substitutions to determine whether each pair of expressions is equivalent.
71. x 2 + y 2; 1x + y22
73. x 2 # x 3; x 5
R.5
74.
x8
x4
; x2
45
R.6
OBJECTIVES
a
Simplify an expression by
collecting like terms.
Simplify an expression by
removing parentheses and
collecting like terms.
2. x  3x = 1 # x  3 # x = 11  32x =  2x
3. 2x + 3y  5x  2y
= 2x + 3y + 15x2 + 1 2y2
= 2x + 1 5x2 + 3y + 12y2
= 12  52x + 13  22y
=  3x + y
Simplifying
4. 3x + 2x + 5 + 7 = 13 + 22x + 15 + 72 = 5x + 12
2. 5x  12x
= 3. 5x + x
4. x  7x
2
3
4
5
x  y + x  y + 23
3
4
5
6
2.  7x
5. 23.4x + 3.9y
46
Do Exercises 16.
3. 6x
4. 6x
19
22
x y + 23
15
12
6.
CHAPTER R
1
17
a +
b
20
10
You need not write the intervening steps when you can do the computations mentally.
Answers
1. 20x
12
5
4
5
ba + a
bb
20
20
10
10
b Multiplying by 1 and
Removing Parentheses
EXAMPLES
3
3
8.  1 # a  b =
5
5
7.  1 # 9 =  9
7.  1 # 24
9. 1 # 0 = 0
8.  1 # 0
9.  1 # 1 102
Do Exercises 79.
THE PROPERTY OF 1
For any number a,
 1 # a =  a.
(Negative 1 times a is the opposite of a. In other words, changing the
sign is the same as multiplying by  1.)
= 1 1 # 32x
=  3x
= 3 11 924y
= 9y
Replacing  with 1
Using an associative law
Multiplying
10. 19x2
11.  1  24t2
=  1 # 4 + 1 12 # x
=  4 + 1x2
= 4  x
Replacing  with  1
Multiplying using the distributive law
Replacing  1 # x with  x
Adding an opposite is the same
as subtracting.
= 1 # 3x  1122y + 1 124
=  3x  1 2y2 + 1 42
Using the
distributive law
Multiplying
Adding an opposite
=  3x + 2y  4
14.  1a  b2 =  11a  b2 =  1 # a  112 # b
Answers
=  a + 31 12b4 =  a + b = b  a
7.  24
11. 24t
R.6
8. 0
9. 10
10.  9x
47
13.  1x  y2
15.  123x  7y  22
16. 1  3x  2y  12
Do Exercises 1216.
Examples 1014 show that we can find an equivalent expression for an
opposite by multiplying every term by  1. We could also say that we change
the sign of every term inside the parentheses. Thus we can skip some steps.
17.  1 2x  5z + 242
We have
 A  9t + 7z  14 w B = 9t  7z + 14 w.
Do Exercises 1719.
In some expressions commonly encountered in algebra, there are parentheses preceded by subtraction signs. These parentheses can be removed by
changing the sign of every term inside. In this way, we simplify by finding a
less complicated equivalent expression.
= 6x  4x  2
= 2x  2
17. 3y  4  19y  72 = 3y  4  9y + 7
=  6y + 3, or 3  6y
Remove parentheses and simplify.
20. 6x  13x + 82
21. 6y  4  12y  52
22. 6x  19y  42  18x + 102
23. 7x  1 9y  42 + 18x  102
In Example 16, we see the reason for the word simplify. The expression
2x  2 is equivalent to 6x  14x + 22 but it is shorter.
If parentheses are preceded by an addition sign, no signs are changed
when they are removed.
EXAMPLES
Answers
12. y  7
13. y  x
14. 9x  6y  11
15.  23x + 7y + 2
16. 3x + 2y + 1
17. 2x + 5z  24
1
18.  3x + 2y
19.  t  41w + 5d + 23
4
20. 3x  8
21. 4y + 1
22. 2x  9y  6
23. 15x + 9y  6
48
CHAPTER R
1
3 115x
 42  15x + 2y2 + 1 =
1
3
# 15x 
= 5x 
4
3
=  2y Do Exercises 2023.
1
3
# 4  5x  2y + 1
 5x  2y + 1
1
3
EXAMPLES
= x  3x  3y
=  2x  3y
Caution!
A common error is to forget to change this sign. Remember: When multiplying
by a negative number, change the sign of every term inside the parentheses.
Remove parentheses and simplify.
21. 3y  214y  52 = 3y  8y + 10
24. x  21y + x2
Removing parentheses by
multiplying 4y  5 by 2
=  5y + 10
Do Exercises 2426.
1
14a  32 + 5
4
= 32x + 14  4 24  12  x2
= 32x + 14  164  12  x2
= 32x  24  12  x2
= 2x  2  2 + x
= 3x  4
Simplify.
= 6y  5433y  6  4y  84  36
= 6y  543 y  144  36
= 6y  5 4y  56  36
= 6y  5 4y  596
30. 9a +
53a  231a  42  1a + 2246
= 6y + 4y + 59
Removing braces
= 10y + 59
Simplify.
R.6
Answers
24.  x  2y
49
Exercise Set
R.6
a
1. 7x + 5x
2. 6a + 9a
3. 8b  11b
4. 9c  12c
5. 14y + y
6. 13x + x
7. 12a  a
8. 15x  x
9. t  9t
13. 3x  5y + 8x
10. x  6x
11. 5x  3x + 8x
12. 3x  11x + 2x
14. 4a  9b + 10a
15. 3c + 8d  7c + 4d
16. 12a + 3b  5a + 6b
17. 4x  7 + 18x + 25
18. 13p + 5  4p + 7
21.
2
5
4
7
a + b  27  a  b
3
6
5
6
1
1
1
1
22.  x  x + y + y  34
4
2
4
2
l
w
50
CHAPTER R
25.  1 2c2
26. 1  5y2
27. 1b + 42
28. 1a + 92
29. 1b  32
30. 1x  82
31.  1t  y2
32. 1r  s2
33. 1x + y + z2
34.  1r + s + t2
37.  1 2c + 5d  3e + 4f 2
38.  1 4x + 8y  5w + 9z2
1
b
4
40.  a x + 2y 
2
z  56.3wb
3
41. a + 12a + 52
42. x + 15x + 92
43. 4m  13m  12
44. 5a  14a  32
45. 5d  9  17  4d2
46. 6x  7  19  3x2
48.  91 y + 72  61 y  32
R.6
51
49. 5x  712x  32  4
50. 8y  415y  62 + 9
1
1
124x  82  1 8x + 62  14
4
2
Simplify.
1
1
54.  110t  w2 + 1 28t + 42 + 1
2
4
52
CHAPTER R
53.
Skill Maintenance
Add.
[R.2a]
69. 17 + 1 542
Divide.
70.  17 + 1 542
72. 
2
7
+
3
8
76. 
3
9
,
8
4
78.  812a  3b + 42
80.
83. ab  ac + a
[R.2e]
73. 256 , 16
Multiply. [R.5d]
77. 81a  b2
Factor.
2
124x  12y + 152
3
[R.5d]
81. 24a  24
Synthesis
Insert one pair of parentheses to convert the false statement into a true statement.
85. 3  82 + 9 = 34
86. 2 # 7 + 32 # 5 = 104
87. 5 # 2 3 , 3  4 4 = 40
88. 2  7 # 2 2 + 9 =  11
Simplify.
R.6
53
R.7
OBJECTIVES
a # a = a 5.
3 factors
2 factors
EXAMPLES
1. x 4 # x 3 = x 4 + 3 = x 7
2. 4 5 # 4 3 = 4 5 + 132 = 4 2 = 16
= 1224 = 16
1. 83 # 87
2. y 7 # y 2
3.
= 48x 3n
=  24x 4  3y 2 + 1
=  24xy 1 = 
24x
y
Using the
associative and the
commutative laws
Using the
product rule
Using a n =
1
an
Do Exercises 17.
Consider this division:
85
8#8
=
3
8
8
Answers
1. 84
2. y 5
5.  42x 8n
54
3. 18x 3
6. 
10y 2
x 12
4. 7. 60y
CHAPTER R
75
x 14
#8#8#8 8
=
#8#8
8
#8#8
2
# #
#
#8#8 8 8=8 8=8.
We can obtain the result by subtracting exponents. This is always the case,
even if exponents are negative or zero.
57
= 57  3 = 54
53
7.
57
= 57  132 = 57 + 3 = 510
53
8.
92
1
= 92  5 = 97 = 7
5
9
9
9.
74
= 74  152 = 74 + 5 = 71 = 7
75
10.
16x 4y 7
 8x 3y 9
16 # x 4 # y 7
2x
=  2xy 2 =  2
3
9
8 x
y
y
The answers
11.
12.
2x
y2
or
2x
y 2
40x 2n
40 2n  5n
10
=
x
= 10x 7n = 7n
5n
4
4x
x
14x 7y 3
4x 5y 5
14 # x 7 # y 3
7
7
= x 7  5y 3  152 = x 2y 2
5
5
4 x
2
2
y
x 3
= x 3  152
x 5
Writing the base and
the top exponent
Writing a
subtraction sign
10.
12.
48
54
9. 2
5
45
108
11.
102
42y 7x 6
13.
21y 3x 10
45x 5n
 9x 3n
33a 5b 2
22a 2b 4
Do Exercises 813.
Answers
8. 4 3
12. 
R.7
9. 56
2y 10
x4
10.
13.
1
106
11.  5x 2n
3 3 2
a b
2
55
= 15 # 52 15 # 52 15 # 52 15 # 52
= 5#5#5#5#5#5#5#5
=
58.
EXAMPLES Simplify.
Multiply exponents. 14. 1 y 222 = y 122 122
13. 1x 527 = x 5 7
#
= x 35
15. 1x 524 = x 5 4
Simplify.
14. 13726
15.
= y4
= x 20 =
1z 425
16. 1t 227m
1
x 20
= x 8t =
1
x 8t
Do Exercises 1416.
Lets compare 2a 3 and 12a23:
2a 3 = 2 # a # a # a
The base is a.
and
12a23 = 12a2 12a2 12a2
= 12 # 2 # 22 1a # a # a2
= 2 3a 3 = 8a 3.
We see that 2a 3 and 12a23 are not equivalent. We also see that we can evaluate
the power 12a23 by raising each factor to the power 3. This leads us to the following rule for raising a product to a power.
Answers
14. 342
15. z 20
56
16.
1
t 14m
CHAPTER R
EXAMPLES Simplify.
Simplify.
17. 12xy23
27x 6
=
y6
625x 12z 8
=
y 20
19. 1 2x 4y 225
Do Exercises 1720.
b n
bn
a n
= a b = n , a Z 0, b Z 0.
a b
b
a
a
(To raise a quotient to the nth power, raise the numerator to the nth
power and divide by the denominator to the nth power.)
x 2 5
x 2 152
x 10
1
b =
= 15 = 10 15
#
3
y
y
x y
y 3 152
#
2x 3y 2
3y 4
b =
=
12x 3y 225
13y 425
243y 20
1 3a 5b 322
13221a 5221b 322
 3a 5b 3 2
21. c 2 4 d =
=
2a b
12a 2b 422
2 21a 2221b 422
1
a 10b 6
1 322
1 4 8
a b
22
Simplify.
22
=
a 10  4b 6  8
1 322
4a 6
4 6 14
a b
=
9
9b 14
 3a 5b 3 2
2a 2b 4
= c
2a 2b 4 2
3a 5b
d =
3
4a 4b 8
4 4  1102 8  6
4 6 14
4a 6
=
a
=
b
=
a
b
=
.
9
9
9a 10b 6
9b 14
R.7
21. a
x 3 3
b
y4
22. a
3x 2y 3 2
b
y5
23. c
 3a 5b 3 3
d
2a 2b 4
Answers
17. 8x 3y 3
20.
1000y 21
x 12z 6
8a 9
23. 27b 21
18.
16y 14
x4
21. x 9y 12
9x 4
y 16
57
c Scientific Notation
Mercury
There are many kinds of symbolism, or notation, for numbers. You are already
familiar with fraction notation, decimal notation, and percent notation. Now
we study another, scientific notation, which is especially useful when representing very large or very small numbers and when estimating.
The following are examples of scientific notation:
Earth
Venus
Jupiter
Mars
Sun
Saturn
Uranus
Neptune
SCIENTIFIC NOTATION
Scientific notation for a number is an expression of the type
M * 10n,
where n is an integer, M is greater than or equal to 1 and less than 10
11 M 6 102, and M is expressed in decimal notation. 10n is also
considered to be scientific notation when M = 1.
58
CHAPTER R
9.460,000,000,000.
12 places
0.06.48
2 places
4.89300.
5 places
0.00000008.7
Convert to scientific notation.
8 places
Negative exponent, so the answer is a small number.
25. 0.000000000257
13.95 * 1013,
0.468 * 108
EXAMPLE 26
1052 14.5
10 32
= 13.1 *
4.52 1105
1032
= 13.95 *
102.
To find scientific notation for the result, we convert 13.95 to scientific notation and then simplify:
13.95 * 102 = 11.395 * 1012 * 102 = 1.395 * 103.
Do Exercises 28 and 29.
Answers
24. 5.88 * 1012 mi
25. 2.57 * 1010
26. 0.0000000000004567
27. 93,000,000 mi
28. 7.462 * 1013
29. 5.6 * 1015
R.7
59
6.4 * 10 7
.
8.0 * 106
6.4 * 10 7
6.4
107
=
*
6
8.0
8.0 * 10
106
4.2 *
105
2.1 * 102
31.
1.1 *
= 0.8 * 1013
104
2.0 * 10 7
Converting 0.8 to
scientific notation
Using the associative law of
multiplication
= 8.0 * 1014
Do Exercises 30 and 31.
EXAMPLE 28 Light from the Sun to Neptune. The planet Neptune is about
2,790,000,000 mi from the sun. Light travels 1.86 * 105 mi in 1 sec. About how
many seconds does it take light from the sun to reach Neptune? Write scientific
notation for the answer.
Source: The Handy Science Answer Book
EXAMPLE 29 Mass of the Sun. The mass of Earth is about 5.98 * 1024 kg.
The mass of the sun is about 333,000 times the mass of Earth. Write scientific
notation for the mass of the sun.
Source: The Hondy Science Answer Book
The mass of the sun is 333,000 times the mass of Earth. We convert to
scientific notation and multiply:
1333,0002 15.98 * 10242 = 13.33 * 1052 15.98 * 10242
= 13.33 * 5.982 1105 * 10242
= 19.9134 * 1029
Answers
30. 2.0 * 103
31. 5.5 * 102
32. About 1.96 * 104 sec
33. 1.90164 * 1027 kg
60
CHAPTER R
Calculator Corner
Scientific Notation To enter a number in scientific notation on a graphing calculator, we first type the decimal portion
of the number. Then we press F $. (EE is the second operation associated with the , key.) Finally, we type the exponent, which
can be at most two digits. For example, to enter 2.36 * 108 in scientific notation, we press 2 . 3 6 F $ : 8 [.
The decimal portion of the number appears before a small E and the exponent follows the E, as shown on the left below.
The graphing calculator can be used to perform computations using scientific notation. To find the product in Example 26 and express
the result in scientific notation, we first set the calculator in Scientific mode by pressing G, positioning the cursor over Sci on the first
line, and pressing [. Then we press F o to go to the home screen and enter the computation by pressing 3 . 1 F $
5 b 4 . 5 F $ : 3 [.
2.36E8
Exercises:
2.36E8
1.395E3
4.8 * 106
1.6 * 1012
7.
6 * 1010
5 * 104
R.7
a
3.1E54.5E3
4. 16 * 1062 19 * 1072
Exercise Set
6.
7.2 * 10 5
1.2 * 10 10
8.
12 * 109
4 * 103
1. 36 # 33
2. 82 # 86
3. 66 # 62
4. 95 # 93
5. 82 # 84
6. 91 # 96
7. b 2 # b 5
8. a 4 # a 3
9. a 3 # a 4 # a 2
13. 114m2n 32 1 2m3n 22
10. x 8 # x 5 # x 3
R.7
61
25.
29.
33.
37.
89
22.
82
103
26.
106
x 4n
30.
x 6n
a3
34.
a 2
24x 6y 7
18x 3y 9
38.
78
72
12 4
12 8
y 3t
y 8t
y4
y 5
14a 4b 3
8a 8b 5
23.
27.
31.
35.
39.
63
62
94
96
w 11q
w 6q
27x 7z 5
 9x 2z
 18x 2y 3
 12x 5y 5
24.
28.
32.
36.
40.
510
53
2 7
2 5
m 7t
m 5t
24a 5b 3
8a 4b
14a 14b 5
 18a 2b 10
Simplify.
41. 14 322
42. 15425
43. 18423
44. 19324
45. 16423
46. 17825
62
CHAPTER R
21.
4 3 3
53. a 4 b
3
57. a
125a 2b 3  5
b
5a 4b 2
65.
69.
102a + 1
10a + 1
45x 2a + 4y b + 1
 9x a + 3y 2 + b
77.
4x 2a + 3y 2b  1
2x a + 1y b + 1
52  3
54. a 3 b
4
58. a
 200x 3y 5  4
b
8x 5y 7
66.
70.
11b + 2
113b  3
28x b + 5y 4 + c
7x b  5y c  4
74. 1x a  123b
78.
55. a
2x 3y 2 3
b
3y 3
 65y 4z 5 6
59. a 2 2 3 b
2 y z
63. a
67.
b
5a 7b 5
3a 2b
7
9a x  2
3a 2x + 2
56. a
4x 4y 2  4
b
5x 1y 4
92x 4y 8
60. a 3 3 2 b
3 x y
64. a
68.
2x 2y 2 9
b
3x 8y 7
 12x a + 1
4x 2  a
71. 18 x 24y
72. 172p23q
81. 0.000000016
82. 0.000000263
25x a + by b  a
 5x a  by b + a
79. 47,000,000,000
80. 2,600,000,000,000
84. CellPhone Subscribers. In 1985, there were 340 thousand cellphone subscribers. This number increased to
272 million in 2009. Write the number of cellphone
subscribers in 1985 and in 2009 in scientific notation.
Source: CMS
R.7
63
105
98.
5.1 * 106
3.4 *
103
99.
4.0 * 10 6
8.0 *
10 3
100.
7.5 * 10 9
2.5 * 10 4
64
CHAPTER R
97.
105. Alpha Centauri. Other than the sun, the star closest
to Earth is Alpha Centauri. Its distance from Earth is
about 2.4 * 1013 mi. One lightyear = the distance
that light travels in one year = 5.88 * 1012 mi. How
many lightyears is it from Earth to Alpha Centauri?
Earth
2.4 1013 mi
Skill Maintenance
Simplify.
[R.3c], [R.6b]
113. 4 2 + 30 # 10  73 + 16
116. 20  15 # 4  82
Synthesis
Simplify.
117.
12 224 # 12 322
12 222
# 12 523
118. c
1  3x 2y 523 2
d
12x 4y 822
119. c a
a 2  3 # a 4 2  1
b
a 3 b d
b7
b
121. c
12x ay b23 2
d
1  2x ay b22
122. 1x by a # x ay b2c
R.7
65
CHAPTER
natural numbers, p. 2
whole numbers, p. 2
integers, p. 2
setbuilder notation, p. 3
rational numbers, p. 3
irrational numbers, p. 4
real numbers, p. 5
inequalities, p. 6
solution, p. 7
a + b = b + a,
ab = ba
Associative Laws:
a + 1b + c2 = 1a + b2 + c, a1bc2 = 1ab2c
Distributive Laws:
Inverses:
1
a + 1 a2 = 0, a #
= 1
a
Identity Property of 0: a + 0 = a
Identity Property of 1: 1 # a = a
Property of  1:
1 # a = a
Properties of Exponents: a 1 = a,
a 0 = 1,
a n =
1
,
an
1
= an
a n
am # an = am+n
Product Rule:
1a m2n = a mn
Power Rule:
am
= amn
an
Quotient Rule:
Raising a Product to a Power:
1ab2n = a nb n
a n
an
a b = n,
b
b
Scientific Notation:
66
CHAPTER R
a n
b n
bn
a b
= a b = n
b
a
a
substituting, p. 34
evaluating, p. 34
equivalent expressions, p. 38
multiplicative identity, p. 39
factor, p. 43
like, or similar, terms, p. 46
scientific notation, p. 58
Concept Reinforcement
Determine whether each statement is true or false.
1. For any numbers a and b, a  b = b  a.
[R.6b]
2. Each member of the set of natural numbers is a member of the set of whole numbers.
[R.1a]
3. The opposite of a when a 6 0 is negative.
[R.2b]
[R.2e]
7. If c and d are real numbers and c + d = 0, then c and d are additive inverses. [R.2b]
8. The number 4.6 * 10n, where n is an integer, is greater than 0 and less than 1
when n 6 0. [R.7c]
Review Exercises
Part 1
[R.1a]
9.   7.23 
[R.1d]
10.  9  9 
2
2, 13,  , 0.4545, 23.788
3
Add, subtract, multiply, or divide, if possible. [R.2a, c, d, e]
11. 6 + 1  82
13
3
+ a b
4
7
14.  8  1 32
16.
18. 
19.  61  72142
20.  12 , 3
6. 7.01 7.01
8. x 1
[R.1c]
21.
 84
4
22.
49
7
67
23.
5
10
, ab
6
7
24. 
5
15
, a b
2
16
25.
21
0
Evaluate.
[R.4b]
40. 5x  7, when x =  2
41.
x  y
, when x = 4 and y = 20
2
28. a = 2.3
42. Area of a Rug. The area A of a rectangle is given by
the length l times the width w : A = lw. Find the area
of a rectangular rug that measures 7 ft by 12 ft. [R.4b]
29. a = 0
30. a # a # a # a # a
1
x8
[R.3b]
[R.3b]
Simplify.
[R.3c]
x2 5
1x 522
2x 14
2x 7
x = 1
35. 64 , 1  42 + 1  521202
1x 522
x2 5
21x 72
2x 14
x = 10
x = 0
Part 2
Translate to an algebraic expression. [R.4a]
36. Five times some number
x = 1
x = 10
x = 0
68
CHAPTER R
44.
Simplify.
[R.6b]
7
; 9x.
3
46. Simplify:
 84x
.
7x
[R.5b]
60. 7x  34  513x  224
48. 8y
Multiply or divide, and simplify. [R.7a]
62. 12x 4y 321  5x 3y 22
50. 81xy2
63.
 15x 2y 5
10x 6y 8
Multiply. [R.5d]
51. 312x  y2
52. 4ab12c + 12
Simplify.
64.
Factor.
[R.7b]
[R.5d]
53. 5x + 10y  5z
56. 7c  6 + 9c + 2  4c
65. c
 2x 4y 4  4
d
3x 2y 6
2.2 * 107
3.2 * 10 3
69
68. Finance. A mil is one thousandth of a dollar. The taxation rate in a certain school district is 5.0 mils for
every dollar of assessed valuation. The assessed valuation for the district is 13.4 million dollars. How much
tax revenue will be raised? [R.7c]
69. Volume of a Plastic Sheet. The volume of a rectangular solid is given by the length l times the width w times
the height h: V = lwh. A sheet of plastic has a thickness
of 0.00015 m. The sheet is 1.2 m by 79 m. Find the volume of the sheet and express the answer in scientific
notation. [R.4b], [R.7c]
70. Evaluate
x  4y
when x = 5 and y =  4.
3
A. 8
11
C. 3
[R.4b]
B. 7
D. 7
71. Use the commutative and the associative laws to determine which expression is not equivalent to 2x + y.
[R.5c]
A. 2y + x
C. y + 2x
B. x # 2 + y
D. y + x # 2
Synthesis
72. Simplify: 1x y # x 3y23.
[R.7b]
[R.7a]
3x  3y
x 2x 5
x 3
x1yz2
31x  y2
b)
d)
f)
h)
j)
3x  y
x 10
1x 225
x1y + z2
xy + xz
6.
70
CHAPTER R
CHAPTER
Test
Part 1
1. Which of the following numbers are irrational?
2
 43, 17,  , 2.376,
3
3. Use 6 or 7 for
 4.5
 8.7.
6.  8  6
9. ` 
8.  0 
7
`
8
12. 
13. 6  152
15.
16. 1 4.1218.22
17. 
19.  75 , 1  52
20.
 10
2
23.
3
0
4
15
a b
5
16
7
5
+ a b
2
2
19
3
 a b
4
2
5
15
, a b
2
16
25. a = 0
Simplify.
28. 1  12  522 + 5 , 10 # 4 2
29.
1
a9
715  2 # 32  32
4 2  32
Part 2
Translate to an algebraic expression.
30. Nine more than t
2.5 cm
3 cm
Test: Chapter R
71
Complete a table by evaluating each expression for x =  1, x = 10, and x = 0. Then determine whether the expressions are
equivalent. Answer yes or no.
34. x1x  32; x 2  3x
35. 3x + 5x 2; 8x 2
37. Simplify:
 54x
.
 36x
3
; 36x
4
Use a commutative law to find an equivalent expression.
38. pq
39. t + 4
41. 14a2b
Multiply.
43. 3pr1s + 12
45. 2ah + h
47. 4a  7 + 17a + 21
 12x 3y 4
8x 7y 6
54.
 60x 3t
12x 7t
Simplify.
55. 1  3a 3b 2c24
56. c
 5a 2b 8 4
d
10a 10b 4
59.
1.2 * 10 12
6.4 * 10 7
A. 29.9 * 1026 kg
B. 2.99 * 1027 kg
C. 1.196 * 1022 kg
D. 11.96 * 1021 kg
Synthesis
61. Which of the following expressions are equivalent?
a) x 3x 4
f ) 51x + 12
72
CHAPTER R
b) x 12
g) 5x
c) x 12
h) 5 + 5x
d) 5x + 5
i) 51xy2
e) 1x 324
j) 15x2y
60. Mass of Pluto. The mass of Earth is 5.98 * 1024 kg. The mass of the dwarf planet Pluto is about 0.002 times the mass of
Earth. Find the mass of Pluto and express the answer in scientific notation.
1.1
CHAPTER
Solving Equations
MIDCHAPTER REVIEW
1.5
1.6
AbsoluteValue Equations
and Inequalities
RealWorld Application
Pizza Hut and Dominos Pizza are the top pizza chains in the United States. In 2008,
Pizza Huts sales totaled $10.2 billion. This was $4.8 billion more than the total sales
for Dominos. What was the total for Dominos?
Source: Directory of Chain Restaurant Operators
73
1.1
Solving Equations
OBJECTIVES
a
SKILL TO REVIEW
Objective R.2d: Multiply real
numbers.
Multiply.
3
4
1.  a  b
4
3
2.
2 # 15
3 8
15  10 = 2 + 3,
x + 8 = 23,
5x  2 = 9  x.
EQUATION
An equation is a number sentence that says that the expressions on
either side of the equals sign, = , represent the same number.
2. 7  8 = 9  13
3. x  9 = 3
SOLUTION OF AN EQUATION
The replacements for the variable that make an equation true are
called the solutions of the equation. The set of all solutions is called
the solution set of the equation. When we find all the solutions, we
say that we have solved the equation.
Answers
Skill to Review:
5
1. 1
2.
4
Margin Exercises:
1. (a), (f)
2. (b), (c)
74
3. (d), (e)
CHAPTER 1
Since the lefthand side and the righthand side are the same, 5 is a solution
of the equation.
Substituting 18 for x
FALSE
Since the lefthand side and the righthand side are not the same, 18 is not a
solution of the equation.
Do Exercises 46.
4. 8; x + 5 = 13
5.  4; 7x = 16
6. 5; 2x + 3 = 13
Equivalent Equations
Consider the equation
x = 5.
The solution of this equation is easily seen to be 5. If we replace x with 5,
we get
5 = 5, which is true.
In Example 4, we saw that the solution of the equation x + 6 = 11 is also
5, but the fact that 5 is the solution is not so readily apparent. We now consider principles that allow us to start with one equation and end up with an
equivalent equation, like x = 5, in which the variable is alone on one side,
and for which the solution is read directly from the equation.
7. Determine whether
3x + 2 = 11 and
EQUIVALENT EQUATIONS
x = 3
are equivalent.
8. Determine whether
4  5x =  11 and
Do Exercises 7 and 8.
x = 3
are equivalent.
is equivalent to a + c = b + c.
Answers
4. Yes
1.1
5. No
6. Yes
7. Yes
Solving Equations
8. No
75
When we use the addition principle, we sometimes say that we add the
same number on both sides of an equation. We can also subtract the same
number on both sides of an equation, because we can express subtraction as
the addition of an opposite. That is,
a  c = b  c
is equivalent to
a + 1 c2 = b + 1 c2.
To the student:
At the front of the text, you will
find a Student Organizer card.
This pullout card will help you
keep track of important dates
and useful contact information.
You can also use it to plan time
for class, study, work, and relaxation. By managing your time
wisely, you will provide yourself
the best possible opportunity to
be successful in this course.
x + 6 = 11
x + 6 + 162 = 11 + 1 62
x + 6  6 = 11  6
x + 0 = 5
x = 5
x + 6 = 11
Check:
5 + 6 ? 11
11
Substituting 5 for x
TRUE
y + 0 = 18.6
Simplifying
y = 18.6
y  4.7 = 13.9
Check:
EXAMPLE 8 Solve:  38 + x =  57 .
 38 + x =  57
3
8
76
CHAPTER 1
A  38 B + x =
0 + x =
3
8
3
8
x =
3
8
x =
21
56
x =
 19
56
+

A  57 B
5
7
7
7
40
56
5
7
8
8
 38 + x =  57
Check:
5
A  19
56 B ?  7
+ A  19
56 B
+ A  19
56 B
 38 +
 38 #
7
7
 21
56
Substituting  19
56 for x
 40
56
 57
The solution is
3
1
= 4
5
10. x +
TRUE
 19
56 .
11. 13 =  25 + y
Do Exercises 912.
is equivalent to a # c = b # c.
4
5x
4
5x
= 22
=
1#x =
x =
Check:
5
4
55
2
55
2
4
5x
4 55
5
2
# 22
4
5
= 22
? 22
22
The solution is
TRUE
55
2.
1
1
is equivalent to a # = b # ,
c
c
when c Z 0.
1.1
10. 
17
20
11. 38
Solving Equations
12. 140.3
77
EXAMPLE 10 Solve: 4x = 9.
4x = 9
4x
9
=
4
4
9
1#x =
4
x =
9
4
4x = 9
Check:
4#
3
14.  y = 21
7
Simplifying
9
4
? 9
9
The solution
6
15. 4x = 7
TRUE
is 94.
Do Exercises 1315.
5.5
= 1#y
0.05
 110 = y
The check is left to the student. The solution is 110.
Note that equations are reversible. That is, a = b is equivalent to b = a.
Thus, 110 = y and y =  110 are equivalent, and the solution of both equations is 110.
Do Exercise 16.
EXAMPLE 12 Solve: 
x
= 10.
4
x
= 10
4
1
 x = 10
4
1
 4 # a  b x =  4 # 10
4
1 # x =  40
Solve.
17. 
18. x =  5
Answers
5
14. 49
4
17.  136
18. 5
78
1
x
=  #x
4
4
x =  40
x
= 17
8
13.
15.
3
14
CHAPTER 1
16.  3
3x = 17
Simplifying
3x
17
=
3
3
Dividing by 3
x =
17
3
Simplifying
3x  4 = 13
Check:
3#
17
3
 4 ? 13
17  4
13
TRUE
2
The solution is 17
3 , or 5 3 .
Do Exercise 19.
19. Solve:  4 + 9x = 8.
3
16 x
1
2
11
8.
3
16 x
3
1
16 x + 2
3
1
16 x + 2
11
8
B = 16 A B
+ 16 #
1
2
11
8
= 22
3x + 8 = 22
3x + 8  8 = 22  8
3x = 14
3x
14
=
3
3
x =
Dividing by 3
14
.
3
The number 14
3 checks and is the solution.
Do Exercise 20.
Answers
19.
4
3
1.1
20. 4  5y = 2;
2
5
Solving Equations
79
Multiplying by 100
Simplifying
Adding 512x
1240 = 826x
1240
826x
=
826
826
x =
Dividing by 826
1240
620
, or
826
413
Do Exercise 21.
When there are like terms on the same side of an equation, we collect
them. If there are like terms on opposite sides of an equation, we use the addition principle to get them on the same side of the equation.
10x =  20
20
10x
=
10
10
Dividing by 10
x = 2
8x + 6  2x =  4x  14
Check:
Solve.
22.
9
5
x + x = 21
2
2
Do Exercises 2224.
24. 4x + 2 + 5x = 3x  15
Answers
21. 63x  91 = 30x;
24.
91
33
22. 3
23. 
29
5
17
2
80
CHAPTER 1
TRUE
Special Cases
Some equations have no solution.
Adding 8x
We get a false equation.
No matter what number we use for x, we get a false sentence. Thus the equation has no solution.
There are some equations for which any real number is a solution.
Adding 8x
We get a true equation.
Replacing x with any real number gives a true sentence. Thus any real number is a solution. The equation has infinitely many solutions.
Do Exercises 25 and 26.
Solve.
25. 4 + 7x = 7x + 9
26. 3 + 9x = 9x + 3
45 + 5x = 45 + 5x
45 + 5x  5x = 45 + 5x  5x
45 = 45.
Subtracting 5x
Solve.
27. 7x  17 = 4 + 71x  32
28. 3x + 41x + 22 = 11 + 7x
Do Exercises 2729.
29. 3x + 81x + 22 = 11 + 7x
Answers
25. No solution
26. All real numbers are
solutions.
27. All real numbers are
5
solutions.
28. No solution
29. 4
1.1
Solving Equations
81
21  6x = 22  8x
21  6x + 8x = 22  8x + 8x
21 + 2x = 22
Adding 8x
Collecting like terms
21 + 2x  21 = 22  21
Subtracting 21
2x = 1
2x
1
=
2
2
x =
Check:
1
2
3A7  2 #
B ? 14  8 A 12  1 B
317  12 14  8 A  12 B
3 # 6 14 + 4
1
2
18
Solve.
30. 30 + 71x  12 = 312x + 72
31. 31y  12  1 = 2  51y + 52
Dividing by 2
The solution
18
TRUE
is 12 .
AN EQUATIONSOLVING PROCEDURE
1. Clear the equation of fractions or decimals if that is needed.
2. If parentheses occur, multiply to remove them using the
distributive law.
3. Collect like terms on each side of the equation, if necessary.
4. Use the addition principle to get all terms with letters on one side
and all other terms on the other side.
5. Collect like terms on each side again, if necessary.
6. Use the multiplication principle to solve for the variable.
31. 
82
One
The number a
Infinitely many
Zero
19
8
CHAPTER 1
SOLUTION(S)
x = a, where a is a real
number
Answers
30.  2
NUMBER OF
SOLUTIONS
Calculator Corner
Checking Possible Solutions Although a calculator is not required for this textbook, the book contains a series of
optional discussions on using a graphing calculator. The keystrokes for the TI84 Plus graphing calculator will be shown throughout. For
keystrokes for other models of calculators, consult the users manual for your particular model.
To check possible solutions of an equation on a calculator, we can substitute and carry out the calculations on each side of the equation just as we do when we check by hand. If the lefthand and the righthand sides of the equation have the same value, then the number
that was substituted is a solution of the equation. To check the possible solution 2 in the equation 8x + 6  2x =  4x  14 in Example 16, for instance, we first substitute 2 for x in the expression on the left side of the equation. We press 8 b : 2 a 6
c 2 b : 2 [, and get 6. Then we substitute 2 for x in the expression on the right side of the equation. We press
: 4 b : 2 c 1 4 [. Again, we get 6. Since the two sides of the equation have the same value when x is 2, we
know that 2 is the solution of the equation.
82622
4214
6
6
A table can also be used to check possible solutions of equations. First, we press E to display the equationeditor screen. If an
expression for Y1 is currently entered, we place the cursor on it and press P to delete it. We do the same for any other entries that are
present.
Next, we position the cursor to the right of Y1 = and enter the left side of the equation by pressing 8 J a 6 c 2
J. Then we position the cursor beside Y2 = and enter the right side of the equation by pressing : 4 J c 1 4. Now we
press F j to display the Table Setup screen. (TBLSET is the second operation associated with the A key.) On the INDPNT line, we
position the cursor on Ask and press [ to set up a table in ASK mode. (The settings for TblStart and Tbl are irrelevant in ASK mode.)
Plot1 Plot2 Plot3
\Y1 8X62X
\Y2 4X14
\Y3
\Y4
\Y5
\Y6
\Y7
TABLE SETUP
TblStart1
Tbl1
Indpnt: Auto Ask
Depend: Auto Ask
X
2
Y1
6
Y2
6
X
We press F n to display the table. (TABLE is the second operation associated with the D key.) We enter the possible solution, 2, by pressing : 2 [, and see that Y1 =  6 = Y2 for this value of x. This confirms that the left and right sides of the
equation have the same value for x =  2, so 2 is the solution of the equation.
Exercises:
1. Use substitution to check the solutions found in Examples 9, 13, and 15.
2. Use a table set in ASK mode to check the solutions found in Margin Exercises 24, 30, and 31.
1.1
Solving Equations
83
Exercise Set
1.1
1. 17; x + 23 = 40
5. 45;
x
= 2
9
9. 19; 5x + 7 = 102
2. 24; 47  x = 23
6. 32;
x
= 3
8
10. 9; 9y + 5 = 86
3.  8; 2x  3 =  18
4.  10; 3x + 14 =  27
7. 10; 2  3x = 21
8.  11; 4  5x = 59
12.  13; x + 5 = 5 + x
13. y + 6 = 13
14. x + 7 = 14
15.  20 = x  12
16. 27 = y  17
17.  8 + x = 19
18. 8 + r = 17
19.  12 + z =  51
20. 37 + x =  89
23. 
3
5
+ x = 8
24
24. x +
1
5
= 12
6
25. 3x = 18
29. 
26. 5x = 30
x
= 21
7
84
CHAPTER 1
30. 
x
=  25
3
27.  11y = 44
28.  4x = 124
31.  96 =  3z
32.  120 =  8y
35.
3
1
t = 2
4
7
7
36.  y = 6
8
37. 6x  15 = 45
38. 4x  7 = 81
39. 5x  10 = 45
40. 6z  7 = 11
41. 9t + 4 =  104
42. 5x + 7 =  108
2
7
=  18
43.  x +
3
3
9
91
44.  y + 4 = 2
2
45.
49. 8x + 48 = 3x  12
50. 15x + 40 = 8x  9
51. 7y  1 = 27 + 7y
52. 3x  15 = 15 + 3x
53. 3x  4 = 5 + 12x
54. 9t  4 = 14 + 15t
55. 5  4a = a  13
56. 6  7x = x  14
57. 3m  7 =  7  4m  m
46.
4
66
9
y +
y =
5
10
10
6
4
32
x +
x =
5
10
10
1.1
Solving Equations
85
59. 5x + 3 = 11  4x + x
60. 6y + 20 = 10 + 3y + y
61.  7 + 9x = 9x  7
62.  3t + 4 = 5  3t
63. 6y  8 = 9 + 6y
64. 5  2y =  2y + 5
65. 21x + 72 = 4x
66. 31y + 62 = 9y
67. 80 = 1013t + 22
68. 27 = 915y  22
72. 8x  13x  52 = 40
73. 713x + 62 = 11  1x + 22
77.
1
1
116y + 82  17 =  18y  162
8
4
86
CHAPTER 1
78.
1
1
112t + 482  20 =  124t  1442
6
8
58. 5x  8 =  8 + 3x  x
81.
2 7
5
3
a + 4x b =
3 8
8
8
82.
3
1
2
1
a3x  b +
=
4
2
3
3
Skill Maintenance
This heading indicates that the exercises that follow are Skill Maintenance exercises, which review any skill previously studied in
the text. You will see them in virtually every exercise set. Answers to all skill maintenance exercises are found at the back of the
book. If you miss an exercise, restudy the objective shown in red.
Multiply or divide, and simplify. [R.7a]
85. a 9 # a 23
6x 5y 4
88.
91. 413x  2y + z2
92. 51  2x + 7y  42
94.  4x  24y
95. 4x  10y + 2
86.
a 9
a 23
 3x 3y 7
Multiply. [R.5d]
89. 216  10x2
Factor.
[R.5d]
93. 2x  6y
Synthesis
To the student and the instructor : The Synthesis exercises found at the end of every exercise set challenge students to combine
concepts or skills studied in that section or in preceding parts of the text.
Solve. (The symbol
99.
101.
100.
102.
104. 23  254 + 31x  126 + 55x  21x + 326 = 75x  235  12x + 3246
1.1
Solving Equations
87
1.2
OBJECTIVE
a
SKILL TO REVIEW
Objective R.4b: Evaluate an
algebraic expression by
substitution.
1. Evaluate
3a
when a = 8 and
b
b = 12.
2. Evaluate
x  y
when x = 18 and
4
y = 2.
Perimeter: P 4s
Area: A s 2
A r 2
C d
Ab h
EXAMPLE 1 Body Mass Index. Body mass index I can be used to determine whether an individual has a healthy weight for his or her height. An index
in the range 18.524.9 indicates a normal weight. Body mass index is given by
the formula, or model,
I =
703W
,
H2
Answers
Skill to Review:
1. 2
2. 4
88
CHAPTER 1
70311602
703W
=
L 23.0.
2
H
702
703W
H2
27 =
703W
832
27 =
703W
6889
Substituting
703W
6889 # 27 = 6889 #
6889
Multiplying by 6889
1. Body Mass Index.
186,003 = 703W
Simplifying
186,003
703W
=
703
703
Dividing by 703
265 L W.
Dwight Howard weighs about 265 lb.
Do Exercise 1.
If we want to make repeated calculations of W, as in Example 1(b), it
might be easier to first solve for W, getting it alone on one side of the equation. We solve for W as we did above, using the equationsolving principles
of Section 1.1.
I =
703W
H2
703W # 2
I # H2 =
H
H2
IH 2 = 703W
IH 2
703
703W
703
703W
.
H2
IH 2
= W
703
mv 2
.
r
(This is a physics formula.)
2. Solve for m: F =
Do Exercise 2.
Answers
1. (a) 25.7; (b) 161 lb; (c) Answers will vary.
rF
2. m =
v2
1.2
89
H  3m = 2r
Subtracting 3m
H  3m
= r
2
Dividing by 2
Do Exercise 3.
2A = 51b  202
2A = 5b  100
Removing parentheses
2A + 100 = 5b
Adding 100
2A + 100
2A
100
2A
= b, or b =
+
=
+ 20
5
5
5
5
4. Solve for c: P =
3
1c + 102.
5
Dividing by 5
Do Exercise 4.
Area of a Trapezoid. Solve for a: A = 12h1a + b2. (To find
the area of a trapezoid, take half the product of the height, h, and the sum of
the lengths of the parallel sides, a and b.)
EXAMPLE 5
A = 12h1a + b2
2A = h1a + b2
2A = ha + hb
2A  hb = ha
2A  hb
= a,
h
Subtracting hb
or
a =
2A
hb
2A
=
 b
h
h
h
Dividing by h
Note that there is more than one correct form of the answers in Examples
4 and 5. This is a common occurrence when we solve formulas.
5. Solve for b: A =
1
h1a + b2.
2
Do Exercise 5.
Answers
H  2r
5
5P  30
4. c = P  10, or
3
3
3
2A
2A  ha
, or
 a
5. b =
h
h
3. m =
90
CHAPTER 1
A = P11 + rt2
A
= P
1 + rt
Do Exercise 6.
4001W  L2
N
is used to establish a chess players rating R, after he or she has played N games,
where W is the number of wins, L is the number of losses, and r is the average
rating of the opponents.
Source: U.S. Chess Federation
4001W  L2
N
= 1205 +
40015  32
8
= 1305.
Answer
6. Q =
1.2
T
1 + vy
91
b) We solve as follows:
R = r +
4001W  L2
NR = N c r +
N
4001W  L2
N
NR = N # r + N #
4001W  L2
N
NR = Nr + 4001W  L2
Multiplying by N to clear
the fraction
Multiplying using the
distributive law
Simplifying
NR  Nr = 4001W  L2
Subtracting Nr
NR  Nr = 400W  400L
NR  Nr  400W =  400L
Subtracting 400W
NR  Nr  400W
= L.
400
Dividing by  400
Do Exercise 7.
L =
Nr + 400W  NR
400
and
L = W 
NR  Nr
.
400
STUDY TIPS
USING THIS TEXTBOOK
Be sure to note the symbols a , b , c , and so on,
that correspond to the objectives you are to master. The
first time you see them is in the margin at the beginning
of each section; the second time is in the subheadings of
each section; and the third time is in the exercise set for
the section. You will also find objective references next
to the skill maintenance exercises in each exercise set
and in the midchapter review and endofchapter
review exercises, as well as in the answers to the chapter
tests and the cumulative reviews. These objective symbols allow you to refer to the appropriate place in the
text whenever you need to review a topic.
The examples
include important side comments that explain each
step. These carefully chosen examples and notes prepare you for success in the exercise set.
Answers
7. (a) About 1251; (b) W =
or L +
NR  Nr + 400L
,
400
NR  Nr
400
92
CHAPTER 1
Oddnumbered exercises.
Evennumbered exercises.
Exercise Set
1.2
a
1. Motion Formula:
3. Area of a Parallelogram:
2. d = rt, for t
A = bh, for h
d = rt, for r
h
Speed r
Time t
b
Distance d
4. Volume of a Sphere:
4
V = pr 3, for r 3
3
(Volume V, radius r)
5. Perimeter of a Rectangle:
6. P = 2l + 2w, for l
P = 2l + 2w, for w
(Perimeter P, length l, and
width w)
w
r
l
7. Area of a Triangle:
1
A = bh, for b
2
8. A =
1
bh, for h
2
a + b
, for a
2
A
ab
2
10. A =
a + b
, for b
2
11. Force:
F = ma, for m
(Force F, mass m, acceleration a)
15. Relativity:
E = mc 2, for c 2
I = Prt, for t
1.2
93
p  q
, for p
2
16. E = mc 2, for m
17. Q =
19. Ax + By = c, for y
20. Ax + By = c, for x
18. Q =
21. I = 1.08
22. F =
mv 2
, for v 2
r
23. C =
3
1m + 52, for m
4
25. n =
1
1a + b  c2, for b
3
26. t =
1
1x  y + z2, for z
6
p  q
, for q
2
24. N =
T
, for N
N
1
M1t + w2, for w
3
Basal Metabolic Rate. An individuals basal metabolic rate is the minimum number of calories required to sustain life when
the individual is at rest. It can be thought of as the number of calories burned by an individual who sleeps all day. The
HarrisBenedict formula for basal metabolic rate for a man is R = 66 + 6.23w + 12.7h  6.8a. The formula for a woman is
R = 655 + 4.35w + 4.7h  4.7a. In each formula, R is in calories, w is weight, in pounds, h is height, in inches, and a is age,
in years.
31. a) Gary weighs 185 lb, is 5 ft 11 in. tall, and is 28 years old.
Use the formula for the basal metabolic rate for a man
to find Garys basal metabolic rate.
b) Solve the formula for w.
94
CHAPTER 1
Source: Shapefit
c =
ad
,
a + 12
F =
n
,
15
1.2
95
Skill Maintenance
Divide.
39.
[R.2e]
40. 2000 , 1  82
80
 16
43. 
2
5
, a b
3
6
44.
90
 15
41. 
45.
1
1
,
2
4
 90
15
46.
 80
16
Synthesis
Solve.
48. s = v 1t + 12 at 2, for a; for v1
49.
P2V2
P1V1
=
, for V1; for P2
T1
T2
51. In Exercise 13, you solved the formula I = Prt for t. Now
use the formula to determine how long it will take a
deposit of $75 to earn $3 interest when invested at 5%
simple interest.
50.
P2V2
P1V1
=
, for T2; for P1
T1
T2
52. The area of the shaded triangle ABE is 20 cm2. Find the
area of the trapezoid. (See Example 5.)
A
8 cm
D
13 cm
96
CHAPTER 1
H = Wa
1.3
OBJECTIVES
One very important use of algebra is as a tool for problem solving. The following fivestep strategy for solving problems will be used throughout this text.
Of the five steps, probably the most important is the first one: becoming
familiar with the problem situation. Here are some hints for familiarization.
1. Five times x
2. 2 less than x
STUDY TIPS
SOLVING APPLIED
PROBLEMS
Answers
Skill to Review:
1. 5x
2. x  2
97
Second angle
2. Translate.
5x
x2
Measure of
Measure of
plus second angle plus third angle
x
3. Solve.
5x
is
180
First angle
Measure of
first angle
Third angle
1x  22
= 180.
x + 5x + 1x  22 = 180
7x  2 = 180
7x  2 + 2 = 180 + 2
1. Cross Section of a Roof. In a
triangular cross section of a roof,
the second angle is twice as large
as the first. The third angle is 20
greater than the first angle. Find
the measures of the angles.
7x = 182
Simplifying
7x
182
=
7
7
Dividing by 7
First
angle
Adding 2
x = 26.
First angle :
Second
angle
Third angle :
x 20
Third
angle
x  2 = 26  2 = 24.
EXAMPLE 2
Answer
1. 40, 80, 60
98
CHAPTER 1
1. Familiarize.
2. Translate.
Original
price
minus 15% of
15%
x
3. Solve.
Original
New
price
is price
136.
Translation
x  15% # x = 136
1x  0.15x = 136
11  0.152x = 136
0.85x = 136
x = 160.
4. Check.
We translate as follows:
6% # 100,000
Total
is commission
plus
Commission on
the amount that
exceeds $100,000
Commision
on the first
$100,000
5.5%1S  100,0002 =
10,565.
Answer
2. $85
99
Converting to
decimal notation
Simplifying
and using the
distributive law
Simplifying
Collecting like terms
Subtracting 500
0.055S = 10,065
0.055S
10,065
=
0.055
0.055
and
Dividing by 0.055
S = $183,000.
5% for the amount that
exceeded $100,000.
EXAMPLE 4 Changing Marketing Strategies. Americans are spending more time away from home, working late hours, communicating via
wireless devices, shopping in malls, and sitting in traffic. As a result, advertisers and marketers are expected to spend increasingly large amounts
of their advertising dollars in alternative media such as online videos,
sponsored events, TV and movie product placement, and video games.
The equation
y = 17.36x + 70.93
can be used to estimate the projected spending in such media, in billions
of dollars, x years after 2007that is, x = 0 corresponds to 2007, x = 3
corresponds to 2010, and so on.
Source: PQ Media
We find that $105.65 billion was projected to be spent advertising in alternative media in 2009 and that the projection for 2012 was $157.73 billion.
(These estimates assume that current trends will continue.)
Answer
3. $228,000
100
CHAPTER 1
b) To determine the year in which about $88 billion was projected to be spent
in alternative media, we substitute 88 for y in the equation and solve for x:
y = 17.36x + 70.93
88 = 17.36x + 70.93
Substituting 88 for y
Subtracting 70.93
17.07 = 17.36x
17.07
17.36x
=
17.36
17.36
Dividing by 17.36
1 L x.
About $88 billion was projected to be spent in alternative media about 1 yr after
2007, or in 2008.
Do Exercise 4.
EXAMPLE 5 Picture Framing. A piece of wood trim that is 100 in. long is
to be cut into two pieces, and each of those pieces is to be cut into four pieces
in order to form a square picture frame. The length of a side of one square is
to be 112 times the length of a side of the other. How should the wood be cut?
1. Familiarize. We first make a drawing of the situation, letting s = the
length of a side of the smaller square, in inches, and 112 s, or 32 s = the
length of a side of the larger square. Note that the perimeter (distance
around) of each square is four times the length of a side and that the sum
of the two perimeters must be 100 in.
2. Translate.
Rewording :
Perimeter of
Perimeter of
smaller square plus larger square is 100 in.
3. Solve.
4s
4 A 32s B
Translating :
100.
100 in.
4s + 4 A 32 s B = 100
4s + 6s = 100
Multiplying
10s = 100
10s
100
=
10
10
Dividing by 10
s = 10.
1
1s,
2
3
or s
2
4 # 10 + 4 # 15 = 40 + 60 = 100,
so the lengths check.
5. State. The wood should be cut into two pieces, one 40 in. long and the
other 60 in. long. Each piece should then be cut into four pieces of the
same length in order to form the frames.
Do Exercise 5.
Answers
4. (a) $123.01 billion, $175.09 billion; (b) 2011
5. 48 in. and 72 in.
101
EXAMPLE 6 Installing Seamless Guttering. Seamless guttering is delivered on a continuous roll and sections are cut from the roll as needed. The
Jordans know that they need 127 ft of guttering for six separate sections of
their home and that the four shortest sections will be the same size. The
longest piece of guttering is 13 ft more than twice the length of the midsize
piece. The shortest piece of guttering is 10 ft less than the midsize piece. How
long is each piece of guttering?
Longest piece = 2x 13
Midsize piece = x
Shortest piece = x 10
1. Familiarize. All the pieces are described in terms of the midsize piece,
so we begin by assigning a variable to that piece and using that variable
to describe the lengths of the other pieces.
We let x = the length of the midsize piece, in feet, 2x + 13 = the
length of the longest piece, and x  10 = the length of the shortest piece.
2. Translate. The sum of the length of the longest piece, plus the length of
the midsize piece, plus four times the length of the shortest piece is 127 ft.
This gives us the following translation:
Longest
piece
plus
is
41x  102
Total
length
3. Solve.
plus
12x + 132
Midsize
piece
127.
7x = 154
7x
154
=
7
7
Dividing by 7
x = 22.
6. Cutting a Board. A 106in.
board is cut into three pieces.
The shortest length is twothirds
of the midsize length and the
longest length is 15 in. less than
two times the midsize length.
Find the length of each piece.
2
3x
4. Check. Do we have an answer to the problem? If the length of the midsize piece is 22 ft, then the length of the longest piece is
2 # 22 + 13, or 57 ft,
and the length of the shortest piece is
22  10, or 12 ft.
The sum of the lengths of the longest piece, the midsize piece, and four
times the shortest piece must be 127 ft:
57 ft + 22 ft + 4112 ft2 = 127 ft.
2x 15
106 in.
5. State. The length of the longest piece is 57 ft, the length of the midsize
piece is 22 ft, and the length of the shortest piece is 12 ft.
Do Exercise 6.
Answer
6. 22 in., 33 in., 51 in.
102
CHAPTER 1
Sometimes applied problems involve consecutive integers like 19, 20, 21,
22 or  34,  33,  32,  31. Consecutive integers can be represented in the
form x, x + 1, x + 2, x + 3, and so on.
Some examples of consecutive even integers are 20, 22, 24, 26 and 34,
 32,  30,  28. Consecutive even integers can be represented in the form
x, x + 2, x + 4, x + 6, and so on, as can consecutive odd integers like 19,
21, 23, 25 and  33,  31,  29, 27.
We translate as follows:
First integer
1x + 12
Third integer
= 189
3. Solve.
Second integer
STUDY TIPS
1x + 22
= 189.
x + 1x + 12 + 1x + 22 = 189
3x + 3 = 189
3x + 3  3 = 189  3
3x = 186
3x
186
=
3
3
Dividing by 3
x = 62.
Then x + 1 = 62 + 1 = 63 and x + 2 = 62 + 2 = 64.
4. Check. The numbers are 62, 63, and 64. These are consecutive integers
and their sum is 189. The numbers check.
5. State.
Answer
7. 421, 422, 423
103
5 ft sec
STUDY TIPS
DIMENSIONS
Be aware of the dimensions in a
problem. All dimensions of the
same type should be expressed in
the same unitall units of length
in feet, for example, or all units of
time in secondswhen the problem is translated to an equation.
Distance to be traveled
300 ft
4 ft>sec
5 ft>sec
Time required
Distance to be traveled
300 ft
4 ft>sec
5 ft>sec
9 ft>sec
Time required
d = rt
300 = 9 # t.
3. Solve.
300 = 9t
300
9t
=
9
9
100
= t.
3
4. Check. At a speed of 9 ft>sec and in a time of 100>3, or 33 13 sec, Kate
would travel d = 9 # 100
3 = 300 ft. This answer checks.
5. State.
Do Exercise 8.
Answer
8. 2
7
2
hr; 1 hr
9
3
104
CHAPTER 1
Dividing by 9
Exercise Set
1.3
a
Solve.
2x 7
x
First angle
?
Third angle
x7
105
9. Perimeter of an NBA Court. The perimeter of an NBAsized basketball court is 288 ft. The length is 44 ft longer
than the width. Find the dimensions of the court.
w 44
l
2s
CHAPTER 1
106
l 42
x1
20. School Photos. Memory Makers prices its school photos as shown here.
Memory Makers
BASIC PACKAGE
PRICE
1 8 x 10
25x7
12 Walletsize
$14.95
1 sheet of 6 extra
walletsizes
$1.35
107
The equation
y = 4.0x + 140.3
can be used to estimate the number of desktop computers sold worldwide, in millions, x years after 2004. That
is, x = 0 corresponds to 2004, x = 3 corresponds to
2007, and so on.
Source: iSuppli
Source: iSuppli
Solve.
390 mph
108
CHAPTER 1
65 mph
Sources: Delta Queen information; The Natchez Democrat, February 12, 2009
Current 2.3 mph
Skill Maintenance
Simplify.
[R.3c]
33.  44 # 55  22
34. 16 # 8 + 200 , 25 # 10
35. 15  1222
37. 52  2 # 5 # 12 + 122
39.
43. 213 , 25 , 23
12  8  10  + 9 # 6
54 + 45
36. 52  122
40.
19  422 + 18  1122
42 + 22
44. 213 # 25 # 23
Synthesis
45.
46. Adjusted Wages. Christinas salary is reduced n% during a period of financial difficulty. By what number
should her salary be multiplied in order to bring it back
to where it was before the reduction?
109
49. Population Change. The yearly changes in the population census of Poplarville for three consecutive years
are, respectively, a 20% increase, a 30% increase, and a
20% decrease. What is the total percent change from the
beginning of the first year to the end of the third year,
to the nearest percent?
51. Watch Time. Your watch loses 112 sec every hour. You
have a friend whose watch gains 1 sec every hour. The
watches show the same time now. After how many more
seconds will they show the same time again?
52. Test Scores. Tys scores on four tests are 83, 91, 78,
and 81. How many points above the average must Ty
score on the next test in order to raise his average 2
points?
53. Write a problem for a classmate to solve. Devise the problem so that the solution is, The material should be cut
into two pieces, one 30 cm long and the other 45 cm long.
55. Geometry. Consider the geometric figure below. Suppose that L M, m 8 = 5x + 25, and m 4 = 8x + 4.
Find m 2 and m 1.
2
3
4
5
6
7
110
CHAPTER 1
MidChapter Review
Concept Reinforcement
Determine whether each statement is true or false.
1. 2x + 3 = 7 and x = 2 are equivalent equations. [1.1a]
2. It is possible for an equation to be false. [1.1a]
3. Every equation has at least one solution.
[1.1d]
Guided Solutions
Fill in each box with the number or expression that creates a correct statement or solution.
5. Solve: 2x  5 = 1  4x.
[1.1d]
2x  5 = 1  4x
2x  5 + 4x = 1  4x +
6x  5 =
6x  5 +
= 1 + 5
6x =
6x
6
=
6
x =
Simplifying
6. Solve for y : Mx + Ny = T.
[1.2a]
Mx + Ny = T
Mx + Ny  Mx = T = T  Mx
y =
T  Mx
Mixed Review
Determine whether the given number is a solution of the given equation. [1.1a]
7. 7; x + 5 = 12
Solve.
8.
1
; 3x  4 = 5
3
9.  24;
x
= 3
8
10. 9; 61x  32 = 36
[1.1b, c, d]
11. x  7 =  10
12. 7x = 56
13. 8x  9 = 23
14. 1  x = 3x  7
15. 2  4y =  4y + 2
16.
3
7
y + 2 =
4
2
111
17. 5t  9 = 7t  4
18. 4x  11 = 11 + 4x
19. 21y  42 = 8y
20. 4y  1y  12 = 16
21. t  31t  42 = 9
25. N =
A
26. T = 1.5 , for B
B
27. H =
Solve.
2
1t  52, for t
3
r + s
, for s
4
[1.3a, b]
30. Pizza Sales. Pizza Hut and Dominos Pizza are the top
pizza chains in the United States. In 2008, Pizza Huts
sales totaled $10.2 billion. This was $4.8 billion more
than the total sales for Dominos. What was the total for
Dominos?
Source: Directory of Chain Restaurant Operators
P = 2l + 2w
and
P
 l
w =
2
112
CHAPTER 1
To the student and the instructor: The Discussion and Writing exercises are meant to be answered with one or more sentences.
They can be discussed and answered collaboratively by the entire class or by small groups.
1.4
a Inequalities
OBJECTIVES
INEQUALITY
x 7 4,
x + 3 6,
SOLUTION OF AN INEQUALITY
Any replacement or value for the variable that makes an inequality true
is called a solution of the inequality. The set of all solutions is called the
solution set. When all the solutions of an inequality have been found,
we say that we have solved the inequality.
SKILL TO REVIEW
Objective R.1c: Graph inequalities
on the number line.
Graph each inequality.
EXAMPLES
1. x 7  2
inequality.
5 4 3 2 1
1. x + 3 6 6; 5
We substitute 5 for x and get 5 + 3 6 6, or 8 6 6, a false sentence. Therefore, 5 is not a solution.
2. x 1
5 4 3 2 1
2. 2x  3 7  3; 1
We substitute 1 for x and get 2112  3 7  3, or  1 7  3, a true sentence. Therefore, 1 is a solution.
3. 4x  1 3x + 2;  3
We substitute  3 for x and get 4132  1 3132 + 2, or 13  7, a
true sentence. Therefore, 3 is a solution.
Do Margin Exercises 13.
3. 3x + 2 4x  3; 5
Answers
Skill to Review:
1.
2.
0 1
7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Margin Exercises:
1. Yes
2. No
3. Yes
1.4
113
STUDY TIPS
We can write the solution set for x 6 4 using setbuilder notation (see
Section R.1): 5x x 6 46. This is read The set of all x such that x is less than 4.
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The Students Solutions Manual contains fully workedout
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and cumulative reviews.
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MyMathLab.
The points a and b are the endpoints of the interval. The parentheses indicate
that the endpoints are not included in the graph.
The interval 3a, b4 is defined as the set of all numbers x for which
a x b. Thus,
3a, b4 = 5x a x b6.
[a, b]
a
The brackets indicate that the endpoints are included in the graph.*
Caution!
Do not confuse the interval 1a, b2 with the ordered pair 1a, b2, which
denotes a point in the plane, as we will see in Chapter 2. The context in
which the notation appears usually makes the meaning clear.
The following intervals include one endpoint and exclude the other:
1a, b4 = 5x a 6 x b6. The graph excludes a and includes b.
(a, b]
(a, b)
(a, )
a
Similarly, the notation 1 q , a2 represents the set of all numbers less than
athat is,
1 q , a2 = 5x x 6 a6.
(, a)
a
114
CHAPTER 1
and
a
The notations 3a, q 2 and 1 q , a4 are used when we want to include the
endpoint a. The interval 1 q , q 2 names the set of all real numbers.
(, ) x x is a real number
SET
NOTATION
GRAPH
1a, b2
5x a 6 x 6 b6
3a, b4
5x a x b6
3a, b2
5x a x 6 b6
1a, b4
5x a 6 x b6
1a, q 2
5x x 7 a6
3a, q 2
5x x a6
1  q , b2
5x x 6 b6
1  q , b4
5x x b6
1 q, q2
5x x is a real number6
a
a
b
b
Caution!
Whenever the symbol q is included in interval notation, a right parenthesis
2 is used. Similarly, when  q is included, a left parenthesis 1 is used.
EXAMPLES
4. 5x  4 x 6 56
5. 5x  4 6 x 6 56 = 1 4, 52
6. 5x x  26 = 3 2, q 2
5. 5x x  26
7. 5x 7 7 x 16 = 5x 1 x 6 76 = 31, 72
6. 5x 6 x 7 26
8.
6 5 4 3 2 1
7.
(2, 4]
9.
40 30 20 10
6 5 4 3 2 1
(, 1)
10
20
30
40
10
20
30
40
8.
Do Exercises 48.
40 30 20 10
c Solving Inequalities
Two inequalities are equivalent if they have the same solution set. For example, the inequalities x 7 4 and 4 6 x are equivalent. Just as the addition
principle for equations gives us equivalent equations, the addition principle
for inequalities gives us equivalent inequalities.
1.4
Answers
4. 3 4, 52
7. 310, q 2
5. 1 q ,  24
8. 3  30, 304
6. 12, 64
115
Since subtracting c is the same as adding  c, there is no need for a separate subtraction principle.
x 7  4.
We used the addition principle to show that the inequalities x + 5 7 1 and
x 7  4 are equivalent. The solution set is 5x x 7  46 and consists of an infinite number of solutions. We cannot possibly check them all. Instead, we can
perform a partial check by substituting one member of the solution set (here
we use  1) into the original inequality:
x + 5 7 1
1 + 5 ? 1
4
9. x + 6 7 9
5 4 3 2 1
(4, )
10. x + 4 7
5 4 3 2 1
TRUE
7 6 5 4 3 2 1
4x + 1 5x
2x  3 3x  1.
Simplifying
4x + 1  4x 5x  4x
5 4 3 2 1
Answers
9. 5x x 7 36, or 13, q 2;
0
1 x.
116
7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Do Exercise 11.
CHAPTER 1
Simplifying
(, 1]
Subtracting 4x
The inequalities 1 x and x 1 have the same meaning and the same solutions. The solution set is 5x 1 x6 or, more commonly, 5x x 16. Using interval notation, we write that the solution set is 1 q , 14. The graph is as follows:
Adding 2
The multiplication principle for inequalities differs from the multiplication principle for equations. Consider the true inequality
4 6 9.
If we multiply both numbers by 2, we get another true inequality:
4122 6 9122, or
8 6 18.
True
False
True
3
4
1 #
1 3
3y 6 #
3
3 4
y 6
1
.
4
(, ~)
2
1
4
F , or A  q , 14 B .
~
0
STUDY TIPS
1.4
117
We have
3
2
5x  80
5 4 3 2 1
13.  2y 7 10
5x
 80
5
5
x 16.
5 4 3 2 1
1
14.  x  4
3
40 30 20 10
10
20
30
40
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Do Exercises 1214.
We use the addition and multiplication principles together in solving
inequalities in much the same way as in solving equations.
Adding 16
 7y 10y  20
17y  20
17y
20
17
 17
20
.
17
20
17
Simplifying
F , or A  q , 20
17 D .
In some cases, we can avoid multiplying or dividing by a negative number by using the addition principle in a different way. Lets rework Example 14
by adding 7y instead of 10y :
16  7y 10y  4
16  7y + 7y 10y  4 + 7y
16 17y  4
16 + 4 17y  4 + 4
Answers
12. e y y
3
3
f , or a  q ,
d
10
10
13. 5y y 6  56, or 1  q ,  52
5
118
12
CHAPTER 1
20 17y
17y
20
17
17
Note that 20
17 y is equivalent to y
Adding 4
20
y.
17
10
20
17 .
 15 7 12x
Dividing by 12. The symbol stays
the same.
 15
12x
7
12
12

Solve.
15. 6  5y 7
5
7 x.
4
16. 3x + 5x 6 4
Do Exercises 1517.
17. 17  51y  22
45y + 812y  32  39y
is at least
is at most
cannot exceed
must exceed
is between
no more than
no less than
SAMPLE SENTENCE
TRANSLATION
Translate.
m 5
n 6
20. The time of the test was between
50 and 60 min.
w 2000
s 7 15
23,000 6 h 6 35,000
w 90
t 4000
Answers
15. e y  y 
16.
17.
Do Exercises 1824.
1.4
18.
21.
24.
1
1
f , or a  q ,  d
5
5
1
1
q
e x  x 6 f , or a  , b
2
2
17
17
f, or c , q b
ey y
9
9
t 250
19. s 88
20. 50 6 t 6 60
d 7 25
22. w 6 110
23. n 7  8
c 135,000
119
STUDY TIPS
RELYING ON THE
ANSWER SECTION
Dont begin solving a homework
problem by working backward
from the answer in the answer
section at the back of the text. If
you are having trouble getting the
correct answer to an exercise, you
might need to reread the section
preceding the exercise set, paying
particular attention to the example that corresponds to the type
of exercise you are doing, and/or
work more slowly and carefully.
Keep in mind that when you take
quizzes and tests you have no
answer section to rely on.
can be used to estimate the average cost of tuition and fees at twoyear public
institutions of higher education, where t is the number of years after 2000.
Determine, in terms of an inequality, the years for which the cost will be more
than $3000.
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
C 7 3000.
We replace C with 126t + 1293 to find the values of t that are solutions of
the inequality:
126t + 1293 7 3000.
3. Solve.
5. State. The average cost of tuition and fees at twoyear public institutions
of higher education will be more than $3000 for years more than 13.55 yr
after 2000, so we have 5t t 7 13.556.
Answer
CHAPTER 1
Do Exercise 25.
120
Subtracting 1293
EXAMPLE 17 Salary Plans. On her new job, Rose can be paid in one
of two ways: Plan A is a salary of $600 per month, plus a commission of 4% of
sales; and Plan B is a salary of $800 per month, plus a commission of 6% of
sales in excess of $10,000. For what amount of monthly sales is plan A better
than plan B, if we assume that sales are always more than $10,000?
1. Familiarize.
PLAN A:
MONTHLY INCOME
PLAN B:
MONTHLY INCOME
$600 salary
$800 salary
4% of sales
Next, suppose that Rose had sales of $12,000 in one month. Which plan
would be better? Under plan A, she would earn $600 plus 4% of $12,000, or
600 + 0.04112,0002 = $1080.
Since with plan B commissions are paid only on sales in excess of
$10,000, Rose would earn $800 plus 6% of 1$12,000  $10,0002, or
800 + 0.06112,000  10,0002 = 800 + 0.06120002 = $920.
This shows that for monthly sales of $12,000, plan A is better. Similar calculations will show that for sales of $30,000 a month, plan B is better. To
determine all values for which plan A pays more money, we must solve
an inequality that is based on the calculations above.
2. Translate. We let S = the amount of monthly sales. If we examine the
calculations in the Familiarize step, we see that the monthly income
from plan A is 600 + 0.04S and from plan B is 800 + 0.061S  10,0002.
Thus we want to find all values of S for which
Income from is greater
plan A
than
Income from
plan B
600 + 0.04S
3. Solve.
400 7 0.02S
20,000 7 S, or S 6 20,000.
4. Check.
In the Familiarize step, we saw that for sales of $12,000, plan A pays more.
Since 12,000 6 20,000, this is a partial check. Since we cannot check all
possible values of S, we will stop here.
Do Exercise 26.
1.4
121
Translating
for Success
1. Consecutive Integers. The sum
of two consecutive even integers
is 102. Find the integers.
A. 0.05125,7502 = x
B. x + 2x = 102
6. Numerical Relationship.
One number is 6 more than
twice another. The sum of the
numbers is 102. Find the
numbers.
C. 2x + 21x + 62 = 102
3. Dimensions of a Rectangle. The
length of a rectangle is 6 in. more
than the width. The perimeter of
the rectangle is 102 in. Find the
length and the width.
D. 150  x 102
E. x  0.05x = 25,750
F. x + 1x + 22 = 102
G. x + 1x + 62 7 102
4. Population. The population of
Doddville is decreasing at a rate
of 5% per year. The current
population is 25,750. What was
the population the previous
year?
H. x + 5x = 150
I. x + 0.05x = 25,750
J. x + 12x + 62 = 102
K. x + 1x + 12 = 102
5. Reading Assignment. Quinn has
6 days to complete a 150page
reading assignment. How many
pages must he read the first day
so that he has no more than
102 pages left to read on the
5 remaining days?
L. 102 + x 7 150
M. 0.05x = 25,750
N. 102 + 5x 7 150
O. x + 1x + 62 = 102
Answer on page A3
Exercise Set
1.4
a
1. x  2 6; 4, 0, 4, 8
2. 3x + 5  10;  5, 10, 0, 27
3. t  8 7 2t  3; 0,  8,  9,  3,  78
4. 5y  7 6 8  y ; 2, 3, 0, 3, 23
5. 5x x 6 56
6. 5t t  56
8. 5t  10 6 t 106
9. 5x  4 7 x 7  86
11.
6 5 4 3 2 1
13.
10. 5x 13 7 x 56
12.
0
14.
2
2
7. 5x  3 x 36
40 30 20 10
12
10
20
30
40
12
15. x + 2 7 1
6 5 4 3 2 1
16. x + 8 7 4
0
21. t + 13 9
6 5 4 3 2 1
6 5 4 3 2 1
40 30 20 10
10
20
30
40
40 30 20 10
40 30 20 10
10
20
30
40
23. y  8 7  14
22. x  8 17
0
20. a + 6  14
19. a  9  31
18. y + 4 6 10
6 5 4 3 2 1
6 5 4 3 2 1
17. y + 3 6 9
10
20
30
1.4
40
6 5 4 3 2 1
123
24. y  9 7  18
12
25. x  11  2
0
12
27. 8x 24
12
26. y  18  4
0
12
28. 8t 6  56
6 5 4 3 2 1
12
20
40
60
80
10
20
30
40
20
40
60
80
29. 0.3x 6  18
12
31. 23 x 7 2
30. 0.6x 6 30
80 60 40 20
40 30 20 10
80 60 40 20
32. 35 x 7  3
6 5 4 3 2 1
6 5 4 3 2 1
Solve.
33. 9x  8.1
34.  5y 3.5
35.  34 x  58
36.  18 y  98
37. 2x + 7 6 19
38. 5y + 13 7 28
39. 5y + 2y  21
40.  9x + 3x  24
42. 8x  9 6 3x  11
45. 5x 
124
CHAPTER 1
1
12
5
12
+ 4x
46. 2x  3 6
13
4x
+ 10  1.25x
41. 2y  7 6 5y  9
48. 2m + 5 161m  42
61. 4517x  62 6 40
62. 2314x  32 7 30
65.
3
4
A 3x  12 B 
2
3
1
3
66.
A  4x B 
2 7
3 8
5
8
3
8
68. 0.912x + 82 6 20  1x + 52
1.4
125
69. a + 1a  32 1a + 22  1a + 12
Solve.
6 ft
703W
H2
5 ft
4 ft
3 ft
H
2 ft
1 ft
126
CHAPTER 1
81. Wedding Costs. The Arnold Inn offers two plans for
wedding parties. Under plan A, the inn charges $30 for
each person in attendance. Under plan B, the inn
charges $1300 plus $20 for each person in excess of the
first 25 who attend. For what size parties will plan B cost
less? (Assume that more than 25 guests will attend.)
The formula
C = 591F  322
I = 21s + 102
can be used to convert dress sizes s in the United States
to dress sizes I in Italy. For what dress sizes in the
United States will dress sizes in Italy be larger than 36?
1.4
127
85. Bottled Water Consumption. Bottled water consumption has increased steadily in recent years. The number
N of gallons, in millions, consumed in the United States
t years after 2006 is approximated by the equation
N = 0.6t + 8.2.
Source: Beverage Marketing Corporation
Decrease of 3
per 1000 ft
3500 ft
Skill Maintenance
Simplify.
[R.6b]
93.  8x + 24y  4
[R.5d]
[R.2a, c]
Synthesis
99. Supply and Demand. The supply S and demand D for a certain product are given by
S = 460 + 94p and
D = 2000  60p.
128
CHAPTER 1
104. x + 8 6 3 + x
105. x 2 + 1 7 0
1.5
Cholesterol is a substance that is found in every cell of the human body. High
levels of cholesterol can cause fatty deposits in the blood vessels that increase
the risk of heart attack or stroke. A blood test can be used to measure total
cholesterol. The following table shows the health risks associated with various
cholesterol levels.
TOTAL
CHOLESTEROL
RISK
LEVEL
Normal
Borderline high
High
OBJECTIVES
a
A totalcholesterol level T from 200 to 239 is considered borderline high. We can express this by the sentence
200 T
and T 239
or more simply by
200 T 239.
This is an example of a compound inequality. Compound inequalities consist of two or more inequalities joined by the word and or
the word or. We now solve such sentencesthat is, we find the set
of all solutions.
AB
1.5
129
4
5
1
2
Do Exercises 1 and 2.
B
CONJUNCTION
When two or more sentences are joined by the word and to make a
compound sentence, the new sentence is called a conjunction of the
sentences.
x 6 1.
x x 1
(2, )
7 6 5 4 3 2 1
7 6 5 4 3 2 1
7 6 5 4 3 2 1
(, 1)
x 2 x x x 1
x 2 x and x 1
(2, 1)
Because there are numbers that are both greater than 2 and less than 1,
the conjunction 2 6 x and x 6 1 can be abbreviated by  2 6 x 6 1. Thus
the interval 1 2, 12 can be represented as 5x  2 6 x 6 16, the set of all numbers that are simultaneously greater than  2 and less than 1. Note that, in
general, for a 6 b,
and
a<x
and
x<b
can be abbreviated
a<x<b ;
b>x
and
x>a
can be abbreviated
b>x>a .
Caution!
a 7 x and x 6 b cannot be abbreviated as a 7 x 6 b.
Answers
1. 50, 36
2.
A
130
CHAPTER 1
AND; INTERSECTION
The word and corresponds to intersection and to the symbol .
In order for a number to be a solution of a conjunction, it must make
each part of the conjunction true.
Do Exercise 3.
5 4 3 2 1
2x + 5 6 13.
and
 6 2x
and
2x + 5 6 13
2x 6 8
Subtracting 5
3 x
and
x 6 4.
Dividing by 2
x x 4
[3, )
7 6 5 4 3 2 1
7 6 5 4 3 2 1
7 6 5 4 3 2 1
(, 4)
x 3 x x x 4
x 3 x 4
[3, 4)
 6 2x 6 8
Subtracting 5
 3 x 6 4.
Dividing by 2
Such an approach saves some writing and will prove useful in Section 1.6.
Do Exercise 4.
12
12
and
5x 15
x 1
and
x 3.
Answers
3.
1 0
; 1 1, 42
4. 5x  5 6 x 106, or 1 5, 104;
5
10
0
1.5
131
x x 3
x x 1 x x 3
x x 3
[1, )
7 6 5 4 3 2 1
7 6 5 4 3 2 1
7 6 5 4 3 2 1
[3, )
[3, )
The numbers common to both sets are those that are greater than or equal
to 3. Thus the solution set is 5x x 36, or, in interval notation, 33, q 2. You
should check that any number in 33, q 2 satisfies the conjunction whereas
numbers outside 33, q 2 do not.
Do Exercise 5.
AB =
3x  1 6 2
2x 7 4 and
3x 6 3
x 7 2 and
x 6 1.
The solution set is the intersection of the solution sets of the individual
inequalities.
x x 2
x x 1
x x 2 x x 1
x x 2 and x 1
(2, )
7 6 5 4 3 2 1
7 6 5 4 3 2 1
7 6 5 4 3 2 1
(, 1)
Since no number is both greater than 2 and less than 1, the solution set is the
empty set, .
Do Exercise 6.
Answers
5. 5x x 6  36;
3
132
6.
0
CHAPTER 1
EXAMPLE 5 Solve: 3 5  2x 6 7.
We have
3 5  2x 6 7
3  5 5  2x  5 6 7  5
2
2x
6 2
2
2
 2x
2
Subtracting 5
Simplifying
2
2
1 x 7  1.
Simplifying
7. Solve:  4 8  2x 4.
AB
3
4
5
A
Do Exercises 8 and 9.
DISJUNCTION
Answers
7. 5x 2 x 66, or 32, 64
9.
8. 50, 1, 3, 4, 7, 96
1.5
133
or
x 7 3.
x x 3
x x 3 x x 3
x x 3 or x 3
(, 3)
7 6 5 4 3 2 1
7 6 5 4 3 2 1
7 6 5 4 3 2 1
(3, )
(, 3)
(3, )
x 7 3
OR; UNION
The word or corresponds to union and the symbol . In order for
a number to be in the solution set of a disjunction, it must be in at least
one of the solution sets of the individual sentences.
Do Exercise 10.
13  5x 3
 5x  10
Dividing by 5. The symbol
must be reversed.
x 6  4 or
x 2.
To find the solution set of the disjunction, we consider the individual graphs.
We graph x 6  4 and then x 2. Then we take the union of the graphs.
x x 4
x x 2
x x 4 or x 2
Answer
10.
1  q ,  24 14, q 2
134
CHAPTER 1
(, 4)
7 6 5 4 3 2 1
7 6 5 4 3 2 1
7 6 5 4 3 2 1
[2, )
(, 4)
[2, )
Caution!
A compound inequality like
x 6 4
or
x 2,
11. x  4 6  3 or x  3 3
10 8 6 4 2
10
12. 2x + 4  3 or x + 5 6 3
6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
x  3 6  10
or
x 6 7
x 7  32 or
x 6  7.
Reversing
the symbol
Keep the word or.
13. Solve:
 3x  7 6  1 or x + 4 6  1.
EXAMPLE 9 Solve: 3x  11 6 4 or 4x + 9 1.
We solve the individual inequalities separately, retaining the word or :
3x  11 6 4
or
3x 6 15 or
x 6 5
or
4x + 9 1
4x  8
x  2.
x x 2
x x 5 x x 2
x x 5 or x 2
x x is a real number
(, 5)
7 6 5 4 3 2 1
7 6 5 4 3 2 1
7 6 5 4 3 2 1
(, )
The set
of all real
numbers
Since any number is either less than 5 or greater than or equal to  2, the
two sets fill the entire number line. Thus the solution set is the set of all real
numbers, 1 q , q 2 .
Do Exercise 14.
5x  7 13 or 2x  1  7.
6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Answers
12. e x x
7
or x 6  2 f , or
2
7
1 q , 22 c , q b ;
2
7
2
2
13. 5x x 6  5 or x x 7  26, or
1 q , 52 1 2, q 2
14. All real numbers;
0
1.5
135
STUDY TIPS
MAKING POSITIVE
CHOICES
Making these choices will contribute to your success in this
course.
I is between 32 and 46
or
32 6 21s + 102 6 46.
Dividing by 2
16 6 s + 10 6 23
6 6 s 6 13.
15. Converting Dress Sizes. Refer
to Example 10. Which dress sizes
in the United States correspond
to dress sizes between 36 and 58
in Italy?
4. Check.
Answer
15. 5s 8 6 s 6 196
136
CHAPTER 1
Subtracting 10
Exercise Set
1.5
a
3. 5a, b, c, d6 5b, f, g6
4. 5m, n, o, p6 5m, o, p6
7. 5a, b, c, d6 5b, f, g6
8. 5m, n, o, p6 5m, o, p6
9. 52, 5, 7, 96 51, 3, 46
11. 53, 5, 76
12. 53, 5, 76
13.  4 6 a and a 1
6 5 4 3 2 1
6 5 4 3 2 1
6 5 4 3 2 1
15. 1 6 x 6 6
3
2
16.  3 y 4
0
6 5 4 3 2 1
19. 3x + 7 4 and 2x  5  1
6 5 4 3 2 1
20. 4x  7 6 1 and 7  3x 7  8
2
6 5 4 3 2 1
21. 4  3x 10 and 5x  2 7 13
6 5 4 3 2 1
6 5 4 3 2 1
22. 5  7x 7 19 and 2  3x 6  4
2
6 5 4 3 2 1
Solve.
23.  4 6 x + 4 6 10
24. 6 6 x + 6 8
25. 6 7  x  2
1.5
26. 3 7  x  5
137
27. 2 6 x + 3 9
28.  6 x + 1 6 9
29. 1 6 3y + 4 19
30. 5 8x + 5 21
31.  10 3x  5  1
32. 6 2x  3 6 6
33. 18  2x  7 6 0
34. 4 7  3m  7 2
35. 
36. 
1
2
2
4  x 6
3
4
3
37.  4
7  3x
4
5
1
1
1
6 x  3
2
4
2
38. 3 6
2x  5
6 8
4
39. x 6  2 or x 7 1
40. x 6  4 or x 7 0
6 5 4 3 2 1
41. x  3 or x 7 1
6 5 4 3 2 1
42. x  1 or x 7 3
6 5 4 3 2 1
6 5 4 3 2 1
45. 2x  8  3 or x  1 3
6 5 4 3 2 1
46. x  5  4 or 2x  7 3
1
47. 7x + 4  17 or 6x + 5  7
6 5 4 3 2 1
6 5 4 3 2 1
6 5 4 3 2 1
48. 4x  4 6  8 or 4x  4 6 12
3
6 5 4 3 2 1
Solve.
49. 7 7  4x + 5 or 10  4x + 5
138
CHAPTER 1
50. 6 7 2x  1 or 4 2x  1
6 5 4 3 2 1
44. x  2 6  1 or x  2 7 3
51. 3x  7 7  10 or 5x + 2 22
52. 3x + 2 6 2 or 4  2x 6 14
53.  2x  2 6  6 or  2x  2 7 6
54.  3m  7 6  5 or  3m  7 7 5
55.
2
2
5
5
x  14 6  or x  14 7
3
6
3
6
56.
1
1
 3x  3.7 or  5x 4.8
4
4
57.
2x  5
2x  5
 3 or
4
6
6
58.
7  3x
7  3x
6  4 or
7 4
5
5
Solve.
The equation
d
P = 1 +
33
The formula
1.5
139
Skill Maintenance
Find the absolute value.
[R.1d]
67.  3.2
Simplify.
68. 5 + 7
69. 5 + 7
70. 7  7
[R.7a, b]
75. a
73.
56a 5b 6 3
b
28a 7b 8
 4a 5b 7
5a 12b 8
76. a
125p 11q 12 2
b
25p 6q 8
Synthesis
Solve.
77. x  10 6 5x + 6 x + 10
78. 4m  8 7 6m + 5 or 5m  8 6  2
2
79.  15
23 x 
2
5
2
15
3
4
1
6  10
or 2x 
3
4
1
10
81. 3x 6 4  5x 6 5 + 3x
82. 2x 
83. x + 4 6 2x  6 x + 12
84. 2x + 3 x  6 or 3x  2 4x + 5
85. If  b 6  a, then a 6 b.
89. What is the union of the set of all rational numbers with the set of all irrational numbers? the intersection?
140
CHAPTER 1
Determine whether each sentence is true or false for all real numbers a, b, and c.
AbsoluteValue Equations
and Inequalities
1.6
OBJECTIVES
We can think of the absolute value of a number as its distance from zero on
the number line. Recall the formal definition from Section R.2.
ABSOLUTE VALUE
Simplify expressions
containing absolutevalue
symbols.
x = x;
x 6 0
x =  x.
SKILL TO REVIEW
Objective R.1d: Find the absolute
value of a real number.
Find each absolute value.
1. 4
2. 3.5
a
a
` = , for any real numbers a and b Z 0.
b
b
(The absolute value of a quotient is the quotient of the absolute
values.)
1. 7x
2. x 8
3. 5a 2b
7a
4. ` 2 `
b
value signs.
1. 5x = 5 # x = 5 x
2.  3y =  3 # y = 3 y
3. 7x 2 = 7 # x 2 = 7 x 2 = 7x 2
4. `
5. 9x
2
6x
2
2
` = `
` =
=
2
x
 3x
x
x
Answers
Skill to Review:
1. 4
2. 3.5
Margin Exercises:
1. 7 x
2. x 8
3. 5a 2 b
7a
4.
5. 9 x
b2
1.6
141
5 units
Another way to find the distance between two numbers on the number
line is to determine the absolute value of the difference, as follows:
 3  2 =  5 = 5, or 2  1 32 = 5 = 5.
Note that the order in which we subtract does not matter because we are
taking the absolute value after we have subtracted.
EXAMPLE 5 Find the distance between 8 and 92 on the number line.
Find the distance between
the points.
6.  6,  35
x  0 = x
7. 19, 14
Do Exercises 68.
8. 0, p
4 units
5 4 3 2 1
x 4
EXAMPLE 8 Solve: x = 0.
The only number whose absolute value is 0 is 0 itself. Thus the solution
is 0. The solution set is 506.
EXAMPLE 9 Solve: x =  7.
The absolute value of a number is always nonnegative. Thus there is no
number whose absolute value is 7; consequently, the equation has no solution. The solution set is .
Answers
6. 29
7. 5
142
8. p
CHAPTER 1
Examples 79 lead us to the following principle for solving linear equations with absolute value.
8
6
4
2
10. Solve: x =  6.
Do Exercises 911.
11. Solve: p = 0.
We can use the absolutevalue principle with the addition and multiplication principles to solve equations with absolute value.
EXAMPLE 10 Solve: 2 x + 5 = 9.
We first use the addition and multiplication principles to get x by itself.
Then we use the absolutevalue principle.
2x + 5 = 9
2x = 4
Subtracting 5
x = 2
Dividing by 2
Solve.
12. 3x = 6
x =  2 or
x = 2
13. 4 x + 10 = 27
Do Exercises 1214.
14. 3 x  2 = 10
EXAMPLE 11 Solve: x  2 = 3.
We can consider solving this equation in two different ways.
1: This allows us to see the meaning of the solutions graphically.
The solution set consists of those numbers that are 3 units from 2 on the
number line.
METHOD
5 4 3 2 1
3 units
3 units
X = p
x  2 = 3
x  2 = 3
or
x  2 = 3
x = 1
or
x = 5
Absolutevalue principle
Answers
9. 56, 66;
6
11. 506
12. 5  2, 26
17 17
, f
13. e 14. 5 4, 46
15. 53, 56
4 4
10.
Do Exercise 15.
1.6
143
X = p
2x + 5 = 13
2x + 5 =  13
or
2x =  18
or
2x + 5 = 13
2x = 8
x = 9
or
x = 4.
Absolutevalue principle
Do Exercise 16.
EXAMPLE 13 Solve: 4  7x =  8.
Since absolute value is always nonnegative, this equation has no solution.
The solution set is .
17. Solve: 6 + 2x =  3.
Do Exercise 17.
EXAMPLE 14 Solve: 2x  3 = x + 5 .
2x  3 =  1x + 52
x  3 = 5
or
2x  3 =  x  5
x = 8
or
3x  3 =  5
x = 8
or
3x =  2
x = 8
or
x =  23.
2x  3 = x + 5
EXAMPLE 15 Solve: x + 8 = x  5 .
or
x + 8 =  1x  52
8 = 5
or
x + 8 = x + 5
8 = 5
or
2x =  3
8 = 5
or
x =  32
x + 8 = x  5
Solve:
18. 5x  3 = x + 4
19. x  3 = x + 10
The first equation has no solution. The second equation has  32 as a solution.
The solution set is E  32 F .
Answers
16. e 
13
17.
,7 f
3
7 1
7
18. e ,  f
19. e  f
4 6
2
144
CHAPTER 1
5 4 3 2 1
x 4
Do Exercise 20.
8
6
4
2
x 4
Do Exercise 21.
8
6
4
2
x 4
Do Exercise 22.
8
6
4
2
Examples 1618 illustrate three cases of solving equations and inequalities with absolute value. The following is a general principle for solving equations and inequalities with absolute value.
Answers
20. 5  5, 56;
5
5
1.6
145
SOLUTIONS OF ABSOLUTEVALUE
EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES
For any positive number p and any algebraic expression X:
a) The solutions of X = p are those numbers that satisfy X =  p or
X = p.
As an example, replacing X with 5x  1 and p with 8, we see that the
solutions of 5x  1 = 8 are those numbers x for which
5x  1 =  8
or
5x  1 = 8
5x =  7
or
5x = 9
x =  75 or
x = 95 .
1
2
1
or
5
2
or
x 6
2x  9 7 4
or
2x 7 13
x 7
5
2
13
2 .
or x 7
13
2
F , or A  q , 52 B A 132, q B .
e
1
146
CHAPTER 1
u
3
10
X 6 p
3x  2 6 4
 4 6 3x  2 6 4
 2 6 3x 6 6
 23 6 x 6 2.
3x 2 4
X p
8  4x 5
 5 8  4x 5
 13  4x  3
13
4
x 34 .
3
4
F , or E x 34 x
!
5 4 3 2 1
13
4
F , or C 34, 134 D .
^
2
u8 4x u 5
X p
4x + 2 6
8
or
4x + 2 6
4x  8
or
4x 4
x  2 or
x 1.
8
2
6
4
2
25. 3x + 2 5
4
24. 7  3x 4
4x + 2  6
6
8
6
4
2
u4x 2u 6
Answers
Do Exercises 2325.
24. e x 1 x
0 1
25. e x  x 
11
3
7
7
or x 1 f, or a  q ,  d h 31, q 2;
3
3
7
3
1.6
11
11
f, or c 1,
d;
3
3
0 1
147
1.6
1. 9x
2. 26x
3. 2x 2
4. 8x 2
5.  2x 2
6. 20x 2
7.  6y
8.  17y
9. `
13. `
2
`
x
10. `
y
`
3
11. `
x2
`
y
12. `
x4
`
y
 8x 2
`
2x
14. `
9y 2
`
3y
15. `
4y 3
`
 12y
16. `
5x 3
`
 25x
17. 8,  46
18. 7,  32
19. 36, 17
20. 52, 18
23.  5, 0
24.
25. x = 3
26. x = 5
27. x =  3
28. x =  9
29. q = 0
30. y = 7.4
31. x  3 = 12
32. 3x  2 = 6
33. 2x  3 = 4
34. 5x + 2 = 3
35. 4x  9 = 14
36. 9y  2 = 17
37. x + 7 = 18
38. x  2 = 6.3
2
5
, 3
6
Solve.
148
CHAPTER 1
Exercise Set
41. 5x = 40
42. 2y = 18
43. 3x  4 = 17
44. 6x + 8 = 32
45. 7 w  3 = 11
46. 5 x + 10 = 26
47. `
48. `
49. m + 5 + 9 = 16
50. t  7  5 = 4
51. 10  2x  1 = 4
52. 2 2x  7 + 11 = 25
53. 3x  4 =  2
54. x  6 =  8
55. 59 + 3x =
56. 23  4x =
2x  1
` = 5
3
1
6
4  5x
` = 7
6
4
5
Solve.
57. 3x + 4 = x  7
58. 2x  8 = x + 3
59. x + 3 = x  6
60. x  15 = x + 8
61. 2a + 4 = 3a  1
62. 5p + 7 = 4p + 3
63. y  3 = 3  y
64. m  7 = 7  m
65. 5  p = p + 8
66. 8  q = q + 19
67. `
68. `
69. 12 x  5 = 14 x + 3
70. 2  23 x = 4 + 78 x
2x  3
4  5x
` = `
`
6
8
1.6
6  8x
7 + 3x
` = `
`
5
2
149
Solve.
71. x 6 3
72. x 5
73. x 2
74. y 7 12
75. x  1 6 1
76. x + 4 9
77. 5 x + 4 10
78. 2 x  2 7 6
79. 2x  3 4
80. 5x + 2 3
81. 2y  7 7 10
82. 3y  4 7 8
83. 4x  9 14
84. 9y  2 17
85. y  3 6 12
86. p  2 6 6
87. 2x + 3 4
88. 5x + 2 13
89. 4  3y 7 8
90. 7  2y 7 5
91. 9  4x 14
92. 2  9p 17
93. 3  4x 6 21
94.  5  7x 30
95. `
1
+ 3x ` 12
2
1
96. ` y  6 ` 7 24
4
97. `
98. `
99. `
2  5x
2
`
4
3
103. 7  3  2x 5
150
CHAPTER 1
100. `
1 + 3x
7
` 7
5
8
104. 16 2x  3 + 9
x  7
` 6 4
3
x + 5
` 2
4
101. m + 5 + 9 16
102. t  7 + 3 4
105. `
106. `
2x  1
` 1
3
3x  2
` 1
5
Skill Maintenance
In each of Exercises 107114, fill in the blank with the correct term from the given list. Some of the choices may
not be used.
3a, b4
107. The
of two sets A and B is the collection of
elements belonging to A and/or B. [1.5b]
3a, b2
1a, b2
disjoint
union
q.
intersection
[1.4d]
equivalent
110. Interval notation for 5x a x b6 is
absolute value
. [1.4b]
equation
inequality
111. The
of a number is its distance from zero on
the number line. [1.6a]
at least
at most
112. A(n)
is a number sentence that says that the
expression on either side of the equals sign represents the same
number. [1.1a]
113. Equations with the same solutions are called
equations. [1.1a]
114. A(n)
, or Z .
Synthesis
116. Container Sizes. A container company is manufacturing rectangular boxes of various sizes. The length of any
box must exceed the width by at least 3 in., but the
perimeter cannot exceed 24 in. What widths are
possible?
l w + 3,
2l + 2w 24
Solve.
117. x + 5 = x + 5
118. 1  14x + 8 =
120. x  1 = x  1
121. x  6  8
123. x + 5 7 x
124. 59 + 3x 6  61
3
4
119. 7x  2 = x + 4
122. 3x  4 7  2
126.  5 y 5
128. 5 6 x 6 1
129. x 6  8 or x 7 2
127. x  6 or x 6
1.6
151
CHAPTER
equation, p. 74
solution, p. 74
solution set, p. 74
equivalent equations, p. 75
formula, p. 88
inequality, p. 113
The Addition Principle for Equations:
The Multiplication Principle for Inequalities: For any real numbers a and b, and any positive number c : a 6 b
is equivalent to ac 6 bc ; a 7 b is equivalent to ac 7 bc.
For any real numbers a and b, and any negative number c : a 6 b
is equivalent to ac 7 bc ; a 7 b is equivalent to ac 6 bc.
Similar statements hold for and .
A B = 5x  x is in A and x is in B6
Set Intersection:
A B = 5x  x is in A or x is in B, or x is in both A and B6
Set Union:
a 6 x and x 6 b is equivalent to a 6 x 6 b.
Properties of Absolute Value
a
a
,
ab = a # b ,
` ` =
b
b
a = a,
Concept Reinforcement
Determine whether each statement is true or false.
1. For any real numbers a, b, and c, c Z 0, a = b is equivalent to a # c = b # c.
2. When we solve 3B = mt + nt for t, we get t =
3B  mt
.
n
[1.2a]
152
CHAPTER 1
[1.6a]
[1.6a]
[1.6b]
[1.4c]
[1.1c]
[1.4c]
Important Concepts
Objective 1.1d Solve equations using the addition principle and the multiplication principle together,
removing parentheses where appropriate.
Practice Exercise
10y  6y  2 = 6
Removing parentheses
4y  2 = 6
4y = 8
Adding 2
y = 2
Dividing by 4
The solution is 2.
Objective 1.2a Evaluate formulas and solve a formula for a specified letter.
Example Solve for z: T =
T =
w + z
.
3
Practice Exercise
w + z
3
2. Solve for h: F =
w + z
3 # T = 3a
b
3
1
gh.
4
Multiplying by 3 to
clear the fraction
3T = w + z
Simplifying
3T  w = z
Subtracting w
Objective 1.4c Solve an inequality using the addition principle and the multiplication principle
and then graph the inequality.
Example Solve and graph: 6x  7 3x + 2.
6x  7 3x + 2
3x  7 2
3x 9
Practice Exercise
3. Solve and graph: 5y + 5 6 2y  1.
Subtracting 3x
Adding 7
x 3
Dividing by 3
The solution set is 5x  x 36, or 1  q , 34. We graph the
solution set.
5 4 3 2 1
5 4 3 2 1
Objective 1.5a Find the intersection of two sets. Solve and graph conjunctions of inequalities.
Example Solve and graph:  5 6 2x  3 3.
 5 6 2x  3 3
Practice Exercise
4. Solve and graph:  4 5z + 6 6 11.
 2 6 2x 6
Adding 3
1 6 x 3
Dividing by 2
5 4 3 2 1
153
Objective 1.5b Find the union of two sets. Solve and graph disjunctions of inequalities.
Example Solve and graph: 2x + 1  5 or 3x + 1 7 7.
2x + 1  5 or
3x + 1 7 7
2x  6 or
3x 7 6
x  3 or
x 7 2
Practice Exercise
5. Solve and graph: z + 4 6 3 or 4z + 1 5.
5 4 3 2 1
or
Practice Exercise
6. Solve: 5x  1 = 9.
y = 3
or
4x  4 =  2x  8
2x = 12
or
6x  4 =  8
x = 6
or
6x =  4
x = 6
or
x = 
Practice Exercise
7. Solve: z + 4 = 3z  2 .
2
3
2
The solution set is e 6,  f .
3
1
5
1
1
The solution set is e x  1 6 x 6  f , or a  1,  b.
5
5
x + 3 1
b)
x + 3  1 or
x + 3 1
x  4 or
x 2
154
CHAPTER 1
Practice Exercise
8. Solve: (a) 2x + 3 6 5; (b) 3x + 2 8.
Review Exercises
Solve.
[1.1b, c, d]
1.  11 + y =  3
3.  53 x +
7
3
2. 7x =  3
= 5
Write interval notation for the given set or graph. [1.4b]
13. 5x 8 x 6 96
4. 612x  12 = 3  1x + 102
14.
80 60 40 20
20
40
60
80
Solve and graph. Write interval notation for the solution set.
[1.4c]
15. x  2  4
4
11 d
[1.2a]
+ 3, for d
6 5 4 3 2 1
6 5 4 3 2 1
16. x + 5 7 6
8. A = 2a  3b, for b
Solve.
[1.4c]
17. a + 7  14
18. y  5  12
19. 4y 7  16
20.  0.3y 6 9
21. 6x  5 6 13
22. 4y + 3  6y  9
23.  12 x 
1
4
1
2
 14 x
155
[1.5a, b]
45. 5x + 6 =  8
44. 2x + 5 = x  9
28.  2 x 6 5
6 5 4 3 2 1
Solve.
[1.6e]
46. 2x + 5 6 12
47. x 3.5
48. 3x  4 15
49. x 6 0
29. x  2 or x 7 5
6 5 4 3 2 1
[1.5a]
Greenhouse Gases.
G = 0.506t + 18.3
is used to estimate global carbon dioxide emissions, in
billions of metric tons, t years after 1980that is, t = 0
corresponds to 1980, t = 20 corresponds to 2000, and so on.
Use this equation in Exercises 50 and 51.
Solve.
[1.5a, b]
32. 2x  5 6  7 and 3x + 8 14
33. 4 6 x + 3 5
A.
B.
C.
D.
34.  15 6  4x  5 6 0
35. 3x 6  9 or  5x 6  5
36. 2x + 5 6  17 or  4x + 10 34
38. ` 
[1.6a]
2x
39. ` 2 `
y
3
`
x
40. `
12y
3y 2
A.
B.
C.
D.
[1.6b]
Synthesis
[1.6c, d]
42. x = 6
37. 2x + 7  5 or x + 7 15
Simplify.
The equation
43. x  2 = 7
52. Solve: 2x + 5 x + 3 .
[1.6d, e]
156
CHAPTER 1
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
CHAPTER
Test
Stepbystep test solutions are found on the Chapter Test Prep Videos available via the Video Resources
on DVD, in
, and on
(search BittingerInterAlgPB and click on Channels).
Solve.
3
5
2
3
1. x + 7 = 5
2.  12x =  8
3. x 
4. 3y  4 = 8
6. 513x + 62 = 6  1x + 82
7. Solve A = 3B  C for B.
8. Solve m = n  nt for n.
Solve.
9. Room Dimensions. A rectangular room has a
perimeter of 48 ft. The width is twothirds of the length.
What are the dimensions of the room?
13. Boating. A paddleboat moves at a rate of 12 mph in still water. If the rivers current moves at a rate of 3 mph, how long will
it take the boat to travel 36 mi downstream? 36 mi upstream?
15.
6 5 4 3 2 1
6 5 4 3 2 1
Solve and graph. Write interval notation for the solution set.
16. x  2 4
6 5 4 3 2 1
17. 4y  3 5
0
Solve.
18. x  4 6
19. 0.6y 6 30
20. 3a  5  2a + 6
21. 5y  1 7  9y + 3
22. 415  x2 6 2x + 5
Test: Chapter 1
157
Solve.
24. Moving Costs. Mitchell Moving Company charges $105
plus $30 an hour to move households across town.
QuickPak Moving charges $80 an hour for crosstown
moves. For what lengths of time is QuickPak more
expensive?
The equation
d
P = 1 +
33
gives the pressure P, in atmospheres (atm), at a depth of
d feet in the sea. For what depths d is the pressure at least
2 atm and at most 8 atm?
27. x 6  3 or x 7 4
0
6 5 4 3 2 1
Solve.
28. 5  2x 1 and 3x + 2 14
29.  3 6 x  2 6 4
30.  11  5x  2 6 0
31.  3x 7 12 or 4x 7  10
32. x  7  5 or x  7  10
33. 3x  2 6 7 or x  2 7 4
Simplify.
34. `
35. `
7
`
x
6x 2
`
3x
Solve.
39. x = 9
40. x  3 = 9
41. x + 10 = x  12
42. 2  5x =  10
43. 4x  1 6 4.5
44. x 7 3
45. `
46. 5x  3 10
6  x
` 15
7
A. Less than 0
C. Between 1 and 3
B. Between 0 and 1
D. Greater than 3
Synthesis
Solve.
49. 7x 6 8  3x 6 6 + 7x
48. 3x  4  3
158
CHAPTER 1
Graphs, Functions,
and Applications
2.1
CHAPTER
Graphs of Equations
RealWorld Application
Amelias Beads offers a class in designing necklaces. For a necklace made of 6mm
beads, 4.23 beads per inch are needed. The cost of a necklace made of 6mm
gemstone beads that sell for 40 each is $7 for the clasp and the crimps and approximately $1.70 per inch. Formulate a linear function that models the total cost of a
necklace C1n2, where n is the length of the necklace, in inches. Then graph the model
and use the model to determine the cost of a 30in. necklace.
This problem appears as Example 6 in Section 2.6.
159
2.1
Graphs of Equations
c
d
Determine whether an
ordered pair of numbers is
a solution of an equation.
Graph linear equations using
tables.
Graph nonlinear equations
using tables.
ts
f Mea
ion o
umpt )
s
n
o
C
s
ound
apita
Per C ultry (in p
o
P
104.3
and
ry
Poult
63
Beef
48.7
Pork
Lamb
Veal
SKILL TO REVIEW
Objective 1.1: Determine whether
a given number is a solution of
a given equation.
U.S. P
u
billion
s)
ship (
in
Rider
OBJECTIVES
1
0.5
9
re 200
ricultu
t of Ag
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e
m
rt
Depa
E: U.S.
SOURC
blic T
ransi
t Ride
rship
0
1998
SOURC
Years
2008
E: Ame
rican P
ublic Tra
nsport
ation A
ssociati
on
Payment
history
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(2, 3)
(3, 2)
3
2
1
1
Origin
Answers
Skill to Review:
1. No
2. Yes
160
CHAPTER 2
First
axis
The coordinates of the origin are 10, 02. In general, the first axis is called
the xaxis and the second axis is called the yaxis. We call this the Cartesian
coordinate system in honor of the great French mathematician and philosopher Ren Descartes (15961650).
EXAMPLE 1 Plot the points 14, 32, 15, 32, 10, 42, and 12.5, 02.
To plot 1  4, 32, we note that the first number,  4, tells us the distance in
the first, or horizontal, direction. We move 4 units in the negative direction,
left. The second number tells us the distance in the second, or vertical, direction. We move 3 units in the positive direction, up. The point 1 4, 32 is then
marked, or plotted.
The points 1 5,  32, 10, 42 , and 12.5, 02 are plotted in the same manner.
Second axis
y
5
(0, 4)
4
3 units
up
4 units
left
2
1
(2.5, 0)
x
1 2 3 4 5
First axis
2. 14, 62
3. 1 3, 52
4. 15,  32
5. 1 4,  32
6. 14,  22
7. 10, 32
8. 13, 02
10. 1  4, 02
9. 10,  42
y
5
4
3
2
1
54321
1
2
3
4
5
Do Exercises 110.
1 2 3 4 5
Quadrants
The axes divide the plane into four regions called quadrants, denoted by
Roman numerals and numbered counterclockwise starting at the upper right.
In region I (the first quadrant), both coordinates of a point are positive. In
region II (the second quadrant), the first coordinate is negative and the second coordinate is positive. In the third quadrant, both coordinates are negative, and in the fourth quadrant, the first coordinate is positive and the
second coordinate is negative.
y
I
First
quadrant
3
2
1
(3, 5)
(0, 0)
1
(4, 0)
3
IV
Fourth
quadrant
Answers
1.10.
Points with one or more 0s as coordinates, such as 10, 52, 14, 02, and
10, 02 are on axes and not in quadrants.
Second
axis
(3, 5)
(4, 6)
(6, 4)
(0, 3)
(4, 0)
(3, 0)
(4, 2)
(5, 3)
(4, 3)
(0, 4)
First
axis
2.1
Graphs of Equations
161
b Solutions of Equations
If an equation has two variables, its solutions are pairs of numbers. When
such a solution is written as an ordered pair, the first number listed in the pair
generally replaces the variable that occurs first alphabetically.
TRUE
STUDY TIPS
SMALL STEPS LEAD TO
GREAT SUCCESS
What is your longterm goal
for getting an education? How
does math help you to attain that
goal? As you begin this course,
approach each shortterm task,
such as going to class, asking
questions, using your time wisely,
and doing your homework, as part
of the framework of your longterm goal.
FALSE
EXAMPLE 3 Show that the pairs 1 4, 32, 10, 12, and 14, 12 are solutions
of y = 1  12 x. Then plot the three points and use them to help determine
another pair that is a solution.
We replace x with the first coordinate and y with the second coordinate
of each pair:
y = 1 
1
2x
y = 1 
3 ? 1  12 # 142
1 + 2
3
1
2x
1 ? 1  12 # 102
1  0
1
TRUE
y = 1 
TRUE
13. No
14. Yes
15. 1  6, 42, 1 2, 22; answers may vary
CHAPTER 2
1
2x
1 ? 1  12 # 142
1  2
1
TRUE
In each case, the substitution results in a true equation. Thus all the pairs are
solutions of the equation.
y
We plot the points as shown at right.
Note that the three points appear to line
5
up. That is, they appear to be on a
4
(4, 3)
3
straight line. We use a ruler and draw a
(2, 0)
2
line passing through 1 4, 32, 10, 12, and
?
(0, 1)
14,  12.
1 2
5 4 3 2 1
4 5
x
The line appears to pass through 12, 02
1
(4,
1)
as well. Lets see if this pair is a solution of
2
3
y = 1  12 x :
y 1 qx
y = 1 
4
1
2x
1
2
0 ? 1 1  1
0
5
# 122
TRUE
Answers
162
5 # 6  3 # 112 ? 34
30 + 3
33
Do Exercise 15.
Graph.
16. y =  2x
1x, y2
3
GRAPH OF AN EQUATION
5
4
3
2
1
1
54321
1
2
3
4
5
Equations like y = 1  12 x and 2x + 3y = 6 are said to be linear because the graph of their solutions is a line. In general, a linear equation is any equation equivalent to one of the form y = mx + b or
Ax + By = C, where m, b, A, B, and C are constants (that is, they are
numbers, not variables) and A and B are not both 0.
0
2
6
4
6
Choose any x.
Compute y.
Form the pair.
Plot the points.
y
5
4
3
2
1
1x, y2
10, 02
11, 22
13, 62
1 2, 42
1 3, 62
1x, y2
We find some ordered pairs that are solutions. This time we list the
pairs in a table. To find an ordered pair, we can choose any number for
x and then determine y. For example, if we choose 3 for x, then
y = 2 # 3 = 6 (substituting into the equation y = 2x). We choose some
negative values for x, as well as some positive ones. If a number takes
us off the graph paper, we generally do not use it. Next, we plot these
points. If we plotted many such points, they would appear to make a
solid line. We draw the line with a ruler and label it y = 2x.
0
1
3
2
3
1 2 3 4 5
1
x
2
17. y =
1 2 3 4 5
54321
1
2
3
4
5
2
4
y
(3, 6)
6
5
y 2x
4
3
2
(1, 2)
(0, 0)
6 5 4 3 2 1
2
(2, 4)
(3, 6)
3
4
5
6
Answers
16.
17.
3
1
0
1
3
6
2
0
2
6
4
2
0
2
4
2
1
0
1
2
1x, y2
1 3, 62
1 1, 22
10, 02
11, 22
13, 62
y
4
2
4 2
y 2x
y
4
2
4 2
2
2
4
1
y x
2
4
1x, y2
14, 22
12, 12
10, 02
1 2, 12
1 4, 22
2
Graphs of Equations
163
Calculator Corner
Finding Solutions of Equations A table of values representing ordered pairs that are solutions of an equation
can be displayed on a graphing calculator. To do this for the equation in Example 4, y = 2x, we first press E to access the
equationeditor screen. Then we clear any equations that are present. (See the Calculator Corner on p. 83 for the procedure for doing
this.) Next, we enter the equation by positioning the cursor beside Y1 = and pressing 2 J. Now we press F j to
display the table setup screen. (TBLSET is the second function associated with the A key.) You can choose to supply the
xvalues yourself or you can set the calculator to supply them. To supply them yourself, follow the procedure for selecting ASK mode
on p. 83. To have the calculator supply the xvalues, set Indpnt to Auto by positioning the cursor over Auto and pressing [.
Depend should also be set to Auto.
When Indpnt is set to Auto, the graphing calculator will supply values of x, beginning with the value specified as TBLSTART
and continuing by adding the value of ^TBL to the preceding value for x. Below, we show a table of values that starts with x =  2
and adds 1 to the preceding xvalue. We move to TBLSTART and press : 2 e 1 or : 2 [ 1 to select a minimum
xvalue of 2 and an increment of 1. To display the table, we press F n . (TABLE is the second operation associated with the
D key.) If we are in AUTO mode, we can use the h and e keys to scroll up and down through the table to see other solutions
of the equation.
X
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
X 2
TABLE SETUP
TblStart2
Tbl1
Indpnt: Auto Ask
Depend: Auto Ask
Y1
4
2
0
2
4
6
8
Exercises: Create a table of ordered pairs that are solutions of the equation.
1. Example 5
2. Example 7
EXAMPLE 5 Graph: y =  12 x + 3.
18. Graph: y = 2x + 3.
1x, y2
y =  12 x + 3 =  12142 + 3 =  2 + 3 = 1.
5
4
3
2
1
54321
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
y =  12 x + 3 =  121 62 + 3 = 3 + 3 = 6,
and when x is 0, we get
y =  12 x + 3 =  12102 + 3 = 0 + 3 = 3.
Answer
y
18.
4
2
4 2
2
4
y 2x 3
164
CHAPTER 2
4
6
0
1
6
3
1x, y2
y
(6, 6)
14, 12
1  6, 62
10, 32
1
19. Graph: y =  x  3.
2
5
4
y qx 3
(0, 3)
6 5 4 3 2 1
1
(4, 1)
1
1
1x, y2
y
5
4
3
2
1
54321
1
2
3
4
5
2
3
Note that the three points line up. If they did not, we would know
that we had made a mistake. When only two points are plotted, an error is harder to detect. We use a ruler or other straightedge to draw a
line through the points and then label the graph. Every point on the
line represents a solution of y =  12 x + 3 .
1 2 3 4 5
20. Graph: 4y  3x =  8.
y
5
4
3
2
1
54321
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
21. Graph: 5x + 2y = 4.
3x + 5y = 10
3x + 5y  3x = 10  3x
5y = 10  3x
1
5
# 5y =
y =
1
5
1
5
# 110  3x2
# 1102  15 # 13 x2
y
5
4
3
2
1
Subtracting 3x
Simplifying
54321
1
2
3
4
5
Multiplying by 15 , or dividing by 5
Using the distributive law
y = 2  35 x, or y =  35 x + 2.
Thus the equation 3x + 5y = 10 is equivalent to y =  35 x + 2. We now find
three ordered pairs, using multiples of 5 for x to avoid fractions.
x
0
5
5
y
2
1
5
1x, y2
10, 22
15, 12
15, 52
y
(5, 5)
Answers
19.
4
3
3x 5y 10
(0, 2)
4 2
2
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
5
4 2
4y 3x 8
21.
4
2
We plot the points, draw the line, and label the graph as shown.
4 2
2
4
5x 2y 4
2.1
2
4
1
y x 3
2
3
4
4
(5, 1)
20.
Graphs of Equations
165
STUDY TIPS
QUIZTEST FOLLOWUP
You may have just taken a chapter
quiz or test. Immediately after
each chapter quiz or test, write out
a stepbystep solution of each
question that you missed. Ask
your instructor or tutor for help
with problems that are still giving
you trouble. When the week of the
final examination arrives, you will
be glad to have the excellent study
guide that these corrected tests
provide.
We have seen that equations whose graphs are straight lines are called linear.
There are many equations whose graphs are not straight lines. Here are some
examples.
y
10
5
2
4
10
2
4
4
6
6
8
8
y x 2 4x 3
2
y x 3 2x 2 4x 2
EXAMPLE 7 Graph: y = x 2  5.
We select numbers for x and find the corresponding values for y. For
example, if we choose 2 for x, we get y = 1 222  5 = 4  5 =  1. The
table lists several ordered pairs.
22. Graph: y = 4  x 2.
x
0
1
y
5
4
3
2
1
1
54321
1
2
3
4
5
2
1 2 3 4 5
5
4
4
1
1
4
4
(3, 4)
4
3
y x2 5
2
1
5 4 3
(2, 1)
1
1
2
(2, 1)
3
(1, 4)
Do Exercise 22.
Answer
y
y
4
2
1
2
5
3
5
166
(3, 4)
(1, 4)
Next, we plot the points. The more points we plot, the more clearly we
see the shape of the graph. Since the value of x 2  5 grows rapidly as x moves
away from the origin, the graph rises steeply on either side of the yaxis.
3
0
1
1
2
2
3
3
(0, 5)
22.
4 2
2
4
y 4 x2
CHAPTER 2
x
3
2
1
1
2
 12
1
2
3
y
1
3
1
2
1
2
2
1
 12
 13
y
1
x
(q, 2)
23. Graph: y =
(1, 1)
(3, a)
2
1
(2, q)
(2, q)
x
x
(3, a)
2
.
x
1
(1, 1)
(q, 2)
5
4
3
2
1
1
We plot these points, noting that each first coordinate is paired with its
reciprocal. Since 1>0 is undefined, we cannot use 0 as a first coordinate.
Thus there are two branches to this graphone on each side of the yaxis.
Note that for xvalues far to the right or far to the left of 0, the graph
approaches, but does not touch, the xaxis; and for xvalues close to 0, the
graph approaches, but does not touch, the yaxis.
54321
1
2
3
4
5
2
4
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1
2
 12
Do Exercise 23.
EXAMPLE 9 Graph: y = x .
We select numbers for x and find the corresponding values for y. For
example, if we choose  1 for x, we get y =  1 = 1. Several ordered pairs are
listed in the table below.
24. Graph: y = 4  x .
5
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
y ux u
4
3
(3, 3)
2
(2, 2)
1
(1, 1)
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
(3, 3)
(2, 2)
(1, 1)
1
0
2
(0, 0)
5
4
3
2
1
2
4
We plot these points, noting that the absolute value of a positive number
is the same as the absolute value of its opposite. Thus the xvalues 3 and 3
both are paired with the yvalue 3. Note that the graph is Vshaped and centered at the origin.
4
54321
1
2
3
4
5
5
5
Do Exercise 24.
With equations like y =  12 x + 3, y = x 2  5, and y = x , which we have
graphed in this section, it is understood that y is the dependent variable and x
is the independent variable, since y is expressed in terms of x and consequently y is calculated after first choosing x.
Answers
Answers to Exercises 23 and 24 are on p. 168.
2.1
Graphs of Equations
167
Answers
x
24.
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
4
4
1
2
1
5
1
1
2
Calculator Corner
\Y1 (63X)/2
\Y2
\Y3
\Y4
\Y5
\Y6
\Y7
4
y
1
2
4
4
2
4 2
2
Exercises: Graph each equation in the standard viewing window 3 10, 10, 10, 104,
with Xscl = 1 and Yscl = 1.
4
2
2
y 4 x
4
2
y
x
1. y = 2x  1
2. 3x + y = 2
3. y = 5x  3
4. y =  4x + 5
5. y = 23 x  3
6. y =  34 x + 4
7. y = 3.104x  6.21
8. 2.98x + y =  1.75
Exercise Set
2.1
10
10
4 2
10
1. A14, 12, B12, 52, C10, 32, D10,  52, E16, 02, F13, 02,
G1  2, 42, H1 5, 12, J1 6, 62
Second
axis
Second
axis
1
1
168
CHAPTER 2
2. A1 3,  52, B11, 32, C10, 72, D10, 22, E15, 02, F1 4, 02,
G11, 72, H1 6, 42, J1 3, 32
First
axis
First
axis
23.
3. Plot the points M12, 32, N15,  32, and P1  2,  32. Draw
MN, NP, and MP. (MN means the line segment from M
to N.) What kind of geometric figure is formed? What is
its area?
4. Plot the points Q1 4, 32, R15, 32, S12,  12, and T1  7,  12.
Draw QR, RS, ST, and TQ. What kind of figure is formed?
What is its area?
Second
axis
Second
axis
1
1
First
axis
First
axis
5. 11,  12; y = 2x  3
6. 13, 42; t = 4  3s
8. 12,  12; 4r + 3s = 5
3
9. a0, b; 2a + 5b = 7
5
7. 13, 52; 4x  y = 7
10. 1  5, 12; 2p  3q =  13
In Exercises 1116, an equation and two ordered pairs are given. Show that each pair is a solution of the equation. Then graph
the equation and use the graph to determine another solution. Answers for solutions may vary, but the graphs do not.
11. y = 4  x; 1 1, 52, 13, 12
1 2 3 4 5
1
x + 3; 14, 52, 12, 22
2
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
y
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
14. y =
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
2.1
1 2 3 4 5
Graphs of Equations
169
Graph.
18. y = x + 1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
1
x
4
1 2 3 4 5
1
x
3
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
1
x + 2
4
CHAPTER 2
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
1
x + 1
2
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
28. y =
1 2 3 4 5
1
x  4
3
y
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
24. y = x + 3
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
27. y =
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
26. y =
25. y = 5x  2
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
23. y = 3  x
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
22. y =
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
20. y =  3x
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
170
21. y =
19. y = x
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
17. y = x  1
29. x + y = 5
y
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
33. x + 2y = 8
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
35. y =
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
3
x + 1
2
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
40. 6y + 2x = 8
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1
36. y =  x  3
2
39. 8y + 2x =  4
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
38. 6x  3y =  9
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5
4
3
2
1
37. 8y + 2x = 4
1 2 3 4 5
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
34. x + 2y =  6
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5
32. y =  x + 3
2
5
31. y =  x  2
3
30. x + y =  4
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
2.1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
Graphs of Equations
1 2 3 4 5
171
Graph.
41. y = x 2
42. y =  x 2
(Hint: x 2 =  1 # x 2.)
1 2 3 4 5
45. y = x 2  3
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
47. y = 
49. y = x  2
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
CHAPTER 2
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
3
x
y
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
52. y = x 3  2
y
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
48. y =
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
51. y = x 3
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5
4
3
2
1
50. y = x + 2
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
1
x
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
172
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
44. y = 3  x 2
46. y = x 2  3x
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
43. y = x 2 + 2
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
Skill Maintenance
Solve.
[1.5a, b]
53.  3 6 2x  5 10
Solve.
54. 2x  5  10 or
4x  2 6 10
55. 3x  5  12 or
3x  5 12
56. 13 6 3x + 5 6 23
[1.3a]
58. Landscaping. Grass seed is being spread on a triangular
traffic island. If the grass seed can cover an area of 200 ft2
and the islands base is 16 ft long, how tall a triangle can
the seed fill?
16 ft
59. Taxi Fare. The fare for a taxi ride from Jens office to
the South Bay Health Center is $19.85. The driver
charges $2.00 for the first 21 mi and $1.05 for each
additional 14 mi. How far is it from North Shore Drive to
the South Bay Health Center?
Synthesis
Use a graphing calculator to graph each of the equations in Exercises 6164. Use a standard viewing window of
3  10, 10,  10, 104, with Xscl = 1 and Yscl = 1.
61. y = x 3  3x + 2
63. y =
62. y = x  x
1
x  2
64. y =
1
x2
66.
y
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
67.
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
2
3
4
5
68.
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
y
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
2.1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
Graphs of Equations
1 2 3 4 5
173
2.2
OBJECTIVES
a
Determine whether a
correspondence is a function.
SKILL TO REVIEW
Objective R.4b: Evaluate an
algebraic expression by
substitution.
a Identifying Functions
Consider the equation y = 2x  3. If we substitute a value for xsay, 5we
get a value for y, 7:
y = 2x  3 = 2152  3 = 10  3 = 7.
The equation y = 2x  3 is an example of a function. We now develop the
concept of a function, one of the most important concepts in mathematics.
In much the same way that ordered pairs form correspondences between
first and second coordinates, a function is a correspondence from one set to
another. For example:
To each student in a college, there corresponds his or her student ID.
To each item in a store, there corresponds its price.
To each real number, there corresponds the cube of that number.
Correspondence
Domain
Range
Evaluate.
1. 
1
x, when x = 40
4
Domain
2. y 2  2y + 6, when y =  1
f:
1
2
3
4
Domain
Chicago
h: Baltimore
San Diego
Range
Cubs
White Sox
Orioles
Padres
Domain
g:
3
4
5
6
Domain
Cubs
p : White Sox
Orioles
Padres
Range
5
9
7
Range
Chicago
Baltimore
San Diego
Answers
Skill to Review:
1.  10
2. 9
174
Range
$107.40
$ 34.10
$ 29.60
$ 19.60
CHAPTER 2
Do Exercises 14.
2. Domain
Correspondence
Each numbers square
Range
A set of nonnegative
integers
The set of
U.S. Senators
c) The set of
U.S. Senators
A
B
C
D
3. Domain
2
2
3
3
0
4. Domain
4
Kay R. Hagan
9
0
Range
70 mph
28 mph
50 mph
9 mph
Range
a
b
c
d
e
Range
4
9
0
Range
2
2
3
3
0
NORTH
CAROLINA
Range
A set of numbers
6. Domain
A set of polygons
Correspondence
Find the perimeter of each
polygon.
RELATION
Range
A set of numbers
Answers
1. Yes
4. No
2.2
2. No
5. Yes
3. Yes
6. Yes
175
Range
A set of rectangles
y = f 1 52 = 2 # 1 52 + 3 =  10 + 3 = 7;
STUDY TIPS
ASKING QUESTIONS
Dont be afraid to ask questions
in class. Most instructors welcome
this and encourage students to ask
them. Other students probably
have the same questions you do.
Thus instead of writing when x = 4, the value of y is 11, we can simply write
f 142 = 11, which can also be read as f of 4 is 11 or for the input 4, the output of f is 11.
We can think of a function as a machine. Think of f 142 = 11 as putting 4,
a member of the domain (an input), into the machine. The machine knows
the correspondence f 1x2 = 2x + 3, multiplies 4 by 2 and adds 3, and produces 11, a member of the range (the output).
Inputs: x = 4
(x) = 2x +3
Outputs: (4) = 11
Multiply
by 2
Add 3
Caution!
The notation f 1x2 does not mean f times x and should not be read that way.
EXAMPLE 3
a) f 102
c) f 1 52
d) f 17a2
One way to find function values when a formula is given is to think of the
formula with blanks, or placeholders, replacing the variable as follows:
Answer
f1
7. No
176
b) f 112
CHAPTER 2
2 = 3
 2
+ 8.
To find an output for a given input, we think: Whatever goes in the blank on
the left goes in the blank(s) on the right. With this in mind, lets complete the
example.
a) f 102 = 3 # 02  2 # 0 + 8 = 8
b) f 112 = 3 # 12  2 # 1 + 8 = 3 # 1  2 + 8 = 3  2 + 8 = 9
f 1x2 = 2x 2 + 3x  4.
c) f 1 52 = 31 522  2 # 1 52 + 8 = 3 # 25 + 10 + 8 = 75 + 10 + 8 = 93
a) f 102
c) f 1 52
b) f 182
d) f 12a2
Do Exercise 8.
9. Find the indicated function
value.
a) f 152 = 3 # 5 + 2 = 15 + 2 = 17
b) For the function given by g1x2 = 7, all inputs share the same output, 7.
Thus, g122 = 7. The function g is an example of a constant function.
c) F1a + 12 = 51a + 12  8 = 5a + 5  8 = 5a  3
d) f 1a + h2 =  21a + h2 + 1 =  2a  2h + 1
Answers
8. (a)  4; (b) 148; (c) 31; (d) 8a 2 + 6a  4
9. (a)  33; (b)  3; (c)  5a  2;
(d) 6a  6h  7
Do Exercise 9.
Calculator Corner
Finding Function Values We can find function values on a graphing calculator. One method is to substitute inputs
directly into the formula. Consider the function f1x2 = x 2 + 3x  4. To find f1 52, we press ( : 5 ) V a 3 ( :
5 ) c 4 [. We find that f1 52 = 6.
10
(5)2 + 3(5)4
6
X
5
Y1 X2 + 3x 4
Y1
6
10
X
10
X 5
10
Y6
After we have entered the function as y 1 = x 2 + 3x  4 on the equationeditor screen, there are several other methods that we can
use to find function values. We can use a table set in ASK mode and enter x =  5. (See p. 83.) We see that the function value, y 1 , is 6. We
can also use the VALUE feature to evaluate the function. To do this, we first graph the function. Then we press F m 1 to access the
VALUE feature. Next, we supply the desired xvalue by pressing : 5. Finally, we press [ to see X =  5, Y = 6 at the bottom of the
screen. Again we see that the function value is 6. Note that when the VALUE feature is used to find a function value, the xvalue must be in
the viewing window.
A fourth method for finding function values uses the TRACE feature. With the function graphed in a window that includes the
xvalue 5, we press C. The coordinates of the point where the blinking cursor is positioned on the graph are displayed at the bottom
of the screen. To move the cursor to the point with xcoordinate 5, we press : 5 [. Now we see X =  5, Y = 6 displayed at
the bottom of the screen. This tells us that f1 52 = 6. The final calculator display for this method is the same as the one shown above
for the VALUE feature. There are other ways to find function values, but we will not discuss them here.
Exercises: Find each function value.
2.2
177
c Graphs of Functions
To graph a function, we find ordered pairs 1x, y2 or 1x, f 1x22, plot them, and
connect the points. Note that y and f 1x2 are used interchangeablythat is,
y = f 1x2when we are working with functions and their graphs.
f1x2
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
y
6
f1x2
5
4
3
2
1
54321
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
4
2
5 4 3 2 1
1
54321
1
2
3
4
5
Answers
y
4
1 2 3 4 5
g1x2
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
5
0
3
4
3
0
5
Do Exercise 11.
4
2
2
4
g(x) 5 x 2
178
CHAPTER 2
g(x) 4 x 2
3
2
1
5 4 3
1
1
2
3
5
2
g132 = 4  1322 = 4  9 =  5
f (x) x 4
4 2
g122 = 4  2 2 = 4  4 = 0,
4
11.
g112 = 4  1122 = 4  1 = 3,
4
2
g102 = 4  02 = 4  0 = 4,
2
4
2
5
4
3
2
1
4 2
f (x) x 2
10.
(4, f (4))
Do Exercise 10.
g1x2
t(x)
y
h1x2
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
5
4
3
2
1
y
5
4
h(x) ux u
54321
1
2
3
4
5
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
1
2
Do Exercise 12.
Calculator Corner
Graphing Functions
To graph a function using a graphing
calculator, we replace the function
notation with y and proceed as described
in the Calculator Corner on p. 168. To
graph f1x2 = 2x 2 + x in the standard
window, for example, we replace f1x2
with y and enter y1 = 2x 2 + x on the
Y = screen and then press B 6.
y 2x 2 x
10
10
10
10
2. f 1x2 =  2x  3
3. h 1x2 = 1  x 2
4. f 1x2 = 3x 2  4x + 1
y
5
5. f 1x2 = x 3
(3, 5)
4
3
(3, 2)
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
1 2 3 4 5
6. f 1x2 = x + 3
(3, 1)
3
Answer
12.
y
4
2
4 2
2
If it is possible for a vertical line to cross a graph more than once, then
the graph is not the graph of a function.
4
t(x) 3 x
2.2
179
EXAMPLE 8
function.
a)
b)
c)
d)
13.
a) The graph is not that of a function because a vertical line can cross the
graph at more than one point.
y
x
x
y
14.
b) The graph is that of a function because no vertical line can cross the graph
at more than one point. This can be confirmed with a ruler or straightedge.
c) The graph is that of a function because no vertical line can cross the graph
more than once.
15.
d) The graph is not that of a function because a vertical line can cross the
graph more than once.
x
y
16.
Do Exercises 1316.
e Applications of Functions
and Their Graphs
Functions are often described by graphs, whether or not an equation is given.
To use a graph in an application, we note that each point on the graph represents a pair of values.
Answers
13. Yes
14. No
180
15. No
16. Yes
CHAPTER 2
EXAMPLE 9
World population
(in billions)
7.5
7.0
6.5
6.0
5.5
5.0
'96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '06 '08 '10 x
Year
SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division/
International Programs Center
a) What was the world population in 1998? That is, find f 119982.
b) What was the world population in 2008? That is, find f 120082.
7.5
7.5
7.0
6.5
World population
(in billions)
World population
(in billions)
6.0
5.9
5.5
5.0
'96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '06 '08 '10 x
Year
SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division/
International Programs Center
7.0
6.7
6.5
6.0
5.5
5.0
'96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '06 '08 '10 x
Year
SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division/
International Programs Center
Answers
17. About 6.1 billion
18. About 6.8 billion
2.2
181
Exercise Set
2.2
a
1. Domain
Range
2
5
19
5. Domain
9
8
2. Domain
5
3
7
7
Range
3. Domain
6
7
3
6. Domain
Range
China
India
Japan
Spain
Sweden
United States
4
16
4
5
6
7
3
LIFE EXPECTANCY
(in years)
COUNTRY
3
Range
Range
3
9
4. Domain
Range
5
5
8
3
7
64.7
73.0
78.2
80.9
82.6
25
5
Florida
Kansas
Range
8. Domain
9. Domain
Austin
Houston
Dallas
Cleveland
Toledo
Cincinnati
Range
10. Domain
Texas
Texas
Ohio
Ohio
Domain
Range
Colorado
Washington
Range
Austin
Houston
Dallas
Cleveland
Toledo
Cincinnati
Correspondence
Range
A set of triangles
12. A family
A firstgrade class
182
CHAPTER 2
7. Domain
15. f 1x2 = x + 5
a) f 142
c) f 1 32
e) f 12.42
18. f 1x2 =  4x
a) f 162
c) f 102
e) f 13a2
21. f 1x2 = 2x 2  3x
a) f 102
c) f 122
e) f 1 52
24. g1t2 = t  1
a) g142
c) g1 12
e) g15a2
b) f 172
d) f 102
f ) f A 23 B
b) f A  12 B
d) f 1 12
f ) f 1a  12
b) f 1 12
d) f 1102
f ) f 14a2
b) g1 22
d) g11002
f ) g1a + 12
16. g1t2 = t  6
a) g102
c) g1132
e) g1 1.082
b) g162
d) g1  12
f ) g A 78 B
a) h1 72
c) h A 23 B
e) h16a2
19. g1s2 = 3s + 4
a) g112
c) g A 23 B
e) g1a  22
b) h152
d) h102
f ) h1a + 12
a) h142
c) h112.52
e) h A 23 B
b) h1  62
d) h102
f ) h1a + 32
22. f 1x2 = 3x 2  2x + 1
23. f 1x2 = x + 1
a) f 102
c) f 122
e) f 1a  12
25. f 1x2 = x 3
26. f 1x2 = x 4  3
a) f 102
c) f 1  12
e) f 1  32
a) f 102
c) f 122
e) f 1  52
17. h1p2 = 3p
b) f 112
d) f 1102
f ) f 12a2
b) f 1 12
d) f 1102
f ) f 1 3a2
a) f 112
c) f 102
e) f 1  22
b) f 1 22
d) f 1 102
f ) f 1a + h2
b) f 1 12
d) f 122
f ) f 1 a2
A1h2 = 0.314h + 48
can be used to estimate the average age of house members in the U.S. House of Representatives in the years
1981 to 2009. Let A1h2 = the average age of the house
members and h = the number of years since 1981.
What is the average age of U.S. House members in 1981?
in 2005?
Source: House and Senate Historical Offices
2.2
183
Celsius
100C
Fahrenheit
Water
boils
90C
80C
70C
60C
50C
40C
30C
20C
Normal
body
temperature
Room
temperature
10C
0C
Water
freezes
10C
20C
68F
60F
50F
40F
32F
20F
10F
0F
10F
33. f 1x2 =  2x
184
CHAPTER 2
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
36. g1x2 = 2x + 5
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
35. f 1x2 = 3x  1
34. g1x2 = 3x
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
212F
2 00F
1 90F
1 80F
1 70F
1 60F
1 50F
1 40F
1 30F
1 20F
1 10F
1 00F
90F
80F
38. f 1x2 =  12 x + 2
37. g1x2 =  2x + 3
y
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
49. f 1x2 = 2  x 2
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
48. f 1x2 = x 2 + 6x + 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
52. f 1x2 = x 3  2
y
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
47. f 1x2 = x 2  x  2
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
51. f 1x2 = x 3 + 1
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
44. g1x2 = x + 3
5
4
3
2
1
50. f 1x2 = 1  x 2
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
46. f 1x2 = x 2  1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5
4
3
2
1
43. g1x2 = x  1
5
4
3
2
1
45. f 1x2 = x 2
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
42. f 1x2 = x  4
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
40. f 1x2 =  34 x  2
5
4
3
2
1
41. f 1x2 = 2  x
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
39. f 1x2 = 12 x + 1
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
2.2
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
185
53.
54.
55.
57.
58.
56.
59.
60.
Solve.
News/Talk Radio Stations. The following graph approximates the number of U.S. commercial radio stations with a
news/talk format. The number of stations is a function f of
the year x.
y
Number of news/talk
radio stations
1300
1275
1250
1225
1200
1175
1150
1125
1100
1997
1999
2001
2003
Year
SOURCE: M Street Corporation
2000
2002
2004
Year
186
CHAPTER 2
y
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Skill Maintenance
In each of Exercises 6572, fill in the blank with the correct term from the given list. Some of the choices may not be used and
some may be used more than once.
axes
65. The axes divide the plane into four regions called
. [2.1a]
coordinates
quadrants
66. A1n2
is a correspondence between two sets
such that each member of the first set corresponds to at least one
member of the second set. [2.2a]
addition principle
multiplication principle
verticalline test
graph
67. A1n2
set, called the
the
domain
range
relation
function
inputs
outputs
68. The
of an equation is a drawing that represents
all of its solutions. [2.1b]
solutions
values
70. The replacements for the variable that make an equation true are
its
. [1.1a]
71. The
states that for any real numbers a, b, and c,
a = b is equivalent to a + c = b + c. [1.1b]
72. The
can be used to determine whether a graph
represents a function. [2.2d]
Synthesis
73. Suppose that for some function g, g1x  62 = 10x  1.
Find g1  22.
For Exercises 75 and 76, let f 1x2 = 3x 2  1 and g1x2 = 2x + 5.
75. Find f 1g1  422 and g1 f 1 422.
77. Suppose that a function g is such that g1 12 =  7 and g132 = 8. Find a formula for g if g1x2 is of the form g1x2 = mx + b,
where m and b are constants.
2.2
187
2.3
OBJECTIVE
a
SKILL TO REVIEW
Objective 1.1d: Solve equations
using the addition principle and the
multiplication principle together,
removing parentheses where
appropriate.
EXAMPLE 1 Find the domain and the range of the function f whose graph
is shown below.
y
f
Solve.
5
3
1. 6x  3 = 51
2
1
2. 15  2x = 0
(3, 0)
1
5
4
3
2
1
54321
1
2
3
4
5
(2, 2)
(4, 5)
(2, 3)
The domain is the set of all first coordinates, or xvalues, 5 3, 1, 3, 46. The
range is the set of all second coordinates, or yvalues, 51, 2, 0, 56.
Do Margin Exercise 1.
(5, 2)
1 2 3 4 5
(0, 3)
5
4
3
2
1
1
d) The range of f
Answers
Skill to Review:
15
, or 7.5
1. 9
2.
2
Margin Exercise:
1. Domain = 5 3,  2, 0, 2, 56;
range = 5 3,  2, 2, 36
188
CHAPTER 2
y
5
4
3
2
Output 1
Input
1
5
4
3
2
1
1
5
4
3
2
1
3
54321
1
2
3
4
5
5
4
3
2
1
(3, 4)
(3, 4)
1 2 3 4 5
1
1
Do Exercise 2.
d) The range of f
EXAMPLE 3 Find the domain and the range of the function f whose graph
is shown below.
3. Find the domain and the range
of the function f whose graph is
shown below.
f
5
5
4
3
2
1
3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
5
4
3
2
1
54321
1
2
3
4
5
f
1 2 3 4 5
Answers
189
3
.
2x  5
Adding 5
Dividing by 2
Thus, 52 is not in the domain, whereas all other real numbers are.
The domain of f is E x x is a real number and x Z 52 F . In interval notation,
4. f 1x2 = x 3  x
5. f 1x2 =
the domain is A  q , 52 B
4
3x + 2
A 52 , q B .
Do Exercises 4 and 5.
The task of determining the domain and the range of a function is one
that we will return to several times as we consider other types of functions in
this book.
Functions: A Review
The following is a review of the function concepts considered in Sections 2.2
and 2.3.
Function Concepts
Formula for f : f 1x2 = x 2  7
For every input of f, there is
exactly one output.
When 1 is the input,  6 is
the output.
f 112 =  6
Answers
4. All real numbers
5. e x x is a real number and x Z 2
2
a  q,  b a  , q b
3
3
190
CHAPTER 2
2
f , or
3
Graph
y
10
8
f (x) x 2 7
6
4
2
5 4 3 2 1
2
4
6
8
10
(1, 6)
Exercise Set
2.3
a
In Exercises 112, the graph is that of a function. Determine for each one (a) f 112; (b) the domain; (c) all xvalues such
that f 1x2 = 2; and (d) the range. An open dot indicates that the point does not belong to the graph.
1.
2.
1 2 3 4 5
6.
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
10.
y
5
4
3
2
1
11.
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
8.
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
12.
y
5
4
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
7.
5
4
3
9.
1 2 3 4 5
y
5
4
3
2
1
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
4.
y
5
4
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5.
3.
2
x + 3
14. f 1x2 =
7
5  x
15. f 1x2 = 2x + 1
16. f 1x2 = 4  5x
17. f 1x2 = x 2 + 3
18. f 1x2 = x 2  2x + 3
19. f 1x2 =
8
5x  14
20. f 1x2 =
x  2
3x + 4
21. f 1x2 = x  4
22. f 1x2 = x  4
23. f 1x2 =
x 2  3x
24. f 1x2 =
2x  3
4x  7
191
25. g1x2 =
1
x  1
26. g1x2 =
 11
4 + x
27. g1x2 = x 2  2x + 1
29. g1x2 = x 3  1
30. g1x2 = 4x 3 + 5x 2  2x
31. g1x2 =
33. g1x2 = x + 7
34. g1x2 = x + 1
35. g1x2 =
28. g1x2 = 8  x 2
7
20  8x
32. g1x2 =
2
36. g1x2 =
4x + 5
2x  3
6x  12
x 2 + 2x
10x  20
38. For the function g whose graph is shown below, find all
the xvalues for which g1x2 = 1.
(0, 0)
2
1
1
1
2
3
(1, 2)
4
5
6
(1, 8)
7
8
Skill Maintenance
Solve.
[1.4d]
41. x = 8
42. x =  8
43. x  7 = 11
44. 2x + 3 = 13
45. 3x  4 = x + 2
46. 5x  6 = 3  8x
47. 3x  8 =  11
48. 3x  8 = 0
Synthesis
49.
50.
192
CHAPTER 2
52. g1x2 = 12  x
Solve.
MidChapter Review
Concept Reinforcement
Determine whether each statement is true or false.
1. Every function is a relation. [2.2a]
2. It is possible for one input of a function to have two or more outputs.
[2.2a]
3. It is possible for all the inputs of a function to have the same output. [2.2a]
4. If it is possible for a vertical line to cross a graph more than once, the graph is
not the graph of a function. [2.2d]
5. If the domain of a function is the set of real numbers, then the range is the
set of real numbers. [2.3a]
Guided Solutions
Use the graph to complete the table of ordered pairs that name points on the graph.
y
6. [2.1c]
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
2
1 2 3 4 5
7. [2.2c]
2
4
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
6
f 1x2
4
3
2
1
2
0
1 2 3 4 5
0
2
4
1
Mixed Review
Determine whether the given point is a solution of the equation. [2.1b]
1
9. a , 0b; 8a = 4  b
2
8. 1 2,  12; 5y + 6 = 4x
Determine whether the correspondence is a function.
10. Domain
7
9
[2.2a]
11. Domain
Range
5
10
15
20
11
Range
25
30
35
1 2 3 4 5
[2.2b]
13. g1x2 = 2 + x ; g1  52
1
15. h1x2 = 8; h a b
2
16. f 1x2 = 3x 2  x + 5; f 1 12
18. f 1t2 =
1
t + 3; f 1  62
2
193
20.
21.
3
12  3x
24. h1x2 =
x  2
x + 2
25. f 1x2 = x  4
[2.1c], [2.2c]
27. f 1x2 = x  1
2
26. y =  x  2
3
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1
31. f 1x2 =  x
4
y
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5
4
3
2
1
30. y = 1 + x 2
29. g1x2 = x  3
1
2
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
28. h1x2 = 2x +
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
194
CHAPTER 2
33. Without making a drawing, how can you tell that the
graph of y = x  30 passes through three quadrants?
[2.1c]
35. Explain the difference between the domain and the
range of a function. [2.3a]
Graph.
Linear Functions:
Graphs and Slope
2.4
OBJECTIVES
We now turn our attention to functions whose graphs are straight lines. Such
functions are called linear and can be written in the form f 1x2 = mx + b.
LINEAR FUNCTION
A linear function f is any function that can be described by
f 1x2 = mx + b.
Compare the two equations 7y + 2x = 11 and y = 3x + 5. Both are linear equations because their graphs are straight lines. Each can be expressed
in an equivalent form that is a linear function.
The equation y = 3x + 5 can be expressed as f 1x2 = mx + b, where
m = 3 and b = 5.
The equation 7y + 2x = 11 also has an equivalent form f 1x2 = mx + b.
To see this, we solve for y :
7y + 2x = 11
7y + 2x  2x = 2x + 11
2
11
y =  x +
.
7
7
Subtract.
1. 11  1 82
Dividing by 7
2.  6  1  62
Simplifying
(It might be helpful to review the discussion on solving formulas in Section 1.2.)
We now have an equivalent equation in the form
2
11
f 1x2 =  x +
,
7
7
SKILL TO REVIEW
Objective R.2c: Subtract real
numbers.
Subtracting 2x
7y =  2x + 11
7y
2x + 11
=
7
7
2
where m = 7
11
.
and b =
7
Calculator Corner
Exploring b We can use a
graphing calculator to explore the effect
of the constant b on the graph of a function of the form f1x2 = mx + b. Graph
y1 = x in the standard 310, 10, 10, 104
viewing window. Then graph y2 = x + 4,
followed by y3 = x  3, in the same
viewing window.
Exercises:
EXAMPLE 1
y 2x
y 2x 3
0
1
1
2
2
0
2
2
4
4
3
5
1
7
1
Answers
Skill to Review:
1. 19
2. 0
2.4
195
1. Graph y = 3x and y = 3x  6
using the same set of axes.
Compare the graphs.
y
5
4
3
2
1
54321
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
3 units up
7
6
5
4
y 2x 3
y 2x
x
5 4 3 2 1
2. Graph y =  2x and y =  2x + 3
using the same set of axes.
Compare the graphs.
4
5
y
5
4
3
2
1
Do Exercises 1 and 2.
54321
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
EXAMPLE 2
f1x2
g1x2
f 1x2 13 x
x
0
3
3
6
g1x2 13 x 2
0
1
1
2
2
1
3
0
We then plot these points. Drawing a red line for f 1x2 = 13 x and a blue line
for g1x2 = 13 x  2, we see that the graph of g1x2 = 13 x  2 is simply the graph
of f 1x2 = 13 x shifted, or translated, down 2 units. The lines are parallel.
y
4
3
2
f (x) ax
1
6 5 4 3
2 units down
y
4
2
4 2
y 3x
3
4
5
Answers
1.
2
2
4
2.
4
2
4 2
2
4
196
y 3x 6
y 2x
The graph of
y = 3x  6 looks
just like the graph
of y = 3x, but it
is shifted down
6 units.
The graph of
y =  2x + 3
y 2x 3 looks just like
the graph of
2
4
y =  2x, but it
x
is shifted up
3 units.
CHAPTER 2
g(x) ax 2
Do Exercise 3.
1 2 3 4 5
yINTERCEPT
y
f (x) mx b
(0, b)
x
(0, 4)
2
4
4. y = 7x + 8
5. f 1x2 =  6x 
Answers
4
8
2
3
3.
(0, 7.8)
4
1
g(x) x 2
2
3
4 2
2
2
4
Do Exercises 4 and 5.
4. 10, 82
2.4
1
f (x) x
3
The graph of
g1x2 looks
just like the
graph of f 1x2,
but it is
shifted up
2 units.
5. A 0,  23 B
197
0:
m 5 y
1
m y
2
y f (x) x
6 4 2
2
6 4 2
2
Graphs with m 0:
m0
y
m0
6
4
y f (x) 3
2
6 4 2
2
m0
4
2 y f (x) 0
2
6 4 2
2
1
m
3
6
4
y f (x) x
6 4 2
2
y f (x) 6
2
6 4 2
2
m6
0:
6 4 2
2
1
y f (x ) x 2
4
3
y f (x) 6x 4 6
Note that
m 6 0
m = 0
m 7 0
SLOPE
The slope of a line containing points 1x1, y12 and 1x 2, y22 is given by
(x 2, y2)
m =
(y2 y1)
(x1, y1)
(x 2 x1)
rise
run
change in y
=
x
CHAPTER 2
x
6 4 2
2
1
y f (x ) x 3 4
2
198
6 4 2
2
HOMEWORK TIPS
Graphs with m
m1
y
STUDY TIPS
y f (x) 5x 1
change in x
y2  y1
y1  y2
=
.
x2  x1
x1  x2
Consider a line with two points marked P1 and P2, as follows. As we move
from P1 to P2, the ycoordinate changes from 1 to 3 and the xcoordinate
changes from 2 to 7. The change in y is 3  1, or 2. The change in x is 7  2,
or 5.
y
4
3
2
P2(7, 3)
1
1
1
P1(2, 1)
1
9 10
2
3
4
We call the change in y the rise and the change in x the run. The ratio
rise>run is the same for any two points on a line. We call this ratio the slope.
Slope describes the slant of a line. The slope of the line in the graph above is
given by
rise
, or
run
change in y
change in x
, or
Visualizing Slope
Exercises: Use the window settings
3 6, 6, 4, 44, with Xscl = 1 and
Yscl = 1.
run
rise
Calculator Corner
2
.
5
EXAMPLE 5 Graph the line containing the points 1 4, 32 and 12,  52 and
2. Graph y = x, y = 12 x, and
y = 0.1x in the same window.
What do you think the graph of
y = 0.005x will look like?
3. Graph y =  x, y =  2x, and
y =  5x in the same window.
What do you think the graph of
y =  10x will look like?
4. Graph y =  x, y =  12 x, and
y =  0.1x in the same window.
What do you think the graph of
y =  0.005x will look like?
The graph is shown below. Going from 14, 32 to 12,  52, we see that
the change in y, or the rise, is 5  3, or 8. The change in x, or the run, is
2  1 42, or 6.
y
4
3
(4, 3)
2
1
6 5
3 2
rise
(or "fall")
run
3
4
Slope =
(2, 5)
change in y
rise
=
run
change in x
5  3
2  1 42
8
8
4
=  , or 6
6
3
2.4
199
The formula
m =
1 2 3 4 5
tells us that we can subtract in two ways. We must remember, however, to subtract the xcoordinates in the same order that we subtract the ycoordinates.
Lets do Example 5 again:
Slope =
change in y
change in x
3  1 52
4  2
8
8
4
=  =  .
6
6
3
We see that both ways give the same value for the slope.
The slope of a line tells how it slants. A line with positive slope slants up
from left to right. The larger the positive number, the steeper the slant. A line
with negative slope slants downward from left to right. The smaller the negative number, the steeper the line.
5
4
3
2
1
54321
1
2
3
4
5
y1  y2
y2  y1
=
x2  x1
x1  x2
5
4
3
2
1
54321
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
m
mj
x
m
How can we find the slope from a given equation? Lets consider the
equation y = 2x + 3, which is in the form y = mx + b. We can find two
points by choosing convenient values for xsay, 0 and 1and substituting to
find the corresponding yvalues.
If x = 0, y = 2 # 0 + 3 = 3.
If x = 1, y = 2 # 1 + 3 = 5.
y
5
4
3
2
1
1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
rise
(9, 5)
run
2
f (x) x 1
3
m =
change in y
change in x
2
5  3
=
= 2.
=
1  0
1
y
3
2
(0, 3)
y
4
(0, 2)
2
(3, 1)
4
2
3
200
1
;m = 3
(2, 4)
4 2
3
2
4 2
8. m = 
y 2x 3
5 4 3 2 1
1
; m = 1
7.
(1, 5)
Answers
(1, 1)
m j
Do Exercises 6 and 7.
6.
The slope is 2. Note that this is the coefficient of the xterm in the equation
y = 2x + 3.
If we had chosen different points on the linesay, 1 2, 12 and 14, 112
the slope would still be 2, as we see in the following calculation:
m =
11  112
4  122
Do Exercise 8.
CHAPTER 2
11 + 1
12
=
= 2.
4 + 2
6
We see that the slope of the line y = mx + b is indeed the constant m, the
coefficient of x.
SLOPE
The slope of the line y = mx + b is m.
SLOPEINTERCEPT EQUATION
The equation y = mx + b is called the slopeintercept equation. The
slope is m and the yintercept is 10, b2.
Note that any graph of an equation y = mx + b passes the verticalline
test and thus represents a function.
Subtracting 2x
3y
2x + 8
=
3
3
Dividing by 3
8
2
y =  x + .
3
3
The slope is  23 .
The yintercept is A 0, 83 B .
9. f 1x2 =  8x + 23
10. 5x  10y = 25
c Applications
Slope has many realworld applications. For example, numbers like 2%, 3%,
and 6% are often used to represent the grade of a road, a measure of how steep
3
a road on a hill or mountain is. A 3% grade A 3% = 100
B means that for every
horizontal distance of 100 ft that the road runs, the road rises 3 ft, and a 3%
grade means that for every horizontal distance of 100 ft, the road drops 3 ft.
(Normally, the road signs do not include negative signs, since it is obvious
Answers
2.4
201
whether you are climbing or descending.) An athlete might change the grade
of a treadmill during a workout. An escape ramp on an airliner might have a
slope of about 0.6.
y
a
Road grade =
b
(expressed as
a percent)
a
b
a
b
a
b
Architects and carpenters use slope when designing and building stairs,
ramps, or roof pitches. Another application occurs in hydrology. The strength
or force of a river depends on how far the river falls vertically compared to
how far it flows horizontally. Slope can also be considered as a rate of change.
$14
12
10
8
6 $6,438
4
2
0
2000
2002
$12,680
2004
Year
202
CHAPTER 2
2006
2008
$12,680  $6438
Rate of change =
2008  2000
=
$6242
8 yr
= $780.25.
The average yearly family health insurance premium is increasing at a rate of
about $780.25 per year.
Do Exercise 11.
EXAMPLE 9 Volume of Mail. The volume of mail through the U.S. Postal
Service has been dropping since 2006, as shown in the graph below.
y
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
(4, 14)
(2, 8)
Time of day
220
215
(2006, 213.1)
210
205
(2008, 202.7)
200
2006
2008
2007
2009
Year
SOURCE: U.S. Postal Service
Since the graph is linear, we can use any pair of points to determine the
rate of change:
Rate of change =
=
The volume of mail through the U.S. Postal Service is decreasing at a rate of
about 5.2 billion pieces per year.
Volume of mail
(in billions of pieces)
54
(2005, 53.3)
53
52
(2007, 50.7)
51
50
2005
Do Exercise 12.
2007
2006
2008
Year
Answers
11. The rate of change is 3 haircuts per hour.
12. The rate of change is 1.3 million papers
per year.
2.4
203
Exercise Set
2.4
,
1. y = 4x + 5
5. y =  38 x 
1
5
3. f 1x2 =  2x  6
4. g1x2 =  5x + 7
15
7 x
7. g1x2 = 0.5x  9
8. f 1x2 =  3.1x + 5
6. y =
9. 2x  3y = 8
13. 3  14 y = 2x
2. y =  5x + 10
16
5
10. 8x  7y = 24
11. 9x = 3y + 6
12. 9y + 36  4x = 0
14. 5x = 23 y  10
15. 17y + 4x + 3 = 7 + 4x
16. 3y  2x = 5 + 9y  2x
19.
20.
17.
18.
y
5
4
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
5
4
3
3
2
1
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
1 2 3 4 5
5
4
3
2
1
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
Find the slope of the line containing the given pair of points.
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
1 2 3
2.6 ft
8.2 ft
43.33 ft
0.4 ft
1238 ft
5 ft
204
CHAPTER 2
Number of deaths
11 in.
7 in.
125
100
102
Cost
75
50
51
25
0
1988
1998
2008
Year
(2007, $27,984)
$28,000
26,000
24,000
22,000
20,000
18,000
16,000
14,000
12,000
(1986, $11,037)
10,000
1991 1996 2001 2006
Year
Value of computer
(in hundreds of dollars)
33.
36
30
24
18
12
6
0
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
36.
80
68,786
60
40
20
'98
25,652
'00
'02
'04
'06
'08
Percentage of U.S.
adults who use
dietary supplements
Number of active
servicemen
who are overweight
(in thousands)
35.
6 8 10 12
Number of seconds
spent running
100%
Year
80
78.8%
67.0%
60
40
20
2000
2007
Year
Skill Maintenance
Simplify.
37.
32
[R.3c], [R.6b]
38. 952x  335x + 21  3x + y 0  2246
 24 # 56 + 144 , 12
40. 54 , 625 , 52 # 57 , 53
[1.3a]
41. One side of a square is 5 yd less than a side of an equilateral triangle. If the perimeter of the square is the same as the
perimeter of the triangle, what is the length of a side of the square? of the triangle?
Solve.
[1.6c, e]
42. 5x  8 32
43. 5x  8 6 32
44. 5x  8 = 32
2.4
45. 5x  8 =  32
205
2.5
OBJECTIVES
a
x AND yINTERCEPTS
A yintercept is a point 10, b2. To find b, let x = 0 and solve for y.
3x + 2y = 12
3 # 0 + 2y = 12
Substituting 0 for x
2y = 12
y = 6.
The yintercept is 10, 62.
xintercept: To find the xintercept, we let y = 0 and solve for x :
5
4
3
2
1
54321
1
2
3
4
5
3x + 2y = 12
1 2 3 4 5
3x + 2 # 0 = 12
Substituting 0 for y
3x = 12
x = 4.
The xintercept is 14, 02.
We plot these points and draw the line, using a third point as a check. We
choose x = 6 and solve for y:
3162 + 2y = 12
18 + 2y = 12
2y =  6
y =  3.
We plot 16,  32 and note that it is
on the line.
Answer
Skill to Review:
y
1.
4
2
B(0, 1)
5
4
3x 2y 12
3
2
xintercept
(4, 0)
4
206
(0, 6) yintercept
3 2 1
1
A(0, 4)
E (,
0) C(0, 0) D(3, 0)
2
4 2
CHAPTER 2
(6, 3)
When both the xintercept and the yintercept are 10, 02, as is the case
with an equation such as y = 2x, whose graph passes through the origin,
another point would have to be calculated and a third point used as a check.
y
4
(2, 4)
3
2
yintercept
6 5 4 3 2 1
1
y 2x
2
(0, 0)
1
xintercept
5
4
3
2
1
3
4
(2, 4)
54321
1
2
3
4
5
Do Exercise 1.
1 2 3 4 5
Calculator Corner
Viewing the Intercepts Knowing the intercepts of a linear equation helps us determine a good viewing window for the
graph of the equation. For example, when we graph the equation y =  x + 15 in the standard window, we see only a small portion of the
graph in the upper righthand corner of the screen, as shown on the left below.
y x 15
y x 15
25
10
10
10
10
25
25
Xscl 5
25
Yscl 5
Using algebra, as we did in Example 1, we can find that the intercepts of the graph of this equation are 10, 152 and 115, 02. This tells us that,
if we are to see a portion of the graph that includes the intercepts, both Xmax and Ymax should be greater than 15. We can try different window
settings until we find one that suits us. One good choice, shown on the right above, is 325, 25, 25, 254, with Xscl = 5 and Yscl = 5.
Exercises: Find the intercepts of the equation algebraically. Then graph the equation on a graphing calculator, choosing window settings
that allow the intercepts to be seen clearly. (Settings may vary.)
1. y =  3.2x  16
2. y  4.25x = 85
3. 6x + 5y = 90
4. 5x  6y = 30
5. 8x + 3y = 9
6. y = 0.4x  5
7. y = 1.2x  12
8. 4x  5y = 2
Answer
y
1.
4
2
4 2
yintercept
(0, 3)
xintercept
(2, 0)
2
2
4
4y 12 6x
2.5
207
3
2. y = x + 1
2
EXAMPLE 2 Graph: y =  23 x + 1.
5
4
3
2
1
54321
1
2
3
4
5
3. f 1x2 =
1 2 3 4 5
m =
y
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
m =
Rise
2
=
Run
3
Then we can start again at 10, 12, but this time we move up 2 units (since
the numerator is positive and corresponds to the change in y) and to the left
3 units (since the denominator is negative and corresponds to the change in x).
We get another point on the graph, 1 3, 32, and from it we can obtain 1 6, 52
and others in a similar manner. We plot the points and draw the line.
3
4. g1x2 =  x + 5
5
y
5
4
3
2
1
54321
1
2
3
4
5
Starting at the yintercept and using the slope, we find another point by
moving down 2 units (since the numerator is negative and corresponds to the
change in y) and to the right 3 units (since the denominator is positive and
corresponds to the change in x). We get to a new point, 13, 12. In a similar
manner, we can move from the point 13, 12 to find another point, 16, 32.
We could also think of the slope A m =  23 B as 23 .
3
x  2
4
54321
1
2
3
4
5
Rise
2
=
Run
3
y
1 2 3 4 5
(6, 5)
5
4
(3, 3)
5
5. y =  x  4
3
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
First, we plot the yintercept, 10, 42. We then consider the slope 25 . A slope
of tells us that, for every 2 units that the graph rises, it runs 5 units horizontally in the positive direction, or to the right. Thus, starting at the yintercept
and using the slope, we find another point by moving up 2 units (since the
numerator is positive and corresponds to the change in y) and to the right
5 units (since the denominator is positive and corresponds to the change in x).
We get to a new point, 15, 62.
Answers
y
3.
4.
5.
(0, 5)
(2, 4)
(0, 1)
4 2
(2, 2)
2
4 2
(4, 5)
4
3
y x 1
2
208
y sx 1
5
2
5
2.
(6, 3)
4
1 2 3 4 5
(3, 1)
3
5
4
3
2
1
54321
1
2
3
4
5
(0, 1)
CHAPTER 2
(4, 1)
2
2
(0, 2)
4
3
f (x) x 2
4
4 2
(5, 2)
2
2
4
3
g (x) x 5
5
(3, 1)
4 2
2
4
(0, 4)
5
y x 4
3
We can also think of the slope 52 as  52 . A slope of  25 tells us that, for every
2 units that the graph drops, it runs 5 units horizontally in the negative direction, or to the left. We again start at the yintercept, 10, 42. We move down
2 units (since the numerator is negative and corresponds to the change in y)
and to the left 5 units (since the denominator is negative and corresponds to
the change in x). We get to another new point, 1 5, 22. We plot the points and
draw the line.
y
7
6
(5, 6)
f (x) Wx 4
(5, 2)
(0, 4)
1
6 5 4 3 2 1
1
2
y
5
4
3
2
1
Some equations have graphs that are parallel to one of the axes. This happens
when either A or B is 0 in Ax + By = C. These equations have a missing
variable; that is, there is only one variable in the equation. In the following
example, x is missing.
EXAMPLE 4 Graph: y = 3.
Since x is missing, any number for x
will do. Thus all ordered pairs 1x, 32 are
solutions. The graph is a horizontal line
parallel to the xaxis.
54321
1
2
3
4
5
1
0
2
3
3
3
1 2 3 4 5
7. y = 3.6
y
5
y3
(1, 3)
4
2
5
4
3
2
1
(2, 3)
(0, 3)
54321
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
yintercept
3
4
5
Answers
6. m = 0
Regardless of x, y must be 3.
Choose any number for x.
y
4
2
4 2
2
4
f (x) 4
3  3
0
=
= 0.
1  2
3
7. m = 0
y
Any two points on a horizontal line have the same ycoordinate. Thus the
change in y is always 0, so the slope is 0.
4
2
4 2
Do Exercises 6 and 7.
2
2
4
y 3.6
2.5
209
EXAMPLE 5 Graph: x =  2.
Since y is missing, any number for y will do. Thus all ordered pairs 1  2, y2
are solutions. The graph is a vertical line parallel to the yaxis.
Graph.
8. x =  5
2
2
2
0
3
4
y
5
4
3
2
1
54321
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
xintercept
4
3
2
1
Regardless of y,
x must be  2.
y
5
4
3
2
1
54321
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
This graph is not the graph of a function because it fails the verticalline
test. The vertical line itself crosses the graph more than once.
Do Exercises 8 and 9.
b) y = 6
c) 2y + 7 = 11
d) x = 0
e) y =  34
f ) 10  5x = 15
Answers
What about the slope of a vertical line? In Example 5, consider the points
1 2, 32 and 1 2,  42, which are on the line x =  2. The change in y is
3  1 42, or 7. The change in x is  2  1 22, or 0. Thus,
m =
3  142
2  122
7
.
0
Not defined
Since division by 0 is not defined, the slope of this line is not defined. Any two
points on a vertical line have the same xcoordinate. Thus the change in x is
always 0, so the slope of any vertical line is not defined.
The following summarizes horizontal and vertical lines and their
equations.
8.
4
2
4 2
2
4
The graph of x = a is a vertical line through the point 1a, 02. The slope
is not defined. It is not the graph of a function.
x 5
y
9.
4
2
4 2
Do Exercise 10.
2
8x 5 19
10. (a) Not defined; (b) m = 0;
(c) m = 0; (d) not defined; (e) m = 0;
(f) not defined
210
CHAPTER 2
PARALLEL LINES
Two nonvertical lines are parallel if they have the same slope and
different yintercepts.
are parallel.
3x + 2y =  2
y  3x = 1
3x + 2y =  2
y = 3x + 1;
2y =  3x  2
y = 121 3x  22
y =  32 x  1.
y 3x 1
x
3x 2y 2
y  3x =  2
are parallel.
We first find the slopeintercept form of each equation by solving for y:
3x  y =  5
 y =  3x  5
y  3x =  2
y = 3x  2.
11. x + 4 = y,
y  x = 3
 11 y2 =  11 3x  52
y = 3x + 5;
The slopes, 3, are the same. The yintercepts,
10, 52 and 10,  22, are different. Thus the lines
are parallel, as the graphs appear to confirm.
12. y + 4 = 3x,
4x  y =  7
y
3x y 5
y 3x 2
13. y = 4x + 5,
2y = 8x + 10
Answers
Do Exercises 1113.
2.5
11. Yes
12. No
same line.
211
Perpendicular Lines
If one line is vertical and another is horizontal, they are perpendicular. For example, the lines x = 5 and y =  3 are perpendicular. Otherwise, how can we
tell whether two lines are perpendicular?
y
B1
( )
b
Slope
a
b
b
a
A1
90
a
Slope
b
!
Consider a line AB , as shown in the figure
PERPENDICULAR LINES
Two nonvertical lines are perpendicular if the product of their slopes
is  1. (If one line has slope m, the slope of a line perpendicular to it is
 1>m. That is, to find the slope of a line perpendicular to a given line,
we take the reciprocal of the given slope and change the sign.)
EXAMPLE 8
=
=
1
1
5 14x2 + 5 1102
4
5 x + 2;
15. No
212
CHAPTER 2
y = 1415x + 42
=
=
1
4 15x2
 54 x +
+
1.
1
4 142
4y 5x 4
5y 4x 10
The slope of the first line is 54 , and the slope of the second line is  54 . The product of the slopes is 45 # A  54 B =  1 . Thus the lines are perpendicular.
Do Exercises 14 and 15.
Answers
14. Yes
y = 1514x + 102
4y =  5x + 4
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
5 x
Visualizing
for Success
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
5 x
5 x
5 x
5 x
5 x
1. y = 2  x
5
4
2. x  y = 2
2
1
1
1
5 x
3. x + 2y = 2
2
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
4. 2x  3y = 6
5. x = 2
6. y = 2
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
4
3
5 4 3 2 1
1
5 x
7. y = x + 2
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
8. y = x + 2
5
5
9. y = x 2  2
y
10. y = 2  x 2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
1
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
5 x
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
5
4
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
1
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
5 x
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
Exercise Set
2.5
1. x  2 = y
2. x + 3 = y
1 2 3 4 5
5. 2x + 3y = 6
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
9. 5y =  15 + 3x
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
CHAPTER 2
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
16. 3x  4y = 10
y
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
12. 4x + 5y = 20
15. 5x + 2y = 7
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
214
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
8. g1x2 = 5x  5
11. 2x  3y = 6
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
10. 5x  10 = 5y
1 2 3 4 5
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5
4
3
2
1
7. f 1x2 =  2  2x
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
6. 5x  2y = 10
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
4. x  2y = 4
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
3. x + 3y = 6
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
b
17. y =
18. y =
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
21. x + 2y = 4
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
22. x  3y = 6
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
1
x  4
3
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
28. 3 # f 1x2 = 4x + 6
y
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
24. 2x + 6y = 12
27. 5x + 4 # f 1x2 = 4
(Hint : Solve for f 1x2.)
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
23. 4x  3y = 12
1 2 3 4 5
2
x + 3
5
y
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
20. f 1x2 =
25. f 1x2 =
5
19. f 1x2 =  x  4
2
2
x  4
5
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
29. x = 1
30. x =  4
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
2.5
3
2
y
32. y =
31. y =  1
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
215
33. f 1x2 =  6
34. f 1x2 = 2
37. 2 # f 1x2 + 5 = 0
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
40. 3  f 1x2 = 2
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5
4
3
2
1
39. 7  3x = 4 + 2x
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
38. 4 # g1x2 + 3x = 12 + 3x
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
36. x = 0
y
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
35. y = 0
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
Determine whether the graphs of the given pair of lines are parallel.
41. x + 6 = y,
y  x = 2
42. 2x  7 = y,
y  2x = 8
43. y + 3 = 5x,
3x  y =  2
44. y + 8 =  6x,
 2x + y = 5
45. y = 3x + 9,
2y = 6x  2
46. y + 7x =  9,
3y = 21x + 7
47. 12x = 3,
 7x = 10
48. 5y =  2,
3
4 x = 16
49. y = 4x  5,
4y = 8  x
50. 2x  5y =  3,
2x + 5y = 4
51. x + 2y = 5,
2x + 4y = 8
52. y =  x + 7,
y = x + 3
53. 2x  3y = 7,
2y  3x = 10
54. x = y,
y = x
55. 2x = 3,
 3y = 6
216
CHAPTER 2
Determine whether the graphs of the given pair of lines are perpendicular.
Skill Maintenance
Write in scientific notation. [R.7c]
57. 53,000,000,000
59. 0.018
60. 99,902,000
63. 2 * 104
58. 0.000047
[R.5d]
65. 9x  15y
Synthesis
70. Find an equation of a vertical line that passes through
the point 1 2, 32.
II
Amount of fluid dripped
(in milliliters)
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
1
P.M.
P.M.
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
1
P.M.
P.M.
P.M.
P.M.
Time of day
Time of day
IV
III
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
P.M.
P.M.
Time of day
2.5
P.M.
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
1
P.M.
P.M.
P.M.
Time of day
217
2.6
OBJECTIVES
In this section, we will learn to find an equation of a line for which we have
been given two pieces of information.
If we know the slope and the yintercept of a line, we can find an equation of
the line using the slopeintercept equation y = mx + b.
EXAMPLE 1 A line has slope 0.7 and yintercept 10, 132. Find an equation
of the line.
SKILL TO REVIEW
Objective R.2e: Divide real numbers.
Find the reciprocal of the number.
1. 3
2. 
4
9
Suppose we know the slope of a line and the coordinates of one point on the
line. We can use the slopeintercept equation to find an equation of the line.
Or, we can use the pointslope equation. We first develop a formula for such
a line.
Suppose that a line of slope m passes through the point 1x 1, y12. For any
other point 1x, y2 on this line, we must have
y  y1
= m.
x  x1
Slope
y y1
rise
run
x x1
x x1
(x, y)
y y1
(x1, y1)
y  y1 = m1x  x12.
Answers
Skill to Review:
1
9
1.
2. 3
4
Removing a factor of 1:
Margin Exercise:
1. y = 3.4x  8
218
CHAPTER 2
x  x1
= 1
x  x1
POINTSLOPE EQUATION
The pointslope equation of a line with slope m, passing through
1x1, y12, is
y  y1 = m1x  x12.
If we know the slope of a line and a certain point on the line, we can find
an equation of the line using either the pointslope equation,
y  y1 = m1x  x12,
or the slopeintercept equation,
y = mx + b.
EXAMPLE 2 Find an equation of the line with slope 5 and containing the
point
A 12 ,  1 B.
y  1 12 = 5 A x y + 1 = 5x y = 5x y = 5x y = 5x 
1
2
5
2
5
2  1
5
2
2  2
7
2.
Pointslope equation
Substituting
Simplifying
1 =
 1  52
 22  52
 72
5
2
Slopeintercept equation
Substituting
+ b
= b
= b
= b.
2. m =  5, 1  4, 22
Solving for b
3. m = 3, 11,  22
4. m = 8, 13, 52
2
5. m =  , 11, 42
3
Answers
2. y =  5x  18
4. y = 8x  19
2.6
3. y = 3x  5
14
2
x +
3
3
5. y = 
219
and 1 6, 12.
3  1
2
1
= , or .
8
4
2  1 62
m =
(6, 1)
10
(2, 3)
1
1
2
3
Now we have the slope and two points. We then proceed as we did in Example 2,
using either point, and either the pointslope equation or the slopeintercept
equation.
Using the PointSlope Equation :
3 for y1, and 14 for m :
y  y1 = m1x  x12
y  3 =
y  3 =
y =
y =
y =
1
4 1x  22
1
1
4x  2
1
1
4x  2 + 3
1
1
6
4x  2 + 2
1
5
4x + 2.
Pointslope equation
Substituting
1
2
1
2
5
2
5
11
x +
3
3
220
Substituting
+ b
+ b 
= b.
1
2
Solving for b
7. y =  17x  56
CHAPTER 2
Slopeintercept equation
#2+b
= b
Answers
6. y = 
1
4
1
2
1
2
STUDY TIPS
HIGHLIGHTING
Using the PointSlope Equation : We use the point 11, 32 and the slope
 2, substituting  1 for x1, 3 for y1, and  2 for m :
y  y1 = m1x  x12
y  3 =  21x  1 122
Substituting
y  3 =  21x + 12
Simplifying
y =  2x  2 + 3
y =  2x + 1.
Using the SlopeIntercept Equation : We substitute 1 for x and 3 for y in
y = mx + b, and  2 for m, the slope. Then we solve for b:
y = mx + b
Substituting
3 = 2 + b
1 = b.
y  3 =  2x  2
3 =  21 12 + b
Solving for b
y
2x y 10
(1, 3)
y =  2x + 1.
y 2x 1
Do Exercise 8.
Answer
8. y = 3x  7
2.6
221
EXAMPLE 5 Find an equation of the line containing the point 12, 32 and
perpendicular to the line 4y  x = 20.
To find the slope of the given line, we first find its slopeintercept form by
solving for y :
4y  x = 20
4y = x + 20
4y
x + 20
=
4
4
y =
1
4
Dividing by 4
x + 5.
We know that the slope of the perpendicular line must be the opposite of the
reciprocal of 14 . Thus the new line through 12,  32 must have slope  4.
Using the PointSlope Equation : We use the point 12,  32 and the slope
 4, substituting 2 for x1,  3 for y1, and  4 for m:
y  y1 = m1x  x12
y  1 32 =  41x  22
y + 3 =  41x  22
Substituting
Simplifying
y + 3 =  4x + 8
y =  4x + 8  3
y =  4x + 5.
Using the SlopeIntercept Equation : We now substitute 2 for x and  3 for
y in y = mx + b. We also substitute  4 for m, the slope. Then we solve for b:
y = mx + b
3 =  4122 + b
Substituting
3 =  8 + b
5 = b.
Solving for b
Do Exercise 9.
Answer
9. y =  2x + 14
222
CHAPTER 2
y
4y x 20
y 4x 5
x
(2, 3)
C(n) 1.7n 7
60
Total cost
58
50
40
30
20
10
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40 n
2.6
223
C(t)
Total cost
$600
EXAMPLE 7
500
400
300
200
100
1
YEAR, x
(in years since 2000)
TOTAL SALES
(in billions)
2000, 0
2007, 7
$139.6
323.3
a) Assuming a constant rate of change, use the two data points to find a
linear function that fits the data.
b) Use the function to determine the total sales in 2005.
c) In which year will the total sales reach $400 billion?
a) We let x = the number of years since 2000 and S = total sales. The table
gives us two ordered pairs, 10, 139.62 and 17, 323.32. We use them to find a
linear function that fits the data. First, we find the slope:
m =
Answer
10. (a) C1t2 = 80t + 65;
C(t)
(b)
323.3  139.6
183.7
=
L 26.24.
7  0
7
Next, we find an equation S = mx + b that fits the data. We can use either
the pointslope equation or the slopeintercept equation to do this.
$600
Total cost
500
400
300
200
100
1
(c) $265
224
CHAPTER 2
Pointslope equation
S  139.6 = 26.241x  02
Substituting
S  139.6 = 26.24x  0
S = 26.24x + 139.6.
Using the SlopeIntercept Equation : One of the data points 10, 139.62 is
the yintercept. Thus we know b in the slopeintercept equation, y = mx + b.
We use the equation S = mx + b and substitute 26.24 for m and 139.6 for b:
HEAD
CIRCUMFERENCE, C
(in inches)
21.2
22
HAT SIZE, H
6 34
7
S = 26.24x + 139.6.
SOURCE: Shushans New Oreleans
Substituting
= 131.2 + 139.6
= 270.8.
The total sales in 2005 were $270.8 billion.
c) To find the year in which total sales will reach $400 billion, we substitute
400 for S1x2 and solve for x:
S1x2 = 26.24x + 139.6
400 = 26.24x + 139.6
260.4 = 26.24x
10 L x.
Substituting
Subtracting 139.6
Dividing by 26.24
Total sales will reach $400 billion about 10 yr after 2000, or in 2010.
Do Exercise 11.
Answer
11. (a) H1C2 =
2.6
5
1
7
C + ; (b) 7 ; (c) 25.2 in.
16
8
8
225
Exercise Set
2.6
a
Find an equation of the line having the given slope and yintercept.
Find a linear function f 1x2 = mx + b whose graph has the given slope and yintercept.
5. Slope:  73 ; yintercept: 10,  52
7. Slope: 23 ; yintercept: A 0, 58 B
7
8. Slope:  78 ; yintercept: A 0,  11
B
Find an equation of the line having the given slope and containing the given point.
9. m = 5, 14, 32
10. m = 4, 15, 22
11. m =  3, 19, 62
12. m =  2, 12, 82
13. m = 1, 11,  72
14. m = 3, 1 2,  22
15. m =  2, 18, 02
16. m =  3, 1 2, 02
17. m = 0, 10,  72
18. m = 0, 10, 42
20. m =  45 , 12, 32
31.
226
CHAPTER 2
32.
A 23, 32 B and A  3, 56 B
Write an equation of the line containing the given point and parallel to the given line.
37. 1 6, 22; 3x = 9y + 2
38. 1 7, 02; 2y + 5x = 6
Write an equation of the line containing the given point and perpendicular to the given line.
39. 12, 52; 2x + y = 3
44. 1  3, 42; 6y  3x = 2
Solve.
2.6
227
In Exercises 4954, assume that a constant rate of change exists for each model formed.
49. Whooping Cough. The table below lists data regarding
the number of cases of whooping cough in 1987 and in
2007.
YEAR, x
(in years since 1987)
NUMBER OF
CASES
1987, 0
2007, 20
2,862
10,454
50. Lobbying Expenses. The table below lists data regarding spending, in billions of dollars, on lobbying Congress
and the federal government in 2004 and in 2008.
YEAR, x
(in years since 2004)
AMOUNT SPENT
ON LOBBYING
(in billions)
2004, 0
2008, 4
$1.5
$3.3
Skill Maintenance
Solve. [1.4c], [1.5a], [1.6c, d, e]
55. 2x + 3 7 51
56. 2x + 3 = 51
57. 2x + 3 51
58. 2x + 3 5x  4
59.  2x + 3  13
60. 2x + 3 = x  4
61. 5x  4 =  8
62.  12 2x + 3 6 51
228
CHAPTER 2
CHAPTER
Slope = m =
y1  y2
y2  y1
, or
x2  x1
x1  x2
SlopeIntercept Equation:
PointSlope Equation:
run, p. 199
slopeintercept equation, p. 201
grade, p. 201
rate of change, p. 202
yintercept, pp. 197, 206
xintercept, p. 206
horizontal line, p. 209
vertical line, p. 209
parallel lines, p. 211
perpendicular lines, p. 212
pointslope equation, p. 218
mathematical model, p. 223
axes, p. 160
origin, p. 160
ordered pair, p. 160
coordinates, p. 160
first coordinate, p. 160
second coordinate, p. 160
abscissa, p. 160
ordinate, p. 160
Cartesian coordinate system, p. 161
quadrants, p. 161
graph of an equation, p. 163
linear equation, p. 163
nonlinear equation, p. 166
f 1x2 = mx + b, or y = mx + b
y  y1 = m1x  x12
Horizontal Line:
f 1x2 = b, or y = b ; slope = 0
Vertical Line:
Parallel Lines:
m1 = m2, b1 Z b2
Perpendicular Lines:
m1 = 
1
,m ,m Z 0
m2 1 2
Concept Reinforcement
Determine whether each statement is true or false.
1. The slope of a vertical line is 0.
[2.5c]
2. A line with slope 1 slants less steeply than a line with slope  5.
3. Parallel lines have the same slope and yintercept.
[2.4b]
[2.5d]
Important Concepts
Objective 2.1c Graph linear equations using tables.
2
Example Graph: y =  x + 2.
3
Practice Exercise
x
3
0
3
y
0
2
4
(3, 4)
5
4
3
2
1
54321
1
2
3
4
5
2
x  3.
5
y
5
4
3
2
1
54321
1
2
3
4
5
(0, 2)
(3, 0)
1 2 3 4 5
1. Graph: y =
1 2 3 4 5
2
y x 2
3
229
Range
Domain
4
4
6
6
2
0
2
Q
R
f:
Range
A
g:
C
E
h:
Domain
Range
11
15
19
20
31
Objective 2.2b Given a function described by an equation, find function values (outputs) for specified values (inputs).
Practice Exercise
c) h1x2 = 4x 2 + x : h1  12 = 41 122 + 1  12 = 4 # 1  1 = 3
Objective 2.2d Determine whether a graph is that of a function using the verticalline test.
Practice Exercise
b)
y
x
5
4
3
2
1
54321
1
2
3
4
5
5
4
3
2
1
f
1 2 3 4 5
54321
1
2
3
4
5
y
5
4
3
2
1
f
1 2 3 4 5
54321
1
2
3
4
5
f
1 2 3 4 5
230
CHAPTER 2
5
4
3
2
1
54321
1
2
3
4
5
g
1 2 3 4 5
x + 1
.
2x  6
h1x2 =
x  3
.
3x + 9
2x  6 = 0
2x = 6
x = 3.
Objective 2.4b Given two points on a line, find the slope. Given a linear equation, derive the
equivalent slopeintercept equation and determine the slope and the yintercept.
Example Find the slope of the line containing 1  5, 62 and
1  1,  42.
6  1 42
change in y
6 + 4
10
5
m =
=
=
=
= change in x
 5  1  12
5 + 1
4
2
Practice Exercises
3x =  6y + 12.
4x  2y = 20.
We first solve for y:
4x  2y = 20
 2y =  4x + 20
y = 2x  10.
Subtracting 4x
Dividing by  2
Substituting 0 for x
y
5
4
3
2
1
 2y = 6
y =  3.
54321
1
2
3
4
5
Substituting 0 for y
1 2 3 4 5
x  0 = 6
x = 6.
y
5
4
3
2
1
4321
1
2
(2, 4) 3
4
5
(6, 0)
1 2 3 4 5 6
(0, 3)
x 2y 6
231
Objective 2.5b Given a linear equation in slopeintercept form, use the slope and the yintercept to graph the line.
Example Graph using the slope and the yintercept:
3
y =  x + 5.
2
Practice Exercise
10. Graph using the slope and the yintercept: y =
y
5
4
3
2
1
54321
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
y
5
4
3
2
1
54321
1
2
3
4
5
(0, 5)
(2, 2)
1 2 3 4 5
(4, 1)
3
y x 5
2
Practice Exercises
11. Graph: y = 3.
y
5
4
3
2
1
y
5
4
3
2
1
54321
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
54321
1
2
3
4
5
y 1
Example Graph: x = 2.
1 2 3 4 5
x2
232
CHAPTER 2
5
12. Graph: x =  .
2
y
5
4
3
2
1
54321
1
2
3
4
5
1
x  3.
4
Objective 2.5d Given the equations of two lines, determine whether their graphs are parallel
or whether they are perpendicular.
Example Determine whether the graphs of the given pair
of lines are parallel, perpendicular, or neither.
a) 2y  x = 16,
x + 12 y = 4
b) 5x  3 = 2y,
2y + 12 = 5x
Practice Exercises
Determine whether the graphs of the given pair of lines
are parallel, perpendicular, or neither.
13.  3x + 8y =  8,
8y = 3x + 40
14. 5x  2y =  8,
2x + 5y = 15
Objective 2.6a Find an equation of a line when the slope and the yintercept are given.
Example A line has slope 0.8 and yintercept 10,  172.
Find an equation of the line.
We use the slopeintercept equation and substitute
0.8 for m and  17 for b:
y = mx + b
Practice Exercise
15. A line has slope 8 and yintercept (0, 0.3). Find an
equation of the line.
Slopeintercept equation
y = 0.8x  17.
Objective 2.6b Find an equation of a line when the slope and a point are given.
Example Find an equation of the line with slope  2
and containing the point A 13,  1 B .
1
b
3
Practice Exercise
16. Find an equation of the line with slope  4 and
containing the point A 12,  3 B .
2
3
1
.
3
Using y = mx + b
2
+ b
3
1
= b.
3
233
Objective 2.6c Find an equation of a line when two points are given.
Example Find an equation of the line containing the
points 1 3, 92 and 11,  22.
We first find the slope:
9  1 22
3  1
Practice Exercise
17. Find an equation of the line containing the points
1  2, 72 and 14,  32.
11
11
=  .
4
4
#1+b
 2 =  11
4
 84 =  11
4 + b
3
4
= b
3
Then substituting  11
4 for m and 4 for b in y = mx + b, we
11
3
have y =  4 x + 4 .
Objective 2.6d Given a line and a point not on the given line, find an equation of the line parallel to the line
and containing the point, and find an equation of the line perpendicular to the line and
containing the point.
Example Write an equation of the line containing 1 1, 12
and parallel to 3y  6x = 5.
Solving 3y  6x = 5 for y, we get y = 2x + 53. The slope
of the given line is 2.
A line parallel to the given line must have the same
slope, 2. We substitute 2 for m,  1 for x1, and 1 for y1 in the
pointslope equation:
y  1 = 23x  1 124
y  1 = 21x + 12
Practice Exercises
18. Write an equation of the line containing the point
12, 52 and parallel to 4x  3y = 6.
y  1 = 2x + 2
y = 2x + 3.
234
CHAPTER 2
2
3
14
3 .
Review Exercises
1. Show that the ordered pairs 10, 22 and 1  1, 52 are
solutions of the equation 3x  y = 2. Then use the
graph of the two points to determine another solution.
Answers may vary. Show your work. [2.1a, b]
Graph.
5. y = 3  x2
5
4
3
2
1
[2.1c, d]
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
2. y =  3x + 2
y
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
a
b
c
d
1 2 3 4 5
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
[2.2b]
4. y = x  3
7. 1
2
3
4
5
a
b
c
d
e
y
5
4
3
2
1
3. y = 52 x  3
1 2 3 4 5
11.
12.
235
21. g1x2 = 
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
[2.5b]
22. f 1x2 =
 4
5
2x
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
+ 3
y
5
4
3
2
1
2
3x
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
5
x  4
Graph.
15. g1x2 = x  x 2
[2.5c]
24. f 1x2 = 4
23. x =  3
17. 4y + 2x = 8
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
[2.4a, b]
[2.5a]
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
19. 2y + x = 4
y
y
xintercept
yintercept
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
xintercept
yintercept
236
CHAPTER 2
28. x = 4,
y = 3
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
27. 4y + x = 3,
2x + 8y = 5
26. 3x  5 = 7y,
7y  3x = 7
20. 2y = 6  3x
25. y + 5 =  x,
x  y = 2
1 2 3 4 5
30. Find an equation of the line having the given slope and
containing the given point: [2.6b]
m =  3;
13,  52.
and
1 4, 62.
5x + 7y = 8.
x + 3
? [2.3a]
x  2
B. 1  q , 02 10, 22 12, q 2
D. 1  3, q 2
A. 3 3, q 2
C. 1 q , 22 12, q 2
3x + y = 5.
YEAR
1970
2004
46.8
44.63
Synthesis
37. Homespun Jellies charges $2.49 for each jar of
preserves. Shipping charges are $3.75 for handling, plus
$0.60 per jar. Find a linear function for determining the
cost of buying and shipping x jars of preserves. [2.6e]
10
10
10
10
10
10
237
CHAPTER
Test
y = 5  4x
2. 12, 32;
5b  7a = 10
Graph.
3
4. f 1x2 =  x
5
3. y =  2x  5
y
5. g1x2 = 2  x
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
6. y =
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
7. y = f 1x2 =  3
4
x
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
8. 2x =  4
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
10. cat
fish
dog
tiger
teacher
dog
worm
cat
fish
student
1980
1976
1960
1952
1932
238
CHAPTER 2
13. g1x2 = x 2 + 7;
g102 and g1  12
14.
15.
8
2x + 3
17. g1x2 = 5  x 2
y
5
4
3
2
1
20.  5y  2x = 7
1 2 3
Find the slope, if it exists, of the line containing the following points.
21. 1  2,  22 and 16, 32
5 10 15 20 25 30
2x + 3y = 6
y
xintercept
yintercept
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
2
x  1.
3
1 2 3 4 5
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
Test: Chapter 2
239
Determine whether the graphs of the given pair of lines are parallel or perpendicular.
26. 4y + 2 = 3x,
 3x + 4y =  12
27. y =  2x + 5,
2y  x = 6
slope: 3;
30. Find an equation of the line having the given slope and
containing the given point:
m =  4;
11,  22.
x  2y = 5.
YEAR
1970
2007
23.2
27.7
and
1 10, 152.
x + 3y = 2.
B. y  1 =  21x  32
D. x  1 = 21y  32
Synthesis
36. Find k such that the line 3x + ky = 17 is perpendicular
to the line 8x  5y = 26.
240
CHAPTER 2
CHAPTERS
Cumulative Review
12
YEAR
1950
2004
3.85
3.50
5. 2.4t =  48
6. 4x + 7 =  14
7. 3n  14n  22 = 7
8. 5y  10 = 10 + 5y
9. Solve W = Ax + By for x.
Solve.
11. y  12  5
12. 6x  7 6 2x  13
14. x + 3 6  1 or x + 9 1
15.  3 6 x + 4 8
16. 8 2x  4  1
17. x = 8
18. y 7 4
19. 4x  1 7
5 10 15 20 25 30 x
Solve.
3. x + 9.4 =  12.6
4.
1
4
2
x =  x
3
4
5
241
Graph on a plane.
23. 3x = 2y + 6
22. y =  2x + 3
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
25.  2y =  6
y
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
Solve.
1 2 3 4 5
27. g1x2 = 5  x
y
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
Synthesis
1 2 3 4 5
7y  3x = 21
 3x  7y = 12
7y + 3x = 21
3y + 7x = 12
242
CHAPTER 2
26. f 1x2 =
CHAPTER
Systems of Equations
3.1
Systems of Equations in
Two Variables
RealWorld Application
To stimulate the economy in his town of Brewton, Alabama, in 2009, Danny Cottrell,
coowner of The Medical Center Pharmacy, gave each of his fulltime employees
$700 and each parttime employee $300. He asked that each person donate 15% to
a charity of his or her choice and spend the rest locally. The money was paid in
$2 bills, a rarely used currency, so that the business community could easily see how
the money circulated. Cottrell gave away a total of $16,000 to his 24 employees. How
many fulltime employees and how many parttime employees were there?
This problem appears as Example 7 in Section 3.3.
243
Systems of Equations
in Two Variables
3.1
OBJECTIVE
a
We can solve many applied problems more easily by translating them to two
or more equations in two or more variables than by translating to a single
equation. Lets look at such a problem.
SKILL TO REVIEW
Objective 2.1c: Graph linear
equations using tables.
Graph.
1. x + y = 3
2. y = x  2
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
54321
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
54321
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
where x and y are in billions of dollars. The problem gives us two statements
that can be translated to equations.
First, we consider the total amount spent on meals and flowers:
Amount spent
Amount spent
Total amount
on meals
plus
on flowers
is
spent
5.
Amount spent
on meals
is
y + 1.
Answers
x + y = 5,
Skill to Review:
1.
y
x = y + 1.
4
2
4 2
2
4
xy3
2.
y
4
2
4 2
2
2
4
yx2
244
CHAPTER 3
Systems of Equations
xy5 3
2
1
(3, 2)
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
xy1
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
We see that the graphs intersect at the point 13, 22that is, x = 3 and y = 2.
These numbers check in the statement of the original problem. This tells us
that $3 billion was spent on restaurant meals and $2 billion was spent on
flowers.
One Solution
EXAMPLE 1 Solve this system graphically:
y  x = 1,
y + x = 3.
We draw the graph of each equation using any method studied in
Chapter 2 and find the coordinates of the point of intersection.
Solve each system graphically.
y
yx3
1.  2x + y = 1,
3x + y = 1
5
4
(1, 2)
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
54321
1
2
3
4
5
yx1
5
4
3
2
1
4
5
2. y = 12 x,
y =  14 x +
The point of intersection has coordinates that make both equations true.
The solution seems to be the point 11, 22. However, solving by graphing may
give only approximate answers. Thus we check the pair 11, 22 in both equations.
Check:
2  1 ? 1
1
TRUE
2 + 1 ? 3
3
1 2 3 4 5
3
2
y
5
4
3
2
1
54321
1
2
3
4
5
y + x = 3
y  x = 1
1 2 3 4 5
TRUE
Answers
Do Exercises 1 and 2.
3.1
1. 10, 12
2. 12, 12
245
Calculator Corner
Solving Systems of Equations We can solve a system of two equations in two variables using a graphing calculator.
Consider the system of equations in Example 1:
y  x = 1,
y + x = 3.
First, we solve the equations for y, obtaining y = x + 1 and y =  x + 3. Next, we enter y1 = x + 1 and y2 =  x + 3 on the
equationeditor screen and graph the equations. We can use the standard viewing window, 310, 10, 10, 104.
We will use the INTERSECT feature to find the coordinates of the point of intersection of the lines. To access this feature, we press
F m 5. (CALC is the second operation associated with the C key.) The query First curve? appears on the graph screen. The
blinking cursor is positioned on the graph of y1. We press [ to indicate that this is the first curve involved in the intersection. Next, the
query Second curve? appears and the blinking cursor is positioned on the graph of y2. We press [ to indicate that this is the second
curve. Now the query Guess? appears. We use the g and f keys to move the cursor close to the point of intersection or we enter an
xvalue close to the first coordinate of the point of intersection. Then we press [. The coordinates of the point of intersection of the
graphs, x = 1, y = 2, appear at the bottom of the screen. Thus the solution of the system of equations is 11, 22.
y1 x 1, y2 x 3
Intersection
X1
Y2
2. y = x + 3,
2x  y =  7
3. x  y =  6,
y = 2x + 7
4. x + 4y =  1,
x  y = 4
No Solution
Sometimes the equations in a system have graphs that are parallel lines.
Note that this system is written using function notation. We graph the
functions. The graphs have the same slope,  3, and different yintercepts, so
they are parallel. There is no point at which they cross, so the system has no
solution. No matter what point we try, it will not check in both equations. The
solution set is thus the empty set, denoted or 5 6.
5
4
3
f (x) 3x 5
g(x) 3x 2
5 4 3 2 1
2
3
4
5
246
CHAPTER 3
Systems of Equations
3. Solve graphically:
y + 2x = 3,
y + 2x =  4.
5
4
3
2
1
54321
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
Do Exercises 3 and 4.
4. Classify each of the systems in
Margin Exercises 13 as
consistent or inconsistent.
3y 2x 6
3
(0, 2)
(3, 4)
12y 8x 24
1
5
3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
3y  2x = 6
 12y + 8x = 24
3122  2102 ? 6
6  0
6
TRUE
TRUE
Answers
3. No solution
4. Consistent: Margin
Exercises 1 and 2; inconsistent: Margin
Exercise 3
3.1
247
y 3x 2
y 3x 1
2y 6x 4
y 3x 2
3 2
1
2
3 2
y qx 1
5. Solve graphically:
2x  5y = 10,
 6x + 15y =  30.
y
5
4
3
2
1
54321
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
No solution.
Graphs are parallel.
The system is inconsistent
and the equations are
independent.
Lets summarize what we know about the systems of equations in Examples 13. The system in Example 1 has exactly one solution, and the system
in Example 3 has an infinite number of solutions. Since each system has at
least one solution, both systems are consistent. The system of equations in
Example 2 has no solution, so it is inconsistent.
The system of equations in Example 1 has exactly one solution, and the
system in Example 2 has no solutions. Thus the equations in each of these
systems are independent. In a system of equations with infinitely many
solutions, the equations are dependent. This tells us that the equations in
Example 3 are dependent. In a system with dependent equations, one equation can be obtained by multiplying the other equation by a constant.
Do Exercises 5 and 6.
AlgebraicGraphical Connection
To bring together the concepts of Chapters 13, lets look at equation
solving from both algebraic and graphical viewpoints.
Consider the equation  2x + 13 = 4x  17. Lets solve it
algebraically as we did in Chapter 1:
2x + 13 = 4x  17
13 = 6x  17
Adding 2x
30 = 6x
Adding 17
5 = x.
Answers
5. Infinitely many solutions
6. Independent: Margin Exercises 1, 2, and 3;
dependent: Margin Exercise 5
248
CHAPTER 3
y 3x 2 2
3
One solution.
Graphs intersect.
The system is consistent
and the equations are
independent.
3 2
Systems of Equations
Dividing by 6
g(x) 4x 17
5
4
(5, 3)
3
2
1
1
1
f(x) 2x 13
3
4
5
7. a) Solve x + 1 = 23 x algebraically.
The point of intersection of the two graphs is 15, 32. Note that
the xcoordinate of this point is 5. This is the value of x for which
 2x + 13 = 4x  17, so it is the solution of the equation.
b) Solve x + 1 = 23 x graphically
using Method 1.
Do Exercises 7 and 8.
METHOD 2:
8. Solve 12 x + 3 = 2 graphically
using Method 1.
Solve  2x + 13 = 4x  17 graphically.
f(x) 6x 30
5
4
3
2
(5, 0)
1
1
1
2
3
4
5
9. a) Solve x + 1 = 23 x graphically
using Method 2.
b) Compare your answers to
Margin Exercises 7(a), 7(b),
and 9(a).
Do Exercise 10.
Answers
7. (a) 3; (b) the same:  3
8.  2
9. (a) 3; (b) All are 3.
10. 2
3.1
249
Exercise Set
3.1
Solve each system of equations graphically. Then classify the system as consistent or inconsistent and the equations as
dependent or independent. Complete the check for Exercises 14.
Check: x + y = 4
1. x + y = 4,
x  y = 2
y
5
4
3
2
1
x  y = 2
?
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
Check: 2x  y = 4
3. 2x  y = 4,
2x + 3y =  4
1 2 3 4 5
Check: 3x + y = 5
?
5
4
3
2
1
2x + 3y =  4
?
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5. 2x + y = 6,
3x + 4y = 4
CHAPTER 3
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
8. f 1x2 = x + 1,
g1x2 = 23 x
y
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5
4
3
2
1
x  2y = 4
7. f 1x2 = x  1,
g1x2 =  2x + 5
6. 2y = 6  x,
3x  2y = 6
250
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
x + y = 5
4. 3x + y = 5,
x  2y = 4
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
Check: x  y = 3
2. x  y = 3,
x + y = 5
1 2 3 4 5
Systems of Equations
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
10
8
6
4
2
1 2 3 4 5
13. 6x  2y = 2,
9x  3y = 1
1086 4 2
2
4
6
8
10
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
2 4 6 8 10
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
3.1
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
20. a + 2b =  3,
b  a = 6
b
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
16. y = 3  x,
2x + 2y = 6
19. y =  x  1,
4x  3y = 17
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
18. x =  3,
y = 2
y
5
4
3
2
1
15. 2x  3y = 6,
3y  2x =  6
5
4
3
2
1
17. x = 4,
y = 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
14. y  x = 5,
2x  2y = 10
12. f 1x2 =  14 x + 1,
g1x2 = 12 x  2
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
11. f 1x2 =  13 x  1,
g1x2 = 43 x  6
10. 2b + a = 11,
a  b = 5
9. 2u + v = 3,
2u = v + 7
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
251
Matching. Each of Exercises 2126 shows the graph of a system of equations and its solution. First, classify the system as
consistent or inconsistent and the equations as dependent or independent. Then match it with one of the appropriate systems
of equations (A)(F), which follow.
21. Solution: 13, 32
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
A. 3y  x = 10,
x = y + 2
B. 9x  6y = 12,
y = 32 x  2
C. 2y  3x =  1,
x + 4y = 5
D. x + y = 4,
y = x  2
E. 12 x + y =  1,
y = 3
F. x = 3,
y = 3
1 2 3 4 5
Skill Maintenance
Solve.
[1.1d]
27. 3x + 4 = x  2
28. 34 x + 2 = 25 x  5
29. 4x  5x = 8x  9 + 11x
Use a graphing calculator to solve each system of equations. Round all answers to the nearest hundredth. You may need to
solve for y first.
32. f 1x2 = 123.52x + 89.32,
g1x2 =  89.22x + 33.76
34. x  y = 0,
y = x2
33. y = x ,
x + 4y = 15
252
CHAPTER 3
Systems of Equations
Synthesis
3.2
Solving by Substitution
y
4x  9y = 10.
OBJECTIVES
4x 9y 10
1
5 4 3 2 1
4
14
a ,  b.
3
27
2
3
4
?
5x 9y 2
SKILL TO REVIEW
Objective 1.1d: Solve equations
using the addition principle and the
multiplication principle together,
removing parentheses where
appropriate.
Solving by graphing, though useful in many applied situations, is not always fast or accurate in cases where solutions are not integers. We need techniques involving algebra to determine the solution exactly. Because they use
algebra, they are called algebraic methods.
Solve.
1. 3y  4 = 2
2. 21x + 12 + 5 = 1
(1)
x = y + 1.
(2)
Equation (2) says that x and y + 1 name the same number. Thus we can
substitute y + 1 for x in equation (1):
x + y = 4
1y + 12 + y = 4.
Equation (1)
Substituting y + 1 for x
Since this equation has only one variable, we can solve for y using methods
learned earlier :
1y + 12 + y = 4
2y + 1 = 4
STUDY TIPS
Do you usually study in noisy
places? If there is constant noise in
your home, dorm, or other study
area, consider finding a quiet
place in the librarypreferably a
spot that is away from the main
traffic areas so that distractions
are kept to a minimum.
2y = 3
Subtracting 1
y = 32.
Dividing by 2
3
2
3
2
+ 1
+
2
2
Equation (2)
Substituting 32 for y
= 52 .
We obtain the ordered pair A 52 , 32 B . Even though we solved for y first, it is still
the second coordinate since x is before y alphabetically. We check to be sure
that the ordered pair is a solution.
Answers
Skill to Review:
1. 2
2.  3
3.2
Solving by Substitution
253
Check:
x + y = 4
5
2
3
2
8
2
? 4
x = y + 1
5
2
3
2
3
2
5
2
TRUE
+ 1
+
2
2
TRUE
y
xy1
5
4
3
2
(e, w)
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2. y = 7  x,
2x  y = 8
2
3
xy4
4
5
Do Exercises 1 and 2.
Suppose neither equation of a pair has a variable alone on one side. We
then solve one equation for one of the variables.
(1)
3x + 4y = 4.
(2)
First, we solve one equation for one variable. Since the coefficient of y is
1 in equation (1), it is the easier one to solve for y :
Solve by the substitution method.
3. 2y + x = 1,
y  2x = 8
y = 6  2x.
(3)
4. 8x  5y = 12,
x  y = 3
Caution!
3x + 416  2x2 = 4
Substituting 6  2x
for y
3x + 24  8x = 4
Multiplying to
remove parentheses
24  5x = 4
Remember to use
parentheses when you
substitute. Then remove
them properly.
Calculator Corner
Solving Systems of
Equations Use the INTERSECT
feature to solve the systems of equations
in Margin Exercises 14. (See the Calculator Corner on p. 246 for the procedure.)
Answers
1. 12, 42
2. 15, 22
4. 1  1,  42
254
3. 1  3, 22
CHAPTER 3
5x =  20
Subtracting 24
x = 4.
Dividing by  5
3x + 4y = 4
2x + y = 6
2142 + 122 ? 6
8  2
6
TRUE
Systems of Equations
3142 + 4122 ? 4
12  8
4
TRUE
(1)
y =  3x  2.
(2)
 2 = 5.
y + 2x = 3,
Adding 3x
y + 2x =  4.
We have a false equation. The equation has no solution. (See also Example 17
of Section 1.1.)
Do Exercise 5.
EXAMPLE 4
Architecture. The architects who designed the John Hancock Building in Chicago created a visually appealing building that slants on
the sides. The ground floor is a rectangle that is larger than the rectangle
formed by the top floor. The ground floor has a perimeter of 860 ft. The length
is 100 ft more than the width. Find the length and the width.
1. Familiarize. We first make a
drawing and label it, using
l for length and w for width.
We recall or look up the
formula for perimeter:
P = 2l + 2w. This formula
can be found at the back
of this book.
2. Translate.
We translate as follows:
860.
The length is
l w 100
w + 100.
(1)
l = w + 100.
(2)
Answers
5. (a) No solution; (b) the sameno solution
3.2
Solving by Substitution
255
3. Solve.
w = 165.
w = l 60
Do Exercise 6.
STUDY TIPS
PREPARING FOR AND TAKING TESTS
Success on exams will increase when you put in place a plan of study. Here
are some testpreparation and testtaking study tips.
Make up your own test questions as you study. After you have done your
homework on a particular objective, write one or two questions on
your own that you think might be on a test. You will probably be surprised at the insight this will provide.
Take the chapter test at the end of the chapter. Check the answers and
use the objective symbols at the back of the book as a reference for
review.
When taking a test, read each question carefully. Try to do all the questions
the first time through, but pace yourself. Answer all the questions, and
mark those to recheck if you have time at the end. Very often, your first
hunch will be correct.
Write your test in a neat and orderly manner. Doing so will allow you
to check your work easily and will also help your instructor follow the
steps you took in answering the test questions.
Answer
6. Length: 160 ft; width: 100 ft
256
CHAPTER 3
Systems of Equations
Exercise Set
3.2
a
1. y = 5  4x,
2x  3y = 13
2. x = 8  4y,
3x + 5y = 3
3. 2y + x = 9,
x = 3y  3
4. 9x  2y = 3,
3x  6 = y
5. 3s  4t = 14,
5s + t = 8
6. m  2n = 3,
4m + n = 1
7. 9x  2y =  6,
7x + 8 = y
8. t = 4  2s,
t + 2s = 6
9.  5s +
t = 11,
4s + 12t = 4
10.
5x + 6y = 14,
 3y + x = 7
11. 2x + 2y = 2,
3x  y = 1
12. 4p  2q = 16,
5p + 7q = 1
13. 3a  b = 7,
2a + 2b = 5
14. 5x + 3y = 4,
x  4y = 3
15. 2x  3 = y,
y  2x = 1
16.
4x + 13y = 5,
6x +
y = 13
Solve.
w
Court width
l
Court length
3.2
Solving by Substitution
257
Supplementary angles:
x y 180
y
x
Complementary angles:
x y 90
Skill Maintenance
23. Find the slope of the line y = 1.3x  7. [2.4b]
25. Solve A =
pq
for p.
7
[1.2a]
[R.6b]
Solve. [1.1d]
27. 4x + 51x  72 = 8x  61x + 22
Synthesis
29. Two solutions of y = mx + b are 11, 22 and 1 3, 42. Find
m and b.
P 156 in.
258
CHAPTER 3
Systems of Equations
3.3
Solving by Elimination
OBJECTIVES
The elimination method for solving systems of equations makes use of the
addition principle for equations. Some systems are much easier to solve using
the elimination method rather than the substitution method.
2x  3y = 0,
(1)
 4x + 3y =  1.
(2)
The key to the advantage of the elimination method in this case is the
3y in one equation and the 3y in the other. These terms are opposites. If we
add them, these terms will add to 0, and in effect, the variable y will have been
eliminated.
We will use the addition principle for equations, adding the same number
on both sides of the equation. According to equation (2),  4x + 3y and 1 are
the same number. Thus we can use a vertical form and add  4x + 3y to the
left side of equation (1) and 1 to the right side:
2x  3y = 0
 4x + 3y =  1
(1)
(2)
 2x + 0y =  1
Adding
SKILL TO REVIEW
Objective 1.1d: Solve equations
using the addition principle and the
multiplication principle together,
removing parentheses where
appropriate.
Solve. Clear the fractions or decimals
first.
1. 12 x + 34 y = 2,
4
1
3 x + 6 y = 2
2. 0.5x  0.3y = 3.4,
0.3x + 0.4y = 0.3
 2x + 0 =  1
 2x =  1.
We have eliminated the variable y, which is why we call this the elimination
method.* We now have an equation with just one variable, which we solve
for x :
 2x =  1
x = 12 .
Next, we substitute 12 for x in either equation and solve for y :
2#
1
2
 3y = 0
1  3y = 0
 3y =  1
y =
1
3.
2A
Subtracting 1
Dividing by  3
A 12, 13 B .
2x  3y = 0
1
2
 4x + 3y =  1
B  3A B ? 0
1
3
1  1
0
TRUE
4 A 12 B + 3 A 13 B ? 1
2 + 1
1
TRUE
Answers
*This method is also called the addition method.
Skill to Review:
1. 12, 42
2. 15,  32
259
4x 3y 1
at left.
5
4
3
(q, a)
1
5 4 3 2
A 12, 13 B checks, it is the solution. We can also see this in the graph shown
Do Exercises 1 and 2.
2x 3y 0
Since
3
4
5x + 3y = 17,
5x + 2y = 3
2.  3a + 2b = 0,
3a  4b =  1
y
 6x  6y =  30
2x + 6y = 22
 4x + 0 =
8
Adding
4x =
8
Solving for x
2 # 2 + 6y = 22
(2, 3)
4 + 6y = 22
6y = 18
y = 3.
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
(2)
Then
4
3
2x + 6y = 22.
x = 2.
2x 6y 22
(1)
If we add directly, we get 5x + 9y = 37, and we have not eliminated a variable. However, note that if the 3y in equation (1) were 6y, we could eliminate y.
Thus we multiply by  2 on both sides of equation (1) and add:
3x + 3y = 15,
3x 3y 15
Solving for y
3
4
5
Do Exercise 3.
3. Solve by the elimination
method:
2y + 3x = 12,
 4y + 5x =  2.
2x + 3y = 17,
(1)
5x + 7y = 29.
(2)
We must first multiply in order to make one pair of terms with the same
variable opposites. We decide to do this with the xterms in each equation. We
multiply equation (1) by 5 and equation (2) by  2. Then we get 10x and  10x,
which are opposites.
From equation 112:
From equation 122:
10x + 15y = 85
10x  14y =  58
0 +
y =
27
y = 27
Answers
1. 11, 42
1 1
2. a , b
3 2
260
3. 12, 32
CHAPTER 3
Systems of Equations
Multiplying by 5
Multiplying by  2
Adding
Solving for y
Then
2x + 3 # 27 = 17
2x =  64
x =  32.
2x + 81 = 17
Solving for x
5x + 7y = 29
51322 + 71272 ? 29
 160 + 189
29
Check:
TRUE
4. 4x + 5y =  8,
7x + 9y = 11
5. 4x  5y = 38,
7x  8y =  22
(1)
y + 3x =  2.
(2)
5
4
3
y 3x 5
y 3x 2
5 4 3 2 1
2
3
4
5
Lets see what happens if we attempt to solve the system by the elimination method. We multiply by 1 on both sides of equation (2) and add:
y + 3x = 5
 y  3x = 2
0 = 7.
Equation (1)
Multiplying equation (2) by 1
Adding, we obtain a false equation.
The xterms and the yterms are eliminated and we have a false equation.
Thus, if we obtain a false equation, such as 0 = 7, when solving algebraically,
we know that the system has no solution. The system is inconsistent, and the
equations are independent.
Do Exercise 6.
Answers
4. 1 127, 1002
6. No solution
5. 1 138,  1182
261
4
3
12y 8x 24
3y 2x 6
 12y + 8x =  24.
(2)
12y  8x = 24
12y + 8x =  24
1
3 2 1
1
(1)
We see from the figure at left that the graphs are the same line. The system has
an infinite number of solutions.
Suppose we try to solve this system by the elimination method:
3y  2x = 6,
0 = 0.
3
4
5
SPECIAL CASES
When solving a system of two linear equations in two variables:
1. If a false equation is obtained, such as 0 = 7, then the system has
no solution. The system is inconsistent, and the equations are
independent.
2. If a true equation is obtained, such as 0 = 0, then the system has
an infinite number of solutions. The system is consistent, and the
equations are dependent.
Do Exercise 7.
 6x + 15y =  30.
1
7x
1
5y
29
35 .
We have
3
1
1
x  y =
4
3
4
1
5y
29
35
Multiplying by 10
to clear decimals
Multiplying by 35
to clear fractions
2x + 3y = 17,
5x + 7y = 29.
We multiplied by 10 to clear the decimals. Multiplication by 35, the least common denominator, clears the fractions. The problem is now identical to
Example 3. The solution is 132, 272, or x =  32, y = 27.
Answers
7. Infinitely many solutions
8. 2x + 3y = 1,
3x  y = 7; 12,  12
9. 9x + 10y = 5,
25 1
9x  4y = 3; a , b
63 7
262
CHAPTER 3
Do Exercises 8 and 9.
Systems of Equations
Comparing Methods
When deciding which method to use, consider this table and directions from
your instructor. The situation is analogous to having a piece of wood to cut
and three different types of saws available. Although all three saws can cut the
wood, the best choice depends on the particular piece of wood, the type of
cut being made, and your level of skill with each saw.
METHOD
STRENGTHS
Graphical
WEAKNESSES
Substitution
Elimination
263
STUDY TIPS
FIVE STEPS FOR
PROBLEM SOLVING
Remember to use the five steps for
problem solving.
f + p
p = 24.
(2)
8800
Equation (1)
Multiplying by  300 on both sides of equation (2)
Adding
Solving for f
22 + p = 24
p = 2.
4. Check. If there are 22 fulltime employees and 2 parttime employees,
there is a total of 22 + 2, or 24, employees. The 22 fulltime employees
received a total of $700 # 22, or $15,400, and the 2 parttime employees received a total of $300 # 2, or $600. Then a total of $15,400 + $600, or
$16,000, was given away. The numbers check in the original problem.
There were 22 fulltime employees and 2 parttime employees.
Answer
Do Exercise 10.
CHAPTER 3
(1)
5. State.
264
24
f = 22.
10. Bonuses. Monica gave each of
the fulltime employees in her
small business a yearend bonus
of $500 while each parttime
employee received $250. She
gave a total of $4000 in bonuses
to her 10 employees. How many
fulltime employees and how
many parttime employees did
Monica have?
16,000
Systems of Equations
3.3
a
1.
Exercise Set
5. 5x + 3y =  11,
3x  y =  1
9. 2x + 3y = 1,
4x + 6y = 2
2. x + y = 9,
2x  y =  3
3. 9x + 5y = 6,
2x  5y =  17
4. 2x  3y = 18,
2x + 3y =  6
6. 2x + 3y =  9,
5x  6y =  9
7. 5r  3s = 19,
2r  6s =  2
8. 2a + 3b = 11,
4a  5b =  11
10.
3x  2y = 1,
 6x + 4y =  2
11. 5x  9y = 7,
7y  3x =  5
12. 5x + 4y = 2,
2x  8y = 4
13. 3x + 2y = 24,
2x + 3y = 26
14. 5x + 3y = 25,
3x + 4y = 26
15. 2x  4y = 5,
2x  4y = 6
16. 3x  5y =  2,
5y  3x = 7
17. 2a + b = 12,
a + 2b =  6
19. 13 x + 15 y = 7,
20. 23 x +
1
6x
2
5y
= 4
1
7x
1
7y
1
3y
=  11,
=  10
265
21. 15 x + 12 y = 6,
2
5x
3
2y
22. 23 x + 35 y =  17,
1
2x
= 8
26.
1
3y
= 1
23. 12 x  13 y =  4,
1
4x
5
6y
24. 43 x + 32 y = 4,
5
6x
= 4
 18 y =  6
Solve. Use the elimination method when solving the translated system.
x
y
x
Supplementary angles:
x y 180
266
CHAPTER 3
Systems of Equations
Complementary angles:
x y 90
37. Sales Promotion. Ricks Sporting Goods ran a promotion offering either a free rechargeable lantern or a free
portable propane grill to each customer who bought a
deluxe family tent. The stores cost for each lantern was
$20, and its cost for each grill was $25. At the end of the
promotion, 12 tents had been sold. The stores total cost
for the items given away was $280. How many of each
type of free item did the customers choose?
Skill Maintenance
Given the function f 1x2 = 3x 2  x + 1, find each of the following function values. [2.2b]
39. f 102
40. f 1 12
41. f 112
42. f 1102
43. f 1 22
44. f 12a2
45. f 1 42
46. f 11.82
[2.3a]
50. Simplify:
1a 2b 325
a 7b 16
[2.3a]
[R.7b]
Synthesis
51.
52. Solve:
x + y
x  y
= 1,
2
5
x  y
x + y
+
=  2.
2
6
54. Find an equation to pair with 6x + 7y =  4 such that
1  3, 22 is a solution of the system.
x  By =  1
55. The points 10,  32 and A  32, 6 B are two of the solutions
of the equation px  qy =  1. Find p and q.
267
3.4
OBJECTIVES
SKILL TO REVIEW
Objective 1.3b: Solve basic motion
problems.
Solve.
1. Franks boat travels at a rate of
8 mph in still water. Boynton
River flows at a speed of 2 mph.
How long will it take Frank to
travel 15 mi downstream?
2. Refer to Exercise 1. How long
will it take Frank to travel 15 mi
upstream?
Mixture Problems
Systems of equations can be a useful tool in solving applied problems. Using
systems often makes the Translate step easier than using a single equation.
The first kind of problem we consider involves quantities of items purchased
and the total value, or cost, of the items. We refer to this type of problem as a
totalvalue problem.
1. Familiarize. Lets begin by making a guess that the ingredients for 300
servings of turkey/cheese wraps were purchased along with 280 servings
of mixed vegetables. This is a total of 580 servings. Now lets find the total
cost of this order. Since the turkey/cheese wraps cost $0.56 per serving
and the vegetables cost $0.22 per serving, the total cost would be
Cost of turkey/cheese
Cost of mixed
wrap ingredients
plus
vegetables
$0.5613002
Answers
Skill to Review:
1. 1.5 hr
2. 2.5 hr
268
CHAPTER 3
Systems of Equations
TURKEY/CHEESE
WRAPS
MIXED
VEGETABLES
TOTAL
580
$0.56
$0.22
TOTAL COST
$0.56t
$0.22v
0.56t + 0.22v
= 246.60
$246.60
t + v = 580.
The last row of the table gives us a second equation:
0.56t + 0.22v = 246.60.
Dividing by 34
t + v = 580
350 + v = 580
v = 230.
RED
SWEATSHIRT
WHITE
SWEATSHIRT
4. Check.
Total = $246.60
The numbers check.
18.95w
t = 350.
Adding
AMOUNT
TAKEN IN
= 11,900
$19.50
34t
18.95w + 1
=1
2
PRICE
(2)
1 2 + r = 30
30
(1)
We can multiply by 100 on both sides of the second equation to clear the
decimals. This gives us the following system of equations:
t + v = 580,
2. Translate.
t + v = 580
NUMBER OF
SERVINGS
5. State. The school bought the ingredients for 350 servings of turkey/
cheese wraps and 230 servings of mixed vegetables.
Do Exercise 1.
Answer
1. White: 22; red: 8
White
Red
Total
30
$18.95
18.95w
3.4
w + r = 30
$19.50
19.50r
572.90
18.95w + 19.50r
= 572.90
269
EXAMPLE 2
$0
.95
0
$ 1.1
$ 1.4
3
STUDY TIPS
PROBLEMSOLVING TIPS
Look for patterns when solving
problems. Each time you study an
example in the text or watch your
instructor work a problem in
class, try to find a pattern that will
apply to problems that you will
encounter in the exercise sets or
in practical situations.
270
CHAPTER 3
Systems of Equations
The value of these seed packets is found by multiplying the cost per
packet by the number of packets and adding:
$0.951122 + $1.43142, or $17.12.
The desired cost is $1.10 per packet. If we multiply $1.10 by 16, we get
161$1.102, or $17.60. This shows us that the guess is incorrect, but these
calculations give us a basis for understanding how to translate.
We let a = the number of packets of nasturtium seeds and b = the
number of packets of Johnnyjumpup seeds. Next, we organize the
information in a table, as follows.
NASTURTIUM
JOHNNYJUMPUP
SPRING
NUMBER
OF PACKETS
16
PRICE
PER PACKET
$0.95
$1.43
$1.10
VALUE
OF PACKETS
0.95a
1.43b
16 # 1.10,
or 17.60
a + b = 16
0.95a + 1.43b
= 17.60
2. Translate.
a + b = 16.
The value of the nasturtium seeds is 0.95 a and the value of the Johnnyjumpup seeds is 1.43 b. These amounts are in dollars. Since the total
value is to be 161$1.102, or $17.60, we have
0.95a + 1.43b = 17.60.
We can multiply by 100 on both sides of this equation in order to clear the
decimals. Thus we have translated to a system of equations:
a + b = 16,
(1)
(2)
Substituting
 48a =  528
a = 11.
We have a = 11. Substituting this value in the equation b = 16  a, we
obtain b = 16  11, or 5.
4. Check. We check in a manner similar to our guess in the Familiarize
step. The total number of packets is 11 + 5, or 16. The value of the packet
mixture is
$0.951112 + $1.43152, or $17.60.
Thus the numbers of packets check.
5. State. The springgarden mixture can be made by combining 11 packets
of nasturtium seeds with 5 packets of Johnnyjumpup seeds.
Do Exercise 2.
EXAMPLE 3 Student Loans. Jeds student loans totaled $16,200. Part was
a Perkins loan made at 5% interest and the rest was a Stafford loan made at
4% interest. After one year, Jeds loans accumulated $715 in interest. What was
the amount of each loan?
1. Familiarize. Listing the given information in a table will help. The
columns in the table come from the formula for simple interest: I = Prt.
We let x = the number of dollars in the Perkins loan and y = the number
of dollars in the Stafford loan.
PERKINS
LOAN
STAFFORD
LOAN
TOTAL
PRINCIPAL
$16,200
RATE OF
INTEREST
5%
4%
TIME
1 year
1 year
INTEREST
0.05x
0.04y
$715
x + y = 16,200
Answer
2. Kenyan: 8 lb; Sumatran: 12 lb
3.4
271
0.07x + 1
$297
$3700
Look at the last row of the table. The interest totals $715. This gives us a
second equation:
0.07x
1 year
1 year
9%
x
INTEREST, I
TIME, t
RATE OF
INTEREST, r
PRINCIPAL, P
FIRST
INVESTMENT
x + y = 16,200.
SECOND
INVESTMENT
TOTAL
x + 1 2 = 3700
2 = 297
2. Translate. The total of the amounts of the loans is found in the first row
of the table. This gives us one equation:
g liters
5% nitrogen
First
Investment
Second
Investment
Total
$3700
x + y = 3700
7%
9%
1 year
1 year
0.07x
0.09y
$297
0.07x + 0.09y
= 297
CHAPTER 3
s liters
90 liters
Sun
Saver
15% nitrogen
12% nitrogen
Answer
272
Gently
Green
Systems of Equations
SUN
SAVER
MIXTURE
90
PERCENT
OF NITROGEN
5%
15%
12%
AMOUNT
OF NITROGEN
0.05g
0.15s
0.12 * 90,
or 10.8 liters
NUMBER
OF LITERS
g + s = 90
2. Translate. If we add g and s in the first row, we get 90, and this gives us
one equation:
g + s = 90.
If we add the amounts of nitrogen listed in the third row, we get 10.8, and
this gives us another equation:
5%g + 15%s = 10.8, or 0.05g + 0.15s = 10.8.
After clearing the decimals, we have the following system:
g + s = 90,
(1)
5g + 15s = 1080.
(2)
3.4
273
g + s = 27 + 63 = 90 L
10.8
= 0.12 = 12%
90
b Motion Problems
2 + 0.06b = 1 2
a + b = 1 2
When a problem deals with speed, distance, and time, we can expect to use
the following motion formula.
MIXTURE
d = rt
0.06b
BLAST
3. Look for as many things as you can that are the same, so you can
write equations.
AMOUNT OF ACID
IN SOLUTION
2%
PERCENT OF ACID
AMOUNT OF
SOLUTION
ATTACK
Answer
4. Attack: 15 qt; Blast: 45 qt
Attack
Blast
Mixture
60
2%
6%
5%
0.02a
0.06b
0.05 * 60,
or 3
0.02a + 0.06b = 3
CHAPTER 3
Systems of Equations
274
a + b = 60
EXAMPLE 5 Auto Travel. Your brother leaves your home on a trip, forgetting his suitcase. You know that he normally drives at a speed of 55 mph.
You do not discover the suitcase until 1 hr after he has left. If you follow him
at a speed of 65 mph, how long will it take you to catch up with him?
55 mph
t + 1 hours d miles
RATE
TIME
BROTHER
55
t + 1
YOU
65
t
d
SLOWER TRAIN
d = 65t
(1)
d = 65t.
(2)
65t = 551t + 12
65t = 55t + 55
10t = 55
t = 5.5.
Solving for t
Answer
3.4
40 km> h
t  1
t
35 km> h
d
Do Exercise 5.
Time
Rate
5. State.
Distance
4. Check. At 65 mph, you will travel 65 # 5.5, or 357.5 mi, in 5.5 hr. At
55 mph, your brother will travel 55 # 6.5, or the same 357.5 mi, in 6.5 hr.
The numbers check.
d = 35t
Your time is 5.5 hr, which means that your brothers time is 5.5 + 1, or
6.5 hr.
d = 401t  12
5. 280 km
3. Solve.
FASTER TRAIN
d = 551t + 12
DISTANCE
DISTANCE
RATE
TIME
65 mph
t hours d miles
Your car
d =
Cars
meet
here
275
Upstream, r 6
6mph current, 5 hours,
d miles
d =
TIME
RATE
r + 20
AGAINST WIND
WITH WIND
Answer
r + 6
UPSTREAM
r  6
d = 51r  202
5 hr
r  20
d = 1r + 624
d = 1r  625
d = 5r  30.
(2)
54 = r.
4. Check. If r = 54, then r + 6 = 60; and 60 # 4 = 240, the distance traveled downstream. If r = 54, then r  6 = 48; and 48 # 5 = 240, the distance traveled upstream. The distances are the same. In this type of
problem, a problemsolving tip to keep in mind is Have I found what the
problem asked for? We could solve for a certain variable but still have not
answered the question of the original problem. For example, we might
have found speed when the problem wanted distance. In this problem, we
want the speed of the boat in still water, and that is r.
5. State.
Do Exercise 6.
d = 41r + 202
4 hr
r + 20
d
Time
Rate
CHAPTER 3
DOWNSTREAM
4r + 24 = 5r  30
Distance
276
TIME
d = 4r + 24,
6. 180 mph
r
RATE
2. Translate.
3. Solve.
DISTANCE
DISTANCE
Downstream, r 6
6mph current, 4 hours,
d miles
d =
Systems of Equations
Translating
for Success
The monthly
telephone expense for an office
is $1094 less than the janitorial
expense. Three times the janitorial expense minus four times the
telephone expense is $248. What
is the total of the two expenses?
Each day
Tricia runs 5 mi more than
twothirds the distance that
Chris runs. Five times the
distance that Chris runs is 3 mi
less than twice the distance that
Tricia runs. How far does Tricia
run daily?
6. Running Distances.
1. Office Expense.
A. x = y + 248,
x + y = 1094
7. Dimensions of a Rectangle.
The
sum of the base and the height
of a triangle is 192 in. The height
is twice the base. Find the base
and the height.
2. Dimensions of a Triangle.
B. 5x = 2y  3,
y = 23 x + 5
C. y = 12 x,
2x + 2y = 192
Teka asked
her students to determine the
two numbers that she placed in
a sealed envelope. Twice the
smaller number is 5 more than
twothirds the larger number.
Three times the larger number is
4 less than fifteen times the
smaller. Find the numbers.
8. Mystery Numbers.
Two
supplementary angles are such
that twice one angle is 7 more
than the other. Find the measures of the angles.
3. Supplementary Angles.
D. 2x = 7 + y,
x + y = 180
E. x + y = 192,
x = 2y
F. x + y = 180,
x = 2y + 7
4. SAT Scores.
A sightseeing
boat travels 3 hr on a trip downstream with a 2.5mph current.
The return trip against the same
current takes 3.5 hr. Find the
speed of the boat in still water.
5. Sightseeing Boat.
G. x  1094 = y,
3x  4y = 248
H. 3%x + 2.5%y = 97.50,
x + y = 2500
I. 2x = 5 + 23 y,
3y = 15x  4
J. x = 1y + 2.52 # 3,
3.51y  2.52 = x
Two
supplementary angles are such
that one angle is 7 more than
twice the other. Find the
measures of the angles.
9. Supplementary Angles.
3.4
a
Exercise Set
Solve.
278
CHAPTER 3
Systems of Equations
15. Food Science. The following bar graph shows the milk
fat percentages in three dairy products. How many
pounds each of whole milk and cream should be mixed
in order to form 200 lb of milk for cream cheese?
12
16
20
24 28
32
17. Teller Work. Juan goes to a bank and gets change for a
$50 bill consisting of all $5 bills and $1 bills. There are
22 bills in all. How many of each kind are there?
3.4
279
Solve.
Trains
meet
here
t 2 hours
t hours
75 mph, d miles
27. Air Travel. Two planes travel toward each other from
cities that are 780 km apart at rates of 190 km>h and
200 km>h. They started at the same time. In how many
hours will they meet?
280
CHAPTER 3
Systems of Equations
29. Air Travel. Two airplanes start at the same time and fly
toward each other from points 1000 km apart at rates of
420 km>h and 330 km>h. After how many hours will they
meet?
31.
32.
Skill Maintenance
Given the function f 1x2 = 4x  7, find each of the following function values. [2.2b]
33. f 102
34. f 1  12
35. f 112
36. f 1102
37. f 1 22
38. f 12a2
39. f 1  42
40. f 11.82
42. f 1  2.52
43. f 1  3h2
44. f 110002
41. f
A 34 B
Synthesis
45. Automotive Maintenance. The radiator in Michelles
car contains 16 L of antifreeze and water. This mixture is
30% antifreeze. How much of this mixture should she
drain and replace with pure antifreeze so that there will
be a mixture of 50% antifreeze?
47. Fuel Economy. Sally Clines SUV gets 18 miles per gallon
(mpg) in city driving and 24 mpg in highway driving. The
SUV is driven 465 mi on 23 gal of gasoline. How many
miles were driven in the city and how many were driven
on the highway?
48. Siblings. Phil and Phyllis are siblings. Phyllis has twice
as many brothers as she has sisters. Phil has the same
number of brothers as sisters. How many girls and how
many boys are in the family?
50.
3.4
281
MidChapter Review
Concept Reinforcement
Determine whether each statement is true or false.
1. If, when solving a system of two linear equations in two variables, a false equation is
obtained, the system has infinitely many solutions. [3.2a], [3.3a]
2. Every system of equations has at least one solution. [3.1a]
3. If the graphs of two linear equations intersect, then the system is consistent. [3.1a]
4. The intersection of the graphs of the lines x = a and y = b is 1a, b2.
[3.1a]
Guided Solutions
Fill in each box with the number, variable, or expression that creates a correct statement or solution.
Solve.
[3.2a], [3.3a]
5. x + 2y = 3,
y = x  6
x + 21
x +
x 
(1)
(2)
6. 3x  2y = 5,
2x + 4y = 14
2 = 3
= 3
Removing parentheses
x  12 = 3
x 
y =
2x +
4y = 14
3x =
 6
y =
2#
Equation (2)
Adding
+ 4y = 14
+ 4y = 14
Multiplying
Subtracting
4y =
2.
y =
The solution is 1
x =
x =
y =
(1)
(2)
The solution is 1
2.
Mixed Review
Solve each system of equations graphically. Then classify the system as consistent or inconsistent and the equations as
dependent or independent. [3.1a]
7. y = x  6,
y = 4  x
8. x + y = 3,
3x + y = 3
282
CHAPTER 3
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
y
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
10. x  y = 3,
2y  2x = 6
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
9. y = 2x  3,
4x  2y = 6
1 2 3 4 5
Systems of Equations
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
12. y = x  5,
x  2y = 8
13. 4x + 3y = 3,
y = x + 8
14. 3x  2y = 1,
x = y + 1
18. 3x + 2y = 11,
2x + 3y = 9
16. x  2y = 13,
x + 2y =  3
17. 3x  4y = 5,
5x  2y =  1
19. x  2y = 5,
3x  6y = 10
20.
21.
4x  6y = 2,
2x + 3y =  1
1
1
x + y = 1,
2
3
1
3
x  y = 11
5
4
Solve.
23. Garden Dimensions. A landscape architect designs a
garden with a perimeter of 44 ft. The width is 2 ft less
than the length. Find the length and the width. [3.2b]
25. Mixing Solutions. A lab technician wants to mix a solution that is 20% acid with a second solution that is 50%
acid in order to get 84 L of a solution that is 30% acid. How
many liters of each solution should be used? [3.4a]
a) 14, 32
b) No solution
c) Infinitely many solutions
283
Systems of Equations
in Three Variables
3.5
OBJECTIVE
SKILL TO REVIEW
Objective 3.3a: Solve systems of
equations in two variables by the
elimination method.
Solve.
1. 3x + y = 1,
5x  y = 7
2. 2x + 3y = 9,
3x + 2y = 1
x + y + z = 4,
(1)
x  2y  z = 1,
(2)
2x  y  2z =  1.
(3)
a) We first use any two of the three equations to get an equation in two variables. In this case, lets use equations (1) and (2) and add to eliminate z:
x + y + z = 4
x  2y  z = 1
2x  y
(1)
(2)
= 5.
(4)
Adding to eliminate z
b) We use a different pair of equations and eliminate the same variable that
we did in part (a). Lets use equations (1) and (3) and again eliminate z.
Caution!
STUDY TIPS
BEING A TUTOR
Try being a tutor for a fellow
student. You can reinforce your
understanding and retention of
concepts if you explain the
material to someone else.
x + y + z = 4,
(1)
2x  y  2z =  1;
(3)
2x + 2y + 2z = 8
2x  y  2z =  1
(3)
4x + y
(5)
c) Now we solve the resulting system of equations, (4) and (5). That solution
will give us two of the numbers. Note that we now have two equations in
two variables. Had we eliminated two different variables in parts (a) and
(b), this would not be the case.
2x  y = 5
4x + y = 7
(4)
(5)
6x
Adding
= 12
x = 2
Answers
Skill to Review:
1. 11,  22
2. 1  3, 52
284
CHAPTER 3
*Other methods for solving systems of equations are considered in Appendixes B and C.
Systems of Equations
We can use either equation (4) or (5) to find y. We choose equation (5):
4x + y = 7
4122 + y = 7
(5)
Substituting 2 for x
8 + y = 7
y =  1.
d) We now have x = 2 and y =  1. To find the value for z, we use any of the
original three equations and substitute to find the third number, z. Lets
use equation (1) and substitute our two numbers in it:
x + y + z = 4
2 + 1 12 + z = 4
1 + z = 4
z = 3.
(1)
Substituting 2 for x and 1 for y
Solving for z
2 + 1 12 + 3 ? 4
4
TRUE
x  2y  z = 1
2  21 12  3 ? 1
2 + 2  3
1
TRUE
2x  y  2z =  1
2122  1 12  2 # 3 ? 1
4 + 1  6
1
TRUE
5. Solve the resulting system (pair) of equations. That will give two of
the numbers.
4x  y + z = 6,
6. Then use any of the original three equations to find the third
number.
 3x + 2y  z =  3,
2x + y + 2z = 3
Do Exercise 1.
Answer
1. 12, 1, 12
3.5
285
(1)
8x  y + z =  5,
(2)
2x + y + 2z = 5.
(3)
(2)
(3)
 6x
(4)
+ 3z =
0.
Adding
c) We use another pair of equations to get an equation in the same two variables, x and z. That is, we eliminate the same variable, y, that we did in
step (b). We use equations (1) and (3) and eliminate y:
4x  2y  3z = 5,
(1)
2x + y + 2z = 5;
(3)
4x  2y  3z = 5
(1)
4x + 2y + 4z = 10
8x
+ z = 15.
Adding
d) Now we solve the resulting system of equations (4) and (5). That will give
us two of the numbers:
 6x + 3z = 0,
(4)
8x + z = 15.
(5)
(4)
Multiplying equation (5) by  3
=  45
x =
 45
 30
Adding
3
2
(5)
3
2
Substituting 32 for x
8A
B + z = 15
12 + z = 15
z = 3.
Solving for z
e) Next, we use any of the original equations and substitute to find the third
number, y. We choose equation (3) since the coefficient of y there is 1:
2A
2x + y + 2z = 5
3
2
B + y + 2132 = 5
y + 9 = 5
y =  4.
CHAPTER 3
Systems of Equations
3 + y + 6 = 5
The solution is
286
(3)
Solving for y
Check:
4x  2y  3z = 5
4#
3
2
 21 42  3132 ? 5
6 + 8  9
5
TRUE
 8x  y + z =  5
8 #
 1 42 + 3 ?  5
 12 + 4 + 3
5
3
2
TRUE
2x + y + 2z = 5
2#
3
2
+ 1 42 + 2132 ? 5
3  4 + 6
5
TRUE
x  y + 2z = 5,
Do Exercise 2.
3x + 2y + 2z = 3
(1)
(2)
 z =  70,
2y  z = 0.
(3)
(1)
2y  z = 0;
(3)
 2x  2y  2z =  360
2y  z =
0
 2x
(4)
 3z =  360.
Adding
(2)
(4)
2x  2z =  140
2x  3z =  360
5z =  500
z = 100.
To find x, we substitute 100 for z in equation (2) and solve for x :
x  z =  70
x  100 =  70
x = 30.
Answer
1
2. a 2, 2, b
2
3.5
287
The triple 130, 50, 1002 is the solution. The check is left to the student.
=  10,
Do Exercise 3.
 z =  30
STUDY TIPS
TIME MANAGEMENT
Having enough time to study is a critical factor in any course. Have realistic
expectations about the amount of time you need to study for this course.
Balancing work and study. Working 40 hours per week and taking
12 credit hours is equivalent to having two fulltime jobs. It is challenging to handle such a load. If you work 40 hours per week, you will probably have more success in school if you take 36 credit hours. If you are
carrying a full classload, you can probably work 510 hours per week.
Be honest with yourself about how much time you have available to
work, attend class, and study.
Answer
288
CHAPTER 3
Systems of Equations
3.5
a
1.
Exercise Set
Solve.
x + y + z = 2,
2x  y + 5z =  5,
 x + 2y + 2z = 1
2. 2x  y  4z =  12,
2x + y + z = 1,
x + 2y + 4z = 10
3. 2x  y + z = 5,
6x + 3y  2z = 10,
x  2y + 3z = 5
4. x  y + z = 4,
3x + 2y + 3z = 7,
2x + 9y + 6z = 5
5. 2x  3y + z = 5,
x + 3y + 8z = 22,
3x  y + 2z = 12
6. 6x  4y + 5z = 31,
5x + 2y + 2z = 13,
x + y + z = 2
7. 3a  2b + 7c = 13,
a + 8b  6c =  47,
7a  9b  9c =  3
8.
x + y + z = 0,
2x + 3y + 2z =  3,
 x + 2y  3z =  1
9. 2x + 3y + z = 17,
x  3y + 2z =  8,
5x  2y + 3z = 5
10. 2x + y  3z =  4,
4x  2y + z = 9,
3x + 5y  2z = 5
11. 2x + y + z =  2,
2x  y + 3z = 6,
3x  5y + 4z = 7
12. 2x + y + 2z = 11,
3x + 2y + 2z = 8,
x + 4y + 3z = 0
13. x  y + z = 4,
5x + 2y  3z = 2,
3x  7y + 4z = 8
14. 2x + y + 2z = 3,
x + 6y + 3z = 4,
3x  2y + z = 0
15. 4x  y  z = 4,
2x + y + z =  1,
6x  3y  2z = 3
3.5
289
16. 2r + s + t = 6,
3r  2s  5t = 7,
r + s  3t =  10
17. a  2b  5c =  3,
3a + b  2c =  1,
2a + 3b + c = 4
18. x + 4y  z = 5,
2x  y + 3z =  5,
4x + 3y + z = 5
19. 2r + 3s + 12t = 4,
4r  6s + 6t = 1,
r + s +
t = 1
20. 10x + 6y + z = 7,
5x  9y  2z = 3,
15x  12y + 2z =  5
21. a + 2b + c = 1,
7a + 3b  c =  2,
a + 5b + 3c = 2
22. 3p + 2r = 11,
q  7r = 4,
p  6q = 1
23. x + y + z = 57,
2x + y = 3,
x  z = 6
24. 4a + 9b = 8,
8a + 6c =  1,
6b + 6c =  1
25. r + s = 5,
3s + 2t =  1,
4r + t = 14
26. a  5c = 17,
b + 2c =  1,
4a  b  3c = 12
27. x + y + z = 105,
10y  z = 11,
2x  3y = 7
32. Ax + By = c, for y
33. Ax  By = c, for y
Skill Maintenance
Solve for the indicated letter.
[1.2a]
5
4
[2.4b]
35. y = 5  4x
36. 2x  5y = 10
37. 7x  6.4y = 20
Solve.
38. w
w
w
2w
+

x
2x
3x
x
290
y
2y
y
y
+
+
+
z
z
z
3z
=
=
=
=
CHAPTER 3
0,
 5,
4,
7
Systems of Equations
39. w
w
w
w
+
+

x
2x
x
3x
+
+
+

y
2y
y
y
+
+
+
+
z
4z
z
z
=
=
=
=
2,
1,
6,
2
Synthesis
3.6
OBJECTIVE
z
y
x + y + z = 180.
There are two statements in the problem that we can translate directly.
70
70 greater than
2y
x + y + z = 180,
or
 z =  70,
2y  z = 0.
3. Solve. The system was solved in Example 3 of Section 3.5. The solution is 130, 50, 1002.
4. Check. The sum of the numbers is 180. The largest angle measures 100
and the smallest measures 30, so the largest angle is 70 greater than the
smallest. The largest angle is twice as large as 50, the remaining angle.
We have an answer to the problem.
5. State.
The measures of the angles of the triangle are 30, 50, and 100.
Do Exercise 1.
Answer
1. 64, 32, 84
3.6
291
302
2c
3s
65
292
CHAPTER 3
Systems of Equations
= 567.
(1)
(2)
(3)
2g
567
3. Solve. To solve, we first note that the variable g does not appear in
equation (2). In order to have a system of two equations in the variables
c and s, we need to find another equation without the variable g. We use
equations (1) and (3) to eliminate g :
g + c + s = 302,
2g + c
(1)
= 567;
(3)
 2g  2c  2s =  604
2g + c
567
(3)
 c  2s =  37.
(4)
Adding
(2)
c  2s =  37;
(4)
2c + 3s = 65
2c  4s =  74
s =  9
(2)
Multiplying equation (4) by 2
Adding
s = 9.
To find c, we substitute 9 for s in equation (4) and solve for c:
 c  2s =  37
(4)
 c  2192 =  37
Substituting
c  18 =  37
 c =  19
c = 19.
To find g, we substitute 19 for c in equation (3) and solve for g :
2g + c = 567
2g + 19 = 567
(3)
Substituting
2g = 548
g = 274.
The solution is c = 19, g = 274, s = 9, or 119, 274, 92.
4. Check. The sum of 19, 274, and 9 is 302 so the total cholesterol in
1 cupcake, 1 egg, and 1 slice of pizza checks. Two cupcakes and three
slices of pizza would contain 2 # 19 + 3 # 9, or 65 mg, while two eggs and
one cupcake would contain 2 # 274 + 19, or 567 mg of cholesterol. The
answer checks.
5. State. A cupcake contains 19 mg of cholesterol, an egg contains 274 mg of
cholesterol, and a slice of pizza contains 9 mg of cholesterol.
Do Exercise 2.
Answer
2. $4000 at 5%; $5000 at 6%; $16,000 at 7%
3.6
293
3.6
a
Exercise Set
Solve.
1. Scholastic Aptitude Test. More than two million highschool students take the Scholastic Aptitude Test each
year as part of the college admission process. Students
receive a critical reading score, a mathematics score, and
a writing score. The average total score of students who
graduated from high school in 2008 was 1511. The average math score exceeded the average reading score by
13 points. The average math score was 481 points less
than the sum of the average reading and writing scores.
Find the average score on each part of the test.
294
CHAPTER 3
Systems of Equations
3.6
295
PROTEIN
VITAMIN C
CALORIES (in grams) (in milligrams)
Roast
Beef, 3 oz
300
20
Baked
Potato
100
20
50
100
Broccoli,
156 g
296
CHAPTER 3
Systems of Equations
FOOD
22. History. Find the year in which the first U.S. transcontinental railroad was completed. The following are some
facts about the number. The sum of the digits in the year
is 24. The ones digit is 1 more than the hundreds digit.
Both the tens and the ones digits are multiples of 3.
Source: Subway
3.6
297
Skill Maintenance
In each of Exercises 2330, fill in the blank with the correct term from the given list. Some of the choices may not be used.
23. The expression x q means x is
[1.4d]
parallel
q.
perpendicular
union
empty set
.
consistent
inconsistent
linear
equation is a line.
xintercept
yintercept
positive
zero
negative
vertical
27. A(n)
solution. [3.1a]
horizontal
at least
at most
29. The
point 10, b2.
[2.4a]
30. When the slope of a line is zero, the graph of the line is
. [2.4b]
Synthesis
298
CHAPTER 3
Systems of Equations
31. Find the sum of the angle measures at the tips of the star
in this figure.
3.7
Systems of Inequalities
in Two Variables
A graph of an inequality is a drawing that represents its solutions. An inequality in one variable can be graphed on the number line. (See Section 1.4.) An
inequality in two variables can be graphed on a coordinate plane.
A linear inequality is one that we can get from a related linear equation
by changing the equals symbol to an inequality symbol. The graph of a linear
inequality is a region on one side of a line. This region is called a halfplane.
The graph sometimes includes the graph of the related line at the boundary
of the halfplane.
a Solutions of Inequalities
in Two Variables
OBJECTIVES
a
Determine whether an
ordered pair of numbers is a
solution of an inequality in
two variables.
EXAMPLES Determine whether the ordered pair is a solution of the inequality 5x  4y 7 13.
1. 1 3, 22
SKILL TO REVIEW
Objective 2.5a: Graph linear
equations using intercepts.
Find the intercepts. Then graph the
equation.
We have
5x  4y 7 13
51 32  4 # 2 ? 13
15  8
23
1. 3x  2y = 6
We use alphabetical order to replace x
with 3 and y with 2.
2. 2x + y = 4
5
4
3
2
1
FALSE
54321
1
2
3
4
5
2. 14,  32
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
54321
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
We have
5x  4y 7 13
5142  41 32 ? 13
20 + 12
32
4x  5y 6 12
?
b Graphing Inequalities
in Two Variables
Lets visualize the results of Examples 1 and 2. The equation 5x  4y = 13 is
represented by the dashed line in the graphs on the following page. The solutions of the inequality 5x  4y 7 13 are shaded below that dashed line. As
shown in the graph on the left, the pair 1 3, 22 is not a solution of the
inequality 5x  4y 7 13 and is not in the shaded region.
Answers
Answers to Skill to Review Exercises 1 and 2
and Margin Exercises 1 and 2 are on p. 300.
3.7
299
5
4
3
2
1
4
Not a
solution 3
2
1
(3, 2)
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
5x 4y > 13
1 2 3 4 5
A solution
(4, 3)
5x 4y > 13
EXAMPLE 3 Graph: y 6 x.
We first graph the line y = x. Every solution of y = x is an ordered pair
like 13, 32, where the first and second coordinates are the same. The graph of
y = x is shown on the left below. We draw it dashed because these points are
not solutions of y 6 x.
y
5
3
2
(2, 2)
(2, 2)
(3, 3)
4
3
(3, 3)
5 4 3 2 1
1
(1, 1)
(4, 2)
(1, 1)
(0, 0)
5 4 3 2 1
yx
(3, 5)
(2, 2)
(3, 4)
Now look at the graph on the right above. Several ordered pairs are plotted on the halfplane below y = x. Each is a solution of y 6 x. We can check
the pair 14, 22 as follows:
y 6 x
2 ? 4
TRUE
It turns out that any point on the same side of y = x as 14, 22 is also a solution.
Thus, if you know that one point in a halfplane is a solution of an inequality,
then all points in that halfplane are solutions. In this text, we will usually
indicate this by color shading. We shade the halfplane below y = x.
y
Answers
Skill to Review:
1.
y
2.
4
2
(0, 4)
4 2
(0, 3)
2
2
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
3x 2y 6
2x y 4
300
(3, 5) 4
5
Margin Exercises:
1. No
2. Yes
CHAPTER 3
Systems of Equations
(4, 2)
y x
1
(2, 0)
(2, 0)
2
2
2
4 2
(2, 2)
(3, 4)
x
For any point
here, y x.
FALSE
8
7
8x 1 3y 24
6
5
(3, 4)
4
3
2
1
6 5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
3.7
301
TRUE
Graph.
3. 6x  3y 6 18
y
5
4
3
2
1
54321
1
2
3
4
5
6
5
1 2 3 4 5
6x 2y
12
4
3
2
1
(0, 0)
6 5 4 3 2 1
1
4. 4x + 3y 12
5
4
3
2
1
54321
1
2
3
4
5
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
Do Exercises 3 and 4.
4 3 2 1
y
4
2
4 2
x + 0y 7  3
2 + 0152 ?  3
2
6x 3y 18
4.
y
4
2
4 2
4x 3y 12
302
Answers
3.
CHAPTER 3
Systems of Equations
TRUE
Since 12, 52 is a solution, all the points in the halfplane containing 12, 52 are
solutions. We shade that halfplane.
y
5
(2, 5)
4
3
2
1
5 4
2 1
1
x 3
3
4
5
Graph on a plane.
FALSE
We see that 1 2, 52 is not a solution, so all the points in the halfplane containing 1 2, 52 are not solutions. Thus each point in the opposite halfplane
is a solution.
5. x 6 3
y
5
4
3
2
1
54321
1
2
3
4
5
y
(2, 5)
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
6. y  4
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
y
1
5
4
3
2
1
y 4
54321
1
2
3
4
5
4
5
Do Exercises 5 and 6.
Answers
5.
4
2
4 2
x + y 4,
x  y 6 4.
A solution of a system of linear inequalities is an ordered pair that is a
solution of both inequalities. We now graph solutions of systems of linear
inequalities. To do so, we graph each inequality and determine where the
graphs overlap, or intersect. That will be a region in which the ordered pairs
are solutions of both inequalities.
x3
6.
y
4
2
4 2
2
2
4
y 4
3.7
303
y
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
7. Graph:
3
2
x + y 1,
y  x 2.
5 4 3 2 1
1
5
4
3
2
1
54321
1
2
3
4
5
3
4
1 2 3 4 5
Do Exercise 7.
Answer
7.
y
4
2
4 2
2
2
304
CHAPTER 3
Systems of Equations
EXAMPLE 9 Graph:  2 6 x 5.
This is actually a system of inequalities:
 2 6 x,
x 5.
We graph the equation  2 = x and see that the graph of the first inequality is
the halfplane to the right of the line 2 = x. (See the graph on the left below.)
Next, we graph the second inequality, starting with the line x = 5, and
find that its graph is the line and also the halfplane to the left of it. (See the
graph on the right below.)
y
2 x
5 4 3
1
1
x5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2 x 5
1
7 6 5 4 3
1
1
8. Graph:  3 y 6 4.
5
4
3
2
1
3
4
5
54321
1
2
3
4
5
Do Exercise 8.
1 2 3 4 5
Answer
8.
y
4
2
4 2
2
2
3.7
305
EXAMPLE 10 Graph the following system of inequalities. Find the coordinates of any vertices formed.
6x  2y 12,
(1)
y  3 0,
(2)
x + y 0
(3)
y
5
4
(3, 3)
(3, 3)
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
(w, w)
3
4
5
6x  2y = 12,
(1)
y  3 = 0.
(2)
5x + 6y 30,
6x  2y = 12,
(1)
0 y 3,
x + y = 0.
(3)
0 x 4
y
5
4
3
2
1
54321
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
y  3 = 0,
(2)
x + y = 0.
(3)
Answer
y
9.
( 12
, 3)
5
(0, 3) 4
(4, )
3
2
4 2
(0, 0) 2
(4, 0)
306
CHAPTER 3
Systems of Equations
EXAMPLE 11 Graph the following system of inequalities. Find the coordinates of any vertices formed.
x + y 16,
(1)
3x + 6y 60,
(2)
x 0,
(3)
y 0
(4)
We graph each inequality using solid lines. The regions for each inequality
are indicated by the arrows at the ends of the lines. We then note where the
regions overlap and shade the region of solutions using one color.
y
20
15
(0, 10)
x y 16
10
(12, 4)
3x 6y 60
(0, 0)
10
20
(16, 0)
To find the vertices, we solve four different systems of equations. The system of equations from inequalities (1) and (2) is
x + y = 16,
(1)
3x + 6y = 60.
(2)
(1)
10. Graph the system of inequalities.
Find the coordinates of any
vertices formed.
(4)
2x + 4y 8,
x = 0,
(3)
x + y 3,
y = 0.
(4)
x 0,
y 0
y
5
4
3
2
1
(2)
(3)
54321
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
Do Exercise 10.
Answer
10.
y
4
(0, 2)2
4 2
(2, 1)
2
(0, 0) 2 (3, 0)
3.7
307
Visualizing
for Success
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
5 x
1. x + y =  4,
2x + y =  8
5
4
3
5 x
5 x
5 x
5 x
5 x
5
4
3
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
1
1
5 x
2. 2x + 5y 10
5 4 3 2 1
1
3. 2x  2y = 5
4
5
4
5
4. 2x  5y = 10
y
5.  2y 6 8
4
3
6. 5x  2y = 10
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
5 x
7. 2x = 10
8. 5x + 2y 6 10,
2x  5y 7 10
y
9. 5x  10
10. y  2x 6 8
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
5 x
4
3
5 4 3 2 1
1
5
4
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
1
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
5 x
Exercise Set
3.7
a
Determine whether the given ordered pair is a solution of the given inequality.
2. 16,  82; 4x + 3y 0
1. 1 3, 32; 3x + y 6  5
3. 15, 92; 2x  y 7  1
4. 15,  22; 6y  x 7 2
7. y 6 x + 1
8. y x  3
5. y 7 2x
6. y 6 3x
y
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
9. y 7 x  2
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
13. 3x + 4y 12
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
3.7
1 2 3 4 5
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
16. 2y  x 4
y
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
12. x  y 3
15. 2y  3x 7 6
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
14. 2x + 3y 6 6
1 2 3 4 5
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5
4
3
2
1
11. x + y 6 4
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5
4
3
2
1
10. y x + 4
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
309
17. 3x  2 5x + y
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
21. y 7 2
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
24. 7x + 2y 21
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5
4
3
2
1
23. 2x + 3y 6
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
22. x  4
y
20. y  2
y
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
19. x 6 5
18. 2x  2y 8 + 2y
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
Matching. Each of Exercises 2530 shows the graph of an inequality. Match the graph with one of the appropriate inequalities
(A)(F) that follow.
y
26.
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
A. 4y 7 8  3x
310
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
29.
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
28.
27.
B. 3x 5y  15
CHAPTER 3
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
C. y + x  3
Systems of Equations
1 2 3 4 5
30.
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
D. x 7 1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
E. y  3
F. 2x  3y 6 6
25.
Graph each system of inequalities. Find the coordinates of any vertices formed.
31. y x,
y x + 2
32. y x,
y x + 4
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
10
8
6
4
2
10
8
6
4
2
2 4 6 8 10
39. y 2x + 1,
y  2x + 1,
x 2
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
108 6 4 2
2
4
6
8
10
2 4 6 8 10
2 4 6 8 10
1 2 3 4 5
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
12,
12,
0,
0
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
42. y  x 1,
y  x 3,
2 x 5
10
8
6
4
2
10
8
6
4
2
108 6 4 2
2
4
6
8
10
3.7
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
41. x + 2y
2x + y
x
y
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
38. x + y 3,
x  y 4
5
4
3
2
1
10
8
6
4
2
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
37. x + y 1,
x  y 2
40. x  y 2,
x + 2y 8,
y 4
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
108 6 4 2
2
4
6
8
10
5
4
3
2
1
36. x  2,
y  2x + 3
34. y 6 x,
y 7 x + 3
5
4
3
2
1
35. x 3,
y  3x + 2
108 6 4 2
2
4
6
8
10
33. y 7 x,
y 6 x + 1
2 4 6 8 10
108 6 4 2
2
4
6
8
10
2 4 6 8 10
311
Skill Maintenance
Solve.
[1.1d]
44. 413x + 42 = 2  x
47. 5x + 7x =  144
Given the function f 1x2 = 2  x , find each of the following function values. [2.2b]
49. f 102
50. f 1 12
51. f 112
52. f 1102
53. f 1  22
54. f 12a2
55. f 1 42
56. f 11.82
Synthesis
57. Luggage Size. Unless an additional fee is paid, most
major airlines will not check any luggage for which the
sum of the items length, width, and height exceeds
62 in. The U.S. Postal Service will ship a package only
if the sum of the packages length and girth (distance
around its midsection) does not exceed 130 in. Video
Promotions is ordering several 30in. long cases that
will be both mailed and checked as luggage. Using w
and h for width and height (in inches), respectively,
write and graph an inequality that represents all
acceptable combinations of width and height.
w
Girth
312
CHAPTER 3
Systems of Equations
30 in.
CHAPTER
Motion formula: d = rt
Concept Reinforcement
Determine whether each statement is true or false.
1. A system of equations with infinitely many solutions is inconsistent. [3.1a]
2. It is not possible for the equations in an inconsistent system of two equations to be
dependent. [3.1a]
3. If one point in a halfplane is a solution of a linear inequality, then all points in that
halfplane are solutions. [3.7b]
4. Every system of linear inequalities has at least one solution. [3.7c]
Important Concepts
Objective 3.1a Solve a system of two linear equations or two functions by graphing and determine
whether a system is consistent or inconsistent and whether the equations in a system are
dependent or independent.
Example Solve this system of equations graphically. Then
classify the system as consistent or inconsistent and the
equations as dependent or independent.
x  y = 3,
y = 2x  4
Practice Exercise
1. Solve this system of equations graphically. Then
classify the system as consistent or inconsistent and
the equations as dependent or independent.
x + 3y = 1,
x + y = 3
y 2x 4
5
4
3
2
1
54321
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
(1, 2)
xy3
313
Objective 3.2a Solve systems of equations in two variables by the substitution method.
Practice Exercise
(1)
2x  3y = 3.
(2)
3x + 2y = 5.
x  2y = 1
x = 2y + 1.
(3)
x  2y = 1
2x  3y = 3
3  2#1? 1
2#3  3#1 ? 3
3  2
1
TRUE
6  3
3
TRUE
Objective 3.3a Solve systems of equations in two variables by the elimination method.
Practice Exercise
(1)
3a + 2b = 6.
(2)
2x + 3y = 5,
3x + 4y = 6.
6a + 9b =  3
6a  4b =  12
5b =  15
b =  3.
Next, we substitute  3 for b in either of the original
equations:
2a + 3b =  1
(1)
2a + 31 32 =  1
2a  9 =  1
2a = 8
a = 4.
314
CHAPTER 3
Systems of Equations
Objective 3.5a
Example Solve:
Practice Exercise
x  y  z =  2,
(1)
4. Solve:
2x + 3y + z = 3,
(2)
x  y + z = 9,
5x  2y  2z =  1.
(3)
2x + y + 2z = 3,
4x + 2y  3z =  1.
x  y  z = 2
2x + 3y + z = 3
3x + 2y
= 1.
(4)
= 5.
(5)
= 3
x = 1.
(4)
3 # 1 + 2y = 1
3 + 2y = 1
2y =  2
y =  1.
Finally, we use one of the original equations to find z :
2x + 3y + z = 3
(2)
2 # 1 + 3112 + z = 3
1 + z = 3
z = 4.
Check:
x  y  z = 2
1  1  12  4 ?  2
1 + 1  4
2
TRUE
2x + 3y + z = 3
2 # 1 + 31 12 + 4 ? 3
2  3 + 4
3
TRUE
5x  2y  2z =  1
5 # 1  21 12  2 # 4 ? 1
5 + 2  8
1
TRUE
315
Practice Exercise
5. Graph: 3x  2y 7 6.
y
5
4
3
2
1
2x + y 4
54321
1
2
3
4
5
2 #0 + 0 ? 4
0
TRUE
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
2x y 4
Objective 3.7c Graph systems of linear inequalities and find coordinates of any vertices.
Example Graph this system of inequalities and find the
coordinates of any vertices formed:
x  2y  2,
3x  y 4,
y  1.
(1)
x  2y 4,
(3)
x + y 4,
y
5
4
3
2
1
54321
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
to find the vertex 12, 22. From (1) and (3), we solve
x  2y =  2,
y = 1
y = 1
CHAPTER 3
6. Graph this system of inequalities and find the coordinates of any vertices found:
(2)
316
Practice Exercise
Systems of Equations
x
1 0.
y
5
4
3
2
1
54321
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
Review Exercises
Solve graphically. Then classify the system as consistent or
inconsistent and the equations as dependent or independent. [3.1a]
1. 4x  y =  9,
x  y = 3
t 1 hours
3. y  2x = 4,
y  2x = 5
Trains
meet
here
t hours
44 mph
52 mph
[3.2a]
5. y = x + 2,
y  x = 8
Solve.
14. x + 2y + z = 10,
2x  y + z = 8,
3x + y + 4z = 2
6. 7x  4y = 6,
y  3x =  2
16.
9.
1
2
x + y = 1,
3
9
1
3
x + y = 6
2
2
[3.5a]
15. 3x + 2y + z = 1,
2x  y  3z = 1,
x + 3y + 2z = 6
2x  5y  2z =  4,
7x + 2y  5z =  6,
 2x + 3y + 2z = 4
17. x + y + 2z = 1,
x  y + z = 1,
x + 2y + z = 2
[3.3a]
8. 3x  5y =  4,
5x  3y = 4
[3.7b]
20. 2x + 3y 6 12
21. y 0
y
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
317
22. x + y 1
26. The sum of two numbers is 2. The sum of twice one
number and the other is 4. One number is which of the
following? [3.3b]
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
D. 8
A. 2.5 hr
C. 3.5 hr
5
4
3
2
1
C. 6
27. Distance Traveled. Two cars leave Martinsville traveling in opposite directions. One car travels at a speed
of 50 mph and the other at 60 mph. In how many
hours will they be 275 mi apart? [3.4b]
24. x + 3y  1,
x + 3y 4
B. 2
A.  6
B. 3 hr
D. 4 hr
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
Synthesis
28. Solve graphically: [2.1d], [3.1a]
y = x + 2,
y =
25. x  y 3,
x + y  1,
y 2
y
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
x2
+ 2.
y
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
318
CHAPTER 3
Systems of Equations
3. Ticket Revenue. A popsconcert audience of 100 people consists of adults, senior citizens, and children. The
ticket prices are $10 each for adults, $3 each for senior
citizens, and $0.50 each for children. The total amount
of money taken in is $100. How many adults, senior
citizens, and children are in attendance? Does there
seem to be some information missing? Do some careful reasoning and explain. [3.6a]
4. When graphing linear inequalities, Ron always shades
above the line when he sees a symbol. Is this wise?
Why or why not? [3.7a]
CHAPTER
Test
Solve graphically. Then classify the system as consistent or inconsistent and the equations as dependent or independent.
1. y = 3x + 7,
3x + 2y =  4
2. y = 3x + 4,
y = 3x  2
y
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
3. y  3x = 6,
6x  2y =  12
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
5. x = 3y + 2,
2x  6y = 4
6. x + 2y = 6,
2x + 3y = 7
8.
9.
2x + 5y = 3,
 2x + 3y = 5
x + y =  2,
4x  6y =  3
Solve.
10. Tennis Court. The perimeter of a standard tennis court
used for playing doubles is 288 ft. The width of the court
is 42 ft less than the length. Find the length and the width.
4
2
x  y = 1,
3
5
1
2
x  y = 2
3
5
Test: Chapter 3
319
14. Solve:
6x + 2y  4z = 15,
3x  4y + 2z =  6,
4x  6y + 3z = 8.
17. x  6y 6  6
y
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
18. x + y 3,
x  y 5
19. 2y  x
2y + 3x
y
x
y
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
 4,
 6,
0,
0
y
1 2 3 4 5
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
20. A business class divided an imaginary $30,000 investment among three funds. The first fund grew 2%, the second grew 3%,
and the third grew 5%. Total earnings were $990. The earnings from the third fund were $280 more than the earnings from
the first. How much was invested at 5%?
B. $10,000
C. $11,000
D. $12,000
Synthesis
21. The graph of the function f 1x2 = mx + b contains the points 1  1, 32 and 1 2,  42. Find m and b.
320
CHAPTER 3
Systems of Equations
A. $9000
CHAPTERS
13
Cumulative Review
16. y 7 3x  4
Solve.
2.  3 + 5x = 2x + 15
1. 6y  513y  42 = 10
3. A = pr 2h, for h
5. 5x + 8 7 2x + 5
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
6.  12  3x + 1 6 0
7. 2x  10  4 or x  4 3
8. x + 1 = 4
3
2
1
1
m1k + p2, for p
3
4. L =
17. 2x  y 6
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
2x  y = 7,
10. 2x + 1 = x  4
x + 3y = 0
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
Graph on a plane.
1
13. f 1x2 =  x  3
2
y
Solve.
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
7 6 5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
6
1 2 3
19. 3x + 4y = 4,
x = 2y + 2
20. 3x + y = 2,
6x  y = 7
21. 4x + 3y = 5,
3x + 2y = 3
22. x  y + z = 1,
2x + y + z = 3,
x + y  2z = 4
14. 3x  1 = y
15. 3x + 5y = 15
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
4
3
2
1
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
3 2 1
1
2
3
24. 4y  3x
4y + 3x
y
x
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
6
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
1 2 3 4 5 6
9. 8y  3 15
12. 3y = 9
4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
7 6 5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
6
 12,
 36,
0,
0
1 2 3
10
8
6
4
2
1086 4 2
2
4
6
8
10
2 4 6 8 10
321
25. For the function f whose graph is shown below, determine (a) the domain, (b) the range, (c) f 1  32, and
(d) any input for which f 1x2 = 5.
y
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
7
.
2x  1
Solve.
33. Wire Cutting. Rollys Electric wants to cut a piece of
copper wire 10 m long into two pieces, one of them
twothirds as long as the other. How should the wire
be cut?
38. Utility Cost. One month Ladi and Bo spent $680 for
electricity, rent, and telephone. The electric bill was
onefourth of the rent and the rent was $400 more
than the phone bill. How much was the electric bill?
322
CHAPTER 3
Systems of Equations
Synthesis
x  2y = 4,
Polynomials and
Polynomial Functions
4.1
CHAPTER
Introduction to Polynomials
and Polynomial Functions
4.7
RealWorld Application
In filming a movie, a stunt double on a motorcycle must jump over a group of trucks
that are lined up side by side. The height h1t2, in feet, of the airborne bike t seconds
after leaving the ramp can be approximated by h1t2 =  16t 2 + 60t. After how long
will the bike reach the ground?
This problem appears as Margin Exercise 9 in Section 4.8.
323
Introduction to Polynomials
and Polynomial Functions
OBJECTIVES
a
Evaluate a polynomial
function for given inputs.
Number of apples
4.1
1
1
1
N(x) x 3 x 2 x
3
2
6
100
91
80
60
40
20
10
12
Number of layers
SKILL TO REVIEW
Objective R.2b: Find the opposite,
or additive inverse, of a number.
N1x2 = 13 x 3 + 12 x 2 + 16 x
4
9
For a stack with 6 layers, there is a total of 91 apples, as we can see from
the graph and from substituting 6 for x in the polynomial function:
2.  5
N162 =
1
3
# 63 +
1
2
# 62 +
1
6
# 6 = 72 + 18 + 1 = 91.
a Polynomial Expressions
The following are examples of monomials:
0,
3,
z,
8x,
7y 2,
4a 2b 3,
1.3p 4q 5r 7.
MONOMIAL
A monomial is a oneterm expression like ax ny mz q, where a is a real
number and n, m, and q are nonnegative integers. More specifically,
a monomial is a constant or a constant times some variable or
variables raised to powers that are nonnegative integers.
Answers
Skill to Review:
4
1. 2. 5
9
324
CHAPTER 4
8a,
2,
2y 2
 7x + 5,
2x + 3,
+ 5y  3,
5a 4  3a 2 + 14 a  8,
b 6 + 3b 5  8b + 7b 4 + 12.
STUDY TIPS
5a  ab 2 + 7b + 2,
LEARNING RESOURCES
ON CAMPUS
9xy 2z  4x 3z  14x 4y 2 + 9.
POLYNOMIAL
A polynomial is a monomial or a combination of sums and/or
differences of monomials.
y2
 3
y2 + 4
122 8x 4  2x 3 +
1
,
x
132
2xy
x3  y3
Expressions (1) and (3) are not polynomials because they represent quotients.
Expression (2) is not a polynomial because
1
= x 1 ;
x
this is not a monomial because the exponent is negative.
The polynomial 5x 3y  7xy 2  y 3 + 2 has four terms:
5x 3y,
 7xy 2,
y 3, and 2.
The coefficients of the terms are 5,  7, 1, and 2. The term 2 is called a
constant term.
The degree of a term is the sum of the exponents of the variables, if there
are variables. For example,
the degree of the term 9x 5 is 5 and
the degree of the term 0.6a 2b 7 is 9.
The degree of a nonzero constant term, such as 2, is 0. We can express 2 as 2x 0.
Mathematicians agree that the polynomial 0 has no degree. This is because we
can express 0 as
0 = 0x 5 = 0x 12,
and so on, using any exponent we wish.
The degree of a polynomial is the same as the degree of its term of highest degree. For example,
the degree of the polynomial 4  x 3 + 5x 2  x 6 is 6.
The leading term of a polynomial is the term of highest degree. Its coefficient is called the leading coefficient. For example,
the leading term of 9x 2  5x 3 + x  10 is  5x 3 and
the leading coefficient is 5.
325
EXAMPLE 1 Identify the terms, the degree of each term, and the degree of
the polynomial. Then identify the leading term, the leading coefficient, and
the constant term.
2x 3 + 8x 2  17x  3
TERM
2x 3
8x 2
17x
3
DEGREE OF TERM
DEGREE OF POLYNOMIAL
2x 3
LEADING TERM
LEADING COEFFICIENT
CONSTANT TERM
3
EXAMPLE 2 Identify the terms, the degree of each term, and the degree of
the polynomial. Then identify the leading term, the leading coefficient, and
the constant term.
6x 2 + 8x 2y 3  17xy  24xy 2z 4 + 2y + 3
5x 3y  4xy 2  2x 3 + xy  y  5.
3. Identify the terms, the degree of
each term, and the degree of the
polynomial. Then identify the
leading term, the leading coefficient, and the constant term.
TERM
DEGREE OF TERM
6x 2
8x 2y 3
17xy
 24xy 2z 4
2y
DEGREE OF POLYNOMIAL
 24xy 2z 4
a) 6x 2  5x 3 + 2x  7
LEADING TERM
b) 2y  4  5x + 9x 2y 3z 2 +
5xy 2
LEADING COEFFICIENT
 24
3
CONSTANT TERM
Do Exercises 13.
a) 3x 2  2
b) 5x 3 + 9x  3
c)
4x 2
d)  7y
TYPE
e)  3
f) 8x 3  2x 2
g)
 4y 2
 5  5y
h) 5  3x
Identify the monomials, the
binomials, and the trinomials.
DEFINITION:
POLYNOMIAL OF
EXAMPLES
7a 2b 3,
Monomial
One term
Binomial
Two terms
2x + 7,
Trinomial
Three terms
x 2  7x + 12,
4,
 3p,
a 2  3b,
0,
xyz
5x 3 + 8x
4a 2 + 2ab + b 2
Do Exercise 4.
Answers
1.  92x 5,  8x 4, x 2, 5;  92x 5
2. 5,  4,  2, 1, 1,  5; 5
3. (a) 6x 2, 5x 3,
2x,  7; 2, 3, 1, 0; 3;  5x 3 ; 5;  7;
(b) 2y, 4, 5x, 9x 2y 3z 2, 5xy 2 ; 1, 0, 1, 7, 3; 7;
9x 2y 3z 2 ; 9; 4
4. Monomials: (c), (d), (e);
binomials: (a), (f), (h); trinomials: (b), (g)
326
CHAPTER 4
EXAMPLE 3
Descending order : x 2  7x + 12
Ascending order: 12  7x + x 2
EXAMPLE 4 Consider x 4 + 2  5x 2 + 3x 3y + 7xy 2. Arrange in descending powers of x and then in ascending powers of x.
Descending powers of x :
x 4 + 3x 3y  5x 2 + 7xy 2 + 2
Ascending powers of x :
2 + 7xy 2  5x 2 + 3x 3y + x 4
Do Exercises 5 and 6.
EXAMPLE 5
P122 =
P1102 =
 22
+ 4122  1 =  4 + 8  1 = 3;
 102
+ 41102  1 =  100 + 40  1 =  61 ;
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
Answers
5. (a) 5 + 10x  6x 2 + 7x 3  x 4 ;
(b) x 4 + 7x 3  6x 2 + 10x + 5
6. (a)  5 + x 3 + 5x 4y  3y 2 + 3x 2y 3 ;
(b) 3x 2y 3  3y 2 + 5x 4y + x 3  5
7. 5; 13; 13
9 10 11 12 t
327
We carry out
the calculation
using the rules
for order of
operations.
C(t)
12
11
10
9
8
6.5
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
1
9 10 11 12 t
Do Exercise 8.
c Adding Polynomials
When two terms have the same variable(s) raised to the same power(s), they
are called like terms, or similar terms, and they can be collected, or combined, using the distributive laws, adding or subtracting the coefficients as
follows.
10.
2x 3y
 4y
8. 9x 3 + 5x  4x 2  2x 3 + 5x 2 = 7x 3 + x 2 + 5x
9. 3y  4x + 6xy 2  2xy 2
3xy 3
5x 2
9. 3x 2y + 5xy 2  3x 2y  xy 2 = 4xy 2
5xy 3
+
+
 8x +
15  3x 2y  6x 2y + 11x  8
Answers
8. (a) C132 = 4.326 mcg>mL;
(b) C192 L 2 mcg>mL
9. 3y  4x + 4xy 2
10. 8xy 3 + 2x 3y + 3x + 7  9x 2y
328
CHAPTER 4
13x 3 + 2x  42 + 14x 3 + 3x 2 + 22 = x 3 + 3x 2 + 2x  2
Add.
11. 13x 3 + 4x 2  7x  22 +
1 7x 3  2x 2 + 3x + 42
12. 17y 5  52 + 13y 5  4y 2 + 102
13. 15p 2q 4  2p 2q 2  3q2 +
1 6p 2q 2 + 3q + 52
d Subtracting Polynomials
If the sum of two polynomials is 0, they are called opposites, or additive
inverses, of each other. For example,
13x 2  5x + 22 + 13x 2 + 5x  22 = 0,
so the opposite of 3x 2  5x + 2 is  3x 2 + 5x  2. We can say the same thing
using algebraic symbolism, as follows:
The opposite of
13x 2  5x + 22
 17xy 2  6xy  4y + 32
Second expression:
 7xy 2 + 6xy + 4y  3
1
x  10
4
15. 8xy 2  4x 3y 2  9x 
16.  9y 5  8y 4 +
Do Exercises 1416.
1
5
1 3
y  y2 +
2
y  1
15x 2
+ 42 +
3 12x 2
+ 3x  124
= 1 5x 2 + 42 + 1 2x 2  3x + 12
=  7x 2  3x + 5.
Answers
Adding the opposite
 2x 2  3x + 1 is equivalent to
12x 2 + 3x  12.
Adding
11. 4x 3 + 2x 2  4x + 2
12. 10y 5  4y 2 + 5
13. 5p 2q 4  8p 2q 2 + 5
14.  14x 3  5x 2 + 14 x  102;
4x 3 + 5x 2  14 x + 10
15.  18xy 2  4x 3y 2  9x  15 2;
 8xy 2 + 4x 3y 2 + 9x + 15
16. 1 9y 5  8y 4 + 12 y 3  y 2 + y  12;
9y 5 + 8y 4  12 y 3 + y 2  y + 1
329
With practice, you may find that you can skip some steps, by mentally
taking the opposite of each term and then combining like terms. Eventually,
all you will write is the answer.
Subtract.
17.
16x 2
+ 42 
13x 2
1 5x 2 + 42  12x 2 + 3x  12
 12
 7x 2
 3x + 5
 5x 2  2x 2 =  5x 2 + 1 2x 22 =  7x 2,
0x  3x = 0x + 1  3x2 =  3x,
18. 19y 3  2y  42  1 5y 3  82
19. 1  3p 2 + 5p  42 1  4p 2 + 11p  22
Think:
4  1 12 = 4 + 1 = 5.
Do Exercises 1719.
EXAMPLE 15 Subtract:
Subtract.
20. 12y 5  y 4 + 3y 3  y 2  y  72 1  y 5 + 2y 4  2y 3 + y 2  y  42
21. 14p 4q  5p 3q 2 + p 2q 3 + 2q 42 1 5p 4q + 5p 3q 2  3p 2q 3  7q 42
1
3
22. a y 3  y 2 + 0.3b 2
2
1
4
1
a y 3 + y 2  y + 0.2b
2
2
3
Write: (Subtract)
4x 2y
 14x 2y
6x 3y 2
x 2y 2
+
+ x 3y 2 + 3x 2y 3  8x 2y 22
+ x 2y 2
4x 2y  6x 3y 2
2
3
2
2
3
4x y  x y  3x y + 8x 2y 2
7x 3y 2  3x 2y 3 + 9x 2y 2
Do Exercises 2022.
Calculator Corner
Checking Addition and Subtraction of Polynomials A table set in AUTO mode can
be used to perform a partial check that polynomials in a single variable have been added or subtracted correctly. To
check Example 10, we enter y1 = 13x 3 + 2x  42 + 14x 3 + 3x 2 + 22 and y2 = x 3 + 3x 2 + 2x  2.
If the addition has been done correctly, the values of y1 and y2 will be the same regardless of the table settings used.
X
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
X2
Y1
2
2
2
4
22
58
118
Y2
2
2
2
4
22
58
118
Graphs can also be used to check addition and subtraction. See the Calculator Corner on p. 339 for the procedure. Keep in mind that
these procedures provide only a partial check since we can neither view all possible values of x in a table nor see the entire graph.
Exercises: Use a table to determine whether the sum or difference is correct.
1. 1x 3  2x 2 + 3x  72 + 13x 2  4x + 52 = x 3 + x 2  x  2
2. 12x 2 + 3x  62 + 15x 2  7x + 42 = 7x 2 + 4x  2
3. 14x 3 + 3x 2 + 22 + 13x 3 + 2x  42 = x 3 + 3x 2 + 2x  2
4. 17x 5 + 2x 4  5x2  1 x 5  2x 4 + 32 = 8x 5 + 4x 4  5x  3
5. 1 2x 3 + 3x 2  4x + 52  13x 2 + 2x  82 =  2x 3  6x  3
6. 13x 4  2x 2  12  12x 4  3x 2  42 = x 4 + x 2  5
Answers
17.
19.
20.
21.
22.
3x 2 + 5
18. 14y 3  2y + 4
p 2  6p  2
3y 5  3y 4 + 5y 3  2y 2  3
9p 4q  10p 3q 2 + 4p 2q 3 + 9q 4
y 3  y 2 + 43 y + 0.1
330
CHAPTER 4
4.1
a
Exercise Set
Identify the terms, the degree of each term, and the degree of the polynomial. Then identify the leading term, the
leading coefficient, and the constant term.
1.  9x 4  x 3 + 7x 2 + 6x  8
2. y 3  5y 2 + y + 1
3. t 3 + 4t 7 + s 2t 4  2
4. a 2 + 9b 5  a 4b 3  11
5. u7 + 8u2v 6 + 3uv + 4u  1
6. 2p 6 + 5p 4w 4  13p 3w + 7p 2  10
8. 5  8y + 6y 2 + 11y 3  18y 4
9. x 2y 2 + x 3y  xy 3 + 1
10. x 3y  x 2y 2 + xy 3 + 6
11. 2by  9b 5y 5  8b 2y 3
12. dy 6  2d 7y 2 + 3cy 5  7y  2d
13. 12x + 5 + 8x 5  4x 3
14. 3x 2 + 8x + 2
15.  9x 3y + 3xy 3 + x 2y 2 + 2x 4
16. 5x 2y 2  9xy + 8x 3y 2  5x 4
Evaluate each polynomial function for the given values of the variable.
24. Golf Ball Stacks. Each stack of golf balls pictured below
is formed by square layers of golf balls. The number N of
balls in the stack is given by the polynomial function
N1x2 = 13 x 3 + 12 x 2 + 16 x,
s1t2 = 16t 2.
a) A paintbrush falls from a scaffold and takes 3 sec to
hit the ground. How high is the scaffold?
b) A stone is dropped from a cliff and takes 8 sec to hit
the ground. How high is the cliff?
s(t) = 16t 2
331
 0.0560x 4
+ 7.9980x 3  436.1840x 2
+ 11,627.8376x  90,625.0001,
0 t 6,
13 x 65,
400
360
320
$50,000
280
240
200
160
120
80
40,000
30,000
20,000
10,000
40
2
Total Profit.
20
40
60
80
Age
SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau;
The Conference Board: Simmons Bureau of Labor Statistics
Total profit P is defined as total revenue R minus total cost C, and is given by the function
332
CHAPTER 4
Magic Number. In a recent season, the Arizona Diamondbacks were leading the San Francisco Giants for the Western Division
championship of the National League. In the table below, the number in parentheses, 18, was the magic number. It means that
any combination of Diamondbacks wins and Giants losses that totals 18 would ensure the championship for the
Diamondbacks. The magic number M is given by the polynomial
M = G  W1  L2 + 1,
where W1 is the number of wins for the firstplace team, L2 is the number of losses for the secondplace team, and G is the total
number of games in the season, which is 162 in the major leagues. When the magic number reaches 1, a tie for the
championship is clinched. When the magic number reaches 0, the championship is clinched. For the situation shown below,
G = 162, W1 = 81, and L2 = 64. Then the magic number is
M = G  W1  L2 + 1
= 162  81  64 + 1
WEST
Pct. GB
= 18.
Arizona (18)
81 62 .566
San Francisco
Los Angeles
San Diego
Colorado
80
78
70
62
64
65
73
80
.556 11 2
.545 3
.490 11
.437 18 1 2
PCT.
GB
CENTRAL
PCT.
GB
Atlanta (?)
78
64
.549
Houston (?)
84
59
.587
Philadelphia
75
68
.524
312
St. Louis
78
64
.549
512
New York
71
73
.493
Chicago
78
65
.545
Florida
66
77
.462
1212
Milwaukee
63
80
.441
21
Montreal
61
82
.427
1712
Cincinnati
58
86
.403
26 12
Pittsburgh
55
88
.385
29
EAST
EAST
PCT.
GB
86
57
.601
Boston
72
69
.511
Toronto
70
73
Baltimore
55
Tampa Bay
50
CENTRAL
PCT.
GB
Cleveland (?)
82
62
.569
13
Minnesota
76
68
.528
.490
16
Chicago
74
70
.514
87
.387
30 12
Detroit
57
86
.399
2412
93
.350
36
Kansas City
57
86
.399
2412
35. 6x 2  7x 2 + 3x 2
36. 2y 2  7y 2 + 5y 2
37. 7x  2y  4x + 6y
38. a  8b  5a + 7b
39. 3a + 9  2 + 8a  4a + 7
40. 13x + 14  6  7x + 3x + 5
41. 3a 2b + 4b 2  9a 2b  6b 2
42. 5x 2y 2 + 4x 3  8x 2y 2  12x 3
333
Add.
51. 1a 2  3b 2 + 4c 22 + 1 5a 2 + 2b 2  c 22
52. 1x 2  5y 2  9z 22 + 1 6x 2 + 9y 2  2z 22
A 23 xy + 56 xy 2 + 5.1x 2y B + A  45 xy + 34 xy 2  3.4x 2y B
60.
A 18 xy  35 x 3y 2 + 4.3y 3 B + A  13 xy  34 x 3y 2  2.9y 3 B
61. 5x 3  7x 2 + 3x  6
Subtract.
67. 1 3x 2 + 2x + 92  1x 2 + 5x  42
68. 1  9y 2 + 4y + 82  14y 2 + 2y  32
334
CHAPTER 4
59.
A 58 x 4  14 x 2  12 B  A  38 x 4 + 34 x 2 + 12 B
A 56 y 4  12 y 2  7.8y + 13 B  A  38 y 4 + 34 y 2 + 3.4y  15 B
Skill Maintenance
Graph.
81. f 1x2 = 23 x  1
84. f 1x2 = 1  x 2
4
x  3
82. g1x2 = x  1
83. g1x2 =
86.  101x + 2y  72
91. y = 0.4x  3
92. y =  23 x  4
Multiply. [R.5d]
85. 31y  22
4
3x
+ 2
[2.5b]
90. y =  0.4x + 1
Synthesis
93. Triangular Layers. The number of spheres in a
triangular pyramid with x triangular layers is given by
the function
N1x2 = 16 x 3 + 12 x 2 + 13 x.
The volume of a sphere of radius r is given by the
function
V1r2 = 43 pr 3,
x2
97.
98.
10
10
10
335
4.2
Multiplication of Polynomials
OBJECTIVES
2.
Adding exponents
80x 7
18x 4y 72 15x 3y 22
= 1 8 # 52 1x 4 # x 32 1y 7 # y 22
=  40x 4 + 3y 7 + 2
=
Adding exponents
 40x 7y 9
1. 31x  y2
1
2.  16a  10b2
2
2x # 13x  52 = 2x # 3x  2x # 5
= 6x 2  10x
1. 19y 22 12y2
2.
3.
1  5xy 7z 42 118x 3y 2z 82
3a 2b # 1a 2  b 22 = 3a 2b # a 2  3a 2b # b 2
=
3a 4b
3a 2b 3
Do Exercises 4 and 5.
Multiplying Binomials
Multiply.
4. 1  3y2 12y + 62
Next, we multiply two binomials. To do so, we use the distributive law twice,
first considering one of the binomials as a single expression and multiplying
it by each term of the other binomial.
5. 12xy2 14y 2  52
Answers
Skill to Review:
1. 3x  3y
2.  3a + 5b
Margin Exercises:
1.  18y 3
2. 24x 8y 3
3.  90x 4y 9z 12
4. 6y 2  18y
5. 8xy 3  10xy
336
Multiplying monomials
Multiply.
CHAPTER 4
3y 4
2y 2
 8
Using the
distributive
law
Using the
distributive
law
Removing
parentheses
Do Exercises 6 and 7.
Multiply.
6. 15x 2  42 1x + 32
7. 12y + 32 13y  42
= 1 p + 2 2 1p 42  1 p + 2 2 12p 32 + 1 p + 2 2 132
= p 5  4p 3 + 3p + 6.
Multiply.
Do Exercises 8 and 9.
8. 1p  32 1p 3 + 4p 2  52
9. 12x 3 + 4x  52 1x  42
From the preceding examples, we can see how to multiply any two
polynomials.
Multiplying by 6
Multiplying by 3x
Multiplying by 2x 2
Answers
6.
7.
8.
9.
5x 3 + 15x 2  4x  12
6y 2 + y  12
p 4 + p 3  12p 2  5p + 15
2x 4  8x 3 + 4x 2  21x + 20
337
1 4x 3
5x 3
+
 2x + 12 *
1 2x 2  3x + 62
30x 3
15x 4
11. 1 4x 3  2x + 12 *
1 2x 2  3x + 62
12.
+ x  4
2x 2 + 3x + 6
5x 2
 10x 5
Multiplying by 6
Multiplying by 3x
Multiplying by 2x 2
b 22
1a 2
+ 6x  24
+ 3x 2  12x
 2x 3 + 8x 2
 2ab +
*
1a 3 + 3ab  b 22
Do Exercises 1012.
7x
28
x7
x
x2
4x
We now consider some special products. There are rules for faster multiplication in certain situations.
Lets find a faster specialproduct rule for the product of two binomials.
Consider 1x + 72 1x + 42. We multiply each term of 1x + 72 by each term of
1x + 42:
1x + 72 1x + 42 = x # x + x # 4 + 7 # x + 7 # 4.
1x + 72 1x + 42 = x # x +
4x
7x
Last
terms
x4
Inside
terms
First Outside
terms terms
This special method of multiplying is called the FOIL method. Keep in mind
that this method is based on the distributive law.
Answers
10. 8x 5 + 2x 4  35x 3 + 34x 2  15x + 6
11. 8x 5 + 12x 4  20x 3 + 4x 2  15x + 6
12. a 5  2a 4b + 3a 3b + a 3b 2  7a 2b 2 + 5ab 3  b 4
338
CHAPTER 4
L
F
1A + B2 1C + D2
I
O
EXAMPLES Multiply.
9. 1x + 52 1x  82 =
x2
 8x + 5x  40
= x 2  3x  40
We write the result in descending order since the original binomials are
in descending order.
10. 13xy +
2x2 1x 2
2xy 22
3x 3y
6x 2y 3
2x 3
L
+ 4x 2y 2
Multiply.
13. 1y  42 1y + 102
Do Exercises 1315.
Calculator Corner
Checking Multiplication of Polynomials A partial check of multiplication of polynomials can be performed
graphically. Consider the product 1x + 32 1x  22 = x2 + x  6. We will use two graph styles to determine whether this product is
correct. First, we press G to determine if SEQUENTIAL mode is selected. If it is not, we position the blinking cursor over SEQUENTIAL
and then press [. Next, on the Y= screen, we enter y1 = 1x + 32 1x  22 and y2 = x 2 + x  6. We will select the linegraph
style for y1 and the path style for y2. To select these graph styles, we use f to position the cursor over the icon to the left of the equation
and press [ repeatedly until the desired style of icon appears, as shown below.
y1 (x 3)(x 2),
y2 x 2 x 6
10
NORMAL
SCI ENG
z04018g
FLOAT 0123456789
RADIAN DEGREE
FUNC PAR POL SEQ
CONNECTED DOT
SEQUENTIAL SIMUL
REAL abi re^i
FULL HORIZ GT
Plot1
Plot2
Plot3
z04019g
\Y1 (X3)(X2)
Y2 X2X6
\Y3
\Y4
\Y5
\Y6
\Y7
z04020g
10
10
10
The graphing calculator will graph y1 first as a solid curve. Then it will graph y2 as the circular cursor traces the leading edge of the
graph, allowing us to determine visually whether the graphs coincide. In this case, the graphs appear to coincide, so the multiplication is
probably correct.
A table can also be used to perform a partial check of a product. See the Calculator Corner on p. 330 for the procedure. Remember
that these procedures provide only a partial check since we can neither see the entire graph nor view all possible values of x in a table.
Exercises: Determine graphically whether each product is correct.
1. 1x + 42 1x + 32 = x 2 + 7x + 12
2. 13x + 22 1x  12 = 3x 2 + x  2
5. 1x  12 1x  12 =
6. 1x  22 1x + 22 = x 2  4
3. 14x  12 1x  52 = 4x 2  21x + 5
x2
+ 1
Answers
13. y 2 + 6y  40
14. 2p 2 + 7pq  15q 2
15. x 3y 3 + x 2y 3 + 2x 2y 2 + 2xy 2
339
c Squares of Binomials
We can use the FOIL method to develop special products for the square of a
binomial:
1A + B22 = 1A + B2 1A + B2
A visualization of
(A B)2 using areas
A
= A2 + AB + AB + B2
AB
1A  B22 = 1A  B2 1A  B2
A2
+ 2AB +
= A2  AB  AB + B2
B2 ;
= A2  2AB + B2.
A2
AB A
SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL
AB
B2 B
The square of a binomial is the square of the first term, plus twice the
product of the two terms, plus the square of the last term.
1A + B22 = A2 + 2AB + B2 ;
1A  B22 = A2  2AB + B2
AB
Caution!
In general,
1AB22 = A2B 2, but 1A + B22 Z A2 + B 2.
EXAMPLES Multiply.
1A  B22 = A2  2 A B + B2
13. 1y  522 = y 2  21y2 152 + 52
= y 2  10y + 25
1A + B22 =
+ 2 A
+ B2
Multiply.
= 4x 2 + 12xy + 9y 2
16. 1a  b22
15. 13x 2 + 5xy 222 = 13x 222 + 213x 22 15xy 22 + 15xy 222
17. 1x + 822
= 9x 4 + 30x 3y 2 + 25x 2y 4
A2
16.
1
nb
4
A 12 a 2  b 3 B 2 = A 12 a 2 B 2  2 A 12 a 2 B 1b 32 + 1b 322
= 14 a 4  a 2b 3 + b 6
Do Exercises 1619.
1A + B2 1A  B2 = A2  AB + AB  B2 = A2  B2.
Answers
16. a 2  2ab + b 2
18. 9x 2  42x + 49
340
17. x 2 + 16x + 64
19. m6 + 12 m 3n +
CHAPTER 4
1 2
16 n
1A + B2 1A  B2 = A2  B2
y2
52
Multiply.
y2
20. 1x + 82 1x  82
 25
2
3n
 m2 B
2
3n
+ m2 B =
10.2t22
11.4m22
B  1m222 =
2
2
3n
4 2
9n
0.04t 2
1.96m2
 m4
Do Exercises 2023.
3 2
3
q b a 3w + q 2 b
5
5
EXAMPLES Multiply.
21. 15y + 4 + 3x2 15y + 4  3x2 = 15y + 422  13x22
= 25y 2 + 40y + 16  9x 2
Here we treat the binomial 5y + 4 as the first expression, A,
and 3x as the second, B.
Multiply.
= 16y 2  9x 2y 4
Try to multiply polynomials mentally, even when several types are mixed.
First, check to see what types of polynomials are to be multiplied. Then use
the quickest method. Sometimes we might use more than one method.
Remember that FOIL always works for multiplying binomials!
= 1s 2  25t 22 1s 2  25t 22
Using 1A  B2 1A + B2 = A2  B 2
= 1s 2  25t 222
=
s4
50s 2t 2
625t 4
Answers
20. x 2  64
21. 16y 2  49
23. 9w 2 
9 4
q
25
341
Do Exercise 26.
26. Multiply:
STUDY TIPS
and
g1x2 = x 2  4,
then for any given input x, the outputs f 1x2 and g 1x2 are identical. Thus
the graphs of these functions are identical and we say that f and g represent the same function. Functions like these are graphed in detail in
Chapter 7.
x
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
f 1x2
5
0
3
4
3
0
5
g1x2
5
0
3
4
3
0
5
y
(3, 5)
(3, 5)
4
3
f (x) (x 2)(x 2)
2
1
(2, 0)
5 4 3
1
1
2
(1, 3)
(www.interactmath.com)
3
5
(2, 0)
1
g (x) x 2 4
(1, 3)
(0, 4)
MathXL Tutorials on CD
Our work with multiplying can be used when manipulating functions.
EXAMPLE 24
f 1a + h2  f 1a2.
= a 2 + 6a + 9  4a  12 + 5 = a 2 + 2a + 2.
= a 2 + 2ah + h 2  4a  4h + 5  a 2 + 4a  5
= 2ah + h 2  4h.
Do Exercise 27.
Answers
26. 81x 4  16y 4
27. f 1a + 12 = a 2 + 4a  4;
f 1a + h2  f 1a2 = 2ah + h 2 + 2h
342
CHAPTER 4
Exercise Set
4.2
a
Multiply.
1. 8y 2 # 3y
2.  5x 2 # 6xy
4. 7ab 214a 2b 22
5. 15x 5y 42 1 2xy 32
7. 2z17  x2
8. 4a1a 2  3a2
9. 6ab1a + b2
12. a 212a 2  5a 32
16. 1y + 42 1y  42
17. 1x  y2 1x  y2
19. 1x 3 + 82 1x 3  52
21. 1a 2  2b 22 1a 2  3b 22
23. 1x  42 1x 2 + 4x + 162
24. 1y + 32 1y 2  3y + 92
25. 1x + y2 1x 2  xy + y 22
26. 1a  b2 1a 2 + ab + b 22
27. 1a 2 + a  12 1a 2 + 4a  52
28. 1x 2  2x + 12 1x 2 + x + 22
31. A x +
32. A b 
33.
34.
1
4
B A x + 14 B
A 23 a + 16 b B A 13 a  56 b B
1
3
B A b  13 B
A 12 x  23 B A 14 x + 13 B
343
Multiply.
37. 1a + 82 1a + 52
38. 1x + 22 1x + 32
39. 1y + 72 1y  42
40. 1y  22 1y + 32
41. A 3a +
42. A 2x 
1 2
3
43. 1x  2y22
45. A b 
B A b  12 B
46. A x 
47. 12x + 92 1x + 22
53. 1x 3 + 222
54. 1y 4  722
57. 1a 3b 2 + 122
58. 1x 2y  xy 322
1
2
B A x  14 B
1 2
2
1
3
i 2
b .
2
344
CHAPTER 4
Multiply.
63. 1d + 82 1d  82
64. 1y  32 1y + 32
75.
A 12 p  23 q B A 12 p + 23 q B
76.
A 35 ab + 4c B A 35 ab  4c B
77. 1x + 12 1x  12 1x 2 + 12
78. 1y  22 1y + 22 1y 2 + 42
79. 1a  b2 1a + b2 1a 2  b 22
81. 1a + b + 12 1a + b  12
82. 1m + n + 22 1m + n  22
345
For each of the following functions, find f 1t  12, f 1p + 12, f 1a + h2  f 1a2, f 1t  22 + c, and f 1a2 + 5.
85. f 1x2 = 5x + x 2
86. f 1x2 = 4x + 2x 2
87. f 1x2 = 3x 2  7x + 8
88. f 1x2 = 3x 2  4x + 7
89. f 1x2 = 5x  x 2
90. f 1x2 = 4x  2x 2
91. f 1x2 = 4 + 3x  x 2
92. f 1x2 = 2  4x  3x 2
Skill Maintenance
Solve.
[3.4b]
93. Auto Travel. Rachel leaves on a business trip, forgetting her laptop computer. Her sister discovers Rachels
laptop 2 hr later, and knowing that Rachel needs it for
her sales presentation and that Rachel normally travels
at a speed of 55 mph, she decides to follow her at a
speed of 75 mph. After how long will Rachels sister
catch up with her?
Solve.
[3.2a], [3.3a]
95. 5x + 9y = 2,
4x  9y = 10
96. x + 4y = 13,
5x  7y =  16
97. 2x  3y = 1,
4x  6y = 2
98. 9x  8y =  2,
3x + 2y = 3
Synthesis
Use the TABLE and GRAPH features of a graphing
calculator to check your answers to Exercises 28, 40,
and 77.
100.
122 = x 2  1
22 1x + 32 = x 2 + x  6
123 = x 3  3x 2 + 3x  1
124 = x 4 + 1
5 2
11
107. 1x a + y b2 1x a  y b2 1x 2a + y 2b2
109. 1x  12 1x 2 + x + 12 1x 3 + 12
346
CHAPTER 4
1
7
B A x 2 + 17 x +
110. 1x a  b2a + b
1
49
99.
4.3
Introduction to Factoring
OBJECTIVES
a
FACTOR
To factor a polynomial is to express it as a product.
A factor of a polynomial P is a polynomial that can be used to express
P as a product.
SKILL TO REVIEW
Objective R.5d: Use the distributive
laws to find equivalent expressions
by factoring.
Factor.
1. 2y  2
2. 15y  10x + 25
FACTORIZATION
A factorization of a polynomial P is an expression that names P as a
product of factors.
Caution!
1. Consider
Be careful not to confuse terms with factors! The terms of x 2  9 are x 2 and
 9. Terms are used to form sums. Factors of x 2  9 are x  3 and x + 3.
Factors are used to form products.
Do Margin Exercise 1.
x 2  4x  5 = 1x  52 1x + 12.
a) What are the factors of
x 2  4x  5?
b) What are the terms of
x 2  4x  5?
Factor
5x1x 2
5x 3  15x 2 + 5x
 3x + 12
= 5x # x 2  5x # 3x + 5x # 1
= 5x # x 2  5x # 3x + 5x # 1
= 5x 3  15x 2 + 5x
= 5x1x 2  3x + 12
EXAMPLE 1 Factor: 4y 2  8.
4y 2  8 = 4 # y 2  4 # 2
=
41y 2
 22
Answers
Skill to Review:
1. 21y  12
2. 513y  2x + 52
Margin Exercise:
1. (a) x  5 and x + 1; (b) x 2,  4x, and  5
347
EXAMPLES Factor.
2. 5x 4  20x 3 = 5x 3 # x  5x 3 # 4
= 5x 31x  42
3.
12x 2y
20x 3y
4x 2y13
 5x2
Factor.
2. 3x 2  6
3. 4x 5  8x 3
4. 9y 4  15y 3 + 3y 2
5. 6x 2y  21x 3y 2 + 3x 2y 3
Do Exercises 25.
When the leading coefficient is a negative number, we generally factor
out the negative coefficient.
6.  8x + 32
6.  2x 2 + 6x  10 =  21x 2  3x + 52
7. 3x 2  15x + 9
Do Exercises 6 and 7.
Answers
2.
4.
5.
7.
31x 2  22
3. 4x 31x 2  22
3y 213y 2  5y + 12
3x 2y12  7xy + y 22
6. 81x  42
 31x 2 + 5x  32
348
CHAPTER 4
h
80
70
60
50
48
40
30
Height 48 ft
after 1 sec
20
10
140
Seconds
Do Exercise 8.
120
100
b Factoring by Grouping
80
60
40
20
Seconds
1a  b2 1x + 52 + 1a  b2 1x  y 22 = 1a  b231x + 52 + 1x  y 224
= 1a  b2 12x + 5  y 22
Factor.
9. 1p + q2 1x + 22 +
1p + q2 1x + y2
10. 1y + 32 1y  212 +
1y + 32 1y + 102
y 21y
= 1y +
+ 32 + 41y + 32
32 1y 2
+ 42
Grouping
Factoring each binomial
Factoring out the common
factor y + 3
EXAMPLE 10 Factor: 3x 3  6x 2  x + 2.
First, we consider the first two terms and factor out the greatest common factor:
3x 3  6x 2 = 3x 21x  22.
Next, we look at the third and fourth terms to see if we can factor them in
order to have x  2 as a factor. We see that if we factor out 1, we get x  2:
 x + 2 =  1 # 1x  22.
Answers
8. (a) h1t2 =  16t1t  62; (b) h122 = 128
in each
9. 1p + q2 12x + y + 22
10. 1y + 32 12y  112
349
= 3x 21x  22  11x  22
= 1x 
22 13x2
 12.
Check :  11x  22 =  x + 2
Factoring out the common
factor x  2
4x 21x
+ 52  31x + 52
= 1x + 52 14x 2  32
Rearranging
Check :
31x + 52 =  3x  15
Factoring out x + 5
Calculator Corner
Checking Factorizations A partial check of a factorization can be performed using a table or a graph. To check the factorization 3x 3  6x 2  x + 2 = 1x  22 13x 2  12, for example, we enter y1 = 3x 3  6x 2  x + 2 and y2 = 1x  22 13x 2  12 on
the equationeditor screen (see p. 83). Then we set up a table in AUTO mode (see p. 164). If the factorization is correct, the values of y1 and
y2 will be the same regardless of the table settings used. We can also graph y1 = 3x 3  6x 2  x + 2 and y2 = 1x  22 13x 2  12. If
the graphs appear to coincide, the factorization is probably correct. Keep in mind that these procedures provide only a partial check since
we cannot view all possible values of x in a table nor can we see the entire graph.
y1 3x 3 6x 2 x 2,
y2 (x 2)(3x 2 1)
10
X
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
X2
Y1
44
6
2
2
0
26
94
Y2
44
6
2
2
0
26
94
5
10
2. 3x 2  11x  20 = 13x + 42 1x  52
5. 6x 2 + 13x + 6 = 16x + 12 1x + 62
3. 2x 2 + 5x  12 = 12x + 32 1x  42
7. x 2 + 16 = 1x  42 1x  42
Answers
11. 15y + 22 1y 2  22
350
CHAPTER 4
Exercise Set
4.3
a
Factor.
1. 6a 2 + 3a
2. 4x 2 + 2x
3. x 3 + 9x 2
4. y 3 + 8y 2
5. 8x 2  4x 4
6. 6x 2 + 3x 4
7. 4x 2y  12xy 2
8. 5x 2y 3 + 15x 3y 2
9. 3y 2  3y  9
10. 5x 2  5x + 15
20.  3t + 18
21. 6a  84
22. 8t + 40
23.  2x 2 + 2x  24
24.  2x 2 + 16x  20
26.  7x 2  56y
27.  a 4 + 2a 3  13a 2  1
28. m3  m2 + m  2
pr 2h + 43 pr 3.
351
0.4x 2 dollars.
Factor.
39. 1x  22 1x + 52 + 1x  22 1x + 82
40. 1m  42 1m + 32 + 1m  42 1m  32
41. y 8  7y 7 + y  7
42. b 5  3b 4 + b  3
43. ac + ad + bc + bd
44. xy + xz + wy + wz
45. b 3  b 2 + 2b  2
46. y 3  y 2 + 3y  3
47. y 3 + 8y 2  5y  40
48. t 3 + 6t 2  2t  12
51. a 4  a 3 + a 2 + a
52. p 6 + p 5  p 3 + p 2
53. 2y 4 + 6y 2  5y 2  15
54. 2xy + x 2y  6  3x
352
CHAPTER 4
Skill Maintenance
In each of Exercises 5562, fill in the blank with the correct term from the given list. Some of the choices may not be used.
55. The equation y = mx + b is called the
of the line with slope m and yintercept 10, b2.
equation
[2.4b]
pointslope
slopeintercept
complementary
supplementary
consistent
inconsistent
equivalent
ascending
58. A(n)
[3.1a]
descending
up
59. The equation y  y1 = m1x  x12, where m is the slope of the line
and 1x1, y12 is a point on the line, is called the
equation. [2.6b]
down
constant
increasing
decreasing
60.
[3.2b]
61. When the terms of a polynomial are written such that the
exponents increase from left to right, we say the polynomial is
written in
order. [4.1a]
62. The function h1x2 = 5 is an example of a(n)
function. [2.2b]
Synthesis
Complete each of the following.
Factor.
65. rx 2  rx + 5r + sx 2  sx + 5s
67. a 4x 4 + a 4x 2 + 5a 4 + a 2x 4 + a 2x 2 + 5a 2 + 5x 4 + 5x 2 + 25
73. 3a n + 1 + 6a n  15a n + 2
74. 4x a + b + 7x a  b
75. 7y 2a + b  5y a + b + 3y a + 2b
353
Factoring Trinomials:
x2 bx c
4.4
OBJECTIVE
a
a Factoring Trinomials: x2 bx c
We now consider factoring trinomials of the type x 2 + bx + c. We use a refined
trialanderror process that is based on the FOIL method.
4. 9 + 1 92
1x + 32 1x + 52 =
F
x2
+ 5x + 3x + 15
2. 18 + 132
1. 5 + 11
I
L
= x2
+ 8x
+ 15.
The product is a trinomial. In this example, the leading term has a coefficient
of 1. The constant term is positive. To factor x 2 + 8x + 15, we think of FOIL
in reverse. We multiplied x times x to get the first term of the trinomial. Thus
the first term of each binomial factor is x. We want to find numbers p and q
such that
x 2 + 8x + 15 = 1x + p2 1x + q2.
To get the middle term and the last term of the trinomial, we look for two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is 8. Those numbers are 3 and 5.
Thus the factorization is
1x + 32 1x + 52, or 1x + 52 1x + 32
by the commutative law of multiplication. In general,
1x p2 1x q2 x 2 1p q2x pq.
EXAMPLE 1 Factor: x 2 + 9x + 8.
Think of FOIL in reverse. The first term of each factor is x. We are looking
for numbers p and q such that
x 2 + 9x + 8 = 1x + p2 1x + q2 = x 2 + 1p + q2x + pq.
We look for two numbers p and q whose product is 8 and whose sum is 9.
Since both 8 and 9 are positive, we need consider only positive factors.
Factor. Check by multiplying.
1. x 2 + 5x + 6
PAIRS OF FACTORS
SUMS OF FACTORS
2. y 2 + 7y + 10
2, 4
1, 8
6
9
Answers
Skill to Review:
1. 6
2. 15
3. 9
Margin Exercises:
1. 1x + 22 1x + 32
354
1x + 12 1x + 82 = x 2 + 9x + 8.
4. 0
2. 1y + 22 1y + 52
CHAPTER 4
SUMS OF FACTORS
 1,  20
 2,  10
 4,  5
 21
 12
9
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