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Laboratory Manual

PHYSICS
Class XI

FOREWORD
The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) is the apex
body concerning all aspects of refinement of School Education. It has recently
developed textual material in Physics for Higher Secondary stage which is based
on the National Curriculum Framework (NCF)2005. NCF recommends that
childrens experience in school education must be linked to the life outside school
so that learning experience is joyful and fills the gap between the experience at
home and in community. It recommends to diffuse the sharp boundaries between
different subjects and discourages rote learning. The recent development of syllabi
and textual material is an attempt to implement this basic idea. The present
Laboratory Manual will be complementary to the textbook of Physics for Class
XI. It is in continuation to the NCERTs efforts to improve upon comprehension
of concepts and practical skills among students. The purpose of this manual is
not only to convey the approach and philosophy of the practical course to students
and teachers but to provide them appropriate guidance for carrying out
experiments in the laboratory. The manual is supposed to encourage children to
reflect on their own learning and to pursue further activities and questions. Of
course, the success of this effort also depends on the initiatives to be taken by
the principals and teachers to encourage children to carry out experiments in
the laboratory and develop their thinking and nurture creativity.
The methods adopted for performing the practicals and their evaluation will
determine how effective this practical book will prove to make the childrens life
at school a happy experience, rather than a source of stress and boredom. The
practical book attempts to provide space to opportunities for contemplation and
wondering, discussion in small groups, and activities requiring hands-on
experience. It is hoped that the material provided in this manual will help students
in carrying out laboratory work effectively and will encourage teachers to
introduce some open-ended experiments at the school level.

P ROFESSOR YASH PAL


Chairperson
National Steering Committee

National Council of Educational


Research and Training

PREFACE
The development of the present laboratory manual is in continuation to the
NCERTs efforts to support comprehension of concepts of science and also
facilitate inculcation of process skills of science. This manual is complementary
to the Physics Textbook for Class XI published by NCER T in 2006 following the
guidelines enumerated in National Curriculum Framework (NCF)-2005. One of the
basic criteria for validating a science curriculum recommended in NCF2005, is
that it should engage the learner in acquiring the methods and processes that
lead to the generation and validation of scientific knowledge and nurture the
natural curiosity and creativity of the child in science. The broad objective of
this laboratory manual is to help the students in performing laboratory based
exercises in an appropriate manner so as to develop a spirit of enquiry in them.
It is envisaged that students would be given all possible opportunities to raise
questions and seek their answers from various sources.
The physics practical work in this manual has been presented under four
sections (i) experiments (ii) activities (iii) projects and (iv) demonstrations. A
write-up on major skills to be developed through practical work in physics has
been given in the beginning which includes discussion on objectives of practical
work, experimental errors, logarithm, plotting of graphs and general instructions
for recording experiments.
Experiments and activities prescribed in the NCERT syllabus (covering CBSE
syllabus also) of Class XI are discussed in detail. Guidelines for conducting
each experiment has been presented under the headings (i) apparatus and
material required (ii) principle (iii) procedure (iv) observations (v) calculations
(vi) result (vii) precautions (viii) sources of error. Some important experimental
aspects that may lead to better understanding of result are also highlighted in
the discussion. Some questions related to the concepts involved have been raised
so as to help the learners in self assessment. Additional experiments/activities
related to a given experiment are put forth under suggested additional
experiments/activities at the end.
A number of project ideas, including guidelines are suggested so as to cover all
types of topics that may interest young learners at higher secondary level.
A large number of demonstration experiments have also been suggested for the
teachers to help them in classroom transaction. Teachers should encourage
participation of the students in setting up and improvising apparatus, in
discussions and give them opportunity to analyse the experimental data to arrive
at conclusions.

Appendices have been included with a view to try some innovative experiments
using improvised apparatus. Data section at the end of the book enlists a number
of useful Tables of physical constants.
Each experiment, activity, project and demonstration suggested in this manual
have been tried out by the experts and teachers before incorporating them. We
sincerely hope that students and teachers will get motivated to perform these
experiments supporting various concepts of physics thereby enriching teaching
learning process and experiences.
It may be recalled that NCER T brought out laboratory manual in physics for
senior secondary classes earlier in 1989. The write-ups on activities, projects,
demonstrations and appendices included in physics manual published by
NCERT in 1989 have been extensively used in the development of the present
manual.
We are grateful to the teachers and subject experts who participated in the
workshops organised for the review and refinement of the manuscript of this
laboratory manual.
I acknowledge the valuable contributions of Prof. B.K. Sharma and other team
members who contributed and helped in finalising this manuscript. I also
acknowledge with thanks the dedicated efforts of Sri R. Joshi who looked after
the coordinatorship after superannuation of Professor B.K. Sharma in June,
2008.
We warmly welcome comments and suggestions from our valued readers for
further improvement of this manual.

HUKUM SINGH
Professor and Head
Department of Education in
Science and Mathematics

vi

DEVELOPMENT TEAM
MEMBERS
B.K. Sharma, Professor, DESM, NCERT, New Delhi
Gagan Gupta, Reader, DESM, NCER T, New Delhi
R. Joshi, Lecturer (S.G.), DESM, NCERT, New Delhi
S.K. Dash, Reader, DESM, NCERT, New Delhi
Shashi Prabha, Senior Lecturer, DESM, NCERT, New Delhi
V.P. Srivastava, Reader, DESM, NCERT, New Delhi

MEMBER-COORDINATORS
B.K. Sharma, Professor, DESM, NCERT, New Delhi
R. Joshi, Lecturer (S.G.), DESM, NCERT, New Delhi

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT)
acknowledges the valuable contributions of the individuals and the
organisations involved in the development of Laboratory Manual of Physics
for Class XI. The Council also acknowledges the valuable contributions of the
following academics for the reviewing, refining and editing the manuscript of
this manual : A.K. Das, PGT, St. Xaviers Senior Secondary School, Raj Niwas
Marg, Delhi; A.K. Ghatak, Professor (Retired), IIT, New Delhi; A.W. Joshi,
Hon. Visiting Scientist, NCRA, Pune; Anil Kumar, Principal, R.P.V.V., BT Block, Shalimar Bagh, New Delhi; Anuradha Mathur, PGT, Modern School
Vasant Vihar, New Delhi; Bharthi Kukkal, PGT, Kendriya Vidyalaya, Pushp
Vihar, New Delhi; C.B. Verma, Principal (Retired), D.C. Arya Senior Secondary
School, Lodhi Road, New Delhi; Chitra Goel, PGT, R.P.V.V., Tyagraj Nagar, New
Delhi; Daljeet Kaur Bhandari, Vice Principal, G.H.P.S., Vasant Vihar, New
Delhi; Girija Shankar, PGT, R.P.V.V., Surajmal Vihar, New Delhi; H.C. Jain,
Principal (Retired), Regional Institute of Education (NCERT), Ajmer; K.S.
Upadhyay, Principal, Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Farrukhabad, U.P.; M.N.
Bapat, Reader, Regional Institute of Education (NCERT), Bhopal; Maneesha
Pachori, Maharaja Agrasen College, University of Delhi, New Delhi; P.C. Agarwal,
Reader, Regional Institute of Education (NCERT), Ajmer; P.C. Jain, Professor
(Retired), University of Delhi, Delhi; P.K. Chadha, Principal, St. Soldier Public
School, Paschim Vihar, New Delhi; Pragya Nopany, PGT, Birla Vidya Niketan,
Pushp Vihar-IV, New Delhi; Pushpa Tyagi, PGT, Sanskriti School,
Chanakyapuri, New Delhi; R.P. Sharma, Education Officer (Science),
CBSE, New Delhi; R.S. Dass, Vice Principal (Retired), Balwant Ray Mehta
Vidya Bhawan, Lajpat Nagar, New Delhi; Rabinder Nath Kakarya, PGT, Darbari
Lal, DAVMS, Pitampura, New Delhi; Rachna Garg, Lecturer (Senior Scale),
CIET, NCERT; Rajesh Kumar, Principal, District Institute of Educational
Research and Training, Pitampura, New Delhi; Rajeshwari Prasad Mathur,
Professor, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh; Rakesh Bhardwaj, PGT, Maharaja
Agrasen Model School, CD-Block, Pitampura, New Delhi; Ramneek Kapoor,
PGT, Jaspal Kaur Public School, Shalimar Bagh, New Delhi; Rashmi Bargoti,
PGT, S.L.S. D.A.V. Public School, Mausam Vihar, New Delhi; S.N. Prabhakara,
PGT, Demonstration Multipurpose School, Mysore; S.R. Choudhury, Raja
Ramanna Fellow, Centre for Theoretical Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New
Delhi; S.S. Islam, Professor, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi; Sher Singh, PGT,
Navyug School, Lodhi Road, New Delhi; Shirish R. Pathare, Scientific Officer;

Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education (TIFR), Mumbai; Subhash


Chandra Samanta, Reader (Retired), Midnapur College, Midnapur (W.B.);
Sucharita Basu Kasturi, PGT, Sardar Patel Vidyalaya, New Delhi; Surajit
Chakrabarti, Reader, Maharaja Manindra Chandra College, Kolkata; Suresh
Kumar, PGT, Delhi Public School, Dwarka, New Delhi; V.K. Gautam, Education
Officer (Science), Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan, Shaheed Jeet Singh Marg,
New Delhi; Ved Ratna, Professor (Retired), DESM, NCERT, New Delhi; Vijay
H. Raybagkar, Reader, N. Wadia College, Pune; Vishwajeet D. Kulkarni,
Smt. Parvatibai Chowgule College, Margo, Goa; Y.K. Vijay, CDPE University
of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan; Yashu Kumar, PGT, Kulachi Hansraj Model
School, New Delhi. We are thankful to all of them. Special thanks are due to
Hukum Singh, Professor and Head, DESM, NCERT for providing all academic
and administrative support.
The Council also acknowledges the support provided by the APC Office and
administrative staff of DESM, Deepak Kapoor, Incharge, Computer Station;
Bipin Srivastva, Rohit Verma and Mohammad Jabir Hussain, DTP Operators
for typing the manuscript, preparing CRC and refining and drawing some of
the illustrations; Dr. K. T. Chitralekha, Copy Editor; Abhimanu Mohanty,
Proof Reader.
appreciated.

The efforts of the Publication Department are also highly

ix

CONTENTS
FOREWORD

iii
v

PREFACE
Major Skills in Physics Practical Work
I 1.1

Introduction

I 1.2

Objectives of practical work

I 1.3

Specific objectives of laboratory work

I 1.4

Experimental errors

I 1.5

Logarithms

10

I 1.6

Natural sine/cosine table

14

I 1.7

Plotting of graphs

14

I 1.8

General instructions for performing experiments

19

I 1.9

General instructions for recording experiments

20

EXPERIMENTS
E1

Use of Vernier Callipers to

23

(i) measure diameter of a small spherical/cylindrical body,


(ii) measure the dimensions of a given regular body of known mass
and hence to determine its density and
(iii) measure the internal diameter and depth of a given cylindrical object
like beaker/glass/calorimeter and hence to calculate its volume
E2

Use of screw gauge to


(a) measure diameter of a given wire,

33

(b) measure thickness of a given sheet and


(c) determine volume of an irregular lamina
E3

To determine the radius of curvature of a given spherical surface by


a spherometer

42

E4

To determine mass of two different objects using a beam balance

48

E5

Measurement of the weight of a given body (a wooden block) using


the parallelogram law of vector addition

55

E6

Using a simple pendulum plot L T and L T2 graphs, hence find


the effective length of second's pendulum using appropriate graph

60

E7

To study the relation between force of limiting friction and normal


reaction and to find the coefficient of friction between surface of a
moving block and that of a horizontal surface

68

xi

E8

To find the downward force, along an inclined plane, acting on a


roller due to gravity and study its relationship with the angle of
inclination by plotting graph between force and sin

74

E9

To determine Young's modulus of the material of a given wire by


using Searle's apparatus

78

E10

To find the force constant and effective mass of a helical spring by


plotting T 2 - m graph using method of oscillation

83

E11

To study the variation in volume (V ) with pressure (P ) for a sample


of air at constant temperature by plotting graphs between P and V,

89

and between P and

1
V

E12

To determine the surface tension of water by capillary rise method

95

E13

To determine the coefficient of viscosity of a given liquid by measuring


the terminal velocity of a spherical body

99

E14

To study the relationship between the temperature of a hot body


and time by plotting a cooling curve

104

E15

(i) To study the relation between frequency and length of a given


wire under constant tension using a sonometer
(ii) To study the relation between the length of a given wire and tension
for constant frequency using a sonometer

109

E16

To determine the velocity of sound in air at room temperature using


a resonance tube

114

E17

To determine the specific heat capacity of a given (i) solid and (ii) a liquid
by the method of mixtures

119

ACTIVITIES
A1
To make a paper scale of given least count: (a) 0.2 cm and (b) 0.5 cm

xii

125

A2

To determine the mass of a given body using a metre scale by the


principle of moments

128

A3

To plot a graph for a given set of data choosing proper scale and
show error bars due to the precision of the instruments

132

A4

To measure the force of limiting rolling friction for a roller (wooden


block) on a horizontal plane

137

A5

To study the variation in the range of a jet of water with the change
in the angle of projection

140

A6

To study the conservation of energy of a ball rolling down an inclined


plane (using a double inclined plane)

144

A7

To study dissipation of energy of a simple pendulum with time

148

A8

To observe the change of state and plot a cooling curve for molten wax

152

A9

To observe and explain the effect of heating on a bi-metallic strip

155

A10

To study the effect of heating on the level of a liquid in a container 158


and to interpret the observations

A11

To study the effect of detergent on surface tension of water by 160


observing capillary rise

A12

To study the factors affecting the rate of loss of heat of a liquid

A13

To study the effect of load on depression of a suitably clamped 167


metre scale loaded (i) at its end and (ii) in the middle

163

PROJECTS
P1

To investigate whether the energy of a simple pendulum is conserved 173

P2

To determine the radius of gyration about the centre of mass of a 181


metre scale used as a bar pendulum

P3

To investigate changes in the velocity of a body under the action 186


of a constant force and to determine its acceleration

P4

To compare the effectiveness of different materials as 190


insulator of heat

P5

To compare the effectiveness of different materials as absorbers 193


of sound

P6

To compare the Youngs modules of elasticity of different 197


specimen of rubber and compare them by drawing their elastic
hysteresis curve

P7

To study the collision of two balls in two-dimensions

P8

200
To study Fortins Barometer and use it to measure the 204
atmospheric pressure

P9

To study of the spring constant of a helical spring from its 208


load-extension graph

P10

To study the effect of nature of surface on emission and absorption 213


of radiation

P11

To study the conservation of energy with a 0.2 pendulum

216

DEMONSTRATIONS
D1

To demonstrate uniform motion in a straight line

219

D2

To demonstrate the nature of motion of a ball on an


inclined track

223

D3

D4

To demonstrate that a centripetal force is necessary for moving a 224


body with a uniform speed along a circle, and that magnitude of
this force increases with angular speed
226
To demonstrate the principle of centrifuge

D5

To demonstrate interconversion of potential and kinetic energy

227

D6

To demonstrate conservation of momentum

228

D7

To demonstrate the effect of angle of launch on range of a projectile 229

xiii

D8

To demonstrate that the moment of inertia of a rod changes with the


change of position of a pair of equal weights attached to the rod

230

D9

To demonstrate the shape of capillary rise in a wedge-shaped gap


between two glass sheets

232

D10

To demonstrate affect of atmospheric pressure by making partial


vacuum by condensing steam

233

D11

To study variation of volume of a gas with its pressure at constant


temperature with a doctors syringe

235

D12

To demonstrate Bernoullis theorem with simple illustrations

237

D13

To demonstrate the expansion of a metal wire on heating

D14

To demonstrate that heat capacities of equal masses of aluminium,


iron, copper and lead are different

240
241

D15

To demonstrate free oscillations of different vibrating systems

D16

To demonstrate resonance with a set of coupled pendulums

D17

To demonstrate damping of a pendulum due to resistance of


the medium

248

D18

To demonstrate longitudinal and transverse waves

D19

To demonstrate reflection and transmission of waves at the


boundary of two media

249
251

D20

To demonstrate the phenomenon of beats due to superposition


of waves produced by two tuning forks of slightly different
frequencies

253

D21

To demonstrate standing waves with a spring

254

243
247

Appendices (A-1 to A-14)

256263

Bibliography

264265

Data Section

266275

xiv

I: MAJOR SKILLS IN

PHYSICS PRACTICAL
WORK
I 1.1 INTRODUCTION
The higher secondary stage is the most crucial and challenging stage
of school education because at this stage the general undifferentiated
curriculum changes into a discipline-based, content area-oriented
course. At this stage, students take up physics as a discipline, with
the aim of pursuing their future careers either in basic sciences or in
science-based professional courses like engineering, medicine,
information technology etc.
Physics deals with the study of matter and energy associated with the
inanimate as well as the animate world. Although all branches of
science require experimentation, controlled laboratory experiments
are of central importance in physics. The basic purpose of laboratory
experiments in physics, in general, is to verify and validate the concepts,
principles and hypotheses related to the physical phenomena. Only
doing this does not help the learners become independent thinkers or
investigate on their own. In view of this, laboratory work is very much
required and encouraged in different ways.These may include not
only doing experiments but investigate different facets involved in doing
experiments. Many activities as well as project work will therefore
ensure that the learners are able to construct and reconstruct their
ideas on the basis of first hand experiences through investigation in the
laboratory. Besides, learners will be able to integrate experimental work
with theory which they are studying at higher secondary stage through
their environment.
The history of science reveals that many significant discoveries have been
made while carrying out experiments. In the growth of physics,
experimental work is as important as the theoretical understanding of a
phenomenon. Performing experiments by ones own hands in a laboratory
is important as it generates a feeling of direct involvement in the process
of generating knowledge. Carrying out experiments in a laboratory
personally and analysis of the data obtained also help in inculcating
scientific temper, logical thinking, rational outlook, sense of self-confidence,
ability to take initiative, objectivity, cooperative attitude, patience, selfreliance, perseverance, etc. Carrying out experiments also develop
manipulative, observational and reporting skills.

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

The National Curriculum Framework (NCF-2005) and the Syllabus


for Secondary and Higher Secondary stages (NCERT, 2006) have
therefore, laid considerable emphasis on laboratory work as an integral
part of the teaching-learning process.
NCERT has already published Physics Textbook for Classes XII,
based on the new syllabus. In order to supplement the conceptual
understanding and to integrate the laboratory work in physics and
contents of the physics course, this laboratory manual has been
developed. The basic purpose of a laboratory manual in physics is to
motivate the students towards practical work by involving them in
process-oriented performance learning (as opposed to product-or
result-oriented performance) and to infuse life into the sagging practical
work in schools. In view of the alarming situation with regard to the
conduct of laboratory work in schools, it is hoped that this laboratory
manual will prove to be of considerable help and value.

I 1.2 OBJECTIVES OF PRACTICAL WORK


Physics deals with the understanding of natural phenomena and
applying this understanding to use the phenomena for
development of technology and for the betterment of society.
Physics practical work involves learning by doing. It clarifies
concepts and lays the seed for enquiry.
Careful and stepwise observation of sequences during an experiment
or activity facilitate personal investigation as well as small group or
team learning.
A practical physics course should enable students to do experiments
on the fundamental laws and principles, and gain experience of using
a variety of measuring instruments. Practical work enhances basic
learning skills. Main skills developed by practical work in physics are
discussed below.

I 1.2.1 MANIPULATIVE SKILLS


The learner develops manipulative skills in practical work if she/he
is able to
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)

comprehend the theory and objectives of the experiment,


conceive the procedure to perform the experiment,
set-up the apparatus in proper order,
check the suitability of the equipment, apparatus, tool
regarding their working and functioning,
know the limitations of measuring device and find its least
count, error etc.,
handle the apparatus carefully and cautiously to avoid any
damage to the instrument as well as any personal harm,

MAJOR SKILLS...

UNIT NAME

(vii)

perform the experiment systematically.

(viii)

make precise observations,

(ix)

make proper substitution of data in formula, keeping proper


units (SI) in mind,

(x)

calculate the result accurately and express the same with


appropriate significant figures, justified by the degree of
accuracy of the instrument,

(xi)

interpret the results, verify principles and draw conclusions; and

(xii)

improvise simple apparatus for further investigations by


selecting appropriate equipment, apparatus, tools, materials.

I 1.2.2 OBSERVATIONAL SKILLS


The learner develops observational skills in practical work if she/he
is able to
(i)

read about instruments and measure physical quantities,


keeping least count in mind,

(ii)

follow the correct sequence while making observations,

(iii)

take observations carefully in a systematic manner; and

(iv)

minimise some errors in measurement by repeating every


observation independently a number of times.

I 1.2.3 DRAWING SKILLS


The learner develops drawing skills for recording observed data if
she/he is able to
(i)

make schematic diagram of the apparatus,

(ii)

draw ray diagrams, circuit diagrams correctly and label them,

(iii)

depict the direction of force, tension, current, ray of light etc,


by suitable lines and arrows; and

(iv)

plot the graphs correctly and neatly by choosing appropriate


scale and using appropriate scale.

I 1.2.4 REPORTING SKILLS


The learner develops reporting skills for presentation of observation
data in practical work if she/he is able to
(i)

make a proper presentation of aim, apparatus, formula used,


principle, observation table, calculations and result for the
experiment,

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LABORATORY MANUAL

(ii)

support the presentation with labelled diagram using


appropriate symbols for components,

(iii)

record observations systematically and with appropriate units


in a tabular form wherever desirable,

(iv)

follow sign conventions while recording measurements in


experiments on ray optics,

(v)

present the calculations/results for a given experiment


alongwith proper significant figures, using appropriate symbols,
units, degree of accuracy,

(vi)

calculate error in the result,

(vii)

state limitations of the apparatus/devices,

(viii)

summarise the findings to reject or accept a hypothesis,

(ix)

interpret recorded data, observations or graphs to draw


conclusion; and

(x)

explore the scope of further investigation in the work performed.

However, the most valued skills perhaps are those that pertain to the
realm of creativity and investigation.

I 1.3 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES OF LABORATORY WORK


Specific objectives of laboratory may be classified as process-oriented
performance skills and product-oriented performance skills.

I 1.3.1 PROCESS - ORIENTED PERFORMANCE SKILLS


The learner develops process-oriented performance skills in practical
work if she/he is able to

(i)

select appropriate tools, instruments, materials, apparatus and


chemicals and handle them appropriately,

(ii)

check for the working of apparatus beforehand,

(iii)

detect and rectify instrumental errors and their limitations,

(iv)

state the principle/formula used in the experiment,

(v)

prepare a systematic plan for taking observations,

(vi)

draw neat and labelled diagram of given apparatus/ray


diagram/circuit diagram wherever needed,

(vii)

set up apparatus for performing the experiment,

MAJOR SKILLS...

UNIT NAME

(viii)

handle the instruments, chemicals and materials carefully,

(ix)

identify the factors that will influence the observations and


take appropriate measures to minimise their effects,

(x)

perform experiment within stipulated time with reasonable


speed, accuracy and precision,

(xi)

represent the collected data graphically and neatly by choosing


appropriate scale and neatly, using proper scale,

(xii)

interpret recorded data, observations, calculation or graphs


to draw conclusion,

(xiii)

report the principle involved, procedure and precautions


followed in performing the experiment,

(xiv)

dismantle and reassemble the apparatus; and

(xv)

follow the standard guidelines of working in a laboratory.

I 1.3.2 PRODUCT - ORIENTED PERFORMANCE SKILLS


The learner develops product-oriented performance skills in practical
work if she/he is able to
(i)

identify various parts of the apparatus and materials used in


the experiment,

(ii)

set-up the apparatus according to the plan of the experiment,

(iii)

take observations and record data systematically so as to


facilitate graphical or numerical analysis,

(iv)

present the observations systematically using graphs,


calculations etc. and draw inferences from recorded
observations,

(v)

analyse and interpret the recorded observations to finalise the


results; and

(vi)

accept or reject a hypothesis based on the experimental


findings.

I 1.4 EXPERIMENTAL ERRORS


The ultimate aim of every experiment is to measure directly or
indirectly the value of some physical quantity. The very process of
measurement brings in some uncertainties in the measured value.
THERE IS NO MEASUREMENT WITHOUT ERRORS. As such the value
of a physical quantity obtained from some experiments may be
different from its standard or true value. Let a be the experimentally

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

observed value of some physical quantity, the true value of which is


a0. The difference (a a0) = e is called the error in the measurement.
Since a0, the true value, is mostly not known and hence it is not
possible to determine the error e in absolute terms. However, it is
possible to estimate the likely magnitude of e. The estimated value of
error is termed as experimental error. The error can be due to least
count of the measuring instrument or a mathematical relation involving
least count as well as the variable. The quality of an experiment is
determined from the experimental uncertainty of the result. Smaller
the magnitude of uncertainty, closer is the experimentally measured
value to the true value. Accuracy is a measure of closeness of the
measured value to the true value. On the other hand, if a physical
quantity is measured repeatedly during the same experiment again
and again, the values so obtained may be different from each other.
This dispersion or spread of the experimental data is a measure of the
precision of the experiment/instrument. A smaller spread in the
experimental value means a more precise experiment. Thus, accuracy
and precision are two different concepts. Accuracy is a measure
of the nearness to truth, while precision is a measure of the
dispersion in experimental data. It is quite possible that a high
precision experimental data may be quite inaccurate (if there are large
systematic errors present). A rough estimate of the maximum spread
is related to the least count of the measuring instrument.
Experimental errors may be categorised into two types:
(a) systematic, and (b) random. Systematic errors may arise because
of (i) faulty instruments (like zero error in vernier callipers),
(ii) incorrect method of doing the experiment, and (iii) due to the
individual who is conducting the experiment. Systematic errors are
those errors for which corrections can be applied and in principle
they can be removed. Some common systematic errors: (i) Zero error
in micrometer screw and vernier callipers readings. (ii) The backlash
error. When the readings on a scale of microscope are taken by rotating
the screw first in one direction and then in the reverse direction, the
reading is less than the actual distance through which the screw is
moved. To avoid this error all the readings must be taken while rotating
the screw in the same direction. (iii) The bench error or index
correction. When distances measured on the scale of an optical bench
do not correspond to the actual distances between the optical devices,
addition or substraction of the difference is necessary to obtain correct
values. (iv) If the relation is linear, and if the systematic error is constant,
the straight-line graph will get shifted keeping the slope unchanged,
but the intercept will include the systematic error.
In order to find out if the result of some experiments contains
systematic errors or not, the same quantity should be measured by a
different method. If the values of the same physical quantity obtained
by two different methods differ from each other by a large amount,
then there is a possibility of systematic error. The experimental value,

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after corrections for systematic errors still contain errors. All such
residual errors whose origin cannot be traced are called random errors.
Random errors cannot be avoided and there is no way to find the
exact value of random errors. However, their magnitude may be
reduced by measuring the same physical quantity again and again
by the same method and then taking the mean of the measured values
(For details, see Physics Textbook for Class XI, Part I, Chapter 2;
NCERT, 2006).
While doing an experiment in the laboratory, we measure different
quantities using different instruments having different values of their
least counts. It is reasonable to assume that the maximum error in
the measured value is not more than the least count of the instrument
with which the measurement has been made. As such in the case of
simple quantities measured directly by an instrument, the least count
of the instrument is generally taken as the maximum error in the
measured value. If a quantity having a true value A0 is measured as A
with the instrument of least count a, then

A = ( A0 a )
= A0 (1 a / A0 )
= A0 (1 f a )
where fa is called the maximum fractional error of A. Similarly, for
another measured quantity B, we have

B = B0 (1 f b )
Now some quantity, say Z, is calculated from the measured value of A
and B, using the formula
Z = A.B
We now wish to calculate the expected total uncertainty (or the likely
maximum error) in the calculated value of Z. We may write
Z = A.B
= A 0 (1 f a ) .B 0 (1 f b )
= A0 B0 (1 f a f b f a f b )
A0 B 0 1 ( f a + f b ) , [If f a and fb are very small quantities, their
product f a fb can be neglected]
or Z Z 0 [1 f z ]

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where the fractional error f z in the value of Z may have the largest
value of fa + f b .
On the other hand, if the quantity Y to be calculated is given as
Y = A/B = A0 (1 f a ) / B0 (1 f b )

A0
Y0 = B

= Y0 (1 fa )(1 f b ) ;
1

= Y0 (1 fa ) 1 fb + f b2

= Y0 (1 f a ) (1 f b )
~ Y0 1 ( f a + f b )

or Y = Y0 1 f y , with fy = fa + fb , where the maximum fractional


uncertainty fy in the calculated value of Y is again f a + f b . Note that
the maximum fractional uncertainty is always additive.
Taking a more general case, where a quantity P is calculated from
several measured quantities x, y, z etc., using the formula P = xa yb zc,
it may be shown that the maximum fractional error fp in the calculated
value of P is given as
f p = a fx + b fy + c fz
It may be observed that the value of the overall fractional error f p in
the quantity P depends on the fractional errors fx , fy, fz etc. of each
measured quantity, as well as on the power a, b, c etc., of these
quantities which appear in the formula. As such, the quantity which
has the highest power in the formula, should be measured with the
least possible fractional error, so that the contribution of
a f x + b f y + c f z to the overall fraction error f p are of the same order
of magnitude.
Let us calculate the expected uncertainty (or experimental error) in a
quantity that has been determined using a formula which involves
several measured physical parameters.
A quantity Y, Youngs Modulus of elasticity is calculated using the formula
Y=

MgL3
4bd 3

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where M is the mass, g is the acceleration due to gravity, L is the


length of a metallic bar of rectangular cross-section, with breadth b,
and thickness d, and is the depression (or sagging) from the horizontal
in the bar when a mass M is suspended from the middle point of the
bar, supported at its two ends (Fig. I 1.1).
Now in an actual experiment, mass M may be taken as 1 kg. Normally
the uncertainty in mass is not more than 1 g. It means that the least
count of the ordinary balance used for measuring mass is 1 g. As
such, the fractional error f M is 1g/1kg or fM = 1 103.
Let us assume that the value of acceleration due to gravity g is 9.8 m/
s 2 and it does not contain any significant error. Hence there will be no
fractional error in g, i.e., fg = 0. Further the length L of the bar is, say,
1 m and is measured by an ordinary metre scale of least count of 1
mm = 0.001 m. The fractional error fL in the length L is therefore,
f L = 0.001 m / 1m = 1 10 3.
Next the breadth b of the bar which is, say, 5 cm is measured by a
vernier callipers of least count 0.01 cm. The fractional error fb is then,
f b = 0.01 cm / 5 cm = 0.002 = 2 10

Similarly, for the thickness d of the bar, a screw gauge of least count
0.001 cm is used. If, a bar of thickness, say, 0.2 cm is taken so that
f d = 0.001 cm / 0.2 cm = 0.005 = 5 103.
Finally, the depression which is measured by a spherometer of least
count 0.001 cm, is about 5 mm, so that
f = 0.001 cm / 0.5 cm = 0.002 = 2 103.
Having calculated the fractional errors in each quantity, let us
calculate the fractional error in Y as
f Y = (1) fM + (1) f g + (3) f L + (1) fb + (3) fd + (1) f
= 1 (1 103 ) + 1 0 + 3 (1 103) + 1 (2 103) + 3 (5 10 3) + 1 (2 103)
= 1 10 3 + 3 103 + 2 103 + 15 103 + 2 103
or, fY = 22 103 = 0.022.
Hence the possible fractional error (or uncertainty) is fy 100 = 0.022
100 = 2.2%. It may be noted that, for a good experiment, the
contribution to the maximum fractional error f y in the calculated value
of Y contributed by various terms, i.e., fM, 3f L, fb , 3f d, and f should be
of the same order of magnitude. It should not happen that one of
these quantities becomes so large that the value of fy is determined by
that factor only. If this happens, then the measurement of other
quantities will become insignificant. It is for this reason that the length
L is measured by a metre scale which has a large least count (0.1 cm)
while smaller quantities d and are measured by screw gauge and

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spherometer, respectively, which have smaller least


count (0.001 cm). Also those quantities which have
higher power in the formula, like d and L should be
measured more carefully with an instrument of
smaller least count.

Fig. 1.1:

A mass M is suspended from the


metallic bar supported at its two
ends

The end product of most of the experiments is the


measured value of some physical quantity. This
measured value is generally called the result of the
experiment. In order to report the result, three main
things are required. These are the measured value,
the expected uncertainty in the result (or
experimental error) and the unit in which the
quantity is expressed. Thus the measured value is
expressed alongwith the error and proper unit as the
value error (units).

Suppose a result is quoted as A a (unit).


This implies that the value of A is estimated to an accuracy of 1 part
in A/a, both A and a being numbers. It is a general practice to include
all digits in these numbers that are reliably known plus the first digit
that is uncertain. Thus, all reliable digits plus the first uncertain digit
together are called SIGNIFICANT FIGURES. The significant figures of
the measured value should match with that of the errors. In the present
example assuming Young Modulus of elasticity, Y = 18.2 1010 N/
m2; (please check this value by calculating Y from the given data) and
error,

Y
Y

= fy

Y = fy .Y
= 0.022 18.2 1010 N/m2
= 0.39 1010 N/m2, where Y is experimental error.
So the quoted value of Y should be (18.2 0.4) 10 10 N/m2.

I 1.5 LOGARITHMS
The logarithm of a number to a given base is the index of the power to
which the base must be raised to equal that number.
If a x = N then x is called logarithm of N to the base a, and is denoted by
loga N [read as log N to the base a]. For example, 2 4 = 16. The log of
16 to the base 2 is equal to 4 or, log2 16 = 4.
In general, for a number we use logarithm to the base 10. Here log 10
= 1, log 100 = log 102 and so on. Logarithm to base 10 is usually
written as log.

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(i) COMMON LOGARITHM


Logarithm of a number consists of two parts:
(i)

Characteristic It is the integral part [whole of natural


number]

(ii)

Mantissa It is the fractional part, generally expressed in


decimal form (mantissa is always positive).

(ii) HOW TO FIND THE CHARACTERISTIC OF A NUMBER?


The characteristic depends on the magnitude of the number and is
determined by the position of the decimal point. For a number greater
than 1, the characteristic is positive and is less than the number of
digits to the left of the decimal point.
For a number smaller than one (i.e., decimal fraction), the characteristic
is negative and one more than the number of zeros between the decimal
point and the first digit. For example, characteristic of the number
430700 is 5;

4307 is 3;

43.07 is 1;

4.307 is 0;

0.4307 is 1;

0.04307 is 2;

0.0004307 is 4

0.00004307 is 5.

The negative characteristic is usually written as 1,2, 4,5 etc and read
as bar 1, bar 2, etc.

I 1.5.1 HOW TO FIND THE MANTISSA OF A NUMBER?


The value of mantissa depends on the digits and their order and is
independent of the position of the decimal point. As long as the digits
and their order is the same, the mantissa is the same, whatever be the
position of the decimal point.
The logarithm Tables 1 and 2, on pages 266269, give the mantissa
only. They are usually meant for numbers containing four digits, and
if a number consists of more than four figures, it is rounded off to four
figures after determining the characteristic. To find mantissa, the tables
are used in the following manner :
(i)

The first two significant figures of the number are found at the
extreme left vertical column of the table wherein the number
lying between 10 and 99 are given. The mantissa of the figures
which are less than 10 can be determined by multiplying the
figures by 10.

(ii)

Along the horizontal line in the topmost column the figures

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are given. These correspond to the third significant figure of


the given number.
(iii)

Further right column under the figures (digits) corresponds to


the fourth significant figures.
1

Example 1 : Find the logarithm of 278.6.


Answer : The number has 3 figures to the left of the decimal point.
Hence, its characteristic is 2. To find the mantissa, ignore the
decimal point and look for 27 in the first vertical column. For 8,
look in the central topmost column. Proceed from 27 along a
horizontal line towards the right and from 8 vertically downwards.
The two lines meet at a point where the number 4440 is written.
This is the mantissa of 278. Proceed further along the horizontal
line and look vertically below the figure 6 in difference column.
You will find the figure 9. Therefore, the mantissa of 2786 is 4440
+ 9 = 4449.
Hence, the logarithm of 278.6 is 2.4449 ( or log 278.6 = 2.4449).
Example 2 : Find the logarithm of 278600.
Answer : The characteristic of this number is 5 and the mantissa is
the same as in Example 1, above. We can find the mantissa of only
four significant figures. Hence, we neglect the last 2 zero.
log 278600 = 5.4449
Example 3 : Find the logarithm of 0.00278633.
Answer : The characteristic of this number is 3 , as there are two
zeros following the decimal point. We can find the mantissa of only
four significant figures. Hence, we neglect the last 2 figures (33) and
find the mantissa of 2786 which is 4449.

log 0.00278633 = 3 .4449


When the last figure of a number consisting of more than 4 significant
figures is equal to or more than 5, the figure next to the left of it is
raised by one and so on till we have only four significant figures and if
the last figure is less than 5, it is neglected as in the above example.
If we have the number 2786.58, the last figure is 8. Therefore, we
shall raise the next in left figure to 6 and since 6 is greater than 5, we
shall raise the next figure 6 to 7 and find the logarithm
of 2787.

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I 1.5.2 ANTILOGARITHMS
The number whose logarithm is x is called antilogarithm and is denoted
by antilog x.
Thus, since log 2 = 0.3010, then antilog 0.3010 = 2.
Example 1 : Find the number whose logarithm is 1.8088.
Answer : For this purpose, we use antilogarithms table which is used
for fractional part.
(i)

In Example 1, fractional part is 0.8088. The first two figures


from the left are 0.80, the third figure is 8 and the fourth figure
is also 8.

(ii)

In the table of the antilogarithms, first look in the vertical


column for 0.80. In this horizontal row under the column
headed by 8, we find the number 6427 at the intersection. It
means the number for mantissa 0.808 is 6427.

(iii)

In continuation of this horizontal row and under the mean


difference column on the right under 8, we find the number
12 at the intersection. Adding 12 to 6427 we get 6439. Now
6439 is the figure of which .8088 is the mantissa.

(iv)

The characteristic is 1. This is one more than the number of


digits in the integral part of the required number. Hence, the
number of digits in the integral part of the required
number = 1 + 1 =2. The required number is 64.39 i.e., antilog
1.8088 = 64.39.

Example 2 : Find the antilog of 2 .8088.


Answer : As the characteristic is 2 , there should be one zero on the
right of decimal in the number, hence antilog 2 .8088 = 0.06439.
Properties of logarithms:
(i) loga mn = logam + logan
(ii) loga m/n = logam logan
(iii) loga mn = n logam
The definition of logarithm:
loga 1 = 0 [since a0 = 1]
The log of 1 to any base is zero,
and loga a = 1 [since the logarithm of the base to itself is 1,
a 1 = a]

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I 1.6 NATURAL SINE / COSINE TABLE


To find the sine or cosine of some angles we need to refer to Tables of
trignometric functions. Natural sine and cosine tables are given in the
DATA SECTION (Tables 3 and 4, Pages 270273). Angles are given
usually in degrees and minutes, for example : 356 or 35.1.

I 1.6.1 READING OF NATURAL SINE TABLE


Suppose we wish to know the value of sin 3510. You may proceed as follows:
(i)

Open the Table of natural sines.

(ii)

Look in the first column and locate 35. Scan horizontally,


move from value 0.5736 rightward and stop under the column
where 6 is marked. You will stop at 0.5750.

(iii)

But it is required to find for 10.

The difference between 10 and 6 is 4. So we look into the column of


mean difference under 4 and the corresponding value is 10. Add 10
to the last digits of 0.5750 and we get 0.5760.
Thus, sin (3510) is 0.5760.

I 1.6.2 READING OF NATURAL COSINE TABLE


Natural cosine tables are read in the same manner. However, because
of the fact that value of cos decrease as increases, the mean
difference is to be subtracted. For example, cos 25 = 0.9063. To read
the value of cosine angle 2540, i.e., cos 2540, we read for cos 2536
= 0.9018. Mean difference for 4 is 5 which is to be subtracted from
the last digits of 0.9018 to get 0.9013. Thus, cos 2540 = 0.9013.

I 1.6.3 READING OF NATURAL TANGENTS TABLE


Natural Tangents table are read the same way as the natural sine
table.

I 1.7 PLOTTING OF GRAPHS


A graph pictorially represents the relation between two variable
quantities. It also helps us to visualise experimental data at a glance
and shows the relation between the two quantities. If two physical
quantities a and b are such that a change made by us in a results in
a change in b, then a is called independent variable and b is called
dependent variable. For example, when you change the length of the
pendulum, its time period changes. Here length is independent variable
while time period is dependent variable.

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A graph not only shows the relation between two variable quantities
in pictorial form, it also enables verification of certain laws (such as
Boyles law) to find the mean value from a large number of
observations, to extrapolate/interpolate the value of certain quantities
beyond the limit of observation of the experiment, to calibrate or
graduate a given instrument for measurement and to find the
maximum and minimum values of the dependent variable.
Graphs are usually plotted on a graph paper sheet ruled in
millimetre/centimetre squares. For plotting a graph, the following steps
are observed:
(i)

Identify the independent variable and dependent variable.


Represent the independent variable along the x-axis and the
dependent variable along the y-axis.

(ii)

Determine the range of each of the variables and count the


number of big squares available to represent each, along the
respective axis.

(iii)

Choice of scale is critical for plotting of a graph. Ideally, the


smallest division on the graph paper should be equal to the
least count of measurement or the accuracy to which the
particular parameter is known. Many times, for clarity of the
graph, a suitable fraction of the least count is taken as equal
to the smallest division on the graph paper.

(iv)

Choice of origin is another point which has to be done


judiciously. Generally, taking (0,0) as the origin serves the
purpose. But such a choice is to be adopted generally when
the relation between variables begins from zero or it is desired
to find the zero position of one of the variables, if its actual
determination is not possible. However, in all other cases the
origin need not correspond to zero value of the variable. It is,
however, convenient to represent a round number nearest to
but less than the smallest value of the corresponding variable.
On each axis mark only the values of the variable in round
numbers.

(v)

The scale markings on x-and y-axis should not be crowded.


Write the numbers at every fifth cm of the axis. Write also the
units of the quantity plotted. Use scientific representations of
the numbers, i.e., write the number with decimal point following
the first digit and multiply the number by appropriate power
of ten. The scale conversion may also be written at the right or
left corner at the top of the graph paper.

(vi)

Write a suitable caption below the plotted graph mentioning


the names or symbols of the physical quantities involved.
Also indicate the scales taken along both the axes on the
graph paper.

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(vii)

When the graph is expected to be a straight line, generally 6 to


7 readings are enough. Time should not be wasted in taking a
very large number of observations. The observations must be
covering all available range evenly.

(viii)

If the graph is a curve, first explore the range by covering the


entire range of the independent variable in 6 to 7 steps. Then
try to guess where there will be sharp changes in the curvature
of the curve. Take more readings in those regions. For example,
when there is either a maximum or minimum, more readings
are needed to locate the exact point of extremum, as in the
determination of angle of minimum deviation ( m) you may
need to take more observations near about m.

(ix)

Representation of data points also has a meaning. The size


of the spread of plotted point must be in accordance with the
accuracy of the data. Let us take an example in which the
plotted point is represented as , a point with a circle around
it. The central dot is the value of measured data. The radius of
circle of x or y side gives the size of uncertainty. If the circle
radius is large, it will mean as if uncertainty in data is more.
Further such a representation tells that accuracy along x- and
y-axis are the same. Some other representations used which
give the same meaning as above are , , , , , etc.
In case, uncertainty along the x-axis and y-axis are different,
some of the notations used are (accuracy along x-axis is
(accuracy along x-axis is less
more than that on y-axis);
than that on y-axis).

are some of such other

symbols. You can design many more on your own.


(x)

After all the data points are plotted, it is customary to fit a


smooth curve judiciously by hand so that the maximum
number of points lie on or near it and the rest are evenly
distributed on either side of it. Now a days computers are also
used for plotting graphs of a given data.

I 1.7.1 SLOPE OF A STRAIGHT LINE


The slope m of a straight line graph AB is defined as
y
m=
x
where y is the change in the value of the quantity plotted on the
y-axis, corresponding to the change x in the value of the quantity
plotted on the x-axis. It may be noted that the sign of m will be positive
when both x and y are of the same sign, as shown in Fig. I 1.2. On
the other hand, if y is of opposite sign (i.e., y decreases when x
increases) than that of x, the value of the slope will be negative. This
is indicated in Fig. I 1.3.

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Fig. 1.2 Value of slope is positive

Fig. 1.3 Value of slope is negative

Further, the slope of a given straight line has the same value, for all
points on the line. It is because the value of y changes by the same
amount for a given change in the value of x, at every point of the
straight line, as shown in Fig. I 1.4. Thus, for a given straight line, the
slope is fixed.

Fig. 1.4:

Slope is fixed for a given straight line

While calculating the slope, always choose the x-segment of sufficient


length and see that it represents a round number of the variable. The
corresponding interval of the variable on y-segment is then measured
and the slope is calculated. Generally, the slope should not have more
than two significant digits. The values of the slope and the intercepts,
if there are any, should be written on the graph paper.

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Do not show slope as tan . Only when scales along both the axes are
identical slope is equal to tan. Also keep in mind that slope of a graph
has physical significance, not geometrical.
Often straight-line graphs expected to pass through the origin are
found to give some intercepts. Hence, whenever a linear relationship
is expected, the slope should be used in the formula instead of the
mean of the ratios of the two quantities.

I 1.7.2 SLOPE OF A CURVE AT A GIVEN POINT ON IT


As has been indicated, the slope of a straight line has the same value
at each point. However, it is not true for a curve. As shown in Fig. I 1.5, the
slope of the curve CD may have different values of slope at points A,
A, A, etc.

Fig. I 1.5: Tangent at a point A

Therefore, in case of a non-straight line curve, we talk of the slope at


a particular point. The slope of the curve at a particular point, say
point A in Fig. I 1.5, is the value of the slope of the line EF which is the
tangent to the curve at point A. As such, in order to find the slope of a
curve at a given point, one must draw a tangent to the curve at the
desired point.
In order to draw the tangent to a given curve at a given point, one may
use a plane mirror strip attached to a wooden block, so that it stands
perpendicular to the paper on which the curve is to be drawn. This is
illustrated in Fig. I 1.6 (a) and Fig. I 1.6 (b). The plane mirror strip
MM is placed at the desired point A such that the image DA of the
part DA of the curve appears in the mirror strip as continuation of

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(a),

(b)

Fig. 1.6 (a), (b): Drawing tangent at point A using a plane mirror

DA. In general, the image D A will not appear to be smoothly


joined with the part of the curve DA as shown in Fig. I 1.6 (a).
Next rotate the mirror strip MM, keeping its position at point A fixed.
The image D in the mirror will also rotate. Now adjust the position
of MM such that DAD appears as a continuous, smooth curve as
shown in Fig. I 1.6 (b). Draw the line MAM along the edge of the mirror
for this setting. Next using a protractor, draw a perpendicular GH to
the line MAM at point A.
GAH is the line, which is the required tangent to the curve DAC at
point A. The slope of the tangent GAH (i.e., y / x) is the slope of the
curve CAD at point A. The above procedure may be followed for finding
the slope of any curve at any given point.

I 1.8 GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR PERFORMING EXPERIMENTS


1. The students should thoroughly understand the principle of the
experiment. The objective of the experiment and procedure to be
followed should be clear before actually performing the experiment.
2. The apparatus should be arranged in proper order. To avoid
any damage, all apparatus should be handled carefully and
cautiously. Any accidental damage or breakage of the
apparatus should be immediately brought to the notice of the
concerned teacher.

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3. Precautions meant for each experiment should be observed strictly


while performing it.
4. Repeat every observation, a number of times, even if measured
value is found to be the same. The student must bear in mind the
proper plan for recording the observations. Recording in tabular
form is essential in most of the experiments.
5. Calculations should be neatly shown (using log tables wherever
desired). The degree of accuracy of the measurement of each
quantity should always be kept in mind, so that final result does
not reflect any fictitious accuracy. The result obtained should be
suitably rounded off.
6. Wherever possible, the observations should be represented with
the help of a graph.
7. Always mention the result in proper SI unit, if any, along with
experimental error.

I1.9 GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR RECORDING EXPERIMENTS


A neat and systematic recording of the experiment in the practical file
is very important for proper communication of the outcome of the
experimental investigations. The following heads may usually be
followed for preparing the report:

DATE:--------

EXPERIMENT NO:----------

PAGE NO.-------

AIM
State clearly and precisely the objective(s) of the experiment to be
performed.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


Mention the apparatus and material used for performing the experiment.

DESCRIPTION OF APPARATUS INCLUDING MEASURING DEVICES (OPTIONAL)


Describe the apparatus and various measuring devices used in
the experiment.

TERMS AND DEFINITIONS OR CONCEPTS (OPTIONAL)


Various important terms and definitions or concepts used in the
experiment are stated clearly.

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PRINCIPLE / THEORY
Mention the principle underlying the experiment. Also, write the
formula used, explaining clearly the symbols involved (derivation not
required). Draw a circuit diagram neatly for experiments/activities
related to electricity and ray diagrams for light.

PROCEDURE (WITH IN-BUILT PRECAUTIONS)


Mention various steps followed with in-built precautions actually
observed in setting the apparatus and taking measurements in a
sequential manner.

OBSERVATIONS
Record the observations in tabular form as far as possible, neatly
and without any overwriting. Mention clearly, on the top of the
observation table, the least counts and the range of each measuring
instrument used.
However, if the result of the experiment depends upon certain
conditions like temperature, pressure etc., then mention the values
of these factors.

CALCULATIONS AND PLOTTING GRAPH


Substitute the observed values of various quantities in the formula
and do the computations systematically and neatly with the help of
logarithm tables. Calculate experimental error.
Wherever possible, use the graphical method for obtaining
the result.

RESULT
State the conclusions drawn from the experimental observations.
[Express the result of the physical quality in proper significant figures
of numerical value along with appropriate SI units and probable error].
Also mention the physical conditions like temperature, pressure etc.,
if the result happens to depend upon them.

PRECAUTIONS
Mention the precautions actually observed during the course of the
experiment/activity.

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SOURCES OF ERROR
Mention the possible sources of error that are beyond the control of
the individual while performing the experiment and are liable to affect
the result.

DISCUSSION
The special reasons for the set up etc., of the experiment are to be
mentioned under this heading. Also mention any special inferences
which you can draw from your observations or special difficulties faced
during the experimentation. These may also include points for making
the experiment more accurate for observing precautions and, in
general, for critically relating theory to the experiment for better
understanding of the basic principle involved.

22

EXPERIMENTS

EXPERIMENT
AIM
Use of Vernier Callipers to
(i) measure diameter of a small spherical/cylindrical body,
(ii) measure the dimensions of a given regular body of known mass
and hence to determine its density; and
(iii) measure the internal diameter and depth of a given cylindrical object
like beaker/glass/calorimeter and hence to calculate its volume.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED

Vernier Callipers, Spherical body, such as a pendulum bob or a glass


marble, rectangular block of known mass and cylindrical object like
a beaker/glass/calorimeter

ESCRIPTION OF THE MEASURING DEVICE


1. A Vernier Calliper has two scalesone main scale and a Vernier
scale, which slides along the main scale. The main scale and Vernier
scale are divided into small divisions though of different
magnitudes.
The main scale is graduated in cm and mm. It has two fixed jaws, A
and C, projected at right angles to the scale. The sliding Vernier scale
has jaws (B, D) projecting at right angles to it and also the main scale
and a metallic strip (N). The zero of
main scale and Vernier scale coincide
when the jaws are made to touch each
other. The jaws and metallic strip are
designed to measure the distance/
diameter of objects. Knob P is used to
slide the vernier scale on the main
scale. Screw S is used to fix the vernier
scale at a desired position.
2. The least count of a common scale
is 1mm. It is difficult to further
subdivide it to improve the least
count of the scale. A vernier scale
enables this to be achieved.

Fig. E 1.1 Vernier Calliper

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

RINCIPLE
The difference in the magnitude of one main scale division (M.S.D.)
and one vernier scale division (V.S.D.) is called the least count of the
instrument, as it is the smallest distance that can be measured using
the instrument.
n V.S.D. = (n 1) M.S.D.
Formulas Used
(a)
=

Least count of vernier callipers


the magnitude of the smallest division on the main scale
the total number of small divisions on the vernier scale
m ass
m
m
=
=
where m is
volume
V
l.b.h
its mass, l its length, b its breadth and h the height.

(b)

Density of a rectangular body =

(c)

The volume of a cylindrical (hollow) object V = r2h' =

D 2
. h'
4
where h' is its internal depth, D' is its internal diameter and r is
its internal radius.

ROCEDURE
(a) Measuring the diameter of a small spherical or cylindrical
body.
1. Keep the jaws of Vernier Callipers closed. Observe the zero mark of
the main scale. It must perfectly coincide with that of the vernier
scale. If this is not so, account for the zero error for all observations to
be made while using the instrument as explained on pages 26-27.
2. Look for the division on the vernier scale that coincides with a
division of main scale. Use a magnifying glass, if available and
note the number of division on the Vernier scale that coincides
with the one on the main scale. Position your eye directly over the
division mark so as to avoid any parallax error.
3. Gently loosen the screw to release the movable jaw. Slide it enough
to hold the sphere/cylindrical body gently (without any undue
pressure) in between the lower jaws AB. The jaws should be perfectly
perpendicular to the diameter of the body. Now, gently tighten the
screw so as to clamp the instrument in this position to the body.
4. Carefully note the position of the zero mark of the vernier scale
against the main scale. Usually, it will not perfectly coincide with

24

EXPERIMENT 1

UNIT NAME

any of the small divisions on the main scale. Record the main scale
division just to the left of the zero mark of the vernier scale.
5. Start looking for exact coincidence of a vernier scale division with
that of a main scale division in the vernier window from left end
(zero) to the right. Note its number (say) N, carefully.
6. Multiply 'N' by least count of the instrument and add the product
to the main scale reading noted in step 4. Ensure that the product
is converted into proper units (usually cm) for addition to be valid.
7. Repeat steps 3-6 to obtain the diameter of the body at different
positions on its curved surface. Take three sets of reading in
each case.
8. Record the observations in the tabular form [Table E 1.1(a)] with
proper units. Apply zero correction, if need be.
9. Find the arithmetic mean of the corrected readings of the diameter
of the body. Express the results in suitable units with appropriate
number of significant figures.
(b) Measuring the dimensions of a regular rectangular body to
determine its density.
1. Measure the length of the rectangular block (if beyond the limits
of the extended jaws of Vernier Callipers) using a suitable ruler.
Otherwise repeat steps 3-6 described in (a) after holding the block
lengthwise between the jaws of the Vernier Callipers.
2. Repeat steps 3-6 stated in (a) to determine the other dimensions
(breadth b and height h) by holding the rectangular block in proper
positions.
3. Record the observations for length, breadth and height of the
rectangular block in tabular form [Table E 1.1 (b)] with proper
units and significant figures. Apply zero corrections wherever
necessary.
4. Find out the arithmetic mean of readings taken for length, breadth
and height separately.
[c] Measuring the internal diameter and depth of the given beaker
(or similar cylindrical object) to find its internal volume.
1. Adjust the upper jaws CD of the Vernier Callipers so as to touch
the wall of the beaker from inside without exerting undue pressure
on it. Tighten the screw gently to keep the Vernier Callipers in this
position.
2. Repeat the steps 3-6 as in (a) to obtain the value of internal diameter
of the beaker/calorimeter. Do this for two different (angular)
positions of the beaker.

25

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

3. Keep the edge of the main scale of Vernier Callipers, to determine


the depth of the beaker, on its peripheral edge. This should be
done in such a way that the tip of the strip is able to go freely
inside the beaker along its depth.
4. Keep sliding the moving jaw of the Vernier Callipers until the strip
just touches the bottom of the beaker. Take care that it does so
while being perfectly perpendicular to the bottom surface. Now
tighten the screw of the Vernier Callipers.
5. Repeat steps 4 to 6 of part (a) of the experiment to obtain depth of
the given beaker. Take the readings for depth at different positions
of the breaker.
6. Record the observations in tabular form [Table E 1.1 (c)] with
proper units and significant figures. Apply zero corrections, if
required.
7. Find out the mean of the corrected readings of the internal diameter
and depth of the given beaker. Express the result in suitable units
and proper significant figures.

BSERVATIONS
(i) Least count of Vernier Callipers (Vernier Constant)
1 main scale division (MSD) = 1 mm = 0.1 cm
Number of vernier scale divisions, N = 10
10 vernier scale divisions = 9 main scale divisions
1 vernier scale division = 0.9 main scale division
Vernier constant = 1 main scale division 1 vernier scale division
= (1 0.9) main scale divisions
= 0.1 main scale division
Vernier constant (VC)

= 0.1 mm = 0.01 cm

Alternatively,
Vernier constant =

1MSD 1 mm
=
N
10

Vernier constant (V C) = 0.1 mm = 0.01 cm


(ii) Zero error and its correction
When the jaws A and B touch each other, the zero of the Vernier
should coincide with the zero of the main scale. If it is not so, the
instrument is said to possess zero error (e). Zero error may be

26

EXPERIMENT 1

UNIT NAME

Fig. E 1.2: Zero error (i) no zero error (ii) positive zero error
(iii) negative zero error

positive or negative, depending upon whether the zero of vernier


scale lies to the right or to the left of the zero of the main scale. This
is shown by the Fig. E1.2 (ii) and (iii). In this situation, a correction
is required to the observed readings.
(iii) Positive zero error
Fig E 1.2 (ii) shows an example of positive zero error. From the
figure, one can see that when both jaws are touching each other,
zero of the vernier scale is shifted to the right of zero of the main
scale (This might have happened due to manufacturing defect or
due to rough handling). This situation makes it obvious that while
taking measurements, the reading taken will be more than the
actual reading. Hence, a correction needs to be applied which is
proportional to the right shift of zero of vernier scale.
In ideal case, zero of vernier scale should coincide with zero of
main scale. But in Fig. E 1.2 (ii), 5th vernier division is coinciding
with a main scale reading.
Zero Error = + 5 Least Count = + 0.05 cm
Hence, the zero error is positive in this case. For any measurements
done, the zero error (+ 0.05 cm in this example) should be
subtracted from the observed reading.
True Reading = Observed reading (+ Zero error)
(iv) Negative zero error
Fig. E 1.2 (iii) shows an example of negative zero error. From this
figure, one can see that when both the jaws are touching each
other, zero of the vernier scale is shifted to the left of zero of the
main scale. This situation makes it obvious that while taking
measurements, the reading taken will be less than the actual
reading. Hence, a correction needs to be applied which is
proportional to the left shift of zero of vernier scale.
In Fig. E 1.2 (iii), 5th vernier scale division is coinciding with a
main scale reading.
Zero Error = 5 Least Count
= 0.05 cm

27

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

Note that the zero error in this case is considered to be negative.


For any measurements done, the negative zero error, ( 0.05 cm in
this example) is also substracted from the observed reading,
though it gets added to the observed value.
True Reading = Observed Reading ( Zero error)
Table E 1.1 (a): Measuring the diameter of a small spherical/
cylindrical body
S. Main Scale
No. reading, M
(cm/mm)

Number of
coinciding
vernier
division, N

Vernier scale
reading, V = N V C
(cm/mm)

Measured
diameter, M + V
(cm/mm)

1
2
3
4

Zero error, e = ... cm


Mean observed diameter = ... cm
Corrected diameter = Mean observed diameter Zero Error
Table E 1.1 (b) : Measuring dimensions of a given regular body
(rectangular block)
Dimension S. Main Scale Number of
No. reading, M coinciding
(cm/mm)
vernier
division, N

Ver nier scale reading,


V = N VC (cm/mm)

Measured
dimension
M + V (cm/mm)

1
2
3
1
Breadth (b) 2
3
Length (l)

Height ( h)

1
2
3

Zero error = ... mm/cm


Mean observed length = ... cm, Mean observed breadth = ... cm
Mean observed height = ... cm
Corrected length = ... cm;
Corrected height = ...cm

28

Corrected breath = ... cm;

EXPERIMENT 1

UNIT NAME

Table E 1.1 (c) : Measuring internal diameter and depth of a


given beaker/ calorimeter/ cylindrical glass
Dimension S. Main Scale Number of
No. reading, M coinciding
(cm/mm)
vernier
division, N
Internal
diameter
(D)

1
2
3

Depth (h)

1
2
3

Ver nier scale reading,


Measured
V = N VC (cm/mm) diameter depth,
M + V (cm/mm)

Mean diameter = ... cm


Mean depth= ... cm
Corrected diameter = ... cm
Corrected depth = ... cm

ALCULATION
(a) Measurement of diameter of the sphere/ cylindrical body
Mean measured diameter, Do =

D1 + D2 + ... + D6
cm
6

Do = ... cm = ... 102 m


Corrected diameter of the given body, D = Do ( e ) = ... 102 m
(b) Measurement of length, breadth and height of the rectangular
block
Mean measured length, l o =

l1 + l2 + l 3
cm
3

lo = ... cm = ... 102 m


Corrected length of the block, l = lo ( e ) = ... cm
Mean observed breadth, b o =

b1 + b 2 + b 3
3

Mean measured breadth of the block, b0 = ... cm = ... 102 m


Corrected breadth of the block,
b = bO ( e ) cm = ... 102 m

29

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

Mean measured height of block h o =

h1 + h 2 + h 3
3

Corrected height of block h = ho ( e ) = ... cm


Volume of the rectangular block,
V = lbh = ... cm3 = ... 106 m3
Density of the block,

m
=... kgm 3
V

(c) Measurement of internal diameter of the beaker/glass


Mean measured internal diameter, Do =

D1 + D2 + D3
3

Do = ... cm = ... 102 m


Corrected internal diameter,
D = Do ( e ) = ... cm = ... 102 m
Mean measured depth of the beaker, ho =

h1 + h2 + h3
3

= ... cm = ... 102 m


Corrected measured depth of the beaker
h = h o ( e ) ... cm = ... 102 m
Internal volume of the beaker
V=

D2 h
=...10 6 m 3
4

ESULT
(a) Diameter of the spherical/ cylindrical body,
D = ... 10 2m
(b) Density of the given rectangular block,

= ... kgm3
(c) Internal volume of the given beaker
V'= ... m3

30

EXPERIMENT 1

UNIT NAME

RECAUTIONS
1. If the vernier scale is not sliding smoothly over the main scale,
apply machine oil/grease.
2. Screw the vernier tightly without exerting undue pressure to avoid
any damage to the threads of the screw.
3. Keep the eye directly over the division mark to avoid any error
due to parallax.
4. Note down each observation with correct significant figures
and units.

OURCES OF ERROR
Any measurement made using Vernier Callipers is likely to be
incorrect if(i) the zero error in the instrument placed is not accounted for; and
(ii) the Vernier Callipers is not in a proper position with respect to the
body, avoiding gaps or undue pressure or both.

ISCUSSION
1. A Vernier Callipers is necessary and suitable only for certain
types of measurement where the required dimension of the object
is freely accessible. It cannot be used in many situations. e.g.
suppose a hole of diameter 'd' is to be drilled into a metal block.
If the diameter d is small - say 2 mm, neither the diameter nor
the depth of the hole can be measured with a Vernier Callipers.

2. It is also important to realise that use of Vernier Callipers for


measuring length/width/thickness etc. is essential only when
the desired degree of precision in the result (say determination
of the volume of a wire) is high. It is meaningless to use it where
precision in measurement is not going to affect the result much.
For example, in a simple pendulum experiment, to measure
the diameter of the bob, since L >> d.

ELF ASSESSMENT
1. One can undertake an exercise to know the level of skills developed
in making measurements using Vernier Callipers. Objects, such
as bangles/kangan, marbles whose dimensions can be measured
indirectly using a thread can be used to judge the skill acquired
through comparison of results obtained using both the methods.
2. How does a vernier decrease the least count of a scale.

31

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES


1.

Determine the density of glass/metal of a (given) cylindrical vessel.

2.

Measure thickness of doors and boards.

3.

Measure outer diameter of a water pipe.

ADDITIONAL EXERCISE
1.

In the vernier scale nor mally used in a Fortin's barometer, 20 VSD


coincide with 19 MSD (each division of length 1 mm). Find the least
count of the vernier.

2.

In vernier scale (angular) normally provided in spectrometers/sextant,


60 VSD coincide with 59 MSD (each division of angle 1). Find the least
count of the vernier.

3.

How would the precision of the measurement by Vernier Callipers be


affected by increasing the number of divisions on its vernier scale?

4.

How can you find the value of using a given cylinder and a pair of
Vernier Callipers?
[Hint : Using the Ver nier Callipers, - Measure the diameter D and find
the circumference of the cylinder using a thread. Ratio of circumference
to the diameter (D) gives .]

5.

How can you find the thickness of the sheet used for making of a steel
tumbler using Ver nier Callipers?
[Hint: Measure the internal diameter (D i) and external diameter (Do) of
the tumbler. Then, thickness of the sheet Dt = (D o Di )/2.]

32

EXPERIMENT

AIM
Use of screw gauge to
(a) measure diameter of a given wire,
(b) measure thickness of a given sheet; and
(c) determine volume of an irregular lamina.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


Wire, metallic sheet, irregular lamina, millimetre graph paper, pencil
and screw gauge.

ESCRIPTION OF APPARATUS
With Vernier Callipers. you are usually able to measure length
accurately up to 0.1 mm. More accurate measurement of length, up
to 0.01 mm or 0.005 mm, may be made by using a screw gauge. As
such a Screw Gauge is an
instrument of higher precision than
a Vernier Callipers. You might have
observed an ordinary screw [Fig E2.1
(a)]. There are threads on a screw. The
separation between any two
consecutive threads is the same. The
screw can be moved backward or
forward in its nut by rotating it antiFig.E 2.1 A screw (a) without nut (b) with nut
clockwise or clockwise [Fig E2.1(b)].
The distance advanced by the screw
when it makes its one complete
rotation is the separation between
two consecutive threads. This
distance is called the Pitch of the
screw. Fig. E 2.1(a) shows the pitch
(p) of the screw. It is usually 1 mm
or 0.5 mm. Fig. E 2.2 shows a
screw gauge. It has a screw S
which advances forward or
backward as one rotates the head
C through rachet R. There is a linear

Fig.E 2.2: View of a screw gauge

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

scale LS attached to limb D of the U frame. The smallest division on


the linear scale is 1 mm (in one type of screw gauge). There is a circular
scale CS on the head, which can be rotated. There are 100 divisions
on the circular scale. When the end B of the screw touches the surface
A of the stud ST, the zero marks on the main scale and the circular
scale should coincide with each other.
ZERO ERROR
When the end of the screw and the surface of the
stud are in contact with each other, the linear scale
and the circular scale reading should be zero. In
case this is not so, the screw gauge is said to have
an error called zero error.
Fig. E 2.3 shows an enlarged view of a screw gauge
with its faces A and B in contact. Here, the zero
mark of the LS and the CS are coinciding with each
other.

Fig.E 2.3: A screw gauge with no zero error

When the reading on the circular scale across the


linear scale is more than zero (or positive), the
instrument has Positive zero error as shown in
Fig. E 2.4 (a). When the reading of the circular scale
across the linear scale is less than zero (or negative),
the instrument is said to have negative zero error
as shown in Fig. E 2.4 (b).

Fig.E 2.4 (a): Showing a positive zero error

Fig.E 2.4 (b): Showing a negative zero error

TAKING THE LINEAR SCALE READING


The mark on the linear scale which lies close to the
left edge of the circular scale is the linear scale
reading. For example, the linear scale reading as
shown in Fig. E 2.5, is 0.5 cm.
TAKING CIRCULAR SCALE READING
Fig.E 2.5: Measuring thickness with a screw
guage

34

The division of circular scale which coincides with


the main scale line is the reading of circular scale.
For example, in the Fig. E 2.5, the circular scale
reading is 2.

EXPERIMENT 2

UNIT NAME

TOTAL READING
Total reading
= linear scale reading + circular scale reading least count
= 0.5 + 2 0.001
= 0.502 cm

RINCIPLE
The linear distance moved by the screw is directly proportional to the
rotation given to it. The linear distance moved by the screw when it is
rotated by one division of the circular scale, is the least distance that
can be measured accurately by the instrument. It is called the least
count of the instrument.
Least count =

pitch
No. of divisions on circular scale

For example for a screw gauge with a pitch of 1mm and 100 divisions
on the circular scale. The least count is
1 mm/100 = 0.01 mm
This is the smallest length one can measure with this screw gauge.
In another type of screw gauge, pitch is 0.5 mm and there are 50
divisions on the circular scale. The least count of this screw gauge
is 0.5 mm/50 = 0.01 mm. Note that here two rotations of the
circular scale make the screw to advance through a distance of 1
mm. Some screw gauge have a least count of 0.001 mm (i.e. 106
m) and therefore are called micrometer screw.
(a) Measurement of Diameter of a Given Wire

ROCEDURE
1. Take the screw gauge and make sure that the rachet R on the
head of the screw functions properly.
2. Rotate the screw through, say, ten complete rotations and observe
the distance through which it has receded. This distance is the
reading on the linear scale marked by the edge of the circular
scale. Then, find the pitch of the screw, i.e., the distance moved by
the screw in one complete rotation. If there are n divisions on the
circular scale, then distance moved by the screw when it is rotated
through one division on the circular scale is called the least count
of the screw gauge, that is,
Least count =

pitch
n

35

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

3. Insert the given wire between the screw and the stud of the screw
gauge. Move the screw forward by rotating the rachet till the wire
is gently gripped between the screw and the stud as shown in
Fig. E 2.5. Stop rotating the rachet the moment you hear a click
sound.
4. Take the readings on the linear scale and the circular scale.
5. From these two readings, obtain the diameter of the wire.

Fig.E 2.6 (a): Two magnified views (a) and (b) of a wire
showing its perpendicular diameters d1
and d2. d2 is obtained after the rotating
the wire in the clockwise direction
through 90.

6.

The wire may not have an exactly


circular cross-section. Therefore. it is
necessary to measure the diameter of the
wire for two positions at right angles to
each other. For this, first record the
reading of diameter d1 [Fig. E 2.6 (a)]
and then rotate the wire through 90 at
the same cross-sectional position.
Record the reading for diameter d2 in this
position [Fig. E 2.6 (b)].

7.

The wire may not be truly cylindrical.


Therefore, it is necessary to measure the
diameter at several different places and
obtain the average value of diameter. For
this, repeat the steps (3) to (6) for three
more positions of the wire.

8. Take the mean of the different values of diameter so obtained.


9. Substract zero error, if any, with proper sign to get the corrected
value for the diameter of the wire.

BSERVATIONS AND CALCULATION


The length of the smallest division on the linear scale = ... mm
Distance moved by the screw when it is rotated
through x complete rotations, y
Pitch of the screw =

= ... mm

y
= ... mm
x

Number of divisions on the circular scale n = ...


Least Count (L.C.) of screw guage
=

pitch
No. of divisions on the circular scale

Zero error with sign (No. of div. L. C.) = ... mm

36

= ... mm

EXPERIMENT 2

UNIT NAME

Table E 2.1: Measurement of the diameter of the wire


S.
No.

Reading along
one direction
(d1 )

Linear
scale
reading
M (mm)

Circular
Diameter
scale
d1 = M + n L.C.
reading
(mm)
(n)

Reading
along
perpendicular
direction (d2)
Linear
scale
reading
M (mm)

Measured
diameter

d=

d1 + d2
2

Circular Diameter
scale
d = M + n L.C.
reading 2
(mm)
(n)

1
2
3
4

Mean diameter = ... mm


Mean corrected value of diameter
= measured diameter (zero error with sign) = ... mm

ESULT
The diameter of the given wire as measured by screw gauge is ... m.

RECAUTIONS
1.

Rachet arrangement in screw gauge must be utilised to avoid undue


pressure on the wire as this may change the diameter.

2.

Move the screw in one direction else the screw may develop play.

3.

Screw should move freely without friction.

4.

Reading should be taken atleast at four different points along the


length of the wire.

5.

View all the reading keeping the eye perpendicular to the scale to
avoid error due to parallax.

OURCES OF ERROR
1.

The wire may not be of uniform cross-section.

2.

Error due to backlash though can be minimised but cannot be


completely eliminated.

37

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

BACKLASH ERROR
In a good instrument (either screw gauge or a spherometer) the
thread on the screw and that on the nut (in which the screw moves),
should tightly fit with each other. However, with repeated use,
the threads of both the screw and the nut may get worn out. As
a result a gap develops between these two threads, which is called
play. The play in the threads may introduce an error in
measurement in devices like screw gauge. This error is called
backlash error. In instruments having backlash error, the screw
slips a small linear distance without rotation. To prevent this, it
is advised that the screw should be moved in only one direction
while taking measurements.
3. The divisions on the linear scale and the circular scale may not be
evenly spaced.

ISCUSSION
1. Try to assess if the value of diameter obtained by you is realistic
or not. There may be an error by a factor of 10 or 100 . You can
obtain a very rough estimation of the diameter of the wire by
measuring its thickness with an ordinary metre scale.
2. Why does a screw gauge develop backlash error with use?

ELF ASSESSMENT
1. Is the screw gauge with smaller least count always better? If you
are given two screw gauges, one with 100 divisions on circular
scale and another with 200 divisions, which one would you prefer
and why?
2. Is there a situation in which the linear distance moved by the screw
is not proportional to the rotation given to it?
3. Is it possible that the zero of circular scale lies above the zero line
of main scale, yet the error is positive zero error?
4. For measurement of small lengths, why do we prefer screw gauge
over Vernier Callipers?
SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

38

1.

Think of a method to find the pitch of bottle caps.

2.

Compare the pitch of an ordinary screw with that of a screw guage.


In what ways are the two different?

3.

Measure the diameters of petioles (stem which holds the leaf) of


different leaf and check if it has any relation with the mass or surface
area of the leaf. Let the petiole dry before measuring its diameter by
screw gauge.

EXPERIMENT 2

UNIT NAME

4.

Measure the thickness of the sheet of stainless steel glasses of


various make and relate it to their price structure.

5.

Measure the pitch of the screw end of different types of hooks and
check if it has any relation with the weight each one of these hooks
are expected to hold.

6.

Measure the thickness of different glass bangles available in the


Market. Are they made as per some standard?

7.

Collect from the market, wires of different gauge numbers, measure


their diameters and relate the two. Find out various uses of wires of
each gauge number.

(b) Measurement of Thickness of a Given Sheet

ROCEDURE
1. Insert the given sheet between the studs of the screw gauge and
determine the thickness at five different positions.
2. Find the average thickness and calculate the correct thickness by
applying zero error following the steps followed earlier.

BSERVATIONS AND CALCULATION


Least count of screw gauge = ... mm
Zero error of screw gauge = ... mm
Table E 2.2 Measurement of thickness of sheet
S.
No.

Linear scale
reading M
(mm)

Circular
scale reading
n

Thickness
t = M + n L.C.
(mm)

1
2
3
4
5

Mean thickness of the given sheet = ... mm


Mean corrected thickness of the given sheet
= observed mean thickness (zero error with sign) = ... mm

ESULT
The thickness of the given sheet is ... m.

39

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

OURCES OF ERROR
1. The sheet may not be of uniform thickness.

2. Error due to backlash though can be minimised but cannot be


eliminated completely.

ISCUSSION
1. Assess whether the thickness of sheet measured by you is realistic
or not. You may take a pile of say 20 sheets, and find its thickness
using a metre scale and then calculate the thickness of one sheet.
2. What are the limitations of the screw gauge if it is used to measure
the thickness of a thick cardboard sheet?
SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES
1.

Find out the thickness of different wood ply boards available in the
market and verify them with the specifications provided by the
supplier.

2.

Measure the thickness of the steel sheets used in steel almirahs


manufactured by different suppliers and compare their prices. Is it
better to pay for a steel almirah by mass or by the guage of steel
sheets used?

3.

Design a cardboard box for packing 144 sheets of paper and give
its dimensions.

4.

Hold 30 pages of your practical notebook between the screw and


the stud and measure its thickness to find the thickness of one
sheet.

5.

Find the thickness of plastic ruler/metal sheet of the geometry box.

(C) Determination of Volume of the Given Irregular Lamina

ROCEDURE
1. Find the thickness of lamina as in Experiment E 2(b).
2. Place the irregular lamina on a sheet of paper with mm graph.
Draw the outline of the lamina using a sharp pencil. Count the
total number of squares and also more than half squares within
the boundary of the lamina and determine the area of the lamina.
3. Obtain the volume of the lamina using the relation
mean thickness area of lamina.

BSERVATIONS AND CALCULATION


Same as in Experiment E 2(b). The first section of the table is now for
readings of thickness at five different places along the edge of the

40

EXPERIMENT 2

UNIT NAME

lamina. Calculate the mean thickness and make correction for zero
error, if any.
From the outline drawn on the graph paper:Total number of complete squares

= ... mm2 = ... cm2

Volume of the lamina

= ... mm3 = ... cm3

ESULT
Volume of the given lamina

= ... cm3

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES


1.

Find the density of cardboard.

2.

Find the volume of a leaf (neem, bryophyte).

3.

Find the volume of a cylindrical pencil.

41

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

EXPERIMENT
AIM

To determine the radius of curvature of a given spherical surface by a


spherometer.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


A spherometer, a spherical surface such as a watch glass or a convex
mirror and a plane glass plate of about 6 cm 6 cm size.

ESCRIPTION OF APPARATUS

A spherometer consists of a metallic triangular frame F supported on


three legs of equal length A, B and C (Fig. E 3.1). The lower tips of the
legs form three corners of an equilateral triangle ABC
and lie on the periphery of a base circle of known radius,
r. The spherometer also consists of a central leg OS (an
accurately cut screw), which can be raised or lowered
through a threaded hole V (nut) at the centre of the frame
F. The lower tip of the central screw, when lowered to
the plane (formed by the tips of legs A, B and C) touches
the centre of triangle ABC. The central screw also carries
a circular disc D at its top having a circular scale divided
into 100 or 200 equal parts. A small vertical scale P
marked in millimetres or half-millimetres, called main
scale is also fixed parallel to the central screw, at one end
of the frame F. This scale P is kept very close to the rim of
disc D but it does not touch the disc D. This scale reads
the vertical distance which the central leg moves through
Fig. E 3.1: A spherometer
the hole V. This scale is also known as pitch scale.

ERMS AND DEFINITIONS


Pitch: It is the vertical distance moved by the central screw in one
complete rotation of the circular disc scale.

42

Commonly used spherometers in school laboratories have


graduations in millimetres on pitch scale and may have100 equal
divisions on circular disc scale. In one rotation of the circular scale,
the central screw advances or recedes by 1 mm. Thus, the pitch of
the screw is 1 mm.

EXPERIMENT 3

UNIT NAME

Least Count: Least count of a spherometer is the distance moved by


the spherometer screw when it is turned through one division on the
circular scale, i.e.,
Least count of the spherometer =

Pitch of thespherom eter screw


Number of divisions on the circular scale

The least count of commonly used spherometers is 0.01 mm.


However, some spherometers have least count as small as
0.005 mm or 0.001 mm.

RINCIPLE
FORMULA FOR THE RADIUS OF CURVATURE OF A SPHERICAL
SURFACE
Let the circle AOBXZY (Fig. E 3.2) represent the vertical section of
sphere of radius R with E as its centre (The given spherical surface is
a part of this sphere). Length OZ is the diameter (= 2R ) of this vertical
section, which bisects the chord AB. Points A and B are the positions
of the two spherometer legs on the given spherical surface. The position
of the third spherometer leg is not shown in Fig. E 3.2. The point O is
the point of contact of the tip of central screw with the spherical surface.
Fig. E 3.3 shows
the base circle and
equilateral triangle
ABC formed by the
tips of the three
spherometer legs.
From this figure, it
can be noted that the
point M is not only
the mid point of line
AB but it is the
centre of base circle
and centre of the
equilateral triangle
ABC formed by the
lower tips of the legs of
the spherometer (Fig.
E 3.1).
In Fig. E 3.2 the
distance OM is the
height of central Fig. E 3.2: Measurement of radius Fig. E 3.3: The base circle of
the spherometer
of curvature of a spheriscrew above the plane
cal
surface
of the circular section
ABC when its lower

43

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LABORATORY MANUAL

tip just touches the spherical surface. This distance OM is also called
sagitta. Let this be h. It is known that if two chords of a circle, such
as AB and OZ, intersect at a point M then the areas of the rectangles
described by the two parts of chords are equal. Then
AM.MB = OM.MZ
(AM)2 = OM (OZ OM) as AM = MB
Let EZ (= OZ/2) = R, the radius of curvature of the given spherical
surface and AM = r, the radius of base circle of the spherometer.
r2 = h (2R h)
R=

Thus,

r2
2h

h
2

Now, let l be the distance between any two legs of the spherometer or
the side of the equilateral triangle ABC (Fig. E 3.3), then from geometry
we have

Thus, r =

l
3

, the radius of curvature (R) of the given spherical surface

can be given by

R=

l2
6h

h
2

ROCEDURE
1. Note the value of one division on pitch scale of the given
spherometer.
2. Note the number of divisions on circular scale.
3. Determine the pitch and least count (L.C.) of the spherometer. Place
the given flat glass plate on a horizontal plane and keep the
spherometer on it so that its three legs rest on the plate.
4. Place the spherometer on a sheet of paper (or on a page in practical
note book) and press it lightly and take the impressions of the tips
of its three legs. Join the three impressions to make an equilateral
triangle ABC and measure all the sides of ABC. Calculate the
mean distance between two spherometer legs, l.
In the determination of radius of curvature R of the given spherical
surface, the term l 2 is used (see formula used). Therefore, great
care must be taken in the measurement of length, l.

44

EXPERIMENT 3

UNIT NAME

5. Place the given spherical surface on the plane glass plate and then
place the spherometer on it by raising or lowering the central screw
sufficiently upwards or downwards so that the three spherometer
legs may rest on the spherical surface (Fig. E 3.4).
6. Rotate the central screw till it gently touches the spherical surface.
To be sure that the screw touches the surface one can observe its
image formed due to
reflection from the surface
beneath it.
7. Take the spherometer
reading h 1 by taking the
reading of the pitch scale.
Also read the divisions of
the circular scale that is in
line with the pitch scale.
Record the readings in
Table E 3.1.
Fig.E 3.4: Measurement of sagitta h

8. Remove the spherical


surface and place the spherometer on plane glass plate. Turn the
central screw till its tip gently touches the glass plate. Take the
spherometer reading h 2 and record it in Table E 3.1. The difference
between h 1 and h 2 is equal to the value of sagitta (h).
9. Repeat steps (5) to (8) three more times by rotating the spherical
surface leaving its centre undisturbed. Find the mean value of h.

BSERVATIONS
A. Pitch of the screw:
(i)

Value of smallest division on the vertical pitch scale = ... mm

(ii) Distance q moved by the screw for p complete rotations of the


circular disc = ... mm
(iii) Pitch of the screw ( = q / p ) = ... mm
B. Least Count (L.C.) of the spherometer:
(i)

Total no. of divisions on the circular scale (N ) = ...

(ii)

Least count (L.C.) of the spherometer


=

Pitch of the spherometer screw


Number of divisionson the circu lar scale

L.C.= Pitch of the screw = ... cm


N

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LABORATORY MANUAL

C. Determination of length l (from equilateral triangle ABC)


(i)

Distance AB = ... cm

(ii)

Distance BC = ... cm

(iii)

Distance CA = ... cm

Mean l =

AB + BC +CA
3

= ... cm

Table E 3.1 Measurement of sagitta h


S.
No.

Spherometer

readings

With Spherical Surface


Pitch
Scale
reading
x (cm)

Circular
scale
division
coinciding
with pitch
scale y

Circular Spherometer
scale
reading with
reading spherical
z =y L.C. surface
(cm)
h1 = x + z
(cm)

(h1 h2 )
Horizontal Plane Surface

Pitch
Scale
reading
x1 (cm)

Circular Spherometer
scale
reading with
reading spherical
surface
z =y L.C. h =x + z
2
(cm)
(cm)

Circular
scale
division
coinciding
with pitch
scale y

Mean h = ... cm

ALCULATIONS
A. Using the values of l and h, calculate the radius of curvature R
from the formula:

R=

l2
6h

h
2

the term h/2 may safely be dropped in case of surfaces of large radii

2
of curvature (In this situation error in l is of the order of h/2).
6h

ESULT
The radius of curvature R of the given spherical surface is ... cm.

46

EXPERIMENT 3

UNIT NAME

RECAUTIONS
1. The screw may have friction.
2. Spherometer may have backlash error.

OURCES OF ERROR
1. Parallax error while reading the pitch scale corresponding to the
level of the circular scale.
2. Backlash error of the spherometer.
3. Non-uniformity of the divisions in the circular scale.
4. While setting the spherometer, screw may or may not be touching
the horizontal plane surface or the spherical surface.

ISCUSSION
Does a given object, say concave mirror or a convex mirror, have the
same radius of curvature for its two surfaces? [Hint: Does the thickness
of the material of object make any difference?]
SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES
1.

Determine the focal length of a convex/concave spherical mirror


using a spherometer.

2.

(a) Using spherometer measure the thickness of a small piece of


thin sheet of metal/glass.
(b) Which instrument would be precise for measuring thickness of
a card sheet a screw gauge or a spherometer?

47

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

EXPERIMENT

IM
To determine mass of two different objects using a beam balance.

PPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


Physical balance, weight box with a set of milligram masses and
forceps, spirit level and two objects whose masses are to be determined.

ESCRIPTION OF PHYSICAL BALANCE


A physical balance is a device that measures the weight (or gravitational
mass) of an object by comparing it with a standard weight (or standard
gravitational mass).
The most commonly used two-pan beam
balance is an application of a lever. It consists
of a rigid uniform bar (beam), two pans
suspended from each end, and a pivotal point
in the centre of the bar (Fig. E 4.1). At this pivotal
point, a support (called fulcrum) is set at right
angles to the beam. This beam balance works
on the principle of moments.

For high precision measurements, a physical


balance (Fig. E 4.2) is often used in laboratories.
Like a common beam balance, a physical
balance too consists of a pair of scale pans P1
and P2, one at each end of a rigid beam B. The
pans P1 and P2 are suspended through stirrups
S1 and S2 respectively, on inverted knife-edges
E 1 and E2, respectively, provided symmetrically
Fig. E 4.1: A beam balance and set of weights
near the end of the beam B. The beam is also
provided with a hard material (like agate) knifeedge (E) fixed at the centre pointing downwards
and is supported on a vertical pillar (V) fixed on a wooden baseboard
(W). The baseboard is provided with three levelling screws W1, W2 and
W3. In most balances, screws W1 and W2 are of adjustable heights and
through these the baseboard W is levelled horizontally. The third screw
W3, not visible in Fig. E 4.2, is not of adjustable height and is fixed in
the middle at the back of board W. When the balance is in use, the
48

EXPERIMENT 4

UNIT NAME

knife-edge E rests on a
plane horizontal plate
fixed at the top of pillar
V. Thus, the central
edge E acts as a pivot
or fulcrum for the beam
B. When the balance is
not in use, the beam
rests on the supports
X 1 and X 2, These
supports, X 1 and X 2,
are fixed to another
horizontal bar attached
with the central pillar V.
Also, the pans P1 and
P 2 rest on supports A1
and A2, respectively,
Fig. E 4.2: A physical balance and a weight box
fixed on the wooden
baseboard. In some
balances, supports Al and A2 are not fixed and in that case the pans
rest on board W, when the balance is not in use.
At the centre of beam B, a pointer P is also fixed at right angles to it. A
knob K, connected by a horizontal rod to the vertical pillar V, is also
attached from outside with the board W. With the help of this knob,
the vertical pillar V and supports A1 and A2 can be raised or lowered
simultaneously. Thus, at the 'ON' position of the knob K, the beam
B also gets raised and is then suspended only by the knife-edge E
and oscillates freely. Along with the beam, the pans P1 and P2 also
begin to swing up and down. This oscillatory motion of the beam
can be observed by the motion of the pointer P with reference to a
scale (G) provided at the base of the pillar V. When the knob K is
turned back to 'OFF' position, the beam rests on supports X1 and X2
keeping the knife-edge E and plate T slightly separated; and the
pans P1 and P2 rest on supports A1 and A2 respectively. In the 'OFF'
position of the knob K, the entire balance is said to be arrested.
Such an arresting arrangement protects the knife-edges from undue
wear and tear and injury during transfer of masses (unknown and
standards) from the pan.
On turning the knob K slowly to its ON position, when there are no
masses in the two pans, the oscillatory motion (or swing) of the
pointer P with reference to the scale G must be same on either side
of the zero mark on G. And the pointer must stop its oscillatory
motion at the zero mark. It represents the vertical position of the
pointer P and horizontal position of the beam B. However, if the
swing is not the same on either side of the zero mark, the two
balancing screws B1 and B2 at the two ends of the beam are adjusted.
The baseboard W is levelled horizontal1y to make the pillar V vertical.

49

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LABORATORY MANUAL

This setting is checked with the help of plumb line (R) suspended by
the side of pillar V. The appartus is placed in a glass case with two
doors.
For measuring the gravitational mass of an object using a physical
balance, it is compared with a standard mass. A set of standard
masses (100 g, 50 g, 20 g, 10g, 5 g, 2 g, and 1 g) along with a pair of
forceps is contained in a wooden box called Weight Box. The masses
are arranged in circular grooves as shown in Fig. E 4.2. A set of
milligram masses (500 mg, 200 mg, 100 mg, 50 mg, 20 mg 10 mg,
5 mg, 2 mg, and 1 mg) is also kept separately in the weight box. A
physical balance is usually designed to measure masses of bodies
up to 250 g.

RINCIPLE
The working of a physical balance is based on the principle of
moments. In a balance, the two arms are of equal length and the two
pans are also of equal masses. When the pans are empty, the beam
remains horizontal on raising the beam base by using the lower knob.
When an object to be weighed is placed in the left pan, the beam
turns in the anticlockwise direction. Equilibrium can be obtained
by placing suitable known standard weights on the right hand pan.
Since, the force arms are equal, the weight (i.e., forces) on the two
pans have to be equal.
A physical balance compares forces. The forces are the weights (mass
acceleration due to gravity) of the objects placed in the two pans of
the physical balance. Since the weights are directly proportional to
the masses if weighed at the same place, therefore, a physical balance
is used for the comparison of gravitational masses. Thus, if an object
O having gravitational mass m is placed in one pan of the physical
balance and a standard mass O of known gravitational mass ms is
put in the other pan to keep the beam the horizontal, then
Weight of body O in one pan = Weight of body O in other pan
Or,

mg = msg

where g is the acceleration due to gravity, which is constant. Thus,


m = ms
That is,

the mass of object O in one pan = standard mass in the other pan

ROCEDURE
1. Examine the physical balance and recognise all of its parts. Check
that every part is at its proper place.

50

EXPERIMENT 4

UNIT NAME

2. Check that set of the weight, both in gram and milligram, in the
weight box are complete.
3. Ensure that the pans are clean and dry.
4. Check the functioning of arresting mechanism of the beam B by
means of the knob K.
5. Level the wooden baseboard W of the physical balance
horizontally with the help of the levelling screws W1 and W2. In
levelled position, the lower tip of the plumb line R should be
exactly above the fixed needle point N. Use a spirit level for this
purpose.
6. Close the shutters of the glass case provided for covering the
balance and slowly raise the beam B using the knob K.
7. Observe the oscillatory motion of the pointer P with reference to
the small scale G fixed at the foot of the vertical pillar V. In case,
the pointer does not start swinging, give a small gentle jerk to
one of the pans. Fix your eye perpendicular to the scale to avoid
parallax. Caution: Do not touch the pointer.
8. See the position of the pointer P. Check that it either stops at the
central zero mark or moves equally on both sides of the central
zero mark on scale G. If not, adjust the two balancing screws B1
and B2 placed at the two ends of the beam B so that the pointer
swings equally on either side of the central zero mark or stops at
the central zero mark. Caution: Arrest the balance before
adjusting the balancing screws.
9 . Open the shutter of the glass case of the balance. Put the
object whose mass (M) is to be measured in the left hand
pan and add a suitable standard mass say M1, (which may
be more than the rough estimate of the mass of the object)
in the right hand pan of the balance in its rest (or arrested)
position, i.e., when the beam B is lowered and allowed to
rest on stoppers X l and X2. Always use forceps for taking
out the standard mass from the weight box and for putting
them back.
The choice of putting object on left hand pan and standard
masses on right hand pan is arbitrary and chosen due to the
ease in handling the standard masses. A left handed person may
prefer to keep the object on right hand pan and standard masses
on left hand pan. It is also advised to keep the weight box near
the end of board W on the side of the pan being used for putting
the standard masses.
10. Using the knob K, gently raise the beam (now the beams knife
edge E will rest on plate T fixed on the top of the pillar V) and
observe the motion of the pointer P. It might rest on one side of

51

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

the scale or might oscillate more in one direction with reference


to the central zero mark on the scale G.
Note: Pans should not swing while taking the observations. The
swinging of pans may be stopped by carefully touching the pan
with the finger in the arresting position of the balance.
11. Check whether M1 is more than M or less. For this purpose, the
beam need to be raised to the full extent.
12. Arrest the physical balance. Using forceps, replace the standard
masses kept in the right pan by another mass (say M2). It should
be lighter if M1 is more than the mass M and vice versa.
13. Raise the beam and observe the motion of the pointer P and check
whether the standard mass kept on right hand pan is still heavier
(or lighter) than the mass M so that the pointer oscillates more in
one direction. If so, repeat step 12 using standard masses in gram
till the pointer swings nearly equal on both sides of the central
zero mark on scale G. Make the standard masses kept on right
hand pan to be slightly lesser than the mass of object. This would
result in the measurement of mass M of object with a precision of
1 g. Lower the beam B.
14. For fine measurement of mass add extra milligram masses
in the right hand pan in descending order until the pointer
swings nearly equal number of divisions on either side of the
central zero mark on scale G (use forceps to pick the milligram
or fractional masses by their turned-up edge). In the
equilibrium position (i.e., when the masses kept on both the
pans are equal), the pointer will rest at the centre zero mark.
Close the door of the glass cover to prevent disturbances due
to air draughts.
Note: The beam B of the balance should not be raised to the full
extent until milligram masses are being added or removed.
Pointers position can be seen by lifting the beam very gently and
for a short moment.
15. Arrest the balance and take out masses from the right hand pan
one by one and note total mass in notebook. Replace them in
their proper slot in the weight box. Also remove the object from
the left hand pan.
16. Repeat the step 9 to step 15 two more times for the same object.
17. Repeat steps 9 to 15 and determine the mass of the second given
object.
Record the observations for the second object in the table similar to
Table E 4.1.

52

EXPERIMENT 4

UNIT NAME

BSERVATIONS
TABLE E 4.1: Mass of First Object
S.
No.

Standard mass
Gram weights, x

Mass of the object (x + y)

Milligram weights, y

(g)

(mg)

(g)

1
2
3

Mean mass of the first object = ... g


TABLE E 4.2: Mass of Second Object
S.
No.

Standard mass
Gram weights, x
(g)

Mass of the object (x + y)

Milligram weights, y
(mg)

(g)

1
2
3

Mean mass of the second object = ... g

ESULT
The mass of the first given object is ... g and that of the second
object is ... g.

RECAUTIONS
1. The correctness of mass determined by a physical balance depends
on minimising the errors, which may arise due to the friction between
the knife-edge E and plate T. Friction cannot be removed completely.
However, it can be minimised when the knife-edge is sharp and
plate is smooth. The friction between other parts of the balance may
be minimised by keeping all the parts of balance dry and clean.
2. Masses should always be added in the descending order of
magnitude. Masses should be placed in the centre of the pan.
3. The balance should not be loaded with masses more than
capacity. Usually a physical balance is designed to measure
masses upto 250 g.

53

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

4. Weighing of hot and coId bodies using a physical balance should


be avoided. Similarly, active substances like chemicals, liquids
and powders should not be kept directly on the pan.

OURCES OF ERROR
1. There is always some error due to friction at various parts of the
balance.
2. The accuracy of the physical balance is 1 mg. This limits the
possible instrumental error.

ISCUSSION
The deviation of experimental value from the given value may be due
to many factors.
1.

The forceps used to load/unload the weights might contain dust


particles sticking to it which may get transferred to the weight.

2.

Often there is a general tendancy to avoid use of levelling and


balancing screws to level the beam/physical balance just before
using it.

ELF ASSESSMENT
1. Why is it necessary to close the shutters of the glass case for an
accurate measurement?
2. There are two physical balances: one with equal arms and other
with unequal arms. Which one should be preferred? What
additional steps do you need to take to use a physical balance
with unequal arms.
3. The minimum mass that can be used from the weight box is 10 g.
Find the possible instrumental error.
4. Instead of placing the mass (say a steel block) on the pan, suppose
it is hanged from the same hook S1 on which the pan P1 is hanging.
Will the value of measured mass be same or different?
SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES
1.

Determination of density of material of a non-porous block and


verification of Archimedes principle:
Hint: First hang the small block (say steel block) from hook S1 and
determine its mass in air. Now put the hanging block in a half water filled measuring cylinder. Measure the mass of block in water. Will it
be same, more or less? Also detemine the volume of steel block.
Find the density of the material of the block. From the measured
masses of the steel block in air and water, verify Archimedes principle.

54

EXPERIMENT

UNIT NAME

EXPERIMENT
AIM
Measurement of the weight of a given body (a wooden block) using
the parallelogram law of vector addition.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


The given body with hook, the parallelogram law of vector apparatus
(Gravesand's apparatus), strong thread, slotted weights (two sets),
white paper, thin mirror strip, sharp pencil.

ESCRIPTION OF MATERIAL
Gravesand's apparatus: It consists of a wooden board fixed
vertically on two wooden pillars as shown in Fig. E 5.1 (a). Two pulleys
P1 and P2 are provided on its two sides near the upper edge of the
board. A thread carrying hangers for addition of slotted weights is
made to pass over the pulleys so that two forces P and Q can be applied
by adding weights in the hangers. By suspending the given object,
whose weight is to be determined, in the middle of the thread, a third
force X is applied.

Fig. E 5.1(a): Gravesand's apparatus

Fig. E 5.1(b): Marking forces to scale

55

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

RINCIPLE
Working of this apparatus is based on the parallelogram law of
vector addition. The law states that "when two forces act
simultaneously at a point and are represented in magnitude and
direction by the two adjacent sides of a parallelogram, then the
resultant of forces can be represented both in magnitude and
direction by the diagonal of the parallelogram passing through the
point of application of the two forces.
Let P and Q be the magnitudes of the two forces and the angle between them. Then the resultant R of P and Q is given by
R =

P 2 + Q2 + 2 PQ cos

If two known forces P and Q and a third unknown force due to the
weight of the given body are made to act at a point O [Fig. 5.1 (a)]
such that they are in equilibrium, the unknown force is equal to
the resultant of the two forces. Thus, the weight of a given body
can be found.

ROCEDURE
1. Set the board of Gravesand's apparatus in vertical position by
using a plumb-line. Ensure that the pulleys are moving
smoothly. Fix a sheet of white paper on the wooden board with
drawing pins.
2. Take a sufficiently long piece of string and tie the two hangers at
its ends. Tie another shorter string in the middle of the first string
to make a knot at 'O'. Tie the body of unknown weight at the
other end of the string. Arrange them on the pulley as shown in
Fig. E 5.1 (a) with slotted weights on the hangers.
3. Add weights in the hangers such that the junction of the threads
is in equilibrium in the lower half of the paper. Make sure that
neither the weights nor the threads touch the board or
the table.
4. Bring the knot of the three threads to position of no-friction. For
this, first bring the knot to a point rather wide off its position of
no-friction. On leaving there, it moves towards the position of
no-friction because it is not in equilibrium. While it so moves,
tap the board gently. The point where the knot thus come to rest
is taken as the position of no-friction, mark this point. Repeat
the procedure several times. Each time let the knot approach the
position of no-friction from a different direction and mark the
point where it comes to rest. Find by judgement the centre of
those points which are close together. Mark this centre as O.

56

EXPERIMENT 5

UNIT NAME

5. To mark the direction of the force acting along a string, place a


mirror strip below the string on the paper . Adjust the position of
the eye such that there is no parallax between the string and its
image. Mark the two points A1 and A2 at the edges of the mirror
where the image of the string leaves the mirror [Fig E 5.1 (b)].
Similarly, mark the directions of other two forces by points B1 and
B2 and by points X 1 and X2 along the strings OB and OX
respectively.
6. Remove the hangers and note the weight of each hanger and slotted
weights on them.
7. Place the board flat on the table with paper on it. Join the three
pairs of points marked on the paper and extend these lines to
meet at O. These three lines represent the directions of the three
forces.
8. Choose a suitable scale, say 0.5 N (50 g wt) = 1cm and cut off
length OA and OB to represent forces P and Q respectively acting
at point O. With OA and OB as adjacent sides, complete the
parallelogram OACB. Ensure that the scale chosen is such that
the parallelogram covers the maximum area of the sheet.
9. Join points O and C. The length of OC will measure the weight of
the given body. See whether OC is along the straight line XO. If
not, let it meet BC at some point C. Measure the angle COC.
10.Repeat the steps 1 to 9 by suspending two different sets of weights
and calculate the mean value of the unknown weight.

BSERVATIONS
Weight of each hanger = ... N
Scale, 1cm

= ... N

Table E 5.1: Measurement of weight of given body


S. Force P = wt Force Q = wt Length OC Unknown Angle COC
No. of (hanger + of (hanger +
= L
weight X =
slotted
slotted weight
L s
weight)
P
(N)

OA
(cm)

Q
(N)

OB
(cm)

(cm)

(N)

1
2
3

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LABORATORY MANUAL

ESULT
The weight of the given body is found to be ... N.

RECAUTIONS
1. Board of Gravesand's apparatus is perpendicular to table on which
it is placed, by its construction. Check up by plumb line that it is
vertical. If it is not, make table top horizontal by putting packing
below appropriate legs of table.
2. Take care that pulleys are free to rotate, i.e., have little friction
between pulley and its axle.

OURCES OF ERROR
1. Friction at the pulleys may persist even after oiling.
2. Slotted weights may not be accurate.
3. Slight inaccuracy may creep in while marking the position of
thread.

ISCUSSION
1. The Gravesand's apparatus can also be used to verify the
parallelogram law of vector addition for forces as well as
triangle law of vector addition. This can be done by using the
same procedure by replacing the unknown weight by a
standard weight.
2. The method described above to find the point of no-friction for the
junction of three threads is quite good experimentally. If you like
to check up by an alternative method, move the junction to
extreme left, extreme right, upper most and lower most positions
where it can stay and friction is maximum. The centre of these
four positions is the point of no-friction.
3. What is the effect of not locating the point of no-friction accurately?
In addition to the three forces due to weight, there is a fourth
force due to friction. These four are in equilibrium. Thus, the
resultant of P and Q may not be vertically upwards, i.e., exactly
opposite to the direction of X.
4. It is advised that values of P and Q may be checked by spring
balance as slotted weights may have large error in their marked
value. Also check up the result for X by spring balance.

58

EXPERIMENT 5

UNIT NAME

ELF ASSESSMENT
1. State parallelogram law of vector addition.
2. Given two forces, what could be the
(a) Maximum magnitude of resultant force.
(b) Minimum magnitude of resultant force.
3. In which situation this parallelogram can be a rhombus.
4. If all the three forces are equal in magnitude, how will the
parallelogram modify?
5. When the knot is in equilibrium position, is any force acting on
the pulleys?
SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES
1.
2.

Interchange position of the body of unknown weight with either of


the forces and then find out the weight of that body.
Keeping the two forces same and by varying the unknown weight,
study the angle between the two forces.

3.

Suggest suitable method to estimate the density of material of a


given cylinder using parallelogram law of vectors.

4.

Implement parallelogram law of vectors in the following situations:(a) Catapult


(d) Kite

(b) Bow and arrow


(e) Cycle pedalling

(c) Hand gliding

59

LABORATORY MANUAL

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EXPERIMENT

AIM
Using a Simple Pendulum plot L T and L T2 graphs, hence find the
effective length of second's pendulum using appropriate graph.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


Clamp stand; a split cork; a heavy metallic (brass/iron) spherical bob
with a hook; a long, fine, strong cotton thread/string (about 2.0 m);
stop-watch; metre scale, graph paper, pencil, eraser.

ESCRIPTION OF TIME MEASURING DEVICES IN A SCHOOL LABORATORY


The most common device used for measuring time in a school
laboratory is a stop-watch or a stop-clock (analog). As the names
suggest, these have the provision to start or stop their working as
desired by the experimenter.
(a) Stop-Watch
Analog
A stop-watch is a special kind of watch. It has a multipurpose knob
or button (B) for start/stop/back to zero position [Fig. E 6.1(b)]. It has
two circular dials, the bigger one for a longer seconds hand
and the other smaller one for a shorter minutes hand. The
seconds dial has 30 equal divisions, each division representing 0.1 second. Before using a stop-watch you should
find its least count. In one rotation, the seconds hand covers
30 seconds (marked by black colour) then in the second
rotation another 30 seconds are covered (marked by red
colour), therefore, the least count is 0.1 second.
(b) Stop-Clock

Fig.E 6.1(a): Stop - Watch

60

The least count of a stop-watch is generally about 0.1s [Fig.


E 6.1(b)] while that of a stop-clock is 1s, so for more accurate
measurement of time intervals in a school laboratory, a
stop-watch is preferred. Digital stop-watches are also
available now. These watches may be started by pressing
the button and can be stopped by pressing the same button

EXPERIMENT 6

UNIT NAME

once again. The lapsed time interval is directly


displayed by the watch.

ERMS AND DEFINITIONS


1. Second's pendulum: It is a pendulum which
takes precisely one second to move from one
extreme position to other. Thus, its times period
is precisely 2 seconds.
2. Simple pendulum: A point mass suspended by
an inextensible, mass less string from a rigid
Fig.E 6.1(b): Stop - Clock
point support. In practice a small heavy
spherical bob of high density material of radius
r, much smaller than the length of the suspension, is suspended
by a light, flexible and strong string/thread supported at the other
end firmly with a clamp stand. Fig. E 6.2 is a good approximation
to an ideal simple pendulum.
3. Effective length of the pendulum: The distance L between the
point of suspension and the centre of spherical bob (centre of
gravity), L = l + r + e, is also called the effective length where l is the
length of the string from the top of the bob to the hook, e, the
length of the hook and r the radius of the bob.

RINCIPLE
The simple pendulum executes Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)
as the acceleration of the pendulum bob is directly proportional to
its displacement from the mean position and is always directed
towards it.
The time period (T) of a simple pendulum for oscillations of small
amplitude, is given by the relation
T = 2 L / g

(E 6.1)

where L is the length of the pendulum, and g is the acceleration due


to gravity at the place of experiment.
Eq. (6.1) may be rewritten as

T2 =

4 2 L
g

(E 6.2)

ROCEDURE
1. Place the clamp stand on the table. Tie the hook, attached to
the pendulum bob, to one end of the string of about 150 cm in
length. Pass the other end of the string through two half-pieces
of a split cork.

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2. Clamp the split cork firmly in the clamp stand such that the line of
separation of the two pieces of the split cork is at right angles to
the line OA along which the pendulum oscillates [Fig. E 6.2(a)].
Mark, with a piece of chalk or ink, on the edge of the table a vertical
line parallel to and just behind the vertical thread OA, the position
of the bob at rest. Take care that the bob hangs vertically (about
2 cm above the floor) beyond the edge of the table so that it is free
to oscillate.
3 . Measure the effective length of simple pendulum as shown
in Fig. E 6.2(b).

Fig.E 6.2 (a): A simple pendulum; B and C show


the extreme positions

Fig.E 6.2 (b): Effective length of a


simple pendulum

4. Displace the bob to one side, not more than 15 degrees angular
displacement, from the vertical position OA and then release it gently.
In case you find that the stand is shaky, put some heavy object on
its base. Make sure that the bob starts oscillating in a vertical plane
about its rest (or mean) position OA and does not (i) spin about its
own axis, or (ii) move up and down while oscillating, or (iii) revolve
in an elliptic path around its mean position.
5. Keep the pendulum oscillating for some time. After completion of
a few oscillations, start the stop-watch/clock as the thread attached
to the pendulum bob just crosses its mean position (say, from left
to right). Count it as zero oscillation.
6. Keep on counting oscillations 1,2,3,, n, everytime the bob crosses
the mean position OA in the same direction (from left to right).

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EXPERIMENT 6

UNIT NAME

Stop the stop-watch/clock, at the count n (say, 20 or 25) of


oscillations, i.e., just when n oscillations are complete. For better
results, n should be chosen such that the time taken for n
oscillations is 50 s or more. Read, the total time (t) taken by the
bob for n oscillations. Repeat this observation a few times by noting
the time for same number (n) of oscillations. Take the mean of
these readings. Compute the time for one oscillation, i.e., the time
period T ( = t/n) of the pendulum.
7. Change the length of the pendulum, by about 10 cm. Repeat the
step 6 again for finding the time (t) for about 20 oscillations or
more for the new length and find the mean time period. Take 5 or
6 more observations for different lengths of penduLum and find
mean time period in each case.
8. Record observations in the tabular form with proper units and
significant figures.
9. Take effective length L along x-axis and T 2 (or T) along y-axis,
using the observed values from Table E 6.1. Choose suitable scales
on these axes to represent L and T 2 (or T ). Plot a graph between
L and T 2 (as shown in Fig. E 6.4) and also between L and T (as
shown in Fig. E 6.3). What are the shapes of L T 2 graph and L T
graph? Identify these shapes.

BSERVATIONS
(i)

Radius (r) of the pendulum bob (given)

= ... cm

Length of the hook (given) (e)

= ... cm

Least count of the metre scale

= ... mm = ... cm

Least count of the stop-watch/clock

= ... s

Table E 6.1: Measuring the time period T and effective length


L of the simple pendulum
S.
Length of the
Effective
No. string from the length, L =
top of the bob to
(l+r+e)
the point of
suspension l
(cm)

Number of
oscillations
counted, n

Time for n oscillations


T ime
t (s)
period T
(= t/ n)

(i)... (ii)

(iii)

Mean
t (s)

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LOTTING GRAPH
(i)

L vs T graphs

Plot a graph between L versus T from observations recorded in


Table E 6.1, taking L along x-axis and T along y-axis. You will
find that this graph is a curve, which is part of a parabola as
shown in Fig. E 6.3.
(ii) L vs T 2 graph
Plot a graph between L versus T 2 from observations recorded in
Table E 6.1, taking L along x-axis and T 2 along y-axis. You will
find that the graph is a straight line passing through origin as shown
in Fig. E. 6.4.
(iii) From the T 2 versus L graph locate the effective length of second's
pendulum for T 2 = 4s2.

Fig. E 6.3: Graph of L vs T

Fig. E 6.4: Graph L vs T 2

ESULT
1. The graph L versus T is curved, convex upwards.
2. The graph L versus T 2 is a straight line.
3. The effective length of second's pendulum from L versus T 2 graph
is ... cm.
Note : The radius of bob may be found from its measured
diameter with the help of callipers by placing the pendulum bob
between the two jaws of (a) ordinary callipers, or (b) Ver nier
Callipers, as described in Experiment E 1.1 (a). It can also be
found by placing the spherical bob between two parallel card
boards and measuring the spacing (diameter) or distance between
them with a metre scale.

64

EXPERIMENT 6

UNIT NAME

ISCUSSION
1. The accuracy of the result for the length of second's pendulum
depends mainly on the accuracy in measurement of effective length
(using metre scale) and the time period T of the pendulum (using
stop-watch). As the time period appears as T 2 in Eq. E 6.2, a small
uncertainty in the measurement of T would result in appreciable
error in T 2, thereby significantly affecting the result. A stop-watch
with accuracy of 0.1s may be preferred over a less accurate
stop-watch/clock.
2. Some personal error is always likely to be involved due to stop-watch
not being started or stopped exactly at the instant the bob crosses
the mean position. Take special care that you start and stop the
stop-watch at the instant when pendulum bob just crosses the
mean position in the same direction.
3. Sometimes air currents may not be completely eliminated. This
may result in conical motion of the bob, instead of its motion in
vertical plane. The spin or conical motion of the bob may cause a
twist in the thread, thereby affecting the time period. Take special
care that the bob, when it is taken to one side of the rest position,
is released very gently.
4. To suspend the bob from the rigid support, use a thin, light, strong,
unspun cotton thread instead of nylon string. Elasticity of the
string is likely to cause some error in the effective length of the
pendulum.
5. The simple pendulum swings to and fro in SHM about the mean,
equilibrium position. Eq. (E 6.1) that expresses the relation
between T and L as T = 2 L / g , holds strictly true for small
amplitude or swing of the pendulum.
Remember that this relation is based on the assumption that sin
, (expressed in radian) holds only for small angular
displacement .
6. Buoyancy of air and viscous drag due to air slightly increase the
time period of the pendulum. The effect can be greatly reduced to
a large extent by taking a small, heavy bob of high density material
(such as iron/ steel/brass).

ELF ASSESSMENT
1. Interpret the graphs between L and T 2, and also between L and T
that you have drawn for a simple pendulum.
2. Examine, using Table E 6.1, how the time period T changes as the

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LABORATORY MANUAL

effective length L of a simple pendulum; becomes 2-fold, 4-fold,


and so on.
3. How can you determine the value of 'g', acceleration due to gravity,
from the T 2 vs L graph?
SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES
1.

To determine ' g', the acceleration due to gravity, at a given place,


from the L T 2 graph, for a simple pendulum.

2.

Studying the effect of size of the bob on the time period of the
simple pendulum.
[Hint: With the same experimental set-up, take a few spherical
bobs of same material (density) but of different sizes (diameters).
Keep the length of the pendulum the same for each case. Clamp
the bobs one by one, and starting from a small angular displacement
of about 10o, each time measure the time for 50 oscillations. Find
out the time period of the pendulum using bobs of different sizes.
Compensate for difference in diameter of the bob by adjusting the
length of the thread.
Does the time period depend on the size of the pendulum bob? If
yes, see the order in which the change occurs.]

3.

Studying the effect of material (density) of the bob on the time


period of the simple pendulum.
[Hint: With the same experimental set-up, take a few spherical
bobs (balls) of different materials, but of same size. Keep the
length of the pendulum the same for each case. Find out, in each
case starting from a small angular displacement of about 10, the
time period of the pendulum using bobs of different materials,
Does the time period depend on the material (density) of the
pendulum bob? If yes, see the order in which the change occurs.
If not, then do you see an additional reason to use the pendulum
for time measurement.]

4.

Studying the effect of mass of the bob on the time period of the
simple pendulum.
[Hint: With the same experimental set-up, take a few bobs of
different materials (different masses) but of same size. Keep the
length of the pendulum same for each case. Starting from a small
angular displacement of about 10 find out, in each case, the time
period of the pendulum, using bobs of different masses.
Does the time period depend on the mass of the pendulum bob? If
yes, then see the order in which the change occurs. If not, then
do you see an additional reason to use the pendulum as a time
measuring device.]

5.

Studying the effect of amplitude of oscillation on the time period of


the simple pendulum.
[Hint: With the same experimental set-up, keep the mass of the
bob and length of the pendulum fixed. For measuring the angular
amplitude, make a large protractor on the cardboard and have a
scale marked on an arc from 0 to 90 in units of 5. Fix it on the
edge of a table by two drawing pins such that its 0- line coincides

66

EXPERIMENT 6

UNIT NAME

with the suspension thread of the pendulum at rest. Start the


pendulum oscillating with a very large angular amplitude (say 70)
and find the time period T of the pendulum. Change the amplitude
of oscillation of the bob in small steps of 5 or 10 and determine
the time period in each case till the amplitude becomes small (say
5). Draw a graph between angular amplitude and T. How does
the time period of the pendulum change with the amplitude of
oscillation?
How much does the value of T for A = 10 differ from that for A=
50 from the graph you have drawn?
Find at what amplitude of oscillation , the time period begins to vary?
Determine the limit for the pendulum when it ceases to be a simple
pendulum.]
6.

Studying the effect on time period of a pendulum having a bob of


varying mass (e.g. by filling the hollow bob with sand, sand being
drained out in steps)
[Hint: The change in T, if any, in this experiment will be so small
that it will not be possible to measure it due to the following reasons:
The centre of gravity (CG) of a hollow sphere is at the centre of the
sphere. The length of this simple pendulum will be same as that of
a solid sphere (same size) or that of the hollow sphere filled
completely with sand (solid sphere).
Drain out some sand from the sphere. The situation is as shown in
Fig. E. 6.5. The CG of bob now goes down to point say A. The
effective length of the pendulum increases and therefore the T A
increases (TA > TO), some more sand is drained out, the CG goes
down further to a point B. The effective length further increases,
increasing T .
The process continues and L and T change in the same direction
(increasing), until finally the entire sand is drained out. The bob is
now a hollow sphere with CG shifting back to centre C. The time
period will now become T0 again.]

C
A
B

Sand

Fig. E 6.5: Variation of centre of gravity of sand filled


hollow bob on time period of the pendulum;
sand being drained out of the bob in steps.

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EXPERIMENT

AIM
To study the relation between force of limiting friction and normal
reaction and to find the coefficient of friction between surface of a
moving block and that of a horizontal surface.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


A wooden block with a hook, a horizontal plane with a glass or
laminated table top (the table top itself may be used as a horizontal
plane), a frictionless pulley which can be fixed at the edge of the
horizontal table/plane, spirit level, a scale, pan, thread or string, spring
balance, weight box and five masses of 100 g each.

ERMS AND DEFINITIONS


Friction: The tendency to oppose the relative motion between two
surfaces in contact is called friction.
Static Friction: It is the frictional force acting between two solid
surfaces in contact at rest but having a tendency to move (slide) with
respect to each other.
Limiting Friction: It is the maximum value of force of static friction
when one body is at the verge of sliding with respect to the other body
in contact.
Kinetic (or Dynamic) Friction: It is the frictional force acting between
two solid surfaces in contact when they are in relative motion.

RINCIPLE
The maximum force of
static friction, i.e., limiting
friction, FL, between two
dry, clean and unlubricated
solid surfaces is found to
obey the following empirical
laws:

68

(i) The limiting friction is

Fig. E 7.1: The body is at rest due to


static friction

EXPERIMENT 7

UNIT NAME

directly proportional to the normal reaction, R, which is given by


the total weight W of the body (Fig. E 7.1). The line of action is
same for both W and R for horizontal surface,
F L R F L = L R
i.e. L =

FL
R

Thus, the ratio of the magnitude of the limiting friction, F L, to the


magnitude of the normal force, R, is a constant known as the
coefficient of limiting friction (L ) for the given pair of surfaces in
contact.
(ii) The limiting friction depends upon the nature of surfaces in contact
and is nearly independent of the surface area of contact over wide
limits so long as normal reaction remains constant.
Note that FL = LR is
an equation of a
straight line passing
through the origin.
Thus, the slope of the
straight-line graph
between F l (along Yaxis) and R (along Xaxis) will give the
value of coefficient of
limiting friction L.

R = (M+p)g

Pulley

Clear glass (or


wood mica) top
(M+p)g

q
Pan

(m+q)g
In this experiment,
the relationship
Fig. E 7.2: Experimental set up to study limiting friction
between the limiting
friction and normal
reaction is studied for a wooden block. The wooden block is made
to slide over a horizontal surface (say glass or a laminated surface)
(Fig. E 7.2).

ROCEDURE
1. Find the range and least count of the spring balance.
2. Measure the mass (M) of the given wooden block with hooks on its
sides and the scale pan (m) with the help of the spring balance.
3. Place the glass (or a laminated sheet) on a table and make it
horizontal, if required, by inserting a few sheets of paper or
cardboard below it. To ensure that the table-top surface is
horizontal use a spirit level. Take care that the top surface must
be clean and dry.

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4. Fix a frictionless pulley on one edge of table-top as shown in Fig.


E 7.2. Lubricate the pulley if need be.
5. Tie one end of a string of suitable length (in accordance with the
size and the height of the table) to a scale pan and tie its other end
to the hook of the wooden block.
6. Place the wooden block on the horizontal plane and pass the string
over the pulley (Fig. E7.2). Ensure that the portion of the string
between pulley and the wooden block is horizontal. This can be
done by adjusting the height of the pulley to the level of hook of
block.
7. Put some mass (q) on the scale pan. Tap the table-top gently with
your finger. Check whether the wooden block starts moving.
8. Keep on increasing the mass (q) on the scale pan till the wooden
block just starts moving on gently tapping the glass top. Record
the total mass kept on the scale pan in Table E 7.1.
9. Place some known mass (say p ) on the top of wooden block and
adjust the mass (q) on the scale pan so that the wooden block
alongwith mass p just begins to slide on gently tapping the table
top. Record the values of p and q in Table E 7.1.
10.Repeat step 9 for three or four more values of p and record the
corresponding values of q in Table E 7.1. A minimum of five
observations may be required for plotting a graph between FL and
R.

BSERVATIONS
1. Range of spring balance

= ... to ... g

2. Least count of spring balance

= ... g

3. Mass of the scale pan, (m)

= ... g

4. Mass of the wooden block (M)

= ... g

5. Acceleration due to gravity (g) at the place of experiment= ... m/s2


S.
No.

Table E 7.1: Variation of Limiting Friction with Normal


Mass on the
Normal
wooden block force R due
(p) (g)
to mass
(M+p)
(g)

1
2
3
4
5

70

(kg)

(g)

Mass on Force of
the pan limiting
(q) g
friction FL
(kg)

(N)

Coefficient Mean L
of friction

L =

FL
R

EXPERIMENT 7

UNIT NAME

Reaction

RAPH
Plot a graph between the limiting friction (FL ) and
normal force (R) between the wooden block and the
horizontal surface, taking the limiting friction F L
along the y-axis and normal force R along the xaxis. Draw a line to join all the points marked on it
(Fig. E 7.3). Some points may not lie on the straightline graph and may be on either side of it. Extend
the straight line backwards to check whether the
graph passes through the origin. The slope of this
straight-line graph gives the coefficient of limiting
friction (L ) between the wooden block and the
horizontal surface. To find the slope of straight line, Fig. E 7.3: Graph between force of
choose two points A and B that are far apart from
limiting friction FL and
each other on the straight line as shown in Fig. E
normal reaction, R
7.3. Draw a line parallel to x-axis through point A
and another line parallel to y-axis through point B.
Let point Z be the point of intersection of these two lines. Then, the
slope L of straight line graph AB would be

L =

F L BZ
=
R AZ

ESULT
The value of coefficient of limiting friction L between surface of wooden
block and the table-top (laminated sheet/glass) is:
(i)

From calculation (Table E 7.1)

= ...

(ii)

From graph

= ...

RECAUTIONS
1.

Surface of the table should be horizontal and dust free.

2.

Thread connecting wooden block and pulley should be horizontal.

3.

Friction of the pulley should be reduced by proper oiling.

4.

Table top should always be tapped gently.

OURCES OF ERROR
1.

Always put the mass at the centre of wooden block.

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2.

Surface must be dust free and dry.

3.

The thread must be unstretchable and unspun.

ISCUSSION
1. The friction depends on the roughness of the surfaces in contact.
If the surfaces in contact are ideally (perfactly) smooth, there
would be no friction between the two surfaces. However, there
cannot be an ideally smooth surface as the distribution of atoms
or molecules on solid surface results in an inherent roughness.
2. In this experimental set up and calculations, friction at the pulley
has been neglected, therefore, as far as possible, the pulley, should
have minimum friction as it cannot be frictionless.
3. The presence of dust particles between the wooden block and
horizontal plane surface may affect friction and therefore lead
to errors in observations. Therefore, the surface of the
horizontal plane and wooden block in contact must be clean
and dust free.
4. The presence of water or moisture between the wooden block
and the plane horizontal surface would change the nature of
the surface. Thus, while studying the friction between the surface
of the moving body and horizontal plane these must be kept
dry.
5. Elasticity of the string may cause some error in the observation.
Therefore, a thin, light, strong and unspun cotton thread must
be used as a string to join the scale pan and the moving block.
6. The portion of string between the pulley and wooden block must
be horizontal otherwise only a component of tension in the string
would act as the force to move the block.
7. It is important to make a judicious choice of the size of the block
and set of masses for this experiment. If the block is too light, its
force of limiting friction may be even less than the weight of empty
pan and in this situation, the observation cannot be taken with
the block alone. Similarly, the maximum mass on the block, which
can be obtained by putting separate masses on it, should not be
very large otherwise it would require a large force to make the
block move.
8. The additional mass, p, should always be put at the centre of
wooden block.

72

EXPERIMENT 7

UNIT NAME

9. The permissible error in measurements of coefficient of friction

F L R
= F + R = ...
L

ELF ASSESSMENT
1. On the basis of your observations, find the relation between
limiting friction and the mass of sliding body.
2. Why do we not choose a spherical body to study the limiting
friction between the two surfaces?
3. Why should the horizontal surfaces be clean and dry?
4. Why should the portion of thread between the moving body and
pulley be horizontal?
5. Why is it essential in this experiment to ensure that the surface
on which the block moves should be horizontal?
6. Comment on the statement: The friction between two surfaces
can never be zero.
7. In this experiment, usually unpolished surfaces are preferred,
why?
8. What do you understand by self-adjusting nature of force of
friction?
9. In an experiment to study the relation between force of limiting
friction and normal reaction, a body just starts sliding on applying
a force of 3 N. What will be the magnitude of force of friction
acting on the body when the applied forces on it are 0.5 N, 1.0 N,
2.5 N, 3.5 N, respectively.
SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES
1.

To study the effect of the nature of sliding surface. [Hint: Repeat


the same experiment for different types of surfaces say, plywood,
carpet etc. Or repeat the experiment after putting oil or powder on
the surface.]

2.

To study the effect of changing the area of the surfaces in contact.


[Hint: Place the wooden block vertically and repeat the experiment.
Discuss whether the readings and result of the experiment are same.]

3.

To find the coefficient of limiting friction by sliding the block on an


inclined plane.

73

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

EXPERIMENT
AIM

To find the downward force, along an inclined plane, acting on a roller


due to gravity and study its relationship with the angle of inclination
by plotting graph between force and sin .

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


Inclined plane with protractor and pulley, roller, weight box, spring
balance, spirit level, pan and thread.
Pulley
M1
Mass, M3

Pan, M2

W= (M2+M3)

Constant v
Roller
v
Protractor

Fig. E 8.1: Experimental set up to find the downward


force along an inclined plane

RINCIPLE
Consider the set up shown in Fig. E 8.1. Here a roller of
mass M1 has been placed on an inclined plane making
an angle with the horizontal. An upward force, along
the inclined plane, could be applied on the mass M1 by
adjusting the weights on the pan suspended with a string
while its other end is attached to the mass through a
pulley fixed at the top of the inclined plane. The force on
the the mass M1 when it is moving with a constant velocity
v will be
W = M1g sin f r

Fig. E 8.2: Free body diagram

74

where f r is the force of friction due to rolling, M 1 is


mass of roller and W is the total tension in the string

EXPERIMENT 8

UNIT NAME

(W = weight suspended). Assuming there is no friction between


the pulley and the string.

ROCEDURE
1. Arrange the inclined plane, roller and the masses in the pan as
shown in Fig. E. 8.1. Ensure that the pulley is frictionless. Lubricate
it using machine oil, if necessary.
2. To start with, let the value of W be adjusted so as to permit the
roller to stay at the top of the inclined plane at rest.
3. Start decreasing the masses in small steps in the pan until the
roller just starts moving down the plane with a constant velocity.
Note W and also the angle . Fig. E 8.2 shows the free body diagram
for the situation when the roller just begins to move downwards.

4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for different values of . Tabulate your


observations.

BSERVATIONS
Acceleration due to gravity, g

= ... N/m2

Mass of roller, m
Mass of the pan

= (M1) g
= (M2) g
Table E 8.1

S. No.

sin

Mass added to pan


M3

Force
W = (M2 + M3 ) g (N)

1
2

LOTTING GRAPH
Plot graph between sin and
the force W (Fig. E 8.3). It
should be a straight line.

Fig. E 8.3: Graph between W


and sin

75

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

ESULT
Therefore, within experimental error, downward force along inclined
plane is directly proportional to sin , where is the angle of inclination
of the plane.

RECAUTIONS
1. Ensure that the inclined plane is placed on a horizontal surface
using the spirit level.
2. Pulley must be frictionless.
3. The weight should suspend freely without touching the table or
other objects.
4. Roller should roll smoothly, that is, without slipping.
5. Weight, W should be decreased in small steps.

OURCES OF ERROR
1. Error may creep in due to poor judgement of constant velocity.
2. Pulley may not be frictionless.
3. It may be difficult to determine the exact point when the roller
begins to slide with constant velocity.
4. The inclined surface may not be of uniform smoothness/roughness.
5. Weights in the weight box may not be standardised.

ISCUSSION
As the inclination of the plane is increased, starting from zero,
the value of mg sin increases and frictional force also increases
accordingly. Therefore, till limiting friction W = 0, we need not apply
any tension in the string.
When we increase the angle still further, net tension in the string is
required to balance (mg sin f r ) or otherwise the roller will accelerate
downwards.
It is difficult to determine exact value of W. What we can do is we find
tension W 1 (< W) at which the roller is just at the verge of rolling
down and W 2 (> W) at which the roller is just at the verge of moving
up. Then we can take
W =

76

(W1 + W2 )
2

EXPERIMENT 8

UNIT NAME

ELF ASSESSMENT
1. Give an example where the force of friction is in the same direction
as the direction of motion.
2. How will you use the graph to find the co-efficient of rolling friction
between the roller and the inclined plane?
3. What is the relation between downward force and angle of
inclination of the plane?
4. How will you ensure that the roller moves upward/downward with
constant velocity?
SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES
1.

From the graph, find the intercept and the slope. Interpret them
using the given equation.

2.

Allow the roller to move up the inclined plane by adjusting the mass
in the pan. Interpret the graph between W and sin where W is
the mass in pan added to the mass of the pan required to allow the
roller to move upward with constant velocity.

77

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

EXPERIMENT

AIM
To determine Young's modulus of the material of a given wire by using
Searle's apparatus.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


Searle's apparatus, slotted weights, experimental
wire, screw gauge and spirit level.
SEARLE'S APPARATUS
It consists of two metal frames P and Q hinged
together such that they can move relative to each
other in vertical direction (Fig. E9.1).
A spirit level is supported on a rigid crossbar
frame which rests on the tip of a micrometer
screw C at one end and a fixed knife edge K at
the other. Screw C can be moved vertically. The
micrometer screw has a disc having 100 equal
divisions along its circumference. On the side of
it is a linear scale S, attached vertically. If there
is any relative displacement between the two
frames, P and Q, the spirit level no longer remains
horizontal and the bubble of the spirit level is
displaced from its centre. The crossbar can again
be set horizontal with the help of micrometer
screw and the spirit level. The distance through
which the screw has to be moved gives the
relative displacement between the two frames.

Fig. E 9.1: Searle's apparatus for


determination of Y

78

The frames are suspended by two identical long


wires of the same material, from the same rigid
horizontal support. Wire B is called the
experimental wire and wire A acts as a reference
wire. The frames, P and Q, are provided with
hooks H 1 and H 2 at their lower ends from which
weights are suspended. The hook H 1 attached
to the reference wire carries a constant weight
W to keep the wire taut.

EXPERIMENT 9

UNIT NAME

To the hook H2 is attached a hanger on which slotted weights can


be placed to apply force on the experimental wire.

RINCIPLE
The apparatus works on the principle of Hookes Law. If l is the
extension in a wire of length L and radius r due to force F (=Mg), the
Young's modulus of the material of the given wire, Y, is
Y =

MgL
r 2l

ROCEDURE
1. Suspend weights from both the hooks so that the two wires are
stretched and become free from any kinks. Attach only the constant
weight W on the reference wire to keep it taut.
2. Measure the length of the experimental wire from the point of its
support to the point where it is attached to the frame.
3. Find the least count of the screw gauge. Determine the diameter of
the experimental wire at about 5 places and at each place in two
mutually perpendicular directions. Find the mean diameter and
hence the radius of the wire.
4. Find the pitch and the least count of the miocrometer screw
attached to the frame. Adjust it such that the bubble in the
spirit level is exactly in the centre. Take the reading of the
micrometer.
5. Place a load on the hanger attached to the experimental wire and
increase it in steps of 0.5 kg. For each load, bring the bubble of the
spirit level to the centre by adjusting the micrometer screw and
then note its reading. Take precautions to avoid backlash error.
6. Take about 8 observations for increasing load.
7. Decrease the load in steps of 0.5 kg and each time take reading on
micrometer screw as in step 5.

BSERVATIONS
Length of the wire (L) = ...
Pitch of the screw gauge = ...
No. of divisions on the circular scale of the screw gauge = ...
Least count (L.C.) of screw gauge = ...
Zero error of screw gauge = ...

79

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

Table E 9.1: Measurement of diameter of wire


S.
No.

Reading along any


direction

Reading along perpendicular direction

Mean diameter

d =

d1 + d2
2
(cm)

Main
scale
reading S
(cm)

Circular
scale
reading n

Diameter
d1 =
S + n L.C.

Main
scale
reading S
(cm)

Circular
scale
reading n

Diameter
d2 =
S + n L.C.
(cm)

1
2
3
4
5

Mean diameter (corrected for zero error) = ...


Mean radius = ...
MEASUREMENT OF EXTENSION l
Pitch of the micrometer screw = ...
No. of divisions on the circular scale = ...
Least count (L.C.) of the micrometer screw = ...
Acceleration due to gravity, g = ...
Table E 9.2: Measurement of extension with load
S. Load on experimental
No.
wire
M

(kg)

80

Micrometer reading

Load increasing
x
(cm)

Mean reading
x + y

(cm)

Load decreasing
y
(cm)

1
2

0.5
1.0

a
b

3
4

1.5
2.0

c
d

5
6
7

2.5
3.0
3.5

e
f
g

4.0

EXPERIMENT 9

UNIT NAME

ALCULATION
Observations recorded in Table E 9.2 can be utilised to find extension
of experimental wire for a given load, as shown in Table E 9.3.
Table E 9.3: Calculating extension for a given load
S.
No.

Mean extension
(cm)

Load
(kg)

Mean extension

Extension l for
1.5 kg

0.5

2.0

da

1.0

2.5

eb

1.5

3.0

fc

Mean l =

(a d) +(b c) + (c f)
3

= ... cm for 1.5 kg


Youngs modulus, Y, of experimental wire Y =

MgL
= ... N / m2
r 2l

RAPH
The value of Y can also be found by plotting a graph between l
and Mg. Draw a graph with load on the x-axis and extension on
the y-axis. It should be a straight line. Find the slope =

l
of the
M

line. Using this value, find the value of Y.

ESULT
The Young's modulus Y of the material of the wire
(using half table method) = Y Y N/m2
(using graph) = Y Y N/m2

RROR
Uncertainty, M, in the measurement of M can be determined by a
beam/physical balance using standard weight box/or by using water
bottles of fixed capacity.

81

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

Find the variation in M for each slotted weight of equal mass say
M1 and M2. Find the mean of these M. This is the uncertainity
(M) in M.
L the least count of the scale used for measuring L.
r the least count of the micrometer screw gauge used for measuring r.
l least count of the device used for measuring extension.

RECAUTION
1. Measure the diameter of the wire at different positions, check for
its uniformity.
2. Adjust the spirit level only after sufficient time gap following each
loading/unloading.

OURCES OF ERROR
1. The diameter of the wire may alter while loading.
2. Backlash error of the device used for measuring extension.
3. The nonuniformity in thickness of the wire.

ISCUSSION
Which of the quantities measured in the experiment is likely to have
maximum affect on the accuracy in measurement of Y (Young's
modulus).

ELF ASSESSMENT
1. If the length of the wire used is reduced what will be its effect on
(a)
extension on the wire and (b)
stress on the wire.
2. Use wire of different radii (r1, r2, r 3) but of same material in the
above experimental set up. Is there any change in the value of
Youngs modulus of elasticity of the material? Discuss your result.
SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

82

1.

Repeat the experiment with wires of different materials, if available.

2.

Change the length of the experimental wire, of same material and


study its ef fect on the Youngs modulus of elasticity of the material.

EXPERIMENT

10

AIM
To find the force constant and effective mass of a helical spring by
plotting T 2 - m graph using method of oscillation.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


Light weight helical spring with a pointer attached at the lower
end and a hook/ring for suspending it from a hanger, (diameter
of the spring may be about 1-1.5 cm inside or same as that in a
spring balance of 100 g); a rigid support, hanger and five slotted
weights of 10 g each (in case the spring constant is of high value
one may use slotted weight of 20 g), clamp stand, a balance, a
measuring scale (15-30 cm) and a stop-watch (with least count
of 0.1s).

RINCIPLE
Spring constant (or force constant) of a spring is given by
Spring constant, K =

Restoring Force
Extension

(E 10.1)

Thus, spring constant is the restoring force per unit extension in the
spring. Its value is determined by the elastic properties of the spring.
A given object is attached to the free end of a spring which is suspended
from a rigid point support (a nail, fixed to a wall). If the object is
pulled down and then released, it executes simple harmonic
oscillations.
The time period (T ) of oscillations of a helical spring of spring constant
K is given by the relation T,
m
where m is the load that is the mass of the object. If the
K
spring has a large mass of its own, the expression changes to
T = 2

T = 2

mo + m
K

(E 10.2)

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

where mo and m define the effective mass of the spring system (the
spring along with the pointer and the hanger) and the suspended
object (load) respectively. The time period of a stiff spring (having
large spring constant) is small.
One can easily eliminate the term mo of the spring system appearing
in Eq. (E 10.2) by suspending two different objects (loads) of masses
m1 and m2 and measuring their respective periods of oscillations T1
and T2. Then,

(E 10.3)

T1 = 2

(E 10.4)

and

T2 = 2

m0 + m1
K
m0 + m 2
K

Eliminating mo from Eqs. (E 2.3) and (E 2.4), we get

(E 10.5)

K =

4 2 (m 1 m 2 )
(T 21 T 22 )

Using Eq. (E 10.5), and knowing the values of m1, m 2, T1 and T2, the
spring constant K of the spring system can be determined.

ROCEDURE
1. Suspend the helical spring SA (having pointer
P and the hanger H at its free end A), from a
rigid support, as shown in Fig. E 10.1.
2. Set the measuring scale, close to the spring
vertically. Take care that the pointer P moves
freely over the scale without touching it.
3. Find out the least count of the measuring scale
(It is usually 1mm or 0.1 cm).
4. Familiarise yourself with the working of the
stop-watch and find its least count.

Fig. E 10.1: Experimental arrangement for


studying spring constant of a
helical spring

84

5. Suspend the load or slotted weight with mass


m1 on the hanger gently. Wait till the pointer
comes to rest. This is the equilibrium position
for the given load. Pull the load slightly
downwards and then release it gently so that
it is set into oscillations in a vertical plane

EXPERIMENT 1 0

UNIT NAME

about its rest (or equilibrium) position. The rest position (x) of
the pointer P on the scale is the reference or mean position for
the given load. Start the stop-watch as the pointer P just crosses
its mean position (say, from upwards to downwards) and
simultaneously begin to count the oscillations.
6 . Keep on counting the oscillations as the pointer crosses the
mean position (x) in the same direction. Stop the watch after
n (say, 5 to 10) oscillations are complete. Note the time (t)
taken by the oscillating load for n oscillations.
7. Repeat this observation alteast thrice and in each occasion
note the time taken for the same number (n) of oscillations.
Find the mean time (t 1), for n oscillations and compute the
time for one oscillation, i.e., the time period T 1 (= t 1/n) of
oscillating helical spring with a load m 1.
8. Repeat steps 5 and 6 for two more slotted weights.
9. Calculate time period of oscillation T =

t
for each weight and
n

tabulate your observations.


10.Compute the value of spring constant (K 1, K 2, K3) for each load
and find out the mean value of spring constant K of the given
helical spring.
11.The value of K can also be determined by plotting a graph of T 2 vs
m with T 2 on y-axis and m on x-axis.
[Note: The number of oscillations, n, should be large enough to
keep the error minimum in measurement of time. One convenient
method to decide on the number n is based on the least count of
the stop-watch. If the least count of the stop-watch is 0.1 s. Then
to have 1% error in measurement, the minimum time measured
should be 10.0 s. Hence, the number n for oscillations should be
so chosen that oscillating mass takes more than 10.0 s to
complete them.]

BSERVATIONS
Least count of the measuring scale = ... mm = ... cm
Least count of the stop-watch = ... s
Mass of load 1, m1 = ... g = ... kg
Mass of load 2, m2 = ... g = ... kg
Mass of load 3, m3 = ... g = ... kg

85

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

Table E 10.1: Measuring the time period T of oscillations of


helical spring with load
S.
Mass of
Mean No. of oscillaNo. the load, position of tions, (n)
m (kg)
pointer, x
(cm)

Time for (n)


oscillations,
t (s)

T ime period,
T = t/n (s)

Mean
t (s)

1
2

ALCULATION
Substitute the values of m1, m 2, m3 and T1, T 2,
T3, in Eq. (E 10.5):
K1 = 42 (m1 m 2)/(T12 T22);
K2 = 42 (m2 m 3)/(T22 T32);
K3 = 42 (m1 m3) / (T12 T32)
Compute the values of K 1, K 2 and K3 and find
the mean value of spring constant K of the given
helical spring. Express the result in proper SI
units and significant figures.
Alternately one can also find the spring constant
and effective mass of the spring from the graph
between T 2 and m, which is expected to be a
straight line as shown in Fig. E 10.2.

Fig. E 10.2: Expected graph between T


for a helical spring

and m

The value of spring constant K ( = 42/m) of the


helical spring can be calculated from the slope
m of the straight line graph.

From the knowledge of intercept c on y-axis and the slope m, the


value of effective mass mo (= c/m ) of the helical spring can be
computed. Alternatively, the effective mass m o (= c ) of the helical
spring can be directly computed from the knowledge of the
intercept c made by the straight line on x-axis.

ESULT
Spring constant of the given helical spring = ... N/m-1
Effective mass of helical spring = ... g = ... kg
Error in K, can be calculated from the error in slope

K
K

86

slope
slope

EXPERIMENT 1 0

UNIT NAME

The error in effective mass m 0 will be equal to the error in intercept


and the error in slope. Once the error is calculated the result may be
stated indicating the error.

ISCUSSION
1. The accuracy in determination of the spring constant depends
mainly on the accuracy in measurement of the time period T
of oscillation of the spring. As the time period appears as T 2 in
Eq. (E 10.5), a small uncertainty in the measurement of T would
result in appreciable error in T 2, thereby significantly affecting
the result. A stop-watch with accuracy of 0.1s may be
preferred.
2. Some personal error is always likely to occur in measurement of
time due to delay in starting or stopping the watch.
3. Sometimes air currents may affect the oscillations thereby affecting
the time period. The time period of oscillation may also get affected
if the load is released with a jerk. Take special care that the load
while being taken to one side (upwards or downwards) of the rest
(or mean) position, is released very gently.
4. The load attached to the spring executes to and fro motion (in
SHM) about the mean, equilibrium position. Eqs. (E 10.1)
and (E 10.2) hold true for small amplitude of oscillations or
small extensions of the spring within the elastic limit (Hooks
law). Take care that initially the load is pulled only through a
small distance before being released gently to let it oscillate
vertically.
5. Oscillations of the helical spring are not likely to be absolutely
undamped. Buoyancy of air and viscous drag due to it may slightly
increase the time period of the oscillations. The effect can be greatly
reduced by taking a small and stiff spring of high density material
(such as steel/brass).

6. A rigid support is required for suspending the helical spring. The


slotted weights may not have exactly the same mass as engraved
on them. Some error in the time period of its oscillation is likely to
creep in due to yielding (sometimes) of the support and inaccuracy
in the accepted value of mass of load.

ELF-ASSESSMENT
1. Two springs A (soft) and B (stiff), loaded with the same mass on
their hangers, are suspended one by one from the same rigid
support. They are set into vertical oscillations at different times,
and the time period of their oscillations are noted. In which spring
will the oscillations be slower?

87

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

2 . You are given six known masses (m 1, m 2 ..., m 6), a helical


spring and a stop-watch. You are asked to measure time
periods (T 1, T 2, ..., T 6) of oscillations corresponding to each
mass when it is suspended from the given helical spring.
(a)

What is the shape of the curve you would expect by using


Eq. (E 10.2) and plotting a graph between load of mass m
along x-axis and T 2 on y-axis?

(b)

Interpret the slope, the x-and y-intercepts of the above graph,


and hence find (i) spring constant K of the helical spring, and
(ii) its effective mass m o.

[Hint: (a) Eq. (E 10.2), rewritten as: T 2 =(42/K) m + (42/K) mo , is


similar to the equation of a straight line: y = mx + c, with m as the
slope of the straight line and c the intercept on yaxis. The graph
between m and T 2 is expected to be a straight line AB, as shown in
Fig. E 10.2. From the above equations given in (a):
Intercept on yaxis (OD), c = (42/K) mo ; (x = 0, y = c)
Intercept on x-axis (OE), c=-c/m = mo ; (y = 0, x = c/m)
Slope, m = tan = OD/OE = c/c = c/m o = (42/K)]
SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES
1.

Take three springs with different spring constants K1, K2, K3 and join them in series
as shown in Fig. E. 10.3. Determine the time period of oscillation of combined spring
and check the relation between individual spring constant and combined system.

2.

Repeat the above activity with the set up shown in Fig. E. 10.4 and find out
whether there is any difference in the time period and spring constant between
the two set ups?

3.

What is the physical significance of spring constant 20.5 Nm1?

4.

If possible, measure the mass of the spring. Is this related to the effective mass m o?

Fig. E 10.3: Springs joined in series

88

Fig. E 10.4: Springs joined in parallel

EXPERIMENT

UNIT NAME

11

EXPERIMENT
AIM
To study the variation in volume (V) with pressure (P) for a sample of
air at constant temperature by plotting graphs between P and V, and
between P and

1
.
V

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


Boyles law apparatus, Fortins Barometer, Vernier Callipers,
thermometer, set square and spirit level.

DESCRIPTION AND APPARATUS


The Boyles law apparatus consists
of two glass tubes about 25 cm long
and 0.5 cm in diameter (Fig. E11.1).
One tube AB is closed at one end
while the other CD is open. The two
tubes are drawn into a fine opening
at the other end (B and D). The ends
B and D are connected by a thick
walled rubber tubing. The glass
tube AB is fixed vertically along the
metre scale. The other tube CD can
be moved vertically along a vertical
rod and may be fixed to it at any
height with the help of screw S.
The tube CD, AB and rubber tubing
are filled with mercury. The closed
tube AB traps some air in it. The
volume of air is proportional to the
length of air column as it is of
uniform cross section.
The apparatus is fixed on a
horizontal platform with a vertical
stand. The unit is provided with
levelling screws.

Fig. E11.1: Boyles law apparatus

89

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

ROCEDURE
(a)

Measurement of Pressure:

The pressure of the enclosed air in tube AB is measured by noting the


difference (h) in the mercury levels (X and Y) in the two tubes AB and
CD (Fig. E11.2). Since liquid in interconnected vessels have the same
pressure at any horizontal level,
(E 11.1)

P (Pressure of enclosed air) = H h


where H is the atmospheric pressure.

Fig. E 11.2 : Pressure of air in tube AB = H + h

(b)

Fig. E 11.3 : Volume of trapped air in tube AB

Measurement of volume of trapped air

In case the closed tube is not graduated.


Volume of air in tube
= Volume of air in length PR Volume of air in curved
portion PQ
Let r be the radius of the tube
Volume of curved portion = volume of the hemisphere of radius r
=

1 4 3 2 3
r = r
2 3
3

Volume of PQ = r2 r = r3
error in volume = r 3

2 3 1 3
r = r
3
3

resulting error in length =

90

1 3
1
r / r 2 = r
3
3

EXPERIMENT 1 1

UNIT NAME

correction in length =

(E 11.2)

1
1
r = PQ
3
3

This should be subtracted from the measured length l .


Boyles law: At a constant temperature, the pressure exerted by an
enclosed mass of gas is inversely proportional to its volume.
P

or

1
V

(E 11.3)

PV = constant

Hence the P V graph is a curve while that of P 1 is a straight line.


V
(c) Measurement of volume of air for a given pressure.
1. Note the temperature of the room with a thermometer.
2. Note the atmospheric pressure using Fortins Barometer
(Project P-9).
3. Set the apparatus vertically using the levelling screws and
spirit level.
4. Slide the tube CD to adjust the mercury level at the same level as
in AB. Use set square to read the upper convex meniscus of
mercury.
5. Note the reading of the metre scale corresponding to the top end
of the closed tube P and that of level Q where its curvature just
ends. Calculate

1
PQ and note it.
3

6. Raise CD such that the mercury level in tubes AB and CD is


different. Use the set square to carefully read the meniscus X
and Y of mercury in tube AB and CD. Note the difference h in the
mercury level.
7. Repeat the adjustment of CD for 5 more values of h. This should
be done slowly and without jerk. Changing the position of CD
with respect to AB slowly ensures that there is no change in
temperature, otherwise the Boyles law will not be valid.
8. Use the Vernier Callipers to determine the diameter of the closed
tube AB and hence find r, its radius

1
1
PQ = r.
3
3

9. Record your observations in the Table E 11.1.


10. Plot graphs (i) P versus V and (ii) P versus 1 , interpret the graphs.
V

91

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

BSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS


1. Room temperature = ... C.
2. Atmospheric pressure as observed from the Fortins Barometer
= ... cm of Hg.
3. For correction in level l due to curved portion of tube AB
(a) Reading for the top of the closed tube AB (P) = ... cm.
Reading where the uniform portion of the tube AB begins (or the
curved portion ends) (Q) = ... cm.
Difference (P Q) = r = ... cm.
Correction =

1
r = ...
3

OR
(b) Diameter of tube AB = d = ... cm.
radius r =

1
d = ... cm.
2

correction for level l =

1
r
3

ESULT
1. Within experimental limits, the graph between P and V is a curve.
2. Within experimental limits, the product PV is a constant (from the
calculation).

Table E 11.1 : Measurement of Pressure and Volume of enclosed air


S. Level of
No. mercury

in closed
tube AB
X (cm of
HG)

Level of
mercury
in open
tube
CD
Y (cm
of Hg)

Pressure Pressure of Volume


difference
air in
of air
h = XY AB = H h
XA
(cm of
(cm of Hg)
1
Hg)
l r

PV or 1/V
P l
or

1
l

1
2
3
4

Note: H h must be considered according to the levels X and Y taking


into account whether the pressure of air in AB will be more than
atmospheric pressure or less.

92

EXPERIMENT 1 1

UNIT NAME

Fig. E11.4 : Graph between Volume, V


and pressure, P

Fig. E11.5 : Graph between

1
V

and pressure P

Note that Fig. E 11.4 shows that the graph between P and V is a curve
and that between P and

1
V

is a straight line (Fig. E 11.5).

1
is a straight line showing that the pressure of
V
a given mass of enclosed gas is inversely proportional to its volume
at constant temperature.

3. The graph P and

RECAUTIONS
1. The apparatus should be kept covered when not in use.
2. The apparatus should not be shifted in between observations.
3. While measuring the volume of the air, correction for the curved
portion of the closed tube should be taken into account.
4. Mercury used should be clean and not leave any trace on the glass.
The open tube should be plugged with cotton wool when not in
use.
5. The set square should be placed tangential to the upper meniscus
of the mercury for determining its level.

OURCES OF ERROR
1. The enclosed air may not be dry.
2. Atmospheric pressure and temperature of the laboratory may
change during the course of the experiment.

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LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

3. The closed end of the tube AB may not be hemispherical.


4. The mercury may be oxidised due to exposure to atmosphere.

ISCUSSION
1. The apparatus should be vertical to ensure that the difference in
level (h) is accurate.
2. The diameter of the two glass tubes may or may not be the same
but the apparatus should be vertical.
3. The open tube CD should be raised or lowered gradually to ensure
that the temperature of the enclosed air remains the same.
4. The readings should be taken in order (above and below the
atmospheric pressure). This ensures wider range of consideration,
also if they are taken slowly the atmospheric pressure and
temperature over the duration of observation remain the same. So
time should not be wasted.
5. Why should the upper meniscus of mercury in the two tubes
recorded carefully using a set square?

ELF ASSESSMENT
1
1
versus h graph and determine the value of
when h = 0.
V
V
Compare this to the value of atmospheric pressure. Give a suitable
explanation for your result.

1. Plot

2. Comment on the two methods used for estimation of the volume


of the curved portion of the closed tube. What are the assumptions
made for the two methods?
3. If the diameter of tube AB is large, why would the estimation of
the curved portion be unreliable?
4. The apparatus when not in use should be kept covered to avoid
contamination of mercury in the open tube. How will oxidation of
mercury affect the experiment?
SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

94

1.

Tilt apparatus slightly and note the value of h for two or three
values of X and Y.

2.

Take a glass U tube. Fill it with water. Pour oil in one arm. Note the
difference in level of water, level of oil and water in the two arms.
Deduce the density of oil. What role does atmospheric pressure
play in this experiment?

EXPERIMENT

UNIT NAME

12

EXPERIMENT
AIM
To determine the surface tension of water by capillary rise method.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


A glass/plastic capillary tube, travelling microscope, beaker, cork with
pin, clamps and stand, thermometer, dilute nitric acid solution, dilute
caustic soda solution, water, plumb line.

RINCIPLE
When a liquid rises in a capillary tube
[Fig. E 12.1], the weight of the column of the
liquid of density below the meniscus, is
supported by the upward force of surface
tension acting around the circumference of the
points of contact. Therefore
2rT = r 2h g
or T =
where

(approx) for water

h gr
2
T = surface tension of the liquid,
h = height of the liquid column and
r = inner radius of the capillary tube Fig.E 12.1: Rise of liquid in a capillary tube

ROCEDURE
1. Do the experiment in a well-lit place for example, near a window
or use an incandescent bulb.
2. Clean the capillary tube and beaker successively in caustic soda
and nitric acid and finally rinse thoroughly with water.
3. Fill the beaker with water and measure its temperature.
4. Clamp the capillary tube near its upper end, keeping it above the
beaker. Set it vertical with the help of a plumbline held near it.

95

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

Move down the tube so that its lower end dips into the water in
the beaker.
5. Push a pin P through a cork C, and fix it on another clamp such
that the tip of the pin is just above the water surface as shown in
Fig. E 12.1. Ensure that the pin does not touch the capillary
tube. Slowly lower the pin till its tip just touches the water
surface. This can be done by coinciding the tip of the pin with its
image in water.
6 . Now focus the travelling microscope M on the meniscus of
the water in capillary A, and move the microscope until the
horizontal crosswire is tangential to the lowest point of the
meniscus, which is seen inverted in M. If there is any
difficulty in focussing the meniscus, hold a piece of paper
at the lowest point of the meniscus outside the capillary tube
and focus it first, as a guide. Note the reading of travelling
microscope.
7. Mark the position of the meniscus on the capillary with a pen.
Now carefully remove the capillary tube from the beaker, and then
the beaker without disturbing the pin.
8. Focus the microscope on the tip of the pin and note the microscope
reading.
9. Cut the capillary tube carefully at the point marked on it. Fix the
capillary tube horizontally on a stand. Focus the microscope on
the transverse cross section of the tube and take readings to
measure the internal diameter of the tube in two mutually
perpendicular directions.

BSERVATIONS
Determination of h
Least count (L.C.) of the microscope = ... mm
Table E 12.1 : Measurement of capillary rise

S.
No.

Reading of meniscus h1
(cm)
M.S.R.
S (cm)

1
2
3

96

V.S.R.
n

h1 = (S +
n L.C.)

Reading of tip of pin touching


surface of water h2 (cm)
M.S.R.
S (cm)

V.S.R. h2 = (S +nL.C.)
n
(cm)

h = h1 h2

EXPERIMENT 1 2

UNIT NAME

Table E 12.2 : Measurement of diameter of the capillary tube


S.
No.

Reading along a
diameter (cm)
One
end

other
end

x1

x2

Diameter
d1 (x2 x1)
(cm)

Reading along
perpendicular
diameter
One
end

other
end

y1

y2

Mean
diameter
d

Diameter
d2 (y 2 y1)
(cm)

d1 + d2
2

2
3

Mean radius r = ... cm; Temperature of water = ... C;


Density of water at 0 C = ... g cm3

ALCULATION

Substitute the value of h and r and g in the formula for T and calculate
the surface tension.

ESULT

The surface tension of water at ... C = ... ... Nm1

RECAUTIONS
1. To make capillary tube free of contamination, it must be rinsed
first in a solution of caustic soda then with dilute nitric acid and
finally cleaned with water thoroughly.
2. The capillary tube must be kept vertical while dipping it in water.
3. To ensure that capillary tube is sufficiently wet, raise and lower
water level in container by lifting or lowering the beaker. It should
have no effect on height of liquid level in the capillary tube.
4. Water level in the capillary tube should be slightly above the edge
of the beaker/dish so that the edge does not obstruct observations.
5. Temperature should be recorded before and after the experiment.

6. Height of liquid column should be measured from lowest point of


concave meniscus.

OURCES OF ERROR
1. Inserting dry capillary tube in the liquid can cause gross error in
the measurement of surface tension as liquid level in capillary tube
may not fall back when the level in container is lowered.

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LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

2. Surface tension changes with impurities and temperature of the


liquid.
3. Non-vertical placement of the capillary tube may introduce error
in the measurement of height of the liquid column in the tube.
4. Improper focussing of meniscus in microscope could cause an
error in measurement of the height of liquid column in the
capillary tube.

ISCUSSION
1. In a fine capillary tube, the meniscus surface may be considered
to be semispherical and the weight of the liquid above the lowest
1 3
point of the meniscus as r g . Taking this into account, the
3
r
1
gr h + . More
2
3

precise calculation of surface tension can be done using this


formula.

formula for surface tension is modified to T =

2. If the capillary is dry from inside the water that rises to a certain
height in it will not fall back, so the capillary should be wet from
inside. To wet the inside of the capillary tube thoroughly, it is first
dipped well down in the water and raised and clamped.
Alternatively, the beaker may be lifted up and placed down.

ELF ASSESSMENT
1. Suppose the length of capillary tube taken is less than the height
upto which liquid could rise. What do you expect if such a tube is
inserted inside the liquid? Explain your answer.
2. Two match sticks are floating parallel and quite close to each other.
What would happen if a drop of soap solution or a drop of hot
water falls between the two sticks? Explain your answer.

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

98

1.

Experiment can be performed at different temperatures and effect


of temperature on surface tension can be studied.

2.

Experiment can be performed by adding some impurities and effect


of change in impurity concentration (like adding NaCl or sugar) on
surface tension can be studied.

3.

Study the effect of inclination of capillary tube on height of liquid


rise in the capillary tube.

EXPERIMENT

UNIT NAME

13

EXPERIMENT
AIM
To determine the coefficient of viscosity of a given liquid by measuring
the terminal velocity of a spherical body.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


A wide bore tube of transparent glass/acrylic (approximately 1.25 m
long and 4 cm diameter), a short inlet tube of about 10 cm length and
1 cm diameter (or a funnel with an opening of 1 cm), steel balls of known
diameters between 1.0 mm to 3 mm, transparent viscous liquid (castor
oil/glycerine), laboratory stand, forceps, rubber bands, two rubber
stoppers (one with a hole), a thermometer (0-50 C), and metre scale.

RINCIPLE
When a spherical body of radius r and density falls freely through
a viscous liquid of density and viscosity , with terminal velocity v,
then the sum of the upward buoyant force and viscous drag, force F,
is balanced by the downward weight of the ball (Fig. E13.1).
= Buoyant force on the ball + viscous force
4 3
4
r g = r 3 g + 6 rv
3
3

4/3 r g

or

rv

4/3 r

Fig.E 13.1: Forces acting on a


spherical body falling
through a viscous
liquid with terminal
velocity

4 3
r ( ) g 2 r 2 ( ) g
= 3
=
q

6 r

(E 13.1)

(E 13.2)

where v is the terminal velocity, the constant


velocity acquired by a body while moving
through viscous fluid under application of
constant force.
The terminal velocity depends directly on the
square of the size (diameter) of the spherical
ball. Therefore, if several spherical balls of
different radii are made to fall freely through
the viscous liquid then a plot of v vs r2 would
be a straight line as illustrated in Fig. E 13.2.

99

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

The shape of this line will give an average value of

r 2 which may be
used to find the coefficient of viscosity of the given liquid. Thus

(E 13.3)

( ) g
2
r2 2
g ( ) . =
9
v
9 ( slope of line )

= ... Nsm2 (poise)


The relation given by Eq. (E 13.3) holds good if
the liquid through which the spherical body falls
freely is in a cylindrical vessel of radius R >> r
and the height of the cylinder is sufficient enough
to let the ball attain terminal velocity. At the same
time the ball should not come in contact with
the walls of the vessel.

ROCEDURE

Fig.E 13.2: Graph between terminal velocity v, and


square of radius of ball, r2

1.Find the least count of the stop-watch.


2.Note the room temperature, using a thermometer.
3.Take a wide bore tube of transparent glass/acrylic (of diameter
about 4 cm and of length approximately1.25 m). Fit a rubber
stopper at one end of the wide tube and ensure that it is airtight.
Fill it with the given transparent viscous liquid (say glycerine).
Fix the tube vertically in the clamp stand as shown in Fig. E
13.3. Ensure that there is no air bubble inside the viscous liquid
in the wide bore tube.
4.Put three rubber bands A, B, and C around the wide bore tube
dividing it into four portions (Fig. E 13.3), such that AB = BC,
each about 30 cm. The rubber band A should be around 40 cm
below the mouth of the wide bore tube (length sufficient to allow
the ball to attain terminal velocity).
5.Separate a set of clean and dry steel balls of different radii. The
set should include four or five identical steel balls of same known
radii (r1). Rinse these balls thoroughly with the experimental
viscous liquid (glycerine) in a petridish or a watch glass. Otherwise

100

EXPERIMENT 1 3

UNIT NAME

these balls may develop air bubble(s) on


their surfaces as they enter the liquid
column.
6.Fix a short inlet tube vertically at the
open end of the wide tube through a
rubber stopper fixed to it. Alternately one
can also use a glass funnel instead of an
inlet tube as shown in Fig. E 13.3. With
the help of forceps hold one of the balls
of radius r 1 near the top of tube. Allow
the ball to fall freely. The ball, after
passing through the inlet tube, will fall
along the axis of the liquid column.
7.Take two stop watches and start both of
them simultaneously as the spherical
ball passes through the rubber band A.
Stop one the watches as the ball passes
through the band B. Allow the second
stop-watch to continue and stop it when
the ball crosses the band C.
Fig.E 13.3: Steel ball falling along the
8.Note the times t 1 and t 2 as indicated by
axis of the tube filled with
the two stop watches, t1 is then the time
a viscous liquid.
taken by the falling ball to travel from A
to B and t2 is the time taken by it in falling from A to C. If terminal
velocity had been attained before the ball crosses A, then t2 = 2 t1.
If it is not so, repeat the experiment with steel ball of same radii
after adjusting the positions of rubber bands.

9.Repeat the experiment for other balls of different diameters.


10.Obtain terminal velocity for each ball.
11.Plot a graph between terminal velocity, v and square of the radius
of spherical ball, r2. It should be a straight line. Find the slope of
the line and hence determine the coefficient of viscosity of the
liquid using the relation given by Eq. (E 13.3).

BSERVATIONS
1. Temperature of experimental liquid (glycerine) = ...C.
2. Density of material of steel balls = ... kg m-3
3. Density of the viscous liquid used in the tube = ... kgm3
4. Density of experimental viscous liquid = ... kg m-3

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LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

5. Internal diameter of the wide bore tube =... cm = ... m


6. Length of wide bore tube = ... cm = ... m
7. Distance between A and B = ... cm = ... m
8. Distance between B and C = ... cm = ... m
Average distance h between two consecutive rubber bands
= ... cm = ... m
9. Acceleration due to gravity at the place of experiment, = ... gms2
10.Least count of stop-watch = ... s
Table E 13.1: Measurement of time of fall of steel balls
S.
No.

Diameter of
spherical
balls
r =d/2

d
(cm)

(m)

Square of
the
radius of
the balls
r2
(m2 )

Time taken for covering distance


h = ... cm between rubber bands
A and B A and C B and C Mean time
t1

t2

t3 = t2t1

(s)

(s)

(s)

t=

t 1 + t3

Terminal
Velocity
h
t
(m1)

v =

2
(s)

1
2
3

RAPH
Plot a graph between r 2 and v taking r2 along x -axis and v along
y-axis. This graph will be similar to that shown in Fig. E 13.2.
Slope of line

v
RT
2 =
r
ST

So

Error

2
2 r ( ) g
9 ( slope of line )

2 r slope
+
r
slope

Standard value of = ... Nsm2

% error in = ... %

ESULT
The coefficient of viscosity of the given viscous liquid at temperature
C = ... ... Nsm2

102

EXPERIMENT 1 3

UNIT NAME

RECAUTIONS AND SOURCES OF ERROR


1. In order to minimise the effects, although small, on the value of
terminal velocity (more precisely on the value of viscous drag, force
F), the radius of the wide bore tube containing the experimental
viscous liquid should be much larger than the radius of the falling
spherical balls.
2. The steel balls should fall without touching the sides of the tube.
3. The ball should be dropped gently in the tube containing viscous/
liquid.

ISCUSSION
1.

Ensure that the ball is spherical. Otherwise formula used for


terminal velocity will not be valid.

2.

Motion of falling ball must be translational.

3.

Diameter of the wide bore tube should be much larger than that
of the spherical ball.

ELF ASSESSMENT
1. Do all the raindrops strike the ground with the same velocity
irrespective of their size?
2. Is Stokes law applicable to body of shapes other than spherical?
3. What is the effect of temperature on coefficient of viscosity of
a liquid?

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES


1.

Value of can be calculated for steel balls of dif ferent radii


and compared with that obtained from the experiment.

2.

To find viscosity of mustard oil [Hint: Set up the apparatus


and use mustard oil instead of glycerine in the wide bore
tube].

3.

To check purity of milk [Hint: Use mustard oil in the tall


tube. Take an eye dropper, fill milk in it. Drop one drop of
milk in the oil at the top of the wide bore tube and find its
terminal velocity. Use the knowledge of coefficient of viscosity
of mustard oil to calculate the density of milk].

4.

Study the effect of viscosity of water on the time of rise of air


bubble [Hint: Use the bubble maker used in an aquarium.
Place it in the wide bore tube. Find the terminal velocity of
rising air bubble].

103

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

14

EXPERIMENT
AIM

To study the relationship between the temperature of a hot body and


time by plotting a cooling curve.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


Newtons law of cooling apparatus that includes a copper calorimeter
with a wooden lid having two holes for inserting a thermometer and a
stirrer and an open double walled vessel, two celsius thermometers
(each with least count 0.5 oC or 0.1 oC), a stop clock/watch, a heater/
burner, liquid (water), a clamp stand, two rubber stoppers with holes,
strong cotton thread and a beaker.

100
90
80
60

T1

Stirrer
Lid

10
-10

20

30

40

50

70

90
80
60
10
-10

20

30

40

50

70

T2

100

DESCRIPTION OF APPARATUS

Double walled
container
Calorimeter

As shown in Fig. E 14.1, the law of cooling


apparatus has a double walled container, which
can be closed by an insulating lid. Water filled
between double walls ensures that the temperature
of the environment surrounding the calorimeter
remains constant. Temperature of the liquid and
the calorimeter also remains constant for a fairly
long period of time so that temperature
measurement is feasible. Temperature of water in
calorimeter and that of water between double walls
of container is recorded by two thermometers.

THEORY

The rate at which a hot body loses heat is directly


proportional to the difference between the
temperature of the hot body and that of its
surroundings and depends on the nature of
Fig.E 14.1: Newton's law of cooling apparatus
material and the surface area of the body. This is
Newtons law of cooling.

104

For a body of mass m and specific heat s, at its initial temperature


higher than its surroundings temperature o , the rate of loss of heat

EXPERIMENT 1 4

UNIT NAME

dQ
, where dQ is the amount of heat lost by the hot body to its
dt
surroundings in a small interval of time.
is

Following Newtons law of cooling we have


Rate of loss of heat,

dQ
= k ( o)
dt

dQ
d
= ms dt
dt

Also

(E 14.1)

(E 14.2)

Using Eqs. (E 14.1) and (E 14.2), the rate of fall of temperature is given by
d
k
=
( o)
dt
ms

(E 14.3)

where k is the constant of proportionality and k = k/ms is another


constant (The term ms also includes the water equivalent of the
calorimeter with which the experiment is performed). Negative sign
appears in Eqs. (E 14.2) and (E 14.3) because loss of heat implies
temperature decrease. Eq. (E 14.3) may be re written as
d = - k ( o) dt
On integrating, we get
d

= k ' dt

or

ln ( o) = loge ( o) = kt + c

or

ln ( o ) = 2.303 log10 ( o) = kt + c

(E 14.4)

where c is the constant of integration.


Eq. (E 14.4) shows that the shape of a plot between log10 ( o ) and t
will be a straight line.

ROCEDURE
1. Find the least counts of thermometers T1 and T 2. Take some water
in a beaker and measure its temperature (at room temperature o)
with one (say T1) of the thermometers.
2. Examine the working of the stop-watch/clock and find its least count.
3. Pour water into the double- walled container (enclosure) at room
temperature. Insert the other thermometer T2 in water contained
in it, with the help of the clamp stand.
4. Heat some water separately to a temperature of about 40 oC above
the room temperature o. Pour hot water in calorimeter up to its top.

105

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

5. Put the calorimeter, with hot water, back in the enclosure and
cover it with the lid having holes. Insert the thermometer T1 and
the stirrer in the calorimeter through the holes provided in the
lid, as shown in Fig. E14.1.
6. Note the initial temperature of the water between enclosure of
double wall with the thermometer T2, when the difference of
readings of two thermometers T1 and T2 is about 30 oC. Note the
initial reading of the thermometer T1.
7. Keep on stirring the water gently and constantly. Note the
reading of thermometer T1, first after about every half a minute,
then after about one minute and finally after two minutes
duration or so.
8. Keep on simultaneously noting the reading of the stop-watch and
that of the thermometer T1, while stirring water gently and
constantly, till the temperature of water in the calorimeter falls to
a temperature of about 5 oC above that of the enclosure. Note the
temperature of the enclosure, by the thermometer T2.
9. Record observations in tabular form. Find the excess of
temperature ( ) and also log10 ( ) for each reading, using
logarithmic tables. Record these values in the corresponding
columns in the table.
10.Plot a graph between time t, taken along x-axis and log10 ( o )
taken along y-axis. Interpret the graph.

BSERVATIONS
Least count of both the identical thermometers = ... C
Least count of stop-watch/clock = ... s
Initial temperature of water in the enclosure 1 = ... C
Final temperature of water in the enclosure 2 = ... oC
Mean temperature of the water in the enclosure = (1 + 2)/2 = ... oC

Table E 14.1: Measuring the change in temperature of water with time


S.
No.
1
2
.
.
20

106

Time (t)
(s)

Temperature Excess Temperature


of hot water of hot water ( 0)
C
C

log10 ( 0 )

EXPERIMENT 1 4

UNIT NAME

LOTTING GRAPH
(i) Plot a graph between ( o) and t as shown in Fig. E 14.2 taking t
along x-axis and ( o ) along y-axis. This is called cooling curve.
(ii) Also plot a graph between log10 ( - o ) and time t, as shown in Fig.
E 14.3 taking time t along x-axis and log10 ( - o ) along y-axis.
Choose suitable scales on these axes. Identify the shape of the
cooling curve and the other graph.

Fig.E 14.2: Graph between ( o) and t for


cooling

Fig.E 14.3: Graph between log10 ( o) and t

ESULT

The cooling curve is an exponential decay curve (Fig. E 14.2). It is


observed from the graph that the logarithm of the excess of temperature
of hot body over that of its surroundings varies linearly with time as
the body cools.

RECAUTIONS
1. The water in the calorimeter should be gently stirred continuously.
2. Ideally the space between the double walls of the surrounding
vessel should be filled with flowing water to make it an enclosure
having a constant temperature.
3. Make sure that the openings for inserting thermometers are air
tight and no heat is lost to the surroundings through these.

4. The starting temperature of water in the calorimeter should be


about 30C above the room temperature.

OURCES OF ERROR
1. Some personal error is always likely to be involved due to delay in
starting or stopping the stop-watch. Take care in starting and
stopping the stop-watch.

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LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

2. The accuracy of the result depends mainly on the simultaneous


measurement of temperature of hot water (decrease in
temperature being fast in the beginning and then comparatively
slower afterwards) and the time. Take special care while reading
the stop-watch and the thermometer simultaneously.
3. If the opening for the thermometer is not airtight, some loss of heat
can occur.
4. The temperature of the water in enclosure is not constant.

ISCUSSION
Each body radiates heat and absorbs heat radiated by the other. The
warmer one (here the calorimeter) radiates more and receives less.
Radiation by surface occurs at all temperatures. Higher the
temperature difference with the surroundings, higher is rate of heat
radiation. Here the enclosure is at a lower temperature so it radiates
less but receives more from the calorimeter. So, finally the calorimeter
dominates in the process.

ELF ASSESSMENT
1. State Newton's law of cooling and express this law mathematically.
2. Does the Newtons law of cooling hold good for all temperature
differences?
3. How is Newton's law of cooling different from Stefan's law of heat
radiation?
4. What is the shape of cooling curve?
5. Find the specific heat of a solid/liquid using Newton's law of
cooling apparatus.
SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES
1.

Find the slope and intercept on y-axis of the straight line graph (Fig.
E 14.2) you have drawn. Determine the value of constant k and the
constant of integration c from this graph.
[Hint: Eq. (E 14.4) is similar to the equation of a straight line: y =
m x + c , with m as the slope of the straight line and c the
intercept on y-axis. It is clear m = k/2.303 and c = c' 2.303 .]

2.

108

The cooling experiment is perfor med with the calorimeter, filled with
same volume of water and turpentine oil successively, by maintaining
the same temperature difference between the calorimeter and the
surrounding enclosure. What ratio of the rates of heat loss would
you expect in this case?

EXPERIMENT

UNIT NAME

15

EXPERIMENT
AIM
(i) To study the relation between frequency and length of a given
wire under constant tension using a sonometer.
(ii) To study the relation between the length of a given wire and tension
for constant frequency using a sonometer.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


Sonometer, six tuning forks
of known frequencies, metre
scale, rubber pad, paper
rider, hanger with halfkilogram weights, wooden
bridges.
SONOMETER
It consists of a long
sounding board or a hollow
Fig. E 15.1: A Sonometer
wooden box W with a peg G
at one end and a pulley at
the other end as shown in Fig E 15.1. One end of a metal wire S is
attached to the peg and the other end passes over the pulley P. A
hanger H is suspended from the free end of the wire. By placing slotted
weights on the hanger tension is applied to the wire. By placing two
bridges A and B under the wire, the length of the vibrating wire can be
fixed. Position of one of the bridges, say bridge A is kept fixed so that
by varying the position of other bridge, say bridge B, the vibrating
length can be altered.

PRINCIPLE
The frequency n of the fundamental mode of vibration of a string is
given by
n=

1
2l

T
m

(E 15.1)

where m = mass per unit length of the string


l = length of the string between the wedges

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LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

T = Tension in the string (including the weight of the


hanger) = Mg
M = mass suspended, including the mass of the hanger
(a) For a given m and fixed T,
n

1
or
l

n l = constant.

(b) If frequency n is constant, for a given wire (m is


constant),
T
is constant. That is l 2 T.
l
Fig. E 15.2: Variation of resonant length
with frequency of tuning fork

(i) Variation of frequency with length

ROCEDURE
1. Set up the sonometer on the table and clean the groove on the
pully to ensure that it has minimum friction. Stretch the wire by
placing a suitable load on the hanger.
2. Set a tuning fork of frequency n 1 into vibrations by striking it
against the rubber pad and hold it near one of your ears. Pluck
the sonometer wire and compare the two sounds, one produced
by the tuning fork and the other by the plucked wire. Make a note
of difference between the two sounds.
3. Adjust the vibrating length of the wire by sliding the bridge B till
the two sounds appear alike.
4. For final adjustment, place a small paper rider R in
the middle of wire AB. Sound the tuning fork and
place its shank stem on the bridge A or on the
sonometer box. Slowly adjust the position of bridge
B till the paper rider is agitated violently, which
indicates resonance.
The length of the wire between A and B is the resonant
length such that its frequency of vibration of the
fundamental mode equals the frequency of the tuning
fork. Measure this length with the help of a metre scale.
5. Repeat the above procedures for other five tuning
forks keeping the load on the hanger unchanged. Plot
a graph between n and l (Fig. E 15.2)

Fig. E 15.3: Variation of 1/l with n

110

6. After calculating frequency, n of each tuning fork, plot


a graph between n and 1/l where l is the resonating
length as shown in Fig. E 15.3.

EXPERIMENT 1 5

UNIT NAME

BSERVATIONS (A)
Tension (constant) on the wire (weight suspended from the hanger
including its own weight) T = ... N
Table E 15.1: Variation of frequency with length

Frequency n o f
tuning fork (Hz)

n1

n2

n3

n4

n5

n6

Resonating
length l (cm)

1
(cm 1 )
l
nl (Hz cm)

ALCULATIONS AND GRAPH


1
l
1
1
of the resonating lengths l. Plot
vs n, taking n along x axis and
l
l
along y axis, starting from zero on both axes. See whether a straight
line can be drawn from the origin to lie evenly between the plotted points.
Calculate the product nl for each fork. and, calculate the reciprocals,

ESULT
1
vs n
l
is also a straight line. Therefore, for a given tension, the resonant length
of a given stretched string varies as reciprocal of the frequency.

Check if the product n l is found to be constant and the graph of

ISCUSSION
1. Error may occur in measurement of length l. There is always an
uncertainty in setting the bridge in the final adjustment.
2. Some friction might be present at the pulley and hence the tension
may be less than that actually applied.
3. The wire may not be of uniform cross section.
(ii) Variation of resonant length with tension for constant
frequency
1. Select a tuning fork of a certain frequency (say 256 Hz) and hang
a load of 1kg from the hanger. Find the resonant length as before.

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LABORATORY MANUAL

2. Increase the load on the hanger in steps of 0.5 kg and each


time find the resonating length with the same tuning fork.
Do it for at least four loads.
3. Record your observations.
4. Plot graph between l 2 and T as shown in Fig. E 15.4.

BSERVATIONS (B)

Frequency of the tuning fork = ... Hz


Fig. E 15.4: Graph between l2
and T

Table E 15.2: Variation of resonant length with tension


Tension applied T
(including weight of
the hanger) (N)
Resonating length l
of the wire
l2 (cm2)
T/l2 ( N cm2)

ALCULATIONS AND GRAPH


Calculate the value of T l 2 for the tension applied in each case.
Alternatively, plot a graph of l 2 vs T taking l 2 along y-axis and T
along the x-axis.

ESULT
It is found that value of T/l 2 is constant within experimental error.
The graph of l 2 vs T is found to be a straight line. This shows that
l 2 T or l

T .

Thus, the resonating length varies as square root of tension for a


given frequency of vibration of a stretched string.

RECAUTIONS
1. Pulley should be frictionless ideally. In practice friction at the pulley
should be minimised by applying grease or oil on it.
2. Wire should be free from kinks and of uniform cross section,
ideally. If there are kinks, they should be removed by stretching
as far as possible.

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UNIT NAME

3. Bridges should be perpendicular to the wire, its height should be


adjustes so that a node is formed at the bridge.
4. Tuning fork should be vibrated by striking its prongs against a
soft rubber pad.
5. Load should be removed after the experiment.

OURCES OF ERROR
1. Pulley may not be frictionless.
2. Wire may not be rigid and of uniform cross section.
3. Bridges may not be sharp.

ISCUSSION
1. Error may occur in measurement of length l. There is always an
uncertainty in setting the bridge in the final adjustment.
2. Some friction might be present at the pulley and hence the tension
may be less than that actually applied.
3. The wire may not be of uniform cross section.
4. Care should be taken to hold the tuning fork by the shank only.

ELF ASSESSMENT
1. What is the principle of superposition of waves?
2. What are stationary waves?
3. Under what circumstances are stationary waves formed?
4. Identify the nodes and antinodes in the string of your sonometer.
5. What is the ratio of the first three harmonics produced in a stretched
string fixed at two ends?
6. Keeping material of wire and tension fixed, how will the resonant
length change if the diameter of the wire is increased?
SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES
1.

Take wires of the same material but of three different diameters


and find the value of l for each of these for a given frequency, n
and tension, T .

2.

Plot a graph between the value of m and


with m along X axis.

3.

1
obtained, in 1 above,
l2

Pluck the string of an stringed musical instrument like a sitar, voilin


or guitar with different lengths of string for same tension or same
length of string with different tension. Observe how the frequency
of the sound changes.

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LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

16

EXPERIMENT
AIM

To determine the velocity of sound in air at room temperature using a


resonance tube.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


Resonance tube apparatus, a tuning fork of known frequency
(preferably of 480 Hz or 512 Hz), a rubber pad, a thermometer, spirit
level, a set-square, beaker and water.

RINCIPLE

(a)

(b)

Fig. E 16.1 : Formation of standing


wave in glass tube AB
closed at one end

When a vibrating tuning fork of known frequency is


held over the top of an air column in a glass tube AB (Fig.
E 16.1), a standing wave pattern could be formed in the
tube. Under the right conditions, a superposition between
a forward moving and reflected wave occurs in the tube to
cause resonance. This gives a very noticeable rise in the
amplitude, or loudness, of the sound. In a closed organ
pipe like a resonance tube, there is a zero amplitude point
at the closed end (Fig. E 16.2). For resonance to occur, a
node must be formed at the closed end and an antinode
must be formed at the open end. Let the first loud sound
be heard at length l1 of the air column [Fig. E 16.2(a)].
That is, when the natural frequency of the air column of
length l1 becomes equal to the natural frequency of the
tuning fork, so that the air column vibrates with the
maximum amplitude. In fact the length of air column
vibrating is slightly longer than the length of the air column
in tube AB. Thus,

= l1 + e

(E 16.1)

where e (= 0.6 r, where r = radius of the glass tube) is the end correction
for the resonance tube and is the wave-length of the sound produced
by the tuning fork.

114

Now on further lowering the closed end of the tube AB, let the second
resonance position be heard at length l2 of the air column in the tube

EXPERIMENT 1 6

UNIT NAME

[Fig. E 16.2(b)]. This length l 2 would


approximately be equal to three quarters of
the wavelength. That is,
(E 16.2)

l1

3
= l2 + e
4

l2

Subtracting Eq. (E 16.l) from Eq. (E 16.2)


gives
(E. 16.3)

= 2 (l2l1 )

T hu s, the velo city of s o u n d i n a i r a t


r o o m t e m p e r a t u r e (v = ) w o u l d b e
v = 2 ( l 2 l 1) .

(a)

(b)

Fig. E 16.2: Vibrations in a resonance tube

ROCEDURE
ADJUSTMENT OF RESONANCE TUBE
The apparatus usually consists of a narrow glass tube about a metre
long and 5 cm in diameter, rigidly fixed in its vertical position with a
wooden stand. The lower end of this tube is attached to a reservoir by
a rubber tube. Using a clamp, the reservoir can be made to slide up
or down along a vertical rod. A pinch cock is provided with the rubber
tube to keep the water level (or the length of air column) fixed in the
tube. A metre scale is also fixed along the tube. The whole apparatus
is fixed on a horizontal wooden base that can be levelled using the
screws provided at the bottom. Both the reservoir and tube contain
water. When reservoir is raised the length of the air column in the
tube goes down, and when it is lowered the length of the air column in
the tube goes up. Now:
1. Set the resonance tube vertical with the help of a spirit level and
levelling screws provided at the bottom of the wooden base of the
apparatus.
2. Note the room temperature with a thermometer.
3. Note the frequency of given tuning fork.
4. Fix the reservoir to the highest point of the vertical rod with the
help of clamp.
De--termination of First Resonance Position
5. Fill the water in the reservoir such that the level of water in the
tube reaches up to its open end.
6. Close the pinch cock and lower down the position of reservoir on
the vertical rod.
7. Gently strike the given tuning fork on a rubber pad and put
it nearly one cm above the open end of the tube. Keep both the

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LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

prongs of the tuning fork parallel to the ground and lying one
above the other so that the prongs vibrate in the vertical plane.
Try to listen the sound being produced in the tube. It may not
be audible in this position.
8. Slowly loosen the pinch cock to let the water level fall in the
tube very slowly. Keep bringing the tuning fork near the open
end of the resonance tube, notice the increasing loudness of
the sound.
9. Repeat steps 7 and 8 till you get the exact position of water
level in the tube for which the intensity of sound being produced
in the tube is maximum. This corresponds to the first resonance
position or fundamental node, if the length of air column is
minimum. Close the pinch cock at this position and note the
position of water level or length l 1 of air column in the tube
[Fig. E 16.2]. This is the determination of first resonance
position while the level of water is falling in the tube.
10. Repeat steps (5) to (9) to confirm the first resonance position.
11. Next find out the first resonance position by gradually raising
the level of water in resonance tube, and holding the vibrating
tuning fork continuously on top of its open end. Fix the tube
at the position where the sound of maximum intensity is heard.
Determination of Second Resonance Position
12. Lower the position of the water level further in the resonance tube
by sliding down the position of reservoir on the vertical stand and
opening the pinch cock till the length of air column in the tube
increases about three times of the length l1.
13. Find out the second resonance position and determine the length
of air column l2 in the tube with the same tuning fork having
frequency 1 and confirm the length l2 by taking four readings,
two when the level of water is falling and the other two when the
level of water is rising in the tube.
14. Repeat steps (5) to (13) with a second tuning fork having frequency
2 and determine the first and second resonance positions.
15. Calculate the velocity of sound in each case.

BSERVATIONS
1. Temperature of the room = ... o C
2. Frequency of first tuning fork , 1

= ... Hz

3. Frequency of second tuning fork, 2 = ... Hz

116

EXPERIMENT 1 6

UNIT NAME

Table E 16.1: Determination of length of the resonant air columns


Frequency of
tuning fork
used

S.
No.

length l1 for the first


resonance position of
the tube

length l 2 for the


second resonance
position of the tube

Water
Water Mean Water Water Mean
level is level is length, level is level is length,
falling rising l 1 cm falling rising l 2 cm

1 = ... Hz
2 = ... Hz

1
2
1
2

ALCULATIONS
(i) For first tuning fork having frequency 1 = ... Hz
Velocity of sound in air v1 = 2 1 (l2 l1) = ... ms1
(ii) For second tuning fork having frequency 2 = ... Hz
Velocity of sound in air v2 = 2 2 (l2 l1) = ... ms1
Obtain the mean velocity v of sound in air.

ESULT
The velocity of sound v in air at room temperature is

v1 + v 2
= ... ms 1
2

RECAUTIONS
1. The resonance tube should be kept vertical using the levelling
screws.
2. The experiment should be performed in a quiet atmosphere so
that the resonance positions may be identified properly.
3. Striking of tuning fork on rubber pad must be done very gently.
4. The lowering and raising of water level in the resonance tube should
be done very slowly.
5. The choice of frequencies of the tuning forks being used should be
such that the two resonance positions may be achieved in the air
column of the resonance tube.
6. The vibrating tuning fork must be kept about 1 cm above the top
of the resonance tube. In any case it should not touch the walls of
the resonance tube.

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LABORATORY MANUAL

7. The prongs of the vibrating tuning fork must be kept parallel to


the ground and keeping one over the other so that the vibrations
reaching the air inside the tube are vertical.
8. Room temperature during the performance of experiment should
be measured two to three times and a mean value should be taken.

OURCES OF ERROR
1. The air inside the tube may not be completely dry and the presence
of water vapours in the air column may exhibit a higher value of
velocity of sound.
2. Resonance tube must be of uniform area of cross-section.
3. There must be no wind blowing in the room.

ISCUSSION
1. Loudness of sound in second resonance position is lower than the
loudness in first resonance. We determine two resonance positions
in this experiment to apply end correction. But the experiment
can also be conducted by finding first resonance position only
and applying end correction in resonating length as e = 0.6 r.
2. For a given tuning fork, change in the resonating length of air
coloumn in 2 nd resonance does not change the frequency,
wavelength or velocity of sound. Thus, the second resonance is
not the overtone of first resonance.

ELF ASSESSMENT
1. Is the velocity of sound temperature dependent? If yes, write the
relation.
2. What would happen if resonance tube is not vertical?
3. Name the phenomenon responsible for the resonance in this
experiment.
4. Write two other examples of resonance of sound from day to
day life.
SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

118

1.

Calculate the end correction in the resonance tube.

2.

Compare the end correction required for the resonance tubes of


different diameters and study the relation between the end correction
and the diameter of the tube.

3.

Perform the same experiment with an open pipe.

EXPERIMENT

UNIT NAME

17

EXPERIMENT
AIM
To determine the specific heat capacity of a given (i) and solid
(ii) a liquid by the method of mixtures.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


Copper calorimeter with lid, stirrer and insulating cover (the lid
should have provision to insert thermometer in addition to the
stirrer), two thermometers (0 C to 100 C or 110 C with a least
count of 0.5 C), a solid, preferably metallic (brass/copper/steel/
aluminium) cylinder which is insoluble in given liquid and water,
given liquid, two beakers (100 mL and 250 mL), a heating device
(heater/hot plate/gas burner); physical balance, spring balance with
weight box (including fractional weights), a piece of strong nonflexible thread (25-30 cm long), water, laboratory stand, tripod stand
and wire gauze.

RINCIPLE / THEORY
For a body of mass m and specific heat s, the amount of heat Q
lost/gained by it when its temperature falls/rises by t is given by

(E 17.1)

Q = ms t
Specific heat capacity: It is the amount of heat required to raise the
temperature of unit mass of a substance through 1C. Its S.I unit is
Jkg1 K 1.
Principle of Calorimetry: If bodies of different temperatures are
brought in thermal contact, the amount of heat lost by the body at
higher temperature is equal to the amount of heat gained by the body
at lower temperature, at thermal equilibrium, provided no heat is lost
to the surrounding.
(a) Specific heat capacity of given solid by method of mixtures

ROCEDURE
1. Set the physical balance and make sure there is no zero error.
2. Weigh the empty calorimeter with stirrer and lid with the physical
balance/spring balance. Ensure that calorimeter is clean and dry.

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LABORATORY MANUAL

Note the mass m 1 of the calorimeter. Pour the given water in the
calorimeter. Make sure that the quantity of water taken would be
sufficient to completely submerge the given solid in it. Weigh the
calorimeter with water along with the stirrer and the lid and note
its mass m2. Place the calorimeter in its insulating cover.
3. Dip the solid in water and take it out. Now shake it to remove
water sticking to its surface. Weigh the wet solid with the physical
balance and note down its mass m3.
4. Tie the solid tightly with the thread at its middle. Make sure that it
can be lifted by holding the thread without slipping.
Place a 250 mL beaker on the wire gauze kept on a tripod stand as
shown in the Fig. E 17.1(a). Fill the beaker up to the half with
water. Now suspend the solid in the beaker containing water by
tying the other end of the thread to a laboratory stand. The solid
should be completely submerged in water and should be atleast
0.5 cm below the surface. Now heat the water with the solid
suspended in it [Fig. E 17.1 (a)].

Fig. E 17.1: Experimental setup for determining specific heat of a given solid

5. Note the least count of the thermometer. Measure the temperature


of the water taken in the calorimeter. Record the temperature t 1 of
the water.
6. Let the water in the beaker boil for about 5-10 minutes. Now
measure the temperature t2 of the water with the other thermometer
and record the same. Holding the solid with the thread tied to it,

120

EXPERIMENT 1 7

UNIT NAME

remove it from the boiling water, shake it to remove water sticking


on it and quickly put it in the water in the calorimeter and replace
the lid immediately (Fig. E 17.1 (b)). Stir the water with the stirrer.
Measure the temperature of the water once equilibrium is attained,
that is, temperature of the mixture becomes constant. Record this
temperature as t 3.

BSERVATIONS
Mass of the empty calorimeter with stirrer (m1)

= ... g

Mass of the calorimeter with water (m 2)

= ... g

Mass of solid (m3)

= ... g

Initial temperature of the water (t 1)

= ... C = ... K

Temperature of the solid in boiling water (t 2)

= ... C = ... K

Temperature of the mixture (t3)

= ... C

Specific heat capacity of material of calorimeter s 1 = ... Jkg1 C1 (Jkg1 K1)


= ... Jkg1 K1

Specific heat capacity of water (s)

ALCULATIONS
1. Mass of the water in calorimeter (m2 m1) = ... g = ... kg
2. Change in temperature of liquid and calorimeter (t3 t1) = ... C
3. Change in temperature of solid (t2 t3) == ... C
Heat given by solid in cooling from t 2 to t 3.
= Heat gained by liquid in raising its temperature from t1 to t 3 +
heat gained by calorimeter in raising its temperature from t 1 to t 3.
m3s o (t 2 t3) = (m 2 m 1) s (t 2 t1) + m1s 1 (t3 t 1)
so =

(m 2 m 1 ) s ( t2 t1 ) + m1s1 ( t3 t1 )
m 3 ( t2 t3 )

= ... J kg1 C1

(b) Specific heat capacity of given liquid by method of mixtures

ROCEDURE
1. Set the phyiscal balance and make sure there is no zero error.
2. Weigh the empty calorimeter with stirrer and lid with the
physical balance/spring balance. Ensure that calorimeter is
clean and dry. Note the mass m 1 of the calorimeter. Pour the

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LABORATORY MANUAL

given liquid in the calorimeter. Make sure that the quantity of


liquid taken would be sufficient to completely submerge the
solid in it. Weigh the calorimeter with liquid along with the
stirrer and the lid and note its mass m2. Place the calorimeter
in its insulating cover.
3. Take a metallic cylinder whose specific heat capacity is known.
Dip it in water in a container and shake it to remove the water
sticking to its surface. Weigh the wet solid with the physical balance
and note down its mass m3.
4. Tie the solid tightly with the thread at its middle. Make sure that it
can be lifted by holding the thread without slipping.
Place a 250 mL beaker on the wire gauze kept on a tripod stand
as shown in Fig. E 17.1(a). Fill the beaker up to half with water.
Now suspend the solid in the beaker containing water by tying
the other end of the thread to a laboratory stand. The solid should
be completely submerged in water and should be atleast 0.5 cm
below the surface. Now heat the water with the solid suspended in
it [Fig. E 17.1(a)].
5. Note the least count of the thermometer. Measure the temperature
of the water taken in the calorimeter. Record the temperature t 1 of
the water.
6. Let the liquid in the beaker boil for about 5-10 minutes. Now
measure the temperature t 2 of the liquid with the other thermometer
and record the same. Holding the solid with the thread tied to it
remove it from the boiling water, shake it to remove water sticking
on it and quickly put it in the liquid in the calorimeter and replace
the lid immediately [Fig. E 17.1(b)]. Stir it with the stirrer. Measure
the temperature of the liquid once equilibrium is attained, that is,
temperature of the mixture becomes constant. Record this
temperature as t 3.

BSERVATIONS
Mass of the empty calorimeter with stirrer (m1) = ... g
Mass of the calorimeter with liquid (m2)

= ... g

Mass of solid (m3)

= ... g

Initial temperature of the liquid (t1)

= C

= ... K

Temperature of the solid in boiling water (t 2)

= C

= ... K

Temperature of the mixture (t3)

= C

= ... K

Specific heat capacity of material of calorimeter s 1 = ... Jkg1 C1 (Jkg1 K1)


Specific heat capacity of solid (s 0)

122

= ... Jkg1 K1

EXPERIMENT 1 7

UNIT NAME

ALCULATIONS
1. Mass of the liquid in calorimeter (m2 m 1) = ... g = ... kg
2. Change in temperature of liquid and calorimeter (t 3 t1) = ... C
3. Change in temperature of solid (t 2 t3) = ... C
Heat given by solid in cooling from t 2 to t 3.
= Heat gained by liquid in raising its temperature from t1 to t 3 +
heat gained by calorimeter in raising its temperature from t 1 to t 3.
m3s o (t 2 t3) = (m 2 m 1) s (t 2 t1) + m1s 1 (t3 t 1)
s=

m 3 s 0 ( t 2 t 3 ) m 1s 1 ( t 3 t1 )
= ... J kg1 C1
( m 2 m1 ) (t 2 t 1 )

ESULT
(a) The specific heat of the given solid is ... Jkg 1 K 1 within
experimental error.
(b) The specific heat of the given liquid is ... Jkg1 K 1 within
experimental error.

RECAUTIONS
1. Physical balance should be in proper working condition and ensure
that there is no zero error.
2. The two thermometers used should be of the same range and least
count.
3. The solid used should not be chemically reactive with the liquid
used or water.
4. The calorimeter should always be kept in its insulated cover and at
a sufficient distance from the source of heat and should not be
exposed to sunlight so that it absorbs no heat from the surrounding.
5. The solid should be transferred quickly so that its temperature is
same as recorded when it is dropped in the liquid.
6. Liquid should not be allowed to splash while dropping the solid
in it in the calorimeter. It is advised that the solid should be lowered
gently into the liquid with the help of the thread tied to it.
7. While measuring the temperature, the thermometers should always
be held in vertical position. The line of sight should be
perpendicular to the mercury level while recording the temperature.

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OURCES OF ERROR
1. Radiation losses cannot be completely eliminated.
2. Heat loss that takes place during the short period while transferring
hot solid into calorimeter, cannot be accounted for.
3. Though mercury in the thermometer bulb has low specific heat, it
absorbs some heat.
4. There may be some error in measurement of mass and temperature.

ISCUSSION
1. There may be some heat loss while transferring the solid, from
boiling water to the liquid kept in the calorimeter. Heat loss may
also occur due to time lapsed between putting of hot solid in
calorimeter and replacing its lid.
2. The insulating cover of the calorimeter may not be a perfect
insulator.
3. Error in measurement of mass of calorimeter, calorimeter with liquid
and that of the solid may affect the calculation of specific heat
capacity of the liquid.
4. Calculation of specific heat capacity of the liquid may also be
affected by the error in measurement of temperatures.
5. Even though the metal piece is kept in boiling water, it may not
have exactly the same temperature as that of boiling water.

ELF ASSESSMENT
1. What is water equivalent?
2. Why do we generally use a calorimeter made of copper?
3. Why is it important to stir the contents before taking the
temperature of the mixture?
4. Is specific heat a constant quantity?
5. What is thermal equilibrium?
SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES
We can verify the principle of calorimetry, if specific heat capacity of the
solid and the liquid are known.

124

ACTIVITIES

ACTIVITY

AIM
To make a paper scale of given least count: (a) 0.2 cm and (b) 0.5 cm

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


Thick ivory/drawing sheet; white paper sheet; pencil; sharpener;
eraser; metre scale (ruler); fine tipped black ink or gel pen.

RINCIPLE
Least count of a measuring instrument is the smallest measurement
that can be made accurately with the given measuring instrument.
A metre scale normally has graduations at 1 mm (or 0.1 cm) spacing,
as the smallest division on its scale. You cannot measure lengths
with this scale with accuracy better than 1mm (or 0.1 cm).
You can make paper scale of least count (a) 0.2 cm (b) 0.5 cm, by
dividing one centimetre length into smaller divisions by a simple
method, without using mm marks.

ROCEDURE
(a) Making Paper Scale of Least Count 0.2 cm
1.

Fold a white paper sheet in the middle along its length.

2.

Using a sharp pencil, draw a line AB, of length 30 cm in either


half of the white paper sheet [Fig. A1.1(a)].

3.

Starting with the left end marked A as zero,


mark very small dots on the line AB after
every 1.0 cm and write 0,1,2 ..., 30 at
successive dots.

4.

Draw thin, sharp straight lines, each 5 cm


in length, perpendicular to the line AB at
the position of each dot mark.

5.

Draw 5 thin, sharp lines parallel to the line


AB at distances of 1.0 cm, 2.0 cm, 3.0
cm, 4.0 cm and 5.0 cm respectively. Let
the line at 5 cm be DC while those at 1 cm,

Fig. A1.1(a): Making a paper scale


of least count 0.2 cm

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

2 cm, 3 cm, and 4 cm be A1B1, A 2B2, A3B3 and A4B4 respectively


[Fig A 1.1(a)].
6.

Join point D with the dot at 1 cm on line AB. Intersection of this


line with lines parallel to AB at A4, A3, A2 and A 1 are respectively
0.2 cm, 0.4 cm, 0.6 cm and 0.8 cm in length.

7.

Use this arrangement to measure length of a pencil or a knitting


needle with least count of 0.2 cm.

(b) Making Paper Scale of Least Count 0.5 cm

Fig. A1.1(b):

4.

1.

Using a sharp pencil, draw a line AB of length 30 cm


in the other half of the white paper sheet [Fig. A1.1(b)].

2.

Repeat steps 3 to 6 as in the above Activity 1.1(a), but


draw only two lines parallel to AB at distances 1.0 cm
and 2.0 cm instead of 5 cm.

3.

Join diagonal 1-D by fine tipped black ink pen [Fig. A


1.1 (b)].

Use this scale to measure length of a pencil/knitting needle with


least count of 0.5 cm. Fractional part of length 0.5 cm is measured
on line A1B1.

(c) Measuring the Length of a Pencil Using the Paper Scales A and B

1.

Place the pencil PP along the length of the paper scale A (least
count 0.2 cm) such that its end P is on a full mark (say 1.0 cm or
2.0 cm etc. mark). The position of the other end P is on diagonal
1D. If P goes beyond the diagonal, place it on next upper line, in
which fraction of intersection is 0.2 cm larger, and so on. Thus, in
Fig. A 1.1 (a), length of the pencil = 3 cm + .2 2 cm = 3.4 cm. Take
care that you take the reading with one eye closed and the other
eye directly over the required graduation mark. The reading is
likely to be incorrect if the eye is inclined to the graduation mark.

2.

Repeat preceding step 1, using the paper scale B having least


count 0.5 cm and record your observation in proper units.

BSERVATIONS
Least count of the paper scale A = 0.2 cm
Least count of the paper scale B = 0.5 cm

ESULT
(i)

Scale of least count 0.2 cm and 0.5 cm have been made; and

(ii) Length of pencil as measured by using the scales made above is


(a)

126

... cm and (b)

... cm.

ACTIVITY

UNIT NAME

RECAUTIONS
(i)

Very sharp pencil should be used.

(ii) Scale should be cut along the boundary by using a sharp paper
cutter.
(iii) Observation should be recorded showing accuracy of the scale.
(iv) While measuring lengths, full cm mark should be made to
coincide with one end of the object and other end should be read
on the scale.

OURCES OF ERROR
The line showing the graduations may not be as sharp as required.

ISCUSSION
1.

The accuracy of measurement of length with the scale so formed


depends upon the accuracy of the graduation and thickness of
line drawn.

2.

Some personal error is likely to be involved e.g. parallax error.

127

LABORATORY MANUAL

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ACTIVITY

AIM
To determine the mass of a given body using a metre scale by the
principle of moments.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


A wooden metre scale of uniform thickness (a wooden strip of one
metre length having uniform thickness and width can also be used);
load of unknown mass, wooden or metal wedge with sharp edge, weight
box, thread (nearly 30 cm long), a spirit level, and a raised platform of
about 20 cm height (such as a wooden or metal block).

RINCIPLE
For a body free to rotate about a fixed axis, in equilibrium, the sum of
the clockwise moments is equal to the sum of the anticlockwise
moments.
If M1 is the known mass, suspended at a distance l1 on one side from
the centre of gravity of a beam and M2 is the unknown mass, suspended
at a distance l2 on the other side from the centre of gravity, and the
beam is in equilibrium, then M2 l2 = M1 l1.

ROCEDURE

128

1.

Make a raised platform on a table. One can use a wooden or a


metal block to do so. However, the platform should be a sturdy,
place a wedge having a sharp edge on it. Alternately one can fix
the wedge to a laboratory stand at about 20 cm above the table
top. With the help of a spirit level set the level of the wedge
horizontal.

2.

Make two loops of thread to be used for suspending the unknown


mass and the weights from the metre scale (beam). Insert the loops
at about 10 cm from the edge of the metre scale from both sides.

3.

Place the metre scale with thread loops on the wedge and adjust
it till it is balanced. Mark two points on the scale above the wedge
where the scale is balanced. Join these two points with a straight
line which would facilitate to pin point the location of balance

ACTIVITY

UNIT NAME

position even if the scale topples over from the wedge due to some
reason. This line is passing through the centre of gravity of scale.

4.

Take the unknown mass in one hand. Select a weight from the
weight box which feels nearly equal to the unknown mass when
it is kept on the other hand.

5.

Suspend the unknown mass from


either of the two loops of thread
attached to the metre scale.
Suspend the known weight from
the other loop (Fig. A 2.1).

Wedge
A

Unknown
Mass, m m

B
y

6.

Adjust the position of the known


Known standard
weight by moving the loop till the
W = mg
mass
metre scale gets balanced on the
sharp wedge. Make sure that in Fig. A 2.1: Experimental set up for determination
of mass of a given body
balanced position the line drawn in
Step 3 is exactly above the wedge
and also that the thread of two loops passing over the scale is
parallel to this line.

7.

Measure the distance of the position of the loops from the line
drawn in Step 3. Record your observations.

8.

Repeat the activity atleast two times with a slightly lighter and a
heavier weight. Note the distances of unknown mass and weight
from line drawn in Step 3 in each case.

BSERVATIONS
Position of centre of gravity = ... cm
Table A 2.1: Determination of mass of unknown object
S.
No.

Mass M1
suspended
from the
thread
loop to
balance
the metre
scale (g)

Distance of
the mass
from the
wedge l 1
(cm)

Distance of
solid of
unknown
mass from
the wedge
l 2 (cm)

Mass of
unknown
load M 2 (g)
=

M1l1
l2

Average
mass of
unknown
load (g)

1
2
3
4
5

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LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

ALCULATIONS
In balanced position of the metre scale, moment of the force on one
side of the wedge will be equal to the moment of the force on the other
side.
Moment of the force due to known weight = (M1l1) g
Moment of the force due to unknown weight = (M2l2) g
In balanced position
M1l1 = M2l2
M1l1
M2 = l
2

or

Average mass of unknown load = ... g

ESULT
Mass of given body = ... g (within experimental)

RECAUTIONS
1.

Wedge should be sharp and always perpendicular to the length of the


scale.

2.

Thread loops should be perpendicular to the length of the scale.

3.

Thread used for loops should be thin, light and strong.

4.

Air currents should be minimised.

OURCES OF ERROR

130

1.

Mass per unit length may not be uniform along the length of the
metre scale due to variation in its thickness and width.

2.

The line marked on the scale may not be exactly over the wedge
while balancing the weights in subsequent settings.

3.

The thread of the loops may not be parallel to the wedge when the
weights are balanced, which in turn would introduce some error
in measurement of weight-arm.

4.

It may be difficult to adjudge balance position of the scale exactly.


A tilt of even of the order of 1 may affect the measurement of
mass of the load.

ACTIVITY

UNIT NAME

ISCUSSION
1.

What is the name given to the point on the scale at which it is


balanced horizontally on the wedge?

2.

How does the least count of the metre scale limit the accuracy in
the measurement of mass?

3.

What is the resultant torque on the metre scale, due to gravitational


force, when the scale is perfectly horizontal?

4.

Explain, how a physical balance works on the principle of


moments.

5.

What problems would air currents cause in this activity?


SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES
1.

We can determine the accuracy of various weights available in


the laboratory, by finding out their mass by the above method
and comparing with their marked values.

2.

Verify the principle of moments using a metr e scale. After


balancing the metre scale at its centre of gravity, suspend
masses M 1 and M 2 at distances l1 and l2 respectively, from the
centre of gravity, on either side. Adjust the distances l 1 and l2
so that the metre scale is horizontal. Calculate and compare
M1 l1 and M2 l2. Repeat with other combinations of masses M1
and M2.

131

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

ACTIVITY

AIM
To plot a graph for a given set of data choosing proper scale and show
error bars due to the precision of the instruments.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


Graph paper, a pencil, a scale and a set of data

RINCIPLE
Graphical representation of experimentally obtained data helps in
interpreting, communicating and understanding the interdependence
between the variable parameters of a given phenomena. Measured
values of variables have some error or expected uncertainty. For this
reason each data point on the graph cannot have a unique position.
That means depending upon the errors, the x-axis coordinate and yaxis coordinate of every point plotted on the graph will lie in a range
known as an error bar.
Any measurement using a device has an uncertainty in its value
depending on the precision of the device used. For example, in the
measurement of diameter of a spherical bob, the correct way is to
represent it d + d, where d is the uncertainty in measurement of d
given by the least count of the vernier/screw gauze used.
Representation of d + d in a graph is shown as a line having a length
of + d about point d. This is known as the error bar of d.
We take an example where the diameters of objects, circular in shape,
are measured using a vernier calipers of least count 0.01 cm. These
measured values are given in Table 1. From the measured values of
diameters, it is required to calculate the radius of each object and to
round off the digits in the radius to the value consistent with the least
count of the measuring instrument, in this case, the vernier calipers.
We also estimate the maximum possible fractional uncertainty (or
error) in the values of radius. Next, the area A of each object is then
calculated using the formula.
Area, A =

132

d 2
4

where is the well-known constant.

ACTIVITY

UNIT NAME

Graphical representation of experimental data provides a convenient


way to look for interdependence or patterns between various
parameters associated with a given experiment or phenomenon or an
event. Graphs also provide a useful tool to communicate a given data
in pictorial form. We are often required to graphically represent the
data collected during an experiment in the laboratory, to verify a given
relation or to infer inter-relationships between the variables. It is,
therefore, imperative that we must know the method for representing
a given set of data on a graph, develop skill to draw most appropriate
curve to represent the plotted data and learn as to how to interpret a
given graph to infer relevant information.
Basic ideas about the steps involved in plotting a line graph for a
given data and finding the slope of the curve have already been
discussed in Chapter I. The steps involved in plotting a graph include
choice of axes (independent variable versus dependent variable), choice
of scale, marking the points on the graph for each pair of data and
drawing a smooth curve/line by joining maximum number of points
corresponding to the given data. Interpretation of the graph usually
involves finding the slope of the curve/line, inferring nature of
dependence between variables/parameters, interpolating/
extrapolating the graph to find desired value of the dependable variable
corresponding to a given value of independent variable or vice versa.
However, so far you have learnt to graphically represent the data for
which uncertainty or error is either ignored or is presumed not to
exist. As you know every data has some uncertainty/error due lack
of precision in measurement or some other factors inherent in the
process/method of data collection. It is possible to plot a graph that
depicts the extent of uncertainty/error in the given data. Such a
depiction in the graph is called an error bar. In general error bars
allow us to graphically illustrate actual errors, the statistical probability
of errors in the measurement or typical data points in comparison to
the rest of the data.
You have learnt to show uncertainty in measurement of a physical
quantity like length, mass, temperature and time on the basis of the
least count of the measuring instruments used. For example, the
diameter of a wire measured with a screw gauge having least count
0.001cm is expressed as 0.181 cm 0.001 cm. The figure 0.001 cm
in the measurement indicates that the actual value of diameter of the
wire may lie between 0.180 and 0.182 cm. However, the error in
measurement may also be due to many other factors, such as personal
error, experimental error etc. In some cases the error in data may be
due to factors other than those associated with measurement. For
example, angles of scattering of charge particles in an experiment on
scattering of particles or opinion collected from a section of a
population on a social issue. The uncertainty due to such errors is
estimated through a variety of statistical methods about which you will
learn in higher classes. Here we shall consider uncertainty in

133

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

measurements only due to the least count of the measuring instrument


so as to learn how uncertainty for a given data is shown in a line graph.
Let us take the example of the graph between time period, T, and the
length, l, of a simple pendulum. The uncertainty in measurement of
time period will depend on the least count of the stop watch/clock
while that in measurement of length of the pendulum will depend on
the least count of the device(s) used to measure length. Table A 3.1
gives the data for the time period of simple pendulum measured in an
experiment along with the uncertainty in measurement of the length
and time period of the pendulum.
Table A 3.1 Time period of simple pendulums of different lengths
S.
No.

Time period

Length of the pendulum


Length as
Length with
measured with
uncertainty in L
metre scale, L (least count of scale
(cm)
0.1 cm)
(cm)

Average time Time period


with
period as
measured uncertainty in
T (least count
with stop
of stop watch
watch, T
0.1 s)
(s)
(s)

Square of
time period
T 2 with
uncertainty

80.0

800.1

1.8

1.80.1

3.240.2

90.0

900.1

1.9

1.90.1

3.610.2

100.0

1000.1

2.0

2.00.1

4.00.2

110.0

1100.1

2.1

2.10.1

4.410.2

120.0

1200.1

2.2

2.20.1

4.840.2

130.0

1300.1

2.3

2.30.1

5.290.2

140.0

1400.1

2.4

2.40.1

5.760.2

150.0

1500.1

2.4

2.40.1

5.760.2

LOTTING OF A GRAPH WITH ERROR BARS


Steps involved in drawing a graph with error bars on it are as follows:
1. Draw x- and y- axes on a graph sheet and select an appropriate
scale for plotting of the graph. In order to show uncertainty/error
in given data, it is advisable that the scale chosen should be such
that the lowest value of uncertainty/error on either axes could be
shown by at least the smallest division on the graph sheet.
2. Mark the points on the graph for each pair of data without taking
into account the given uncertainty/error.

134

ACTIVITY

UNIT NAME

3. Each point marked on the graph in Step 2 has an uncertainty in


the value shown on either the x-axis or the y-axis or both. For
example, let us consider the
case
for
the
point
corresponding to (80, 1.8)
marked on the graph. If we
take into account the
uncertainty in measurement
for this case, the actual length
of the pendulum may lie
between 79.9 cm and 80.1
cm. This uncertainty in the
data is shown in the graph by
a line of length 0.2 cm drawn
parallel to x-axis with its
midpoint at 80.0 cm, in
accordance with the scale
chosen. The line of length 0.2
cm parallel to x-axis shows
the error bar for the pendulum
of length 80.0 cm. One can
similarly draw error bar for
each length of the pendulum. Fig. A 3.1: Error bars corresponding to uncertainty
4. Repeat the procedure explained
in Step 3 to draw error bars for
uncertainty in measurement of
time period. However, the error
bars in this case will be parallel
to the y-axis.

in time period of the given pendulum


(uncertainty in length is not shown due to
limitation of scale)

5. Once the error bars showing


the uncertainty for data in both
the axes of the graph have been
marked, each pair of data on
the graph will be marked with
a + or <% or <% sign,
depending on the extent of
uncertainty and the scale
chosen for each axis, instead
of a point usually marked for
drawing line graph (Fig. A 3.1).
6. A smooth curve drawn
passing as close as possible
through all the + marks
marked on the graph, instead
of points, gives us the plot
between the two given
variables (Fig. A 3.2).

Fig. A 3.2: Graph showing variation in time period


of a simple pendulum with its length
along with error bars

135

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

ESULT
A given set of data gives unique points. However, when plotted, a curve
representing that data may not physically pass through these points.
It must, however, pass through the area enclosed by the error bars
around each point.

RECAUTIONS

1.

In this particular case the point of intersection of the two x-axis


and y-axis represent the origin of O at (0, 0). However, this is not
always necessary to take the values of physical quantities being
plotted as zero at the intersection of the x-axis and y-axis. For a
given set of data, try to maximize the use of the graph paper area.

2.

While deciding on scale for plotting the graph, efforts should be


made to choose a scale which would enable to depict uncertainty
by at least one smallest division on the graph sheet.

3.

While joining the data points on the graph sheet, enough care
should be taken to join them smoothly. The curve or line should
be thin.

4.

Every graph must be given a suitable heading, which should be


written on top of the graph.

OURCES OF ERROR
1.

Improper choice of origin and the scale.

2.

Improper marking of observation points.

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES


how error bars in the graphs plotted for the data obtained while doing
Experiment Nos. 6, 9, 10, 11, 14 and 15.
Note:
As the aim of the Activity is to choose proper scale while plotting a graph
alongwith uncertainty only due to the measuring devices, the calculation in
the activity should be avoided.
Suggested alternate Activity for plotting cooling curve with error bars
(Experiment No. 14) where temperature and time are measured using a
thermometer and a stop-clock (stop-watch) with complete set of data /

T
and
values
observations with LC of the measuring devices and

T
be given.
Additionally the same curve along with error bar be asked to be drawn using
two different scales and the discussion may be done using them.

136

ACTIVITY

ACTIVITY

UNIT NAME

AIM
To measure the force of limiting rolling friction for a roller (wooden
block) on a horizontal plane.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


Wooden block with a hook on one side, set of weights, horizontal plane
fitted with a frictionless pulley at one end, pan, spring balance, thread,
spirit level, weight box and lead shots (rollers).

RINCIPLE

Rolling friction is the least force required to make a body start rolling
over a surface. Rolling friction is less than the sliding friction.

ROCEDURE
1. Check that the pulley is almost frictionless otherwise oil it to
reduce friction.
2. Check the horizontal surface with a spirit level and spread a layer
of lead shots on it as shown in Fig. A 4.1.
3 . Weigh the wooden block.
4. Find the weight of the pan.
Tie one end of the thread to
the pan and let it hang over
the pulley.
5. Now put the block over the
layer of lead shots and tie the
other end of the thread to its
hook.
6. Put a small weight in the pan
and observe whether the
wooden block kept on rollers
begin to move.

Fig. A 4.1:

Setup to study rolling friction

137

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

7. If the block does not start rolling, put some more weights on the
pan from the weight box increasing weights in the pan gradually
till the block just starts rolling.
8. Note the total weight put in the pan, including the weight of the
pan and record them in the observation table.
9. Put a 100 g weight over the wooden block and repeat Steps (7) to (9).
10. Increase the weights in steps over the wooden block and repeat
Steps (7) to (9).

BSERVATIONS
Mass of wooden block m = ... g = ... kg
Weight of wooden block, W (mg) = ... N
Weight on the pan
= (Mass of the pan + weight) acceleration due to gravity (g)
= ... N
Table A 4.1: Table for additional weights
S.
No.

Mass of
standard
weights on
wooden
block, W

Total weight
Mass on
being pulled pan (p) (kg)
= (W + w) g
= Normal
Reaction, R
(N)

Total weight (force)


pulling the block and
standard weights (P+p) g

1
2
3
4

ESULT

As the total weight being pulled increases limiting value of rolling


friction increases/decreases.

RECAUTIONS

138

1.

The pulley should be frictionless. It should be lubricated, if


necessary.

2.

The portion of the string between the pulley and the hook should
be horizontal.

ACTIVITY
3.

The surfaces of lead shots as well as the plane and the block
should be clean, dry and smooth.

4.

The weights in the pan should be placed carefully and very gently.

UNIT NAME

OURCES OF ERROR
1.

Friction at the pulley tends to give larger value of limiting friction.

2.

The plane may not be exactly horizontal.

ISCUSSION
1.

The two segments of the thread joining the block and the pan
passing over the pulley should lie in mutually perpendicular
planes.

2.

The total weight pulling the block (including that of pan) should
be such that the system just rolls without acceleration.

3.

While negotiating a curve on a road, having sand spread over it, a


two wheeler has to be slowed down to avoid skidding, why?
SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

1.

Find the co-efficient of rolling


friction r by plotting the
graph between rolling friction,
F and normal reaction, R.

2.

What will be the effect of


greasing the lead shots, and
the horizontal surface on
which they are placed.

3.

Study the rolling motion of


a roller as shown in Fig. A
4.2 and compare it with the
motion in the arrangement
for the above Activity.

Fig. A 4.2:

139

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

ACTIVITY

AIM
To study the variation in the range of a jet of water with the change in
the angle of projection.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


PVC or rubber pipe, a nozzle, source of water under pressure (i.e., a
tap connected to an overhead water tank or water supply line), a
measuring tape, large size protractor.

RINCIPLE
The motion of water particles in a jet of water could be taken as an
example of a projectile motion under acceleration due to gravity 'g'.
Its range R is given by
R=

v 02 sin 2 0
g

where 0 is the angle of projection and v 0 is the velocity of projection.

ROCEDURE

140

1.

Making a large protractor: Take a circular plyboard or thick


circular cardboard sheet of radius about 25 cm. Draw a diameter
through its centre. Cut it along the diameter to form two dees. On
one of the dees, draw angles at an interval of 15 starting with 0.

2.

Attach one end of pipe to a tap. At the other end of the pipe fix a
nozzle to obtain a jet of water. Ensure that there is no leakage in
the pipe.

3.

Fix the protractor vertically on the ground with its graduatedface


towards yourself, as shown in Fig. A 5.1.

4.

Place the jet at the centre O of the protractor and direct the nozzle
of the jet along 15 mark on the protractor.

5.

Open the tap to obtain a jet of water. The water coming out of the

ACTIVITY

UNIT NAME

R (cm)

v02/2g

Fig. A 5.1: Setup for studying the variation in


the range of a jet of water with the
angle of projection

15

30

60
45
(Degrees)

75

Fig. A 5.2: Variation of range with angle


of projection

jet would strike the ground after completing its parabolic


trajectory. Ask your friend to mark the point (A) where the water
falls. Close the tap.
6.

Measure the distance between point O and A. This gives the range
R corresponding to the angle of projection, 15.

7.

Now, vary 0 in steps of 15 upto 75 and measure the


corresponding range for each angle of projection.

8.

Plot a graph between the angle of projection 0 and range R


(Fig. A 5.2).

BSERVATIONS
Least count of measuring tape = ... cm
Table A 5.1: Measurement of range
S.
No.

Angle of projection 0
(degrees)

15

30

45

60

75

Range
R (cm)

141

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

RAPH
Plot a graph between angle of projection (on x-axis) and range
(on y-axis).

ESULT
The range of jet of water varies with the angle of projection as shown
in Fig. A 5. 2.
The range of jet of water is maximum when 0 = ...

RECAUTIONS
1.

There should not be any leakage in the pipe and the pressure
with which water is released from the jet should not vary during
the experiment.

2.

The jet of water does not strike the ground at a point but gets
spread over a small area. The centre of this area should be
considered for measurement of the range.

3.

The nozzle should be small so as to get a thin stream of water.

OURCES OF ERROR
1.

The pressure of water and hence the projection velocity of water


may not remain constant, particularly if there is leakage in
the pipe.

2 . The markings on the protractor may not be accurate


or uniform.

ISCUSSION
1.

Why do you get same range for angles of projection 15 and 75?

2.

Why has a big protractor been taken? Would a protractor of radius


about 10 cm be preferable? Why?

ELF ASSESSMENT

142

1.

This Activity requires the pressure of inlet water be kept constant


to keep projection velocity of water constant. How can this be
achieved?

2.

How would the range change if the velocity of projection is


increased or decreased?

ACTIVITY

UNIT NAME

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES


1.

Study the variation in maximum height attained by the water stream


for different angles of projection.

2.

Study the variation in range of water stream by varying the height at


which the water supply tank is kept.

3,

Take a toy gun which shoots plastic balls and repeat the Activity
using this gun.

4.

Calculate velocity of projection by using maximum value of horizontal


range measured as above.

143

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

ACTIVITY

AIM
To study the conservation of energy of a ball rolling down an inclined
plane (using a double inclined plane).

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


A double inclined plane having hard surface, (for guided motion of
the ball on the double inclined plane it is suggested that an aluminium
channel or rails of two steel wires be used for it), a steel ball of about
2.5 cm diameter, two wooden blocks, spirit level, tissue paper or cotton,
and a half metre scale.

RINCIPLE
The law of conservation of energy states that energy can neither
be created nor destroyed but can only be changed from one form
to another.

Fig.A 6.1: Set up for studying the conservation of


energy using double inclined tracks

144

For a mechanical system, viz., the


rolling of a steel ball on a perfactly
smooth inclined plane, the energy of
ball remains in the form of its kinetic
and potential energies and during the
course of motion, a continuous
transformation between these energies
takes place. The sum of its kinetic and
potential energies remains constant
provided there is no dissipation of
energy due to air resistance, friction etc.

In this experiment, the law of


conservation of energy is illustrated by the motion of a steel ball rolling
on a double inclined plane. A steel ball rolling on a hard surface of
inclined plane is an example of motion with low friction. When the ball
is released from point A on inclined plane AO, it will roll down the
slope and go up the opposite side on the plane OB to about the same
height h from which it was released. If the angle of the slope on right
hand plane is changed, the ball will still move till it reaches the same
vertical height from which it was released.

ACTIVITY

UNIT NAME

At point of release, A, say on the right hand inclined plane, the steel
ball possesses only potential energy that is proportional to the vertical
height, h, of the point of release and has a zero kinetic energy. This
potential energy transfers completely into kinetic energy when the
steel ball rolls down to the lowest point O on the double inclined plane.
It then starts rolling up on the second inclined plane during which its
kinetic energy changes into potential energy. At point B where it stops
on the left hand inclined plane OB, it again has only potential energy
and zero kinetic energy. The law of conservation of mechanical energy
can be verified by the equality of two vertical heights AA and BB.

ROCEDURE
1.

Adjust the experimental table horizontally with the help of spirit


level.

2.

Clean the steel ball and inclined planes with cotton or tissue paper.
Even a minute amount of dust or stain on the ball or on the
plane can cause much friction.

3.

Keep the clean double inclined plane on a horizontal table.


Note: In order to reduce friction and thereby reduce loss of energy
due to it one can also design an unbreakable double inclined
track apparatus, in which the steel ball rolls on stainless steel
wire track. In a try outs with such an inclined plane it has been
observed that the rolling friction is extremely low and it is very
good for this Activity. It also does not develop a kink in the centre,
unlike the apparatus presently in use in many schools.

4.

Insert identical wooden blocks W1 and W2 underneath each plane


at equal distance from point O. The two planes will be inclined
nearly equally, as shown in Fig. A 6.1. The inclined plane should
be stable on horizontal table otherwise there would be energy
losses due to the movement of inclined plane as well.

5.

Release the steel ball from A, on either of the two inclined.

6.

Find the vertical height AA (x) of the point A from the table
using a scale.

7.

Note the point B up to which the ball reaches the inclined plane
on the other side and find the vertical height BB (y) (Fig. A. 6.1).
Record the observations. While observing the highest position of
the steel ball on other plane, observer has to be very alert as the
ball stays at the highest position only for an instant.

8.

Shift the wooden block W1 and W2, kept under either of the two planes,
towards the centre point O by a small distance. Now the angle of the
slope of one of the planes would be larger than that of the other.

9.

Release the ball again from point A on one of the two planes and
mark the point B on the other plane up to which the steel ball
rolls up. Also find the vertical height BB.

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LABORATORY MANUAL

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10. Repeat Steps (8) and (9) for one more angle of the slope of the
inclined plane.
11. Repeat the observations for another point of release on the same
inclined plane.

BSERVATIONS
Table A 6.1:
S.
Reading on inclined
No. plane from which the
ball is rolled down
Position of
mark A

Vertical
height
AA, x
(cm)

Reading on the inclined


plane in which the ball
rolls up

Difference
(x y)
(cm)

Position of Vertical Mean, y


mark up to height,
(cm)
which the
y
ball rolls
(cm)
up

B =

C =

D=

B =

C =

D=

ESULT
It is observed that initial vertical height and final vertical height upto
which the ball rolls up are approximately same. Thus, the rolling steel
ball has same initial and final potential energies, though during the
motion, the form of energy changes. The total mechanical energy (sum
of kinetic and potential energies) remains same. This is the verification
of law of conservation of energy.

RECAUTIONS

146

1.

Steel balls and inclined planes must be cleaned properly with


cotton/tissue paper.

2.

Both wings of the inclined plane must lie in the same vertical plane.

3.

Both the planes must be stable and should not have any movement
due to rolling of the ball or otherwise.

4.

The position of the ball at the highest point while climbing up the
plane must be noted quickly and carefully.

ACTIVITY

UNIT NAME

OURCES OF ERROR
1.

Some energy is always lost due to friction.

2.

Due to lack of continuity at junction of two inclined planes, rolling


ball usually suffers a collision with second plane and hence
results in some loss of energy.

ISCUSSION
1.

The key to the success of this Activity for the verification of law
of conservation of energy is in keeping the rolling friction between
the steel ball and inclined plane as low as possible. Therefore,
the ball and inclined plane surfaces should be smooth, clean
and dry.

2.

The dissipation of energy due to friction can be minimised by


minimising the area of contact between the steel ball and inclined
plane. Therefore, it is advised that the inclined planes should be
made of polished aluminium channels having narrow grooves.

3.

The surface of inclined planes should be hard and smooth so


that role of friction remains minimum.

4.

If the inclination of the planes is large then the dissipation of


energy will be more (how)? Therefore inclination of the planes
should be kept small.

ELF ASSESSMENT
1.

Can this Activity be performed successfully with a steel ball of


smaller diameter?

2.

If the ball is not reaching exactly up to the same height on the


other wing, comment on the observations?
SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES
1.

Study of the effects of mass and size of the ball on rolling down an
inclined plane.

2.

Study the effect of inclination of the planes on coefficient of rolling


friction.

147

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

ACTIVITY

AIM
To study dissipation of energy of a simple pendulum with time.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


A heavy metallic spherical ball with a hook; a rigid support; a long
fine strong cotton thread (1.5 m to 2m); metre scale; weighing balance;
sheet of paper; cotton; cellophane sheet.

RINCIPLE
When a simple pendulum executes simple harmonic motion, the restoring force F is given by

(A 7.1)

F(t) = kx (t)
Where x (t) is the displacement at time t and k = mg/L, the symbols k,
m, g and L have been explained in Experiment E 6. The displacement
is given by

(A 7.2)

x (t) = A0 cos (t )
where is the (angular) frequency and is a constant. A0 is the maximum displacement in each oscillation, which is called the amplititude.
The total energy of the pendulum is given as

(A 7.3)

E =

1
k A 20
2

The total energy remains a constant in an ideal pendulum, because


its amplitude remains constant.

(A 7.4)

But in a real pendulum, the amplitude never remains constant. It


decreases with time due to several factors like air drag, some play at
the point of suspension, imperfection in rigidity of the string and suspension, etc. Therefore, the amplitude of A0 falls with time at each
successive oscillation. The amplitude becomes a function of time and
is given by
A(t) = A 0e t/2

148

where A0 is the initial amplitude and is a contant which depends on

ACTIVITY

UNIT NAME

damping and the mass of the bob. The total energy of the pendulum
at time t is then given by
E (t)

1
kA2(t)
2

= E0 e t

(A 7.5)

Thus, the energy falls with time, because some of the energy is being
lost to the surroundings.
The frequency of a damped oscillator does not depend much on the
amplitude. Therefore, instead of measuring the time, we can also
measure the number of oscillations n. At the end of n oscillations,
t = nT, where T is the time period. Then Eq. (A 7.5) can be written in
the form En = E0 e n
where

= t

(A 7.6)

and En is the energy of the oscillator at the end of n oscillations.

ROCEDURE
1.

Find the mass of the pendulum bob.

2.

Repeat Steps 1 to 5 of Experiment E 6.

3.

Fix a metre scale just below the pendulum so that it is in the


plane of oscillations of the pendulum, and such that the zero mark
of the scale is just below the bob at rest.

4.

When the pendulum oscillates, you have to observe the point on


the scale above which the bob rises at its maximum displacement. In doing this, do not worry about millimetre marks. Take
observations only upto 0.5 cm.

5.

Pull the pendulum bob so that it is above the 15 cm mark. Thus,


the initial amplitude will be A 0 = 15 cm at n = 0. Leave the bob
gently so that it starts oscillating.

6.

Keep counting the number of oscillations when the bob is at its


maximum displacement on the same side.

7.

Record the amplitude An at the end of n oscillations for n = 5, 10,


15, ..., that is at the end of every five oscillations. You may even
note An after every ten oscillations.

8.

Plot a graph of A n2 versus n and intepret the graph (Fig. A 7.1).

9.

Stick a bit of cotton or a small strip of paper to the bob so as to


increase the damping, and repeat the experiment.

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LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

A2n
2

(m )

Fig. A 7.1: Graph between A2n and n


for a simple pendulum

BSERVATIONS
Least count of the balance = ... g
Least count of the metre scale = ... cm
Mass of the pendulum bob. m = ... g
Radius (r) of the pendulum bob (given) = ... cm
Effective length of the pendulum (from the tip of the bob to the point
of suspension), L = ... cm
Force constant, k = mg/L = ... N m1
Initial amplitude of oscillation, A0 = ... cm
Initial energy, E0 = 1/2 (k A 2)= ... J
Table A 7.1 : Decay of amplitude with time and dissipation of
energy of simple pendulum
S.
No.

Amplitude,
A n (cm)

Number of
oscillations,
n

A2n

Energy of
oscillater, E n
(J)

Dissipation
of energy,
(En Eo) (J)

1
2
3
4

ESULT
From the graphs, we may conclude that the energy of a simple
pendulum dissipates with time.

150

ACTIVITY

UNIT NAME

RECAUTIONS
1.

The experiment should be performed in a section of the laboratory


where air flow is minimum.

2.

The pendulum must swing for atleast a couple of oscillations


before recording its amplitude, this will ensure that the pendulum
is moving in the same plane.

OURCES OF ERROR
1.

Some movement of air is always there in the laboratory.

2.

Accurate measurement of amplitude is difficult.

ISCUSSION
1.

Which graph among the A n and A2 n graph would you prefer


for studying the dissipation of energy of simple pendulum with
time and why?

2.

How would the amplitude of oscillation change with time with


the variation in (a) size and (b) mass of the pendulum bob; and
(c) length of the pendulum?

ELF ASSESSMENT
1.

Interpret the graph between A 2 and n you have drawn for a simple pendulum.

2.

Examine how the amplitude of oscillations changes with time.

3.

What does the decreasing amplitude of oscillation with time indicate in terms of variations in energy of simple pendulum with time.

4.

In what way does graph between A and n differ from that between
the A 2 and n graph, you have drawn.

5.

Compare the A 2 n plots for


(a)

oscillations with small damping and

(b)

oscillations with large damping.

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES


Take a plastic ball (5 cm diameter) make two holes in it along its
diameter. Fill it with sand. Use the sand filled ball to make a pendulum
of 100 cm length.
Swing the pendulum allowing the sand to drain out of the hole.
Find the rate at which the amplitude of pendulum falls and compare
it with the case when mass of the bob is constant.

151

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

ACTIVITY

AIM
To observe the change of state and plot a cooling curve for
molten wax.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


A 500 mL beaker, tripod stand, wire gauge, clamp stand, hard glass
boiling tube, celsius thermometer of least count 0.5 C, a stop-watch/
stop-clock, burner, parraffin wax, cork with a hole to fit the boiling
tube and hold a thermometer vertically.

RINCIPLE
Matter exists in three states solid, liquid and gas.
On heating a solid expands and its temperature increases. If we
continue to heat the solid, it changes its state.
The process of conversion of solid to a liquid state is called melting.
The temperature at which the change takes place is called melting
point. Melting does not take place instantaneously throughout
the bulk of a solid, the temperature of solid-liquid remains
constant till the whole solid changes into
liquid. The time for melting depends upon the
nature and mass of solid.

Temperature (C)

A liquid when cooled freezes to solid state at the


same temperature as its melting point. In this case
also the temperature of liquid-solid remains
constant till all the liquid solidifies.

TM

TR

x
Time (min)

Fig. A 8.1: Cooling curve

152

Paraffin wax is widely used in daily life. We can


determine the melting point of wax by plotting
a cooling curve. The temperature of molten
wax is recorded at equal intervals of time. First
the temperature of wax falls with time then
becomes constant at T M, the melting point,
when it solidifies. On further cooling the
temperature of solid wax falls to room
temperature T R as shown in Fig. A 8.1.

ACTIVITY

UNIT NAME

ROCEDURE
1. Note the least count and range of the thermometer.
2. Note the least count of the stop-clock.
3. Record the room temperature.
4. Set up the tripod, burner, heating
arrangement as shown in Fig A 8.2.
5. Adjust the boiling tube and the thermometer
such that the graduation marks could be
easily read by you.
6. Heat the water and observe the state of wax.
Continue to heat till all the wax melts, note
the approximate melting point.
7. Continue to heat the wax in the water bath
Fig. A 8.2: Experimental set up
till the temperatue is atleast 20C above the
approximate melting point as observed in Step 6.
8. Turn off the burner, and carefully raise the clamp to remove the
boiling tube from the water bath.
9. Record readings of temperature after every 2 minutes.
10. Plot a graph of temperature of wax versus time, (temperature on
y axis).
11. From the graph
(i) determine the melting point of wax.
(ii) mark the time interval for which the wax is in liquid state/solid state.

BSERVATIONS
Least count of thermometer = ... C
Thermometer range ... C to ... C
Room temperature = ... C
Least count of stop clock

= ... s

Table A 8.1: Change in temperature of molten wax with time


S.
No.
1
2
3
4

time
s

temperature
C

153

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

ESULT
The cooling curve of molten wax is shown in the graph. From the
graph (i) the melting point of wax is ... C and (ii) the wax remains in
liquid state for ... s and in solid state for ... s.

RECAUTIONS
1.

The boiling tube with wax should never be heated directly on


a flame.

2.

The stop clock should be placed on the right hand side of the
apparatus as it may be easy to see.

3.

Wax should not be heated more than 20C above its melting point.

OURCES OF ERROR
Simultaneous recording of temperature and time may give rise to
some errors.

ELF ASSESSMENT
1.

Why should we never heat the wax directly over a flame?

2.

Why is water bath used to melt the wax and heat it further?

3.

What is the maximum temperature to which molten wax can be


heated in a water bath?

4.

Would this method be suitable to determine the melting point of


plastics? Give reason for your answer.

5.

Will the shape of the curve for coding of hot water be different
than that for wax?
SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

154

1.

Find melting point of ice.

2.

Study the effect of addition of colour/fragrance on the melting point


of a given sample of colour less wax. Find the change in melting
point of wax by adding colour/fragrance in different proportions.

ACTIVITY

ACTIVITY

UNIT NAME

AIM
To observe and explain the effect of heating on a bi-metallic strip.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


A iron-brass bi-metallic strip with an insulating (wooden) handle;
heater/burner.

ESCRIPTION OF THE DEVICE


A bi-metallic strip is made of
two bars/strips of different
metals (materials), but of same
dimensions. These metallic
bars/strips (A and B) are
put together lengthwise and
firmly rivetted. An insulating
(wooden) handle is also fixed
at one end of the bi-metallic
strip. A bi-metallic strip can
be made by selecting metals
(materials) with widely
different values of coefficients
of linear thermal expansion.

The bi-metallic strip is


straight at room temperature, Fig. A 9.1: A bi-metallic strip in (a) straight, and (b)
as shown in position (a) of
bent positions
Fig. A 9.1. When the bi-metallic
strip is heated, both metallic pieces expand to different extents
because of their different linear thermal expansivities, as shown
in position (b) of Fig. A 9.1. As a result, the bimetallic strip
appears to bend.

RINCIPLE
The linear thermal expansion is the change in length of a bar on
heating. If L1 and L2 are the lengths of rod/bar of a metal at
temperatures t 1C and t2C (such that t 2 > t 1), the change in length

155

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

(L2 L 1) is directly proportional to the original length L 1 and the rise


in temperature (t 2 t 1).
(L2 L1) = L 1 (t2 t 1)

(A 9.1)

Then,

(A 9.2)

or

L2 = L1 [1 + (t2 t 1)]

(A 9.3)

and

= (L2 L1)/(t 2 t 1)

where is the coefficient of linear thermal expansion of the material


of the bar/rod.
The coefficient of linear thermal expansion () is the increase in length
per unit length for unit degree rise in temperature of the bar. It is
expressed in SI units as K1.

ROCEDURE
1.

Light a burner or switch on the electric heater.

2.

Keep the bi-metallic strip in the horizontal position by holding it


with the insulated handle and heat it with the help of burner/
heater. Note which side of the bi-metallic strip is in direct contact
of heat source.

3.

Observe the effect of heating the strip. Note carefully the direction
of the bending of the free end of the bi-metallic strip, whether it is
upwards or downwards?

4.

Identify the metal (A or B) which is on the convex side of the


bi-metallic strip and also the one which is on its concave side.
Which one of the two metals/materials strips have a larger
thermal expansion? (The one on the convex side of the bimetallic strip will expand more and hence have larger linear
thermal expansion).

5.

Note down the known values of coefficient of linear thermal


expansion of two metals (A and B) of the bi-metallic strip. Verify
whether the direction of bending (upward or downward) is on
the side of the metal/material having lower coefficient of linear
thermal expansion.

6.

Take the bi-metallic strip away from the heat source. Allow the
strip to cool to room temperature.

7 . Repeat the Steps 1 to 6 to heat the other side of the bi-metallic


strip. Observe the direction of bending of the bi-metallic strip.
What change, if any, do you observe in the direction of
bending of the strip in this case relative to that observed
earlier in Step 3?

156

ACTIVITY

UNIT NAME

ESULT
The bending of a bi-metallic strip on heating is due to difference in
coefficient of linear expansion of the two metals of the strip.

RECAUTIONS
The two bars (strips) should be firmly rivetted near their ends.

ISCUSSION
The direction of bending of the bi-metallic strip is towards the side of
the metal which has lower value of linear thermal expansion.

ELF ASSESSMENT
1.

You have been given bars of identical dimensions of following


metals/materials along with their - values, for making a bimetallic strip:
Aluminium ( = 23 106 K1); Nickel ( = 13 106 K1)
Copper ( = 17 106 K1); Invar ( = 0.9 106 K1)
Iron ( = 12 106 K1); Brass ( = 18 106 K1)
which pair of metals/materials would you select as best choice
for making a bi-metallic strip for pronounced effect of bending?
Why?

2.

What would be the effect on the bending of the bi-metallic strip if


it is heated to a high temperature?

3.

Name a few devices in which bi-metallic strips are generally used


as a thermostat?
SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES
Design fire alarm circuit using a bi-metallic strip.

157

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

10

ACTIVITY
AIM

To study the effect of heating on the level of a liquid in a container and


to interpret the observations.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED

A round bottom flask of 500 mL capacity, a narrow tube about 20 cm


long and of internal diameter 2mm, a rubber cork, glycerine, hot water,
a stand for holding the flask, a strip of graph paper, a thermometer.

RINCIPLE

A container is required to keep the liquid. When we heat the liquid, the
container also gets heated. On being heated, liquid and container both
expand. Therefore, the observed expansion of liquid is its apparent
expansion, i.e. (the expansion of the liquid) (the expansion of the
container). For finding the real expansion of the liquid, we must take
into account the expansion of the container. Real expansion = apparent
expansion of the liquid + expansion of the container.

ROCEDURE
1. Fill the flask with glycerine upto the brim. Close
its mouth with a tight fitting cork having a long
narrow tube fixed in it. Glycerine will rise in
the tube; mark the level of the glycerine in
the tube as A. Set the apparatus as shown in
Fig. A 10.1.
2. Place the flask in the trough filled with hot water
and hold the flask in position with the help of a
stand as shown.

BSERVATION

Fig.A 10.1: Expansion of liquid (glycerine)

158

It is observed that as the flask is immersed in hot


water, the level of glycerine in the tube first falls down
to a point, say B, and then rises up to a level C.

ACTIVITY

10

UNIT NAME

ISCUSSION
The level falls from A to B on account of expansion of the flask on
coming in contact with hot water. This fall is equal to the expansion
of the container. After some time glycerine also gets heated and
expands. Finally, the glycerine level attains a stationary level C.
Obviously the glycerine has expanded from B to C. B C gives the real
expansion and A C is the apparent expansion.

ELF ASSESSMENT
Water in a flask is heated in one case from 25C to 45C and in another
case, from 50C to 70C. Will the apparent expansion/real expansion
be the same in the two cases?

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES


Take equal volume of water in a glass tumbler and a steel tumbler having
similar shape and size. Cover them both with thermocol sheet and insert
a narrow bore tube in each. Heat both from 25C to 50C and study the
apparent/real expansion in both cases. Are they equal? Give reason for
your answer.

159

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

ACTIVITY

11

AIM
To study the effect of detergent on surface tension of water by
observing capillary rise.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


A capillary tube, a beaker of 250 mL, small quantity of solid/liquid
detergent, 15/30 cm plastic scale, rubber band, stand with clamp
and water.

RINCIPLE
Substances that can be used to separate grease, dust and dirt
sticking to a surface are called detergents. When added to water
detergents lower its surface tension due to additional
intermolecular interactions.
The lowering of surface tension by addition of
detergent in water can be observed by capillary rise
method.
For a vertically placed capillary tube of radius r in
a water - filled shallow vessel, the rise of water in
capillary tube h (Fig. A11.1) is given by:
h =

2 S cos
gr

Or
Fig. A 11.1: Rise of water in capillary tube

S =

h gr
2cos

where S is the surface tension of the water vapour


film; is the contact angle (Fig. A11.1), is the
density of water and g is the acceleration due to gravity. For pure
or distilled water in contact with a clean glass capillary tube 8
or cos 1. Thus,
S=

160

1
h gr
2

ACTIVITY

11

UNIT NAME

Using this result, the surface tension of different detergent solutions


(colloidal) in water can be compared. In a detergent solution, the
capillary rise (or the surface tension) would be lower than that for
pure and distilled water. And an increase in detergents concentration
would result in a further lowering the rise of solution in the capillary.
A detergent for which the capillary rise is minimum (or the one that
causes maximum lowering of surface tension), is said to have better
cleansing effect.

ROCEDURE
1.

Take a capillary tube of uniform bore. Clean and rinse it with


distilled water. Also clean and rinse the beaker with water. Pour
water to fill the beaker up to half. Make sure that the capillary
tube is dry and free from grease, oil etc. Also check that the top
of the capillary tube is open and not blocked by anything.

2.

Take a plastic scale and mount the capillary tube on it using


rubber bands.

3.

Hold the scale with capillary in vertical position with the help of a
clamp stand.

4.

Place the half filled beaker below the lower end of the scale and
gradually lower down the scale till its lower end get immersed
below the surface of water in the beaker as shown in Fig. A 11.2.

5.

Read the position of the water level inside and outside the capillary
tube on the scale. Let the positions be h 2 and h1 respectively. The
rise of water in the capillary is h = h 2 h 1.

6.

Rinse the capillary thoroughly in running water and dry it.

7.

Take a little quantity of the given


detergent and mix it with water in
the beaker.

8.

Rubber
band

Repeat the experiment with


detergent solution and find
capillary rise again. Let it be h.

Note
The concentration of detergent must
not be made high, otherwise the
density of solution (colloidal) will
change substantially as compared
to water. Mor eover, the value of
angle of contact between the surface
of glass and solution may also
change substantially.

Capillary tube
Scale

Rubber
band

h2
h
h1

Water with
detergent

Fig. A 11.2: To study capillary rise in water


and detergent mixed in it

161

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

BSERVATIONS
The height to which water rose in the capillary h = ... cm
The height to which the detergent solution rose in the capillary
h = ... cm.

ESULT
The capillary rise of detergent solution h is less than the capillary rise
of water, h.

RECAUTIONS
1.

The inner surface of the beaker and the part of capillary tube to
be immersed in water or solution in the beaker should not be
touched by hand after cleaning them. This is essential to avoid
contamination by the hand.

2.

To wet the inside of the capillary tube freely, it is first dipped well
down in the water and then raised and clamped. Alternatively,
the beaker may be lifted up and then put down.

OURCES OF ERROR
1.

Contamination of liquid surface as also of the capillary tube cannot


be completely ruled out.

2.

The tube may not be at both ends or its one end may be open
blocked.

ISCUSSION
Can you also think of materials, which have a property of increasing
the surface tension of a liquid? If yes, what are these?
[Hint: There are some polymeric materials which can increase the
surface tension of water. Such materials are called hydrophilic.
These have immense use in pumping out oil from the ground with
less power.]

162

ACTIVITY

UNIT NAME

12

ACTIVITY
AIM
To study the factors affecting the rate of loss of heat of a liquid.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


Two copper calorimeters of different sizes (one small and another
big); two copper calorimeters of same size (one painted black and
the other highly polished), two tumblers of same size (one metallic
and another plastic); two thermometers having a range of - 10 C to
110 C and least count 0.5 C, stop watch/clock, cardboard lids for
calorimeters, two laboratory stands, a pan to heat water; a measuring
cylinder, a plastic mug.

RINCIPLE
Hot bodies cool whenever placed in a cooler surrounding.
Rate of loss of heat is given by

dQ
ds

Q = mass specific heat capacity(s) temperature ( ) = ms


dQ
d
= ms
t
d
dt
hence rate of loss of heat is proportional to rate of change of
temperature.
The rate of loss of heat of a body depends upon (a) the difference in
temperature of the hot body and its surroundings, (b) area of the
surface losing heat, (c) nature of the surface losing heat and (d) material
of the container.

ROCEDURE
(A). Effect of area of surface on rate of loss of heat.
1.

Note the room temperature, least count of the two thermometers


(TA and T B).

163

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

2. Take the big (A) and small (B)


calorimeters.
3 . Heat water in the pan up to
nearly 80C (no need to boil
the water).
4. Pour 100 mL of hot water in
calorimeter (A) and also in
calorimeter (B). This should be
done carefully and with least time
loss. One can use a plastic mug
to pour 100 mL of hot water in a
measuring cylinder.

Fig. A 12.1: Experimental set up for studying the


effect of surface area on cooling

5. Insert a thermometer in each


of the two calorimeters. Use
stands to keep the thermometers
vertical. Also ensure that the
thermometer bulb is well
inside the hot water in the
calorimeters (Fig. A 12.1).
6. Note the temperature of the
water in the two calorimeters
initially at an interval of 1
minute till the temperature of
water in the calorimeter is about
4030C above the room
temperature and thereafter at
intervals of 2 minutes when the
temperature of hot water is
about 2010C above room
temperature.

Fig. A 12.2: Cooling curve for water cooled


in calorimeters A and B.
Surface area of water is more
for calorimeter B than for the
calorimeter A

7. Record your observation in


Table A 12.1. Plot graphs
between A versus time and B
versus time for both the
calorimeters on the same graph
paper (Fig. A 12.2).
8. Determine the slope of versus t
graph after 5 minute interval.

BSERVATIONS
Least count of thermometer = ... C
Room temperature

164

= ... C

ACTIVITY

12

UNIT NAME

Table A 12.1: Effect of area of surface on rate of cooling


Calorimeter A (Big)
S.
No.

Time

Temp A

Calorimeter B (Small)
S.
No.

Time

Temp B

B. Effect of nature of surface of container on rate of cooling of


a liquid
1. Use the two identical small calorimeters; one with black (A)
and the other with highly polished (B) surfaces.
2. Repeat Steps 3 to 8 as in part A.
Table A 12.2: Effect of nature of surface on rate of cooling
Calorimeter Black (A)
S.
No.

Time

Temp A

Calorimeter White (B)


S.
No.

Time

Temp B

C.

Effect of material of container on rate of cooling of a liquid

1.

Use the metallic tumbler (A) and the plastic tumbler (B) instead of
calorimeters.

2.

Repeat Steps 3 to 8 as in part A. Record your observations in a


table similar to Table A 12.1.

ESULT
From the six graphs plotted on 3 graph sheets complete the following:
1.

The rate of cooling is ... C/min in the larger calorimeter as


compared to the smaller calorimeter.

165

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

2.

Least rate of cooling is ... C/min observed in calorimeter ... part


A/B/C.

3.

Black surfaces radiate ... heat as compared to white or polished


surface in the same time when heated to the same temperature.

4.

Plastic mugs are preferred for drinking tea, as the rate of cooling
of a liquid in them is ...

RECAUTIONS
1.

A, B and time recordings are to be done simultaneously so a setup that allows both thermometers could be read quickly and at
the same time should be planned.

2.

The lid of the calorimeter should be covered with insultating


material to make sure that the heat is lost (cooling takes place)
only from the calorimeter surface.

3.

All three activities should be performed under similar conditions


of wind and temperature of the surrounding to reduce their effect
on the rate of cooling.

ISCUSSION
1.

The rate of cooling in summers is lower than in winters. Give a


reason for your answer.

2.

Surface of metallic kettles are often polished to keep the tea warm
for a long time.

3.

Why does the rate of cooling decrease when the temperature of


liquid is closer to the room temperature?
SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

166

1.

Compare the effectiveness of disposable thermocole tumblers with


that of glass for taking tea.

2.

Study the rate of cooling of tea contained in a stainless steel (metallic)


teapot and a ceremic teapot.

3.

Compare the rate of cooling of tea in a cup and in a saucer.

ACTIVITY

UNIT NAME

13

ACTIVITY
AIM
To study the effect of load on depression of a suitably clamped metre
scale loaded (i) at its end; and (ii) in the middle.
A. Bending of a metre scale loaded at its end

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


Metre scale (or a thick wooden strip of about 1 m length), thread,
slotted weights with hanger (10 g, 20 g, 50 g, 100 g), another
graduated scale to be used to measure depression, a pin, cellotape
and clamp.

HEORY
The depression 'y' of a cantilever of length 'L' clamped at one end and
loaded at the free end with a load M (weight Mg) is given by relation
y=

MgL3
3Y ( bd 3 /12 )

where L, b and d are length, width and thickness of the rectangular


cantilever respectively and Y is the modulus of elasticity of the material
of the rod.
4 MgL3
or y = Y bd 3
The readings of depression y of the cantilever, in this case with
variation of load suspended at the other end, are taken. The variation
of depression with load is expected to be linear.

ROCEDURE
1.

Clamp the metre scale firmly to the edge of the table. As shown in
Fig. A 13.1 ensure that the length and breadth of the scale are in
horizontal plane and 90 cm of the length of the scale is projected
out. Fix a pin with a tape at the free end of the metre scale along
its length to act as a pointer.

167

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

Rigid but
adjustable
G clamp

2.

Fix a graduated scale vertically near the


free end of the clamped metre scale and
note its least count. Ensure that the pointed
end of the pin is just above the graduation
marks of the scale but do not touch it.

3.

Read the pointer 'p' when metre scale


cantilever is without any load.

4.

Suspend a hanger of known mass for


keeping slotted weights to depress the free
end of the cantilever.

5.

Read the pointer on vertical scale and record


the observation.

6.

Keep on adding 20 g masses to the hanger


and record the reading of the pointer
everytime when it stops vibrating.

1
2

Beam

3
4
5

6
Load (Mg)

Fig. A 13.1: Experimental set up to study


depression of metre scale (used as
cantilever) with load suspended at
free end of the cantilever

7.

After taking 6-7 observations with increasing load, gradually


remove the slotted weights one by one and record the reading
while unloading.

8.

Plot a graph between the depression and the load.

BSERVATIONS
Length of the cantilever L = ... cm
Width of the metre scale cantilever b = ... cm
Thickness of the metre scale d = ... cm
Reading of the free end of the cantilever with no load, l0=
Table A 13.1: Effect of load on depression of cantilever
S . Load M
No.
(g)

Reading of free end of


cantilever
l 1 (cm) when
load is
increasing

l 2 (cm) when
load is
decreasing

Depression
y = lm l o
Mean

lm =

l1 + l2
2

(cm)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

168

ACTIVITY

13

UNIT NAME

ESULT
The depression 'y' is directly proportional to the load M.

RECAUTIONS
1.

The beam should be rigidly clamped at one end.

2 . Loading and unloading of the slotted weights should be done


carefully without disturbing the position of the hanger on
the beam.
3.

The vertical scale should be adjusted close to the pointer in such


a way that the pointer moves along it freely.

OURCES OF ERROR
1.

The scale should not be loaded beyond its elastic limit.


(This can be easily checked by comparing the zero load reading
after removing the maximum suspended load with that taken at
the beginning of the experiment).

2.

There should be no vibratory motion of the beam when reading is


recorded.

3.

While noting down the observation, the eye should be normal to


the tip of the pin and the graduated scale.

4.

Observations should be repeated while removing masses.

B. Bending of metre scale loaded in the middle

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED

Metre scale, two wedges to rest the ends of the metre scale, thread,
slotted weights 200 g each, hanger for slotted weights, a graduated
scale with a stand to hold the scale vertical, a plane mirror, a pointer
and plasticine.

ESCRIPTION OF THE DEVICE


Fig. A 13.2 shows the arrangement. A horizontal metre scale is held
on two wedges, a hanger is provided at the middle of the metre scale
for applying load. A pointer is fixed at the mid point to measure the
dipression. A graduated (least count 1 mm) scale with a plane mirror
strip attached to it is held in vertical position in a stand behind the
horizontal metre scale.

169

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

Scale

Wedge

1
2
3
4
5
6

Plane mirror for taking reading


without any parallex
Depression

Beam

Wedge
W
Hanger with weights
in middle of beam

Fig. A 13.2: Experimental set up to study depression,


i.e., sag of a beam with load in the middle

HEORY
Let a beam be loaded at the centre and supported near its ends as
shown in Fig A 13.2. A bar of length 'L', breadth 'b' and thickness 'd'
when loaded at the centre by a load 'W' sags by an amount given by
y=

W l3
4b d 3 Y

where 'Y' is the Youngs modulus of the material of the rod/ beam, W,
the load (= mg), where 'm' is the mass of the hanger with weights.
The depression 'y' is directly proportional to the load.

ROCEDURE

170

1.

Place the metre scale on two wedges with (510 cm) length
projecting out on either side. Metre scale supported at both ends
is like a beam.

2.

Tie a loop of thread in the middle of the load such that a hanger
to support slotted weights each of 200 g can be suspended on
it. Ensure that the thread is tied tightly with the rod and does
not slip.

3.

Place a graduated scale (with least count 0.1 cm) vertically in a


stand at the centre of the metre scale used as beam. To facilitate
readings the vertical scale should be kept on the far side of the
metre scale. Fix a pin to the hanger such that its pointed end is
close to the edge of the vertical scale which has graduation marks
on it.

4.

Suspend the hanger of mass 200 g and record the position of the
pointer fixed to the hanger. The mirror strip on the vertical scale
should be used to remove any parallax.

ACTIVITY
5.

Keep on adding 200 g slotted masses to the hanger and record


the readings of the pointer each time.

6.

Take about six observations.

7.

Now, remove masses of 200g one by one recording the position of


the pointer each time while unloading.

8.

Calculate the depression for the load M gram and hence depression
per unit load.

9.

Plot a graph between the values of depression y against


corresponding values of load and interpret the result.

13

UNIT NAME

BSERVATIONS
Width of the beam, b =
Thickness of the beam, d =
Length of the beam between the wedges, L =
Table A 13.2 Depression of the beam for different loads
S. Load
No. M (g)

Reading of the centre of


cantilever

Load
Load
increasing decreasing
r1 (cm)
r2 (cm)

Depression Depression Mean y/M


for load M per unit
(cm/g)
(g), y (cm) load y/M
(cm/g)

Mean
reading

r=

r1 + r2
2

(cm)
1

r0

200

r1

r1 r0

400

r2

r2 r0

4
5
6

ESULT
The depression of the metre scale at its middle is ... mm/g. The
depression 'y' is directly proportional to the load M.

OURCES OF ERROR
1.

The rod should not be loaded beyond elastic limit.

171

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

2.

There should be no vibratory motion of the rod when reading is


recorded.

3.

While taking readings, the eye should be normal to tip of the


pointer and the metre scale.

4.

The beam should be of uniform thickness and density throughout


its length.

5.

The masses used must have standard value as engraved on them.

RECAUTIONS

172

1.

The beam should be symmetrical on the knife edges.

2.

Loading and unloading of the slotted weights should be done


carefully without disturbing the centre point.

3.

Mirror strip used to eliminate parallax error should not disturb


the experimental setup.

PROJECTS

PROJECT

UNIT NAME

PROJECT
AIM
To investigate whether the energy of a simple pendulum is conserved.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


A tall laboratory clamp stand with clamps, a split cork, a brick (or
any heavy metallic weight) to be used as bob, strong cotton thread/
string (about 1.5 m to 2.0 m), stop-watch, ticker timer, paper tape,
balance, wooden block, cellotape, metre scale and graph paper.

RINCIPLE
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, though it can be
transformed from one form to another, and the sum of all forms
of energies in the
universe remains
constant (Law of
conservation
of
energy). In any
isolated mechanical
system with practically
negligible/no
dissipation of energy to
x
overcome viscous
F
drag/air resistance /
friction, (as in case of
a pendulum), the
sum of the kinetic and
potential energies
Fig. P 1.1: An oscillating pendulum
remains constant.
For small angular
amplitude ( 15), the pendulum executes simple harmonic motion
(SHM) with insignificant damping, i.e., loss of energy. Hence, an oscillating
simple pendulum provides a convenient arrangement to investigate/
validate the law of conservation of energy for a mechanical system.

Lh

D
h

x
E

(b)

173

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

The oscillations of a simple pendulum of effective length L with mean


position at point A and extreme positions at points B and C, are shown
in Fig. P 1.1. In the extreme positions, i.e., at B and C the oscillating
bob is raised to a certain height h ( = AD) above the mean position
where it possesses maximum potential energy but minimum kinetic
energy. In the mean position, at A, it possesses maximum kinetic
energy and minimum potential energy. At any intermediate position
i.e., at E and F the bob will possess energy in the form of both kinetic
and potential energies. The effective length L ( = l + r ) of the pendulum
is taken from the point of suspension O to the centre of gravity of the
bob (Fig P 1.1; also refer Experiment E 6). For small angular amplitudes
( ) (about 8 to 10) the arc length EA = (FA) is about the same as
linear distance ED = (FD) = x, the points E and F are symmetrically
above point D.
From the geometry of the Fig. P 1.1, it follows
DF. DE = OD. DA
x x = (L h ) h
For small values of x and h (and x << L and h << x)
(P 1.1)

h =

x2
L

Then the potential energy of the bob (brick) of mass m at point E (or F)
(P 1.2)

= mgh =

mg 2
x
L

The kinetic energy E possessed by the bob moving with velocity v at


(P 1.3)

point E (or F) is =

1
mv 2
2

Then total energy of the bob is given by


(P 1.4)

E=

mg 2
1
mv 2 +
x
L
2

Using this relation, now investigate whether the total energy E of the
oscillating simple pendulum remains constant.
DEVICE FOR MEASURING SHORT TIME INTERVALS IN THE
LABORATORY: TICKER TIMER
Ticker-timer is a device used for the measurement of short timeintervals in the laboratory. It can measure short time intervals of
about 0.02s to much higher degree of accuracy as compared to that
of a stop-watch (with least count of 0.1s). Ticker-timers are available
in different designs.

174

PROJECT
A simple type of ticker-timer,
as s h o w n i n F i g . P 1 . 2 ,
consists of a steel/metallic
strip T which can be made
to vib rate at a k n o w n
frequency with the help of an
electromagnet. The pointed
hammer of the vibrating
steel strip, T strikes a small
carbon paper disc C under
which a paper tape, is
pulled by the oscillating
object. The dot marks are
marked on the paper tape
by the pointed hammer
when the strip vibrates.

UNIT NAME

Fig. P1.2: Ticker-timer

The dot marks are obtained on the paper tape at regular (or equal)
intervals of time. Each dot mark refers to a complete vibration of the
vibrating steel strip. The time interval between the two consecutive dot
marks can be taken as a unit of time for a tick. The time period of the
vibrating strip is obtained from its given (known) frequency of vibration.
When it is run on 6V step-down ac supply, its frequency is the same as
that of ac mains (50 Hz, in India).
In this way, the measured time interval for one tick (between the two
consecutive dot marks) can be converted into the basic unit, second,
for time measurement. Thus, the ticker-timer can be used to measure
accurately time interval of the order of 0.02 s in the laboratory.

ROCEDURE
1.

Find the mass of the pendulum bob.

2.

Determine r and l by metre scale.


The length of the pendulum
L = l + r.

3.

Take the ticker-timer and place it at


about the same level as the centre of
the bob as shown in Fig. P 1.3. Fix
the ticker-timer on a wooden block
with tape, to ensure that its position
is not disturbed when tape is pulled
through it.

4.

Attach the tip of the paper tape of


the ticker-timer to the bob with the
help of cellotape such that it is Fig. P 1.3: Experimental setup for studying
horizontal and lies in the plane in
conservation of energy
which centre of gravity of the bob lies
in its rest position.

175

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

5.

Pull the bob towards the timer such that its angular
displacement ( < 10o ) is about one tenth of its length from the
vertical position. Take care that the ticker tape is sufficiently
light and is so adjusted that it easily moves by the pull of bob
as soon as it begins to move.

6.

Start the ticker-timer carefully and let the bob oscillate. While
the bob moves towards the other side, it pulls the paper tape
through the ticker-timer. Ticker timer, thus, records the positions
of the bob at successive time intervals.

7.

Switch off the ticker-timer when the brick reaches the other
extreme end. Take out the paper tape and examine it.
Extreme dot marks on the record of the tape represent the
extreme positions B and C of the pendulum. The centre
point A of this half oscillation is the centre of the two
extreme dot marks, and may be marked by the half metre
scale, as in Fig. P1.4.
A

Centre

Extreme

Extreme

Fig. P 1.4: Position of the oscillating bob marked on paper tape

8 . Measure the displacements of the bob corresponding to


each dot (about 10 to 12) on either sides from the centre
marked A as x 1, x 2, x 3, ... Find the time t 1, t 2, t 3, ... when
each selected dot was made by counting the number of dots
from the central point A, representing the mean position of
the pendulum. If central point A is not coinciding with a
dot marked by the ticker -timer, appropriate fraction of
time-period of ticker-timer has to be added for finding
correct t 1, t 2, t 3, ...
9. Record observations in the tabular form in SI units and proper
significant figures.
10. Calculate the corresponding velocity for each selected position
of the dot as v i (= x i / t i ). For this take one earlier and one
later dot. The distance between these two dots is x i and t i is
time to cover this distance. Then find magnitude of
kinetic energy

176

m x 2
1
mv 2 = i and potential energy
2
2 t i

PROJECT

UNIT NAME

mghi [= mg (x i2/L) ] of the pendulum bob. Find the sum of kinetic


and potential energies in each case. Express the result in SI
units and proper significant figures.
11. Plot a graph between the displacement (x i ) of the pendulum bob
(distance of dots from the central dot) against the time.
12. Find the velocity (v) from the slope of the graph at five or six
points on the left and also on the right of the mean position.
Calculate the corresponding kinetic energy (mv2/2 ) for each
position of the points on the graph.
13. Plot another graph between kinetic energy and the position (x) of
the bob. Find out the position of the point for which kinetic energy
is minimum.

x2
14. Calculate also the potential energy, PE = mg i , at the
L

corresponding points at which you have calculated the kinetic


energy. Plot the graph of potential energy (PE) against the
displacement position (x) on the same graph on which you have
plotted kinetic energy versus position graph.

15. Find the total mechanical energy E as the sum of kinetic energy
and potential energy of the pendulum at each of the displacement
positions x. Express the result in SI units with proper significant
figures. Plot also a graph between the total mechanical energy E
against displacement position (x) of the pendulum on the same
graph on which you have plotted the graphs in Steps 13 and 14,
i.e., for K.E. and P.E.

BSERVATIONS
Measuring the mass of bob and effective length of simple
pendulum
(a) Effective length of the simple pendulum
Least count of the metre scale = ... mm = ... cm
Length of the top of the brick from the point of suspension,
l = ... cm = ... m
Diameter of the bob, 2r = ... cm
Effective length of the simple pendulum L = ( l + r ) = ... cm = ... m
(b) Mass of the ... g
Time period (T) of ticker-timer = ... s
Fraction of T to be added for finding corrected Ti on left = ...
Fraction of T to be added for finding corrected Ti on right = ...

177

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

Table P1.1: Measuring the displacement and time using


ticker-timer and the recorded tape
S. No.

S. No. of dot Displacement


on tape (i)
(Distance of
dot from
centre, xi )
(cm)

2nd left

2
3

4th left
6th left

Number of
vibrations of
ticker -timer
between
central and
ith point

T 1 (s)

Velocity v
(m s1 )

-----2nd right
4th right
6th right
------

(c) Plotting a graph between displacement and time


Take time t along x-axis and displacement x along y-axis, using the
observed values from Table P1.1. Choose suitable scales on these axes
to represent t and x. Plot a graph between t and x as shown in Fig. P1.5.
What is the shape of x-t graph?

ALCULATION

Variation of d vs t

d (cm)

sine curve

t (s)

Fig. P1.5: Graph between displacement and


time of the oscillating bob

178

(i) Find out from the graph (Fig. P1.5), the


velocity of bob at five or six different
points on the either side of the mean
position O of the graph.
Compute the values of kinetic energy,
using Eq. (P1.3), corresponding to
each value of velocity obtained from
the graph. Record these values in
Table P1.2.
(ii) Plot a graph by taking displacement
(distance) x along x-axis and kinetic
energy (K.E.) along y-axis using the
values from Table P1.2 as shown in
Fig. P1.6.
(iii) Compute the values of potential energy
using Eq. (P1.2), for each value of
displacement in Step (ii) above.

PROJECT

UNIT NAME

Table P 1.2: Finding potential, kinetic and total energy of the


oscillating bob
S. Velocity, v Kinetic Energy,
No.
(ms1)

1
mv 2 (J)
2

Potential Energy,

x2
mg L (J)

Total Energy =
Potential Energy
+ Kinetic Energy
(J)

1
2
3
4

(v)

Compute the total energy


ET as the sum of the kinetic
energy and potential
energy at each of the
displacement positions, x.
Plot a graph by taking the
displacement along x-axis
and total energy ET along
y-axis on the same graph
Fig. P1.6).

y
Total energy
ET
P.E
K.E
Energy

(iv) Plot a graph by taking


displacement (distance) x
along x-axis and potential
energy (P.E.) along y-axis on
the same graph (Fig. P1.6).

O
Displacement, x

Fig. P 1.6: Graph between displacement and


energy of the oscillating bob

ESULT

The total energy, as the sum of kinetic and potential energies, of the
bob of the simple pendulum is conserved (remains the same) at all the
points along its path.

ISCUSSION
1.

Refer to points 3 to 5 under discussion given in Experiment E 6


on page 65.

2.

Eq. P1.1 that expresses the relation between x, h and L for a simple
pendulum, holds true under the conditions h << x << L for small
angular amplitudes ( < 10) of the pendulum.

3.

Linear displacement x of the bob, about (1/8)th to (1/10)th of


the effective length of the pendulum corresponds to angular
displacement ( ) of about 8 to 10 for small angular amplitudes,

179

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

the displacement (distance) of a dot mark on the paper tape from


the central point/position truly represent corresponding
displacement of the pendulum bob from its central (mean)
position.
4.

The shape of the graphs shown in Fig. P1.5 and Fig. P1.6
correspond to ideal conditions in which no energy is lost due to
friction and air drag. The graph drawn on the basis of observed
data may differ due to error in data collection and friction.

ELF ASSESSMENT
1.

Identify the shape of displacement time graph, you have drawn


for the oscillating simple pendulum. Interpret the graph.

2.

Identify the shape of kinetic energy-displacement and potential


energy-displacement graphs, you have drawn for the simple
pendulum.
Study the change in potential energy and kinetic energy at each
of the displacement positions. Interpret these graphs and see how
these compare.

3.

180

What is the shape of the graph between the total (mechanical)


energy and displacement you have drawn for the simple
pendulum? Interpret the graph to show what it reveals?

PROJECT

PROJECT

UNIT NAME

AIM
To determine the radius of gyration about the centre of mass of a
metre scale used as a bar pendulum.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


A metre scale with holes at regular intervals, knife edge shaped axle,
a rigid support, two glass plates (to be used for suspension plane),
spring balance, spirit level, telescope fixed on a stand, stop-watch
and graph paper.

RINCIPLE
A rigid body oscillating in a vertical plane about a horizontal axis
passing through it is known as compound pendulum. The point in
the body through which the axis of rotation passes is known as centre
of suspension.
The time period of a compound pendulum is given by
T = 2

I
mgl

(P 2.1)

where m is the mass of the rigid body, l is the distance of the point of
suspension from the centre of gravity, I is the moment of inertia of
the body about the axis of oscillation and g is the acceleration due
to gravity.
If K is the radius of gyration of the body about an axis through the
centre of gravity, then the moment of inertia about the centre of
suspension is
I = m (K2 + l2)
K2
= m l l +

(P 2.2)

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Hence

(P 2.3)

or

(P 2.4)

K2
K2

ml l +

l +

l
l

T = 2
= 2
mgl
g
T = 2

L
g

where
L = (l + K2/l)
Eq. (P 2.4) can be written as
l . L = (l2 + K 2) l2 l L + K 2 = 0

(P 2.5)

Eq. (P 2.5) is quadratic in l and therefore has two roots, say l1 and
l2 then
l1 + l2 = L
or

and

l1 l2 = K 2

K = l1 l 2

ROCEDURE
1. Take a metre scale. Draw a line in the
middle along its length. Drill holes of
about 1.6 mm diameter on this line
separated by a distance of 2 cm,
starting from one end to the other.
2 . Determine the centre of gravity
of the scale by balancing it over
a wedge.
3. Pass the knife edge shaped axle in
the hole near one of the ends of the
metre scale and let it rest on the
suspension base having glass plates
at its top.
4. Ensure that the glass plates fixed
on the suspension plane be
horizontal and in the same level so
that when we suspend the metre
scale by placing the knife edge we
may be sure that the scale hangs
vertically (Fig. P2.1).

Fig. P 2.1: A metre scale oscillating about a point


close to C.G.

182

5. Make a reference line, drawn on the


paper strip, near the lower end of the
pendulum and focus it with a
telescope. Adjust the telescope until
its vertical crosswire focuses on the
reference line.

PROJECT

UNIT NAME

6. Displace the lower end of the scale horizontally through a small


distance from its equilibrium position and then release it. The
pendulum (metre scale) will begin to oscillate. Take care that the
angular amplitude of oscillation is within 5 or 6 and pendulum
oscillates in a vertical plane without any jerk.
7. Count zero when the reference mark on oscillating pendulum
passes across the vertical crosswire of telescope and start the stopwatch at that instant (The counting of oscillations could be done
visually, in case a telescope is not available).
8. Continue counting 2, 3, 4,... successively when the reference line
progressively passes the vertical crosswire from the same side and
note the time for 20 oscillations. Repeat the observations at least
three times.
9. Measure from the lower end, the distance of the point
of suspension.
10.Repeat Steps 7 and 9 after shifting the knife edge to the successive
holes leaving two holes on either side of the centre of gravity of the
pendulum. Take length of pendulum on one side of C. G. as positive
while on the other side as negative. Record your observations in
tabular form.

BSERVATIONS
Table P. 2.1: Measurement of time period of compound pendulum

Hole
No.

Hole
No.

One side of C.G.


Distance
T ime for 20
from C.G.,
oscillations
l1
t1
t2
t3
(cm)

T ime period
T=

t1 + t 2 + t 3
3

(s)

Other side of C.G.


Time for 20
Distance
from C.G.,
oscillations
l2
t 1
t2
t3
(cm)

Time period
T =

t1 + t2 + t 3
3

(s)

ALCULATION
1 . Plot a graph between l and T by taking the l along x-axis
and T along y-axis. The graph will consist of two symmetrical
curves Fig. P 2.2. The point on the x-axis about which the
graph is symmetrical is the centre of gravity of the metre
scale pendulum.

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2.

Draw a line parallel to x-axis cutting the graph


at points, P, Q, R and S
(a) From the graph,
l1 =

CP +CS
= ...cm
2

O
P

CP= ... cm, CS= ... cm

(b) From the graph,


C

Fig. P 2.2: Graph between distance from


C.G. and time period

l2 =

CQ = ... cm, CR = ... cm


CQ +CR
= ...cm
2

(c) The radius of gyration K =

l1 l2

ESULT
The radius of gyration about the axis passing through the centre of
mass of the metre scale is found as K = ... cm.

RECAUTIONS
1. Pendulum should be hung vertically and knife edge be kept
horizontal so that the pendulum oscillates in a vertical plane.
2. Note the time by the stop-watch leaving 5 or 6 initial oscillations
so that effect of any irregularities in the oscillations get subsided.
3. Increase the number of observations for a given length of
pendulum if time for 20 oscillations is to be measured without
using a telescope.
4. Keep the fans off or else air droughts will shift the position of the
scale and its oscillations will not remain in the same plane.

OURCES OF ERROR
1. The metre scale may not have uniform mass distribution.
2. The wedge may not be sharp.
3. The holes drilled may not be colinear or have equally smooth inner
surface.

ISCUSSION
1. If a metallic bar is used in place of wooden scale we would have
better results as its inertia will hold it in position in a better way.

184

PROJECT

UNIT NAME

Moreover a metallic bar of homogeneous material and uniform


cross-section can be easily made.
2. To draw smooth symmetrical graphs, we may make use of curved
surface on the inside of set squares or by suitably bending plastic
tongue cleaners or broomsticks.

ELF ASSESSMENT
1. How would you establish that the compound pendulum executes
SHM?
2. By knowing the radius of gyration of the metre scale about its
centre of mass, determine the moment of inertia of the same scale
about an axis passing through the centre of mass.
3. Why do we get two L T plots symmetrical about y-axis?

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES


1.

Increase the angular amplitude slowly and see how your result
changes.

2.

Note the angular amplitude at which the variation in your results is


appreciable. How will you explain the changes?

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LABORATORY MANUAL

PROJECT

AIM
To investigate changes in the velocity of a body under the action of a
constant force and to determine its acceleration.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED

Ticker-timer, a horizontal table, a bumper (a heavy rectangular


block of wood), a trolley, three G-clamps, long paper tape, a pulley,
strong thread, a few bricks, hanger, slotted weights, plug-key and
a spring balance.

RINCIPLE
The acceleration of a moving body is constant when force acting on it
is kept constant. The principle and working of a ticker-timer has
already been discussed in Project P1. Suppose the experimental
arrangment allows you to mark the position of a moving object as a
dot on the tape of the ticker-timer. The time interval between two
successive dots is the same but the dots may not be necessarily equally
spaced. Equally spaced dots would represent uniform motion while
unequally spaced dots would represent non-uniform motion.
For calculation of speed of a given object from the tape, take one of the
tapes used in the experiment. Let S1, S2, S3, ..... be the distances
between two successive dots, say of ten dots, on the tape measured
from point A by a metre scale as shown in the Fig. P 3.1.

Fig.P 3.1: Dots on tape


The frequency of the vibrator of ticker-timer
= Frequency of the A.C. supply
= 50 Hz.

186

PROJECT

The time interval between two successive dots =

UNIT NAME

1
s
50

The time taken for covering 10 dots i.e., for displacements S1, S2, S3, ...
1
10 = 0.2 s
=
50
S (cm)
= ... cm s 1
The average speed v 1 over the distance S1 = 1
0.2s
The average speed v 2 over the distance S2 =

S2(cm)
= ... cm s 1
0.2s

So, the increase in speed in the time interval of 0.2 s


= S2 S1
0.2s

The average acceleration =

0.2s

= ... cm s 1

( S2 S1 )
0.2 0.2

= ... cm s2

ROCEDURE
1. Setup the ticker-timer at one end of a long horizontal table and
fix the bumper at its other end with the help of G-clamps as shown
in Fig. P 3.2.
2. Place the trolley between the timer and the bumper. Attach one
end of a strong thread of suitable length to the trolley and pass it
over a frictionless pulley fixed on the bumber. Attach a hanger at
the free end of the thread.
3. Adjust the length of the thread in such a manner that when the
trolley is brought near the timer, the hanger stands at its highest
position near the pulley.
4 . Bring the trolley near the ticker-timer and release it, observe
its motion.
5. Place one or two small bricks on the trolley if it moves too fast.
Adjust the weights on the hanger so that the trolley moves with a
moderate speed.
6 . Hold the trolley in position near the timer. Check that the
tape is passing under the carbon paper disc. Switch the
ticker-timer on and release the trolley. Ensure that the trolley
gains speed till the pan touches the ground, thereafter it is
stopped by the bumper.
7. Encircle the mark on the tape which was under the point of
the vibrator of the timer at the instant when the pan touches
the ground because there after the force ceases to act on the

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trolley, label this mark as P. Encircled mark


P is the limiting position upto which the
trolley was accelerated by constant force
before it touched the ground.

8. Remove the part of tape where dots are marked,


from the timer.
9. Choose a dot, close to the starting point, mark it
as A and take it as the reference point for
measurement of displacements.

Fig. P 3.3: Graph between speed and time


under a constant force

10. Divide the entire motion of the trolley in about


10 equal intervals of time. To do this, count the
total number of dots marked on the tape during
the motion of trolley. From A, mark the positions
as B, C, D etc. at the end of 10 ticks on the paper.

11. Measure the distance AB, BC, CD etc. and record them as shown
in Table P 3.1. Compute average speed between different time
intervals (Table P 3.1). This can be taken as instantaneous
velocity at the mid point of the time interval tabulate. The
computed values of the average speeds against the mid point of
the time intervals.
12. The instantaneous speed at the mid point of time intervals would
be nearly the same as the average speed during the interval in
each case.

13. Plot a graph showing the values of speed against time which
depicts the motion of the trolley under a constant force. Find the
slope of speed-time graph to calculate the instantaneous
accleration (Fig. P 3.3).

BSERVATIONS
(a)

Mass of the pan ... g.

(b)

Mass of the pan + Mass of the weights in the pan = ... g.

(c)

Mass of the trolley + mass placed in the trolley = ... g.


Table P 3.1: Instantaneous speed of the body

S.
No.

188

T ime interval (in Distance, s Average velocity T ime (in mid


units of tick
(cm)
vav = s/t (cm s1 ) of interval), t
interval) (s)
(tick
interval) (s)

0 10

S1

...

10 20

S2

...

15

20 30

S3

...

25

PROJECT

UNIT NAME

Table P 3.2: Acceleration of the body


S.
No.

Point chosen Time, t (No. of


ticks)

Interval
ML (cm/
tick)

NM
(tick)

Slope,

ML
=
NM

acceleration
cm/ tick2

ESULT
1. The speed of the trolley increases with time as constant force acts
on it.
2. The acceleration of the trolley is found to be ... roughly constant
within the limitations of the experiment.

RECAUTIONS
1. Make sure that the ticker-timer and bumper are rigidly fixed.
2. The ticks in the beginning when the trolley just begins to move
and at the time when the force ceases to act, be encircled properly
for the purpose of measurement of distances and calculation of
velocity and acceleration.

ELF ASSESSMENT
Is the acceleration calculated equal to g ? If not, why? With increase
in mass in the pan, does the acceleration approach to acceleration
due to gravity?
SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES
1.

Study the variation of acceleration for different masses placed on


the trolley for constant force.

2.

Study the variation of acceleration for different forces, by changing


the mass placed on the pan.

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LABORATORY MANUAL

PROJECT

AIM
To compare the effectiveness of different materials as insulators of heat.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


A cylindrical metallic container, a cylindrical plastic container (with
height same as that of metal container but having a much larger
radius), a thermometer, an insulating lid for plastic container with a
hole for inserting a thermometer, different insulating materials in
powder or liquid forms.

ERMS AND DEFINITIONS


Insulators of heat are those substances, which do not allow the flow
of heat through them easily.

RINCIPLE
The underlying principle of comparing the effectiveness of different
materials as insulators of heat is to compare their thermal

Thermometer

Insulating lid

Insulating material
A

Plastic container

C
Water
Metal container
D

Fig. P 4.1:

190

PROJECT

UNIT NAME

conductivities. A material having a lower thermal conductivity will be


more effective as an insulator.

ROCEDURE
1.

Place the metal container A inside the plastic container B leaving


equal gap all around it. Fill the gap, between the two containers
with the insulating material you want to study (Fig P4.1).

2.

Pour in container A hot water (having temperature nearly 60 C).

3.

Cover both the containers with a non-conducting lid.

4.

Fix a thermometer, in a hole provided in the lid, in such a way


that the thermometer bulb is well within the water.

5.

Record time for every 5 C fall in temperature.

6.

Repeat the above procedure for different insulating materials.

7.

Plot temperature v/s time graph for different materials on the


same graph paper.

BSERVATIONS
Least count of the thermometer = ... C
Table P 4.1: Fall in temperature with time for different
materials as insulators
S. No.

Name of
the
Material

Variation of temparature with time

Temparature
1.
Time
Temparature
2.
Time
Temparature
3.
Time
4.

Temparature
Time

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LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

LOTTING OF GRAPH AND INTERPRETATION


Plot a graph between time t and temperature for different materials
on the same graph paper, taking time on x-axis and temperature
on y-axis.
Steeper the graph, faster the rate of cooling of water thereby implying
lower efficiency of the material used as thermal insulator.

ESULT
From the cooling curves of water drawn for different insulating
materials surrounding it can be inferred that the effectiveness of
different materials as insulators of heat in decreasing order is
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

RECAUTIONS
1. Make sure that the gaps C and D are kept the same for all the
materials.
2. This method can be used only for the insulating materials available
in the powdered/liquid form as the effect of trapped air can be
minimised for them.
3. Packing of insulating material in the gaps C and D should be equally
uniform in all the cases.
4. Insulating lid should fit tightly to minimise heat loss.

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

192

1.

Repeat the same procedure with the cold water (instead of hot water).

2.

Repeat the same procedure with other insulating materials other


than the ones you have used in this Activity.

PROJECT

PROJECT

UNIT NAME

AIM
To compare the effectiveness of different materials as absorbers
of sound.

APPARATUS AND MATERIALS REQUIRED


An audio frequency oscillator, cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO),
two transformers, a microphone, a speaker (8 ), absorbing
materials such as glass sheet, cardboard, plywood and fibre
board having roughly the same thickness, 4 cardboard sheets of
different thicknesses, screw gauge, vernier calipers and
a metre scale.

RINCIPLE
When sound waves travel through a material, part of its mechanical
energy is absorbed by the material. The degree of absorption of sound
energy by a material depends upon
(i) the nature of material and
(ii) the thickness of the material through which sound waves are made
to pass.

ROCEDURE
1. Take sheets of different absorbing materials such as glass sheet,
cardboard, plywood and fibre board sheets.
2. Measure the thickness of each material with the help of screw
gauge/vernier calipers/metre scale.
3. Make the circuit arrangement of various components as shown in
Fig. P 5.1. High impedence coils L1 and L4 of the two transformers
are to be connected to an audio frequency oscillator and a CRO
respectively. Speaker and the microphone are to be connected to
the low resistance coils L2 and L3 of the two transformers in order
to achieve impedence-matching of the coils.

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LABORATORY MANUAL

Fig. P. 5.1:

Circuit arrangement for comparing effectiveness of different


materials as absorbers of sound

4. Adjust the CRO such that a suitable wave form appears on


the screen.
5. Feed an audio signal of known frequency from the audio oscillator
to the speaker and note the amplitude of the corresponding audio
signal on the CRO, without any sheet between the speaker and
microphone.
6. Without changing the distance between speaker and microphone,
insert one by one sheets of different materials, i.e., glass, cardboard,
plywood, fibreboard (having same thickness) in between the
speaker and the microphone and each time note the amplitude of
the corresponding audio signal on the CRO graduated screen.
7. Record the observations in tabular form to analyse the relation
between the degree of absorption of sound energy and the nature
of the absorbing material.
8. Insert four sheets of different thicknesses of the same material (say
cardboard) one by one in between the speaker and the microphone.
9. Repeat Steps 5 and 6 of the experiment.

10.Record the observations in tabular form to analyse the degree of


absorption of sound with the thickness of the absorbing material.

BSERVATIONS
1. Least count of screw gauge/vernier valipers = ... mm
2. Thickness of cardboard = ... mm
Thickness of glass sheet = ... mm
Thickness of fireboard

= ... mm

Thickness of plywood

= ... mm

3. Frequency of the audio signal used = ... Hz

194

PROJECT

UNIT NAME

Table P 5.1: Degree of absorption of sound in different


absorbing materials of same thickness.
Name of
No. of
absorbing
observations
material

Amplitude of wave on CRO (mm)


Before insertion
of absorbing
material A0

1.

Glass

2.

Card board

3.

Fibre board

4.

Plywood

After insertion
of absorbing
material A 1

A1
A0

Table P 5.2: Variation in degree of absorption of sound for


different thicknesses of the same absorbing material
Thickness
No. of
of
observations
absorbing
material

Amplitude of wave on CRO (mm)


Before insertion
of absorbing
material A0

After insertion
of absorbing
material A 1

A1
A0

1.
2.
3.
4.

ALCULATION
1. Find the ratio of amplitude of the waveform before and after
insertion of the absorbing material from the experiment data
recorded in Table P 5.1.

2. Find the ratio of amplitude of the waveform before and after


insertion of the absorbing material of different thicknesses and
infer its dependence on absorption of sound.

ESULT
1. Degree of absorption of sound waves is maximum in .... (material)
and minimum in ... (material).

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2. Degree of absorption of sound waves increases/decreases with


increase in the thickness of absorbing material (cardboard).

RECAUTIONS
1. The amplitude of the input audio signal is kept constant while
performing the experiment, with different absorbing materials of
same thickness.
2. The thickness of absorbing material should not be so high
that the corresponding output signal on the screen of CRO is no
longer measurable.
3. The respective positions of the speaker, microphone and
absorbing material sheets for all sets of experiment should be
kept unchanged.

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

196

1.

Plot a graph between the density (along x-axis) and the ratio of the
amplitudes of the waveform (along y-axis) after and before insertion
of the absorbing material (Table P 2.1). Study the nature of the
graph and interpret it.

2.

Plot a graph between the thickness (along x-axis) of the


absorbing material and the ratio of the amplitude of the wave
form (along y-axis) after and before insertion of the absorbing
material (Table P 5.2). Study the nature of the graph and
interpret it.

PROJECT

PROJECT

UNIT NAME

AIM
To compare the Youngs modules of elasticity of different specimen of
rubber and compare them by drawing their elastic hysteresis curve.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


Two samples of rubber bands of about 10 cm length, a rigid support,
number of slotted weights (10 g), a hanger (10 g), a scale and a fine pointer.

ERMS AND DEFINITIONS


1. Elastic hysteresis: When the stress-strain curve is not retraced on
reversing the strain, the phenomenon is known as elastic hysteresis.
2. Residual strain: On removing the deforming force, if the length of
the specimen does not reduce to its original length, this results in
residual strain.

RINCIPLE
1. The graph of stress versus strain (or elongation) for rubber is not
a straight line. Hence, the Youngs modules of elasticity for rubber
cannot be defined uniquely. For a given stress, it is defined as the
slope of the stress-strain curve at particular stress-strain point.
2. The area enclosed by the hysteresis curve is a measure of energy
loss during the loading and unloading cycle.

ROCEDURE
1. Suspend a rubber band from a rigid support and attach a hanger
of mass (10 g) along with a fixed pointer at the lower end.
2. Fix a scale S vertically such that the pointer moves freely on the
scale and note the reading on the scale.
3. Place 10g slotted weight in the hanger and wait till the rubber
band becomes stationary. Read the position of the pointer.

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LABORATORY MANUAL

4. Repeat Step 3 by increasing load in Steps of 10 g till the total


weight is 80-100 g.
5. Start removing the weight in Steps of 10 g and note the
corresponding reading of the pointer (Give time for the rubber to
stabilise before taking the reading).
6. Repeat Steps 1 to 5 for different samples of rubber bands.

BSERVATIONS
(i) Least count of the scale = ... cm
(ii) Original length of unstreched rubber band, L = ... cm
Table P 6.1: Extension of rubber band on loading
S.
No.

Load
Reading of pointer r (cm)
Extension
suspended =
applied force =
F (N)
Loading
Unloading
Loading Unloading

1
Specimen A

2
3
1

Specimen B 2

ALCULATIONS
1. Plot a graph between the load and extension by taking
extension along x-axis and load along y-axis for loading
and unloading.
2. The area of hysteresis loop for specimen A = ...
The area of hysteresis loop for specimen B = ...

(This can be done by counting the squares enclosed in the


hysteresis loop).

ESULT
Hysteresis of specimen A ... is (greater or less than the) hysteresis of
specimen B.

198

PROJECT

UNIT NAME

RECAUTIONS
1. The weights must be added or removed gently.
2. One should wait for some time after adding or removing the weights
before reading is taken.

VALUATION
1. What does the area of hysteresis curve depict?
2. Interpret the hysteresis curves obtained for the specimen A and B.
3. When do the curves obtained while loading and unloading
coincide?
4. When do the curves obtained while loading and unloading
not coincide?
5. For which purpose is the rubber with large hysteresis loop used?
6. For which purpose is the rubber with small hysteresis loop used?
7 . Is the stress-strain graph for rubber a straight line as
expected by Hookes law? What would happen if the elastic
limit is exceeded?
8. How would you known that elastic limit has been crossed?

199

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LABORATORY MANUAL

PROJECT
AIM
To study the collision of two balls in two-dimensions.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


Apparatus for collision in two dimensions, metre scale, tracing paper,
carbon paper, G-clamp, a screw, cellotape, protractor, two identical
steel spheres or marble spheres and a plumbline.

ESCRIPTION OF APPARATUS

Table

Wooden
support

B
Aluminium
channel

Depression
Plumb line

Carbon paper

Fig. P 7.1: Setup to study the collision of two


balls in two-dimensions

A scale or ruler with a groove (or an


aluminium channel) which is bent
to act as a ramp so that a steel ball
can be rolled from the top. At the
lower end of the ruler a set screw is
fixed that has a depression on its
top. This is the resting place for the
target steel ball. The ruler rests on
a metal base which can be clamped
at the edge of a laboratory table.
From the set screw, a plumbline is
suspended as shown in Fig. P 7.1.

RINCIPLE
When two steel spheres of mass m and m moving with velocities u
and u respectively collide, their velocities change after collision. If
their velocities after collision are v and v respectively, then according
to the law of conservation of momentum
mu + mu = mv + mv
In this Activity, we study collision of two balls in two-dimensions using
the apparatus described above and verify the law of conservation of
momentum in two-dimensions. We allow one steel ball to roll down

200

PROJECT

UNIT NAME

the ramp and collide with a target ball (at rest) placed at the lower end
of the ramp. For simplicity, we take two identical balls.
After collision the two balls moving in different directions fall down
and strike the ground. The horizontal velocity of each sphere is
proportional to the horizontal distance travelled by each sphere (Why
this should be so?). The horizontal distance is the distance from point
on the floor just below the initial position of the stationary ball to the
point where it lands. This same horizontal distance can also be used
to represent the magnitude of the momentum of each ball as they
have the same mass.

ROCEDURE
1. Arrange the apparatus as shown in Fig. P 7.1. Adjust the set screw
so that the depression in it is directly in front of the groove and
about one radius of the steel ball away from the groove end. Roll a
steel ball down the ramp and adjust the set screw by moving
upward/downward so that the ball just clears it as it falls freely.
Place the target ball on the depression in the screw. Suspend the
plumb line with it.
2. Next adjust the position of the set screw so that the bullet ball will
collide with the target ball at an angle. Mark the incident and target
balls as 1 and 2. Ensure that the two balls are exactly at the same
height from the floor at the time of collision.
3. Spread on the floor a large sheet of tracing paper on a similar
sized carbon paper. The steel balls would be falling on this
combination to make their imprints. In case large sheets of carbon
paper or plain paper are not available tape together their pieces
(A-4 size) to make a large sheet.
4 . Put the carbon paper on the floor, with its inked side facing
up. Place the tracing paper directly over it. Place the sheets
such that the centre of one end of the paper lies just below
the plumb line.
5. Without placing a target ball on the set screw, roll the ball marked
1. Mark the point on the tracing paper where the ball lands (P0).
Repeat it several times and mark the cluster P0 1 , P0 2 , P0 3 , etc. ...
Find the centre of the cluster and mark it P0.
6. Using identical steel ball (2) to act as a target ball, try a few
collisions. Ensuring that the incident ball (1) is always released
from the same height. Circle and label the clusters of points where
the incident ball and the target ball hit the paper.
(You can find the centre of cluster points, by drawing a quadrilateral
and intersecting diagonals to find the location of mean point.)

201

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

Fig. P 7.2: To find location of mean print

7.

Mark point O on the paper where the plumb line touches the paper.
Draw vectors from the point O to the mean point P0, P1 and P2.

8. (a)

(b)

uuur
uuur
Add the two vectors OP1 and OP 2 representing the
momentum of the incident ball and target ball to determine
the total momentum P after the collision (Fig. P7.2).

Relate the total momentum P after the collision with the initial
uuur

momentum of the incident ball represented by vector OP 0


and the target ball.

ESULT

The total momentum of the two ball after collision is ... g cms1 which
is almost equal to the initial momentum of the incident ball.

RECAUTIONS
1. Adjust the set screw and ensure that the two balls are exactly at
the same height from the floor at the time of collision.

2. In each trial, the incident ball should be rolled down from the
same height.

OURCES OF ERROR

Friction between the ball and surface may introduce an error.

ELF ASSESSMENT
1. For each trial, measure the angle between the two final momentum
vectors. Can you make any generalisation?
2. Suppose the target ball is replaced by a glass marble of same size
and we carry out the experiment using the same incident ball. In

202

PROJECT

UNIT NAME

this case, the horizontal distances, would represent velocity


vectors? Do they still represent momentum vectors? How will you
draw momentum vectors in this case and verify the law of
conservation of momentum?
3. What happens to the momentum components corresponding to
OP1 and OP2 in Fig. P7.2 in the direction perpendicular to OP0?

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES


This experiment can also be used to verify the law of conservation of
momentum quantitatively, the momentum of a ball can be calculated
knowing its mass and velocity. Measure the mass of each ball with a
balance. The horizontal velocity is equal to the horizontal distance travelled
divided by the time taken. Note that this time is equal to the time taken
by the ball to hit the floor. This time can be determined by measuring the
distance (d) from the top of the set screw to the floor and using the
equation d = (gt2)/2. Further, note that t will be the same for all calculations.
Calculate the original momentum of the incident ball and final momenta
of the incident and target balls for the case with balls of (1) equal mass
and (2) unequal mass. Find the resultant of the two final momenta in
each case and compare it with the initial momentum.
ALTERNATE METHOD FOR MAKING CHANNEL
Take plastic pipe having internal diameter slightly more than the diameter
of the balls.
Cut the pipe lengthwise into two equal parts (two halves). Bend slightly
one part of the cut pipe by gently warming it and fix it on a table top as
shown in the figure below.
Make a small depression near end B of the pipe with the help of a heated
thick nail/rod for resting the target ball.

203

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

PROJECT

IM
To study Fortins Barometer and use it to measure the
atmospheric pressure.

PPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


Fortins Barometer and a thermometer.

ESCRIPTION OF APPARATUS
Fortinss Barometer

Fig. P 8.1: Fortins barometer

204

It consists of a uniform glass tube about 80 cm


long, open at one end. It is filled with mercury
and turned upside down carefully in a trough
of mercury C. The lower part of the trough is
made of leather and the level of mercury in the
trough can be adjusted by means of screw A
[Fig. P 8.1 (a)]. The upper side of the trough is
closed by a leather patch L in such a way that the
contact is maintained between the outside air and
the mercury in the trough. There is a small ivory
pin P fixed with its pointed tip touching the
mercury in the trough. The function of the pin P
is to adjust the zero of the scale at the same level
as the mercury in the trough. The glass tube is
enclosed in a brass tube for protection. There are
two vertical slits diametrically opposite each other
so that the level of mercury in the tube can be
seen [Fig. P 8.1 (b)]. A scale graduated in
centimetre is engraved on the brass tube on both
sides along the edges of the front slit. The scale
graduation does not start from zero but from 68
cm to 85 cm, as the atmospheric pressureremains
within these limits. A brass vernier scale slides
along the front slit and can be adjusted using
screw B.

PROJECT

UNIT NAME

RINCIPLE
When a completely filled mercury tube is turned upside down in the
trough C, some mercury flows out of the tube in the trough leaving a
vacuum on the top.
The level of mercury stabilises when the atmospheric pressure exerted
on the surface of mercury in the trough equalises that due to the
mercury column in the tube. The height of the mercury column in
the tube is proportional to atmospheric pressure under normal
conditions, Column of mercury in the glass tube stands at a height of
about 76 cm at sea level.
From theoretical point of view, a barometer could be made of any
liquid. Mercury is chosen for many reasons mainly it is so dense
(13600 kg/m 3) that column supported by air pressure is of a
managable height.
A water barometer would be more than 10 m in height.

ROCEDURE
1. Use the plumb line to hang the barometer vertically on a wall.
2. Examine the screws A, B, pin P and vernier V.
3. Determine the least count of the vernier scale.
4. Adjust the level of mercury surface in the trough of the barometer

Fig. P 8.2: Correct adjustment of mercury surface in the reservoir

205

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

with the help of screw A and by looking at the ivory pin and
its image on the mercury surface in the trough (Fig. P 8.2).

5. Adjust the vernier using screw B such that the zero of the vernier
touches the convex meniscus of mercury in the tube. The eye
should be kept at the level of the meniscus (Fig. P 8.3).

Vernier V

6. Note the reading on the main scale and the vernier.


7. Record the room temperature using a thermometer.

Correct
adjustment
of Vernier Scale

8. Repeat the procedure two more times and determine the


average atmospheric pressure.
Fig. P 8.3: Eye should be at the level of
meniscus of mercury in the tube

BSERVATIONS
Vernier constant or least count = ...

(i)

No. of divisions on the vernier = ...


No. of divisions on the main scale = ...
Least count of main scale (1 MSD) = ... cm
Least count of vernier scale
=

1 MSD
= ... cm
No. of divisions on vernier scale

(ii) Room Temperature = ... C


Table P 8.1: Measuring height of mercury column
in a barometer
S.
No.

Main scale reading


below zero mark of
vernier scale, S (cm)

Ver nier scale


reading n

Height of mercury
column
h = (S + n least count)

1
2
3

ESULT
Atmospheric pressure in the laboratory on dd/mm/yr (date) at ... am/
pm at room temperature ...C was measured as ...cm of Hg.
Atmospheric pressure = ...N/m2

206

PROJECT

UNIT NAME

RECAUTIONS
1. The barometer is a fragile instrument and should be handled
carefully.
2. The wall mount should be firm in a room of a laboratory and not
in any passage.
3. Adequate light must fall on the ivory pin and the vernier scale.
4. Least count should be calculated with care.
5. Screw A should be moved slowly and gently.

OURCES OF ERROR
1. There may be air bubbles in the barometer tube.
2. Ivory pin may not be fixed properly.
3. Room temperature may change, affecting the observations.

ISCUSSION
1. The barometer should be placed in such a way on the wall that screw
A can easily be adjusted by viewing the ivory pin P. A suitable platform
can be used to stand and see the vernier reading at eye level.
2. Why does the barometer require adjustment everytime one has to
use it?

ELF ASSESSMENT
1. What effect would there be of the following:
(a) Ivory pin not adjusted as advised?
(b) Barometer is not vertical but tilted?
(c) The pin P and scale S not viewed at eye level?
2. If water is used instead of mercury, what problems would you
encounter?
SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES
1.

Take barometer readings and temperature readings at different times


during school hours. Study the pattern for the change in atmospheric
pressure over a week.

2.

Plot a graph between atmospheric pressure and humidity (as given


in the newspaper) for a month. Can we relate humidity to atmospheric
pressure?

207

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

PROJECT

AIM
To study of the spring constant of a helical spring from its
load-extension graph.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


Helical spring with a pointer attached at its lower end and a hook/
ring for suspending a hanger; a rigid support/clamp stand; five or six
slotted masses (known) for hanger; a metre scale.

RINCIPLE
Rigid support

10

P
Pointer

Load (m)

For small changes in length (or shape/


dimensions) of a body (wire), within the elastic
limit, the magnitude of the elongation or
extension is directly proportional to the applied
force (Hookes law).

50 40

A
Hanger H

30

20

Helical
spring

Fig. P 9.1: Measurement of extension of

a helical spring due to a load


(P 9.1)

When an external force is applied to a body,


the shape of the body changes or deformation
occurs in the body. Restoring forces (having
magnitude equal to the applied force)
are developed within the body which tend
to oppose this change. On removing
the applied force, the body regains its
original shape.

Following Hookes law, the spring constant (or


force constant) of a spring is given by

Spring constant, K =

Restoring force, F
Extension, x

Thus, the spring constant is the restoring force per unit extension in
the spring. Its value is determined by the elastic properties of the spring.
A given load is attached to the free end of the spring which is suspended
from a rigid point support (a nail fixed to a wall). A load (slotted weight)
is placed in the hanger and the spring gets extended/elongated due
to the applied force. By measuring the extensions, produced by the
forces applied by different loads (slotted mass) in the spring and

208

PROJECT

UNIT NAME

plotting the load (force) extension graph, the spring constant of the
spring can be determined.

ROCEDURE
1. Suspend the helical spring, SA, having a pointer, P, at its
lower free end, A, freely from a rigid point support, as shown
in Fig. P 9.1.
2. Set the metre scale close to the spring vertically. Take care that
the pointer moves freely over the scale without touching it and
the tip of the pointer is in front of the graduations on the scale.
3. Find out the least count of the metre scale. It is usually 1 mm or
0.1 cm.
4. Record the initial position of the pointer on the metre scale,
without any slotted mass suspended from the hook.
5. Suspend the hanger, H (of known mass, say 20 g) from the lower
free end, A, of the helical spring and record the position of the
pointer, P on the metre scale.
6. Put a slotted mass on the hanger gently. Wait for some time for
the load to stop oscillating so as to attain equilibrium (rest)
position, or even hold it to stop. Record the position of the pointer
on the metre scale. Record observations in a table with proper
units and significant figures.
7. Put another slotted mass on the hanger and repeat Step 6.
8. Keep on putting slotted masses on the hanger and repeat Step 6.
Record the position of the pointer on the metre scale every time.
9. Compute the load/force F ( = mg ) applied by the slotted mass,
M and the corresponding extension (or stretching), x in the
helical spring. Here g is the acceleration due to gravity at the
place of the experiment.
10. Plot a graph between the applied force F along x-axis and the
corresponding extension x (or stretching) on the y-axis. What is
the shape of the curve of the graph you have drawn?
11. If you find that the force-extension graph is a straight line, find
the slope (F/x) of the straight line. Find out the spring constant
K of helical spring from the slope of the straight line graph.

BSERVATIONS
Least count of the metre scale= ... mm= ... cm
Mass of the hanger = ... g

209

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

Table P 9.1: Computing spring constant of the helical spring


S.
Mass
No. suspended
from the
spring, M
(103 kg)
1

2
3

20
.

4
5
6

.
.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

Force,
F = mg

Position of
the pointer

(N)

(cm)

Extension,
Spring
x
constant, K
(= F/x)
(102 m)

(N m1)

Mean Spring constant K = ... N/m


Plotting load - extension graph for a helical spring
Take force, F along the x-axis and extension, x along the y-axis.
Choose suitable scales to represent F and x. Plot a graph between F
and x (as shown in Fig. P 9.2). Identify the shape of the load-extension
graph OA.

ALCULATIONS
Choose two points, O and A, wide apart on the straight line OA
obtained from load extension graph, as shown in Fig. P 9.2. From
the point A, draw a perpendicular AB on x-axis. Then, from
the graph,

Slope of the straight line graph = tan =


Extension (m)

1
Spring constant, K = F =
(slope
of
the
graph)
x
Spring constant, K =

B
O

F (N)

Fig. P 9.2: Load-extension graph

for a helical spring

210

AB
= x/F
OB

OB F B F O
=
= ... Nm1
AB x A x B

where x A and x B are the corresponding extensions at points


A and B (or O) respectively where FB and FO are the loads
(forces) at points B and O.

PROJECT

UNIT NAME

ESULT
The spring constant of the given helical spring = ... Nm1

RECAUTIONS
1. The spring should be suspended from a rigid support and it
should hang freely so that it remains vertical.
2. Slotted weights should be chosen according to elastic limit of
the spring.
3. After adding or removing the slotted weight on the hanger, wait
for sometime before noting the position of the pointer on the
scale because the spring takes time to attain equilibrium position.

OURCES OF ERROR
1. If support is not perfectly rigid, some error may creep in due to
the yielding of the support.
2. The slotted weights may not be standard weights.

ISCUSSION
1. A rigid support is required for suspending the helical spring with
load (or slotted mass) from it. The slotted masses may not have
exact values engraved on them. Some error in the extension is
likely to creep in due to the yielding (sometimes) of the support
and inaccuracy in the values of the masses of loads.
2. The accuracy of the result depends mainly on the measurement
of extension produced by the force (load) within the elastic limit.
Take special care that the slotted mass is put gently on the hanger
as the wire of the helical spring takes sometime to attain its newequilibrium position.

3. If the elastic limit is crossed slightly, what changes will you expect
in the spring and your result?

ELF ASSESSMENT
1. Two springs A (of thicker wire) and B (of thinner wire) of the same
material, loaded with the same mass on their hangers, are
suspended from a rigid support. Which spring would have more
value of spring constant?
2. Soft massive spring of mass Ms and spring constant K has
extension under its own weight. What mass correction factor for

211

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

the extension in the spring would you suggest when a mass, M is


attached at its lower end?
[Hint: Extension Xm of the spring of mass Ms with the mass M
attached at its lower end would be X m

F
M
g
= ( M + s )( ) ]
K
2 K

3. What other factors affect spring constant, e.g. length.

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

212

1.

Take spring of the same material but of different diameters of the


wires. See how the spring contant varies.

2.

Take springs of the same diameters of the wires but of different


materials. See how the spring constant varies. What inference do
you draw from your result?

PROJECT

PROJECT

UNIT NAME

10

AIM
To study the effect of nature of surface on emission and absorption
of radiation.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


Two identical calorimeters with wooden lids having holes for
thermometers, two thermometers, clamp stands for holding
thermometer, arrangement to coat one calorimeter black and the other
shining white, stop-clock, ice.

RINCIPLE

Black surfaces are good emitters and good absorbers of heat radiation.
Bright surfaces are poor emitters and poor absorbers of heat radiation.

ROCEDURE
A. For emission of radiation
1. Note the range and least count of both the thermometers.
2. Record the room temparature.
3. Paint one of the calorimeters with black paint or lamp black as
shown in Fig. P 10.1(a) and the other calorimeter white with
aluminium paint or by wrapping shining silver foil around the
calorimeter as shown in Fig. P 10.1(b).
4. Fill hot water in each calorimeter and insert a thermometer in each.
Let them stand 30 cm apart.
5. Start the stop-clock and keep it in the middle.
6. Record the temperatures of both the calorimeters at intervals of
1/2 a minute for first 10 minutes and next 10 minutes at intervals
of one minute.
B. For absorption of radiation
1. Use the two calorimeters used for Activity (A) above.
2. Fill them with cold water taken from the refrigerator or made by
adding ice to tap water.
3. Insert thermometers in the calorimeters and place them in front of
an electric heater so that they receive the same amount of heat.

213

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

Calorimeter B
Coated with silver
paint or wrapped
with silver foil
Hot water

Calorimeter A
Coated black paint
Hot water

Stand

Stand

Fig. P 10.1(a): Experimental setup for studying


emission of heat radiation from
black surface

Fig. P 10.1(b): Experimental setup for studying


emission of heat radiation from
shining surface

Alternatively, place them in the sun, if there is bright sunlight


coming from a window.

4. With the help of a stop-clock, take temperature vs. time data as in


Activity (A).

BSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS


Range of thermometer A = ... C
Least count of thermometer A = ... C
Range of thermometer B

= ... C

Least count of thermometer B = ... C


Table P 10.1(a) : For emission of radiation
S. No.

Black coated calorimeter


T ime (t)
(minutes)

Temperature of
water (C)

White painted calorimeter


T ime (t)
(minutes)

Temperature of
water (C)

1
2
3
Table P 10.1(b) : For absorption of radiation
S. No.

Black coated calorimeter


T ime (t)
(minutes)

1
2
3

214

Temperature of
water (C)

White painted calorimeter


T ime (t)
(minutes)

Temperature of
water (C)

PROJECT

10

UNIT NAME

RAPH
Plot a graph between time (on x-axis) and temperature (on y-axis) for
both the calorimeters and for both, emission and absorption, as shown
in Fig. P 10.2 (a) and (b).

90 C

40 C

Ca

lor

ime

ter
B

Cal
orim

ete
r

Temperature (C)

Temperature (C)

rA
ete

(silvere
d)
A (B
lack
e

ned

25 C
0

6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Time (min)

Fig. P 10.2(a):

Ca

ened)
(Black

m
lori

eter
lorim

ilver
B (s

ed)

Ca

25 C
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Time (min)

Temperature vs. time graph for Fig. P 10.2(b): Temperature vs. time graph for
emission of heat radiation
absorption of heat radiation

ONCLUSION
1. Compare the rates of cooling in Activity (A) in both cases for the
same temperature range. It is found that the (blackened/silvered)
calorimeter is a better emitter of heat.
2. Compare the rise in temperatures of the two calorimeters in Activity
(B). It is found that the ... calorimeter is a better absorber of
radiation.

OURCES OF ERROR
1. Perfectly black and perfectly shining surfaces may not be available.
2. Variations in surrounding temperature during the period of
Activity may take place.

215

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

11

PROJECT
AIM
To study conservation of energy with a 0.2 pendulum.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


A heavy spherical, bob with a hook, thread, metre scale, a peg (a pencil
or a 15 cm scale), a rigid support and a stand with a clamp.

RINCIPLE
A simple pendulum of length l, mass m oscillates due to the
restoring force expressed as F = mg sin for small displacement
(less than 15)
sin = =

x
l

The force constant k can be written as k =

mg
l

and maximum kinetic energy KE = 1 kx 2


2

ESCRIPTION
When the oscillation of a simple pendulum is restricted into two
parts using a peg P at any point on its string, it becomes a twolength pendulum. During one half of the journey, the bob of mass
m, has length l1 and dispalcement x 1 at position A and for other half
it has a length l2 and displacement x 2. At position B, the bob of mass
m has the same kinetic energy. Therefore, energy conservation
demands that

(P 11.1)

1
1
k1x 12 = k 2 x 22
2
2
2
or l1 = x12
l2 x 2

216

This relationship (Eq. P 11.1) can be verified for different positions


of peg P.

PROJECT 1 1
U N
NIT

AME

l1
Peg ,P

x1

l2

A
C

mg

Fig. P 11.1: A simple pendulum

x1

x2

Fig. P 11.2: A two-length pendulum

ROCEDURE
1. Setup a simple pendulum using a heavy bob. Release the bob
gently from position A and measure the maximum displacement
x 1, using a metre scale (Fig. P 11.1).
2. Fix a peg P (a pencil or a scale will do) horizontally to a clamp
stand and bring it in contact with the string of the oscillating
pendulum. The peg should obstract the motion of the
pendulum when its sting is vertical, that is, along its mean
position (Fig. P 11.2).
3. The effective length of the pendulum would get reduced for a part
of its oscillation after it is held by the peg (Fig. P 11.2).
4. Measure the maximum displacement x2 using metre scale, when
the bob reaches at position C.
5. Repeat the Steps 2 to 4 for different positions of peg P.
6. Record these observations in a table and calculate

2
l1
and x 12 for
l2
x2

each case.

2
7. Establish the equality, l1 = x 12 .
l2 x 2

BSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS


Length of a simple pendulum, l = ... cm

217

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

S. No.

Displacement of bob
In position In position
B
A
x2(cm)
x1 (cm)

Length of the pendulum


In position
A
l 1 (cm)

l1
l2

x 12
x 22

In position
B
l 2 (cm)

1
2
3
4

ESULT
2
Relationship l1 = x 1 , based on the conservation of energy is verified.
l2 x 22

218

DEMONSTRATION

UNIT NAME

DEMONSTRATIONS

DEMONSTRATION

To demonstrate uniform motion in a straight line


It is rather difficult to demonstrate uniform motion of a freely
moving body due to the inherent force of friction. However, it is
possible to demonstrate uniform motion if a body of the forces
acting on it are balanced.
(a) Demonstration of uniform motion of a body in glycerine or caster
oil in a glass or a plastic tube
Take a glass or plastic tube one metre long and about 10 mm end
diameter. Close one end of it with a cork. Fill the tube with glycerine
(white) or castar oil upto the brim. Insert a steel ball or lead shot of
three mm diameter in it and close it with a cork such that no air
bubble is left in the tube. Take a wooden base 7.5 10.0 cm broad
having metallic brackets near its ends. Paint the board with white
paint or fix a sheet of white paper on it. Mount the tube on the wooden
base with the help of metallic brackets (to rest the tube like the base of
a fluorescent tube). Put marks on the base with black/blue paint or
ink at regular intervals of 10 cm each [Fig. D 1.1(a)]. To demonstrate

Fig. D 1.1: Demonstration of uniform rectilinear motion of a ball under


two balancing forces: (a) A demonstration apparatus 1 m
long (b) A low cost apparatus 50 cm long

219

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORA TORY MANUAL

uniform motion keep the tube vertical and ask a student to note the
time taken by the ball to travel successive segments of 10 cm. Repeat
the experiment by inverting the tube a couple of times. It may be
emphasised that if a 10 cm segment is further sub-divided into
segments of 1 or 2 cm length, then the ball should travel successive
smaller segments also is equal intervals of time*.
This demonstration can also be done with a half metre long glass tube
and a half metre scale. It may be clamped vertical in a laboratory stand
[Fig. D 1.1(b)]. In this case students can also be asked to note the time
taken by the ball to travel successive segments of one cm.
The tube may be inclined slightly, say, at about 5 to the vertical. The
advantages of this are:
(i) The ball moves closer to the scale which reduces the parallax
error in observing its position on the scale.
(ii) The ball moving in contact with the wall of the tube is under
identical conditions throughout its motion. If you wish it to
move in the centre of the tube, i.e., along the axis of the tube,
then the vertical adjustment of the tube has to done with
greater precision.
In order to perform this demonstration with the half metre tube
more effectively, students may be encouraged to devise their own
mechanism to simultaneously record the distance moved by the ball
and the time taken to do so. For example, let one student watch the
falling ball at close distance and give signals by tapping the table as
the ball passes successive equidistant marks at a
pre-decided distance from each other.
100

A second student may start the stop-watch at the


sound of any tap. Thereafter, he observes and speaks
out the time shown by the watch at each successive
tap, without stopping the watch. A third student may
keep noting the data of distance covered by the ball
and time elapsed since the measurement was started.
Ask students to plot the distance versus time graph
of the motion of the ball on the basis of this data and
discuss the nature of this graph [Fig. D 1.1(c)].

90

(cm)

80
70
60
50

40
30
20

10

In this coordinated activity of three students, it is


likely that the first one may happen to miss giving
(s)
t
signal at a mark when the ball passes it. He should
Fig. D 1.1(c): Distancetime graph for motion only indicate this by saying missed and a few
of metal ball in glycerine
points less on the graph made with about 15 to 20
points are of no significance. Similarly, any tapping which he
subsequently feels, was not made at the right instant, he may indicate
0

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30

* In this experiment, the ball accelerates for some time initially and approaches the
ter minal velocity u0 according to relation u = u 0 = (1-e -t/T). For a typical terminal
velocity u0 = 3 cms 1, the time constant T = 0.003s. Thus, the duration of accelerated
motion is so small that one may not at all bother for it.

220

DEMONSTRATION 1

UNIT NAME

by saying wrong. Two students can also record this data, if there
is sufficient time between successive readings, the second one taking
over the task of the third. With some practice and by keeping the
watch in the left hand close to the ball, even one student can record
the data and take it up as an individual activity.
By mixing water with glycerine in a suitable ratio one can make
adjust the speed of motion of the ball such that it is neither too
slow as to cause boredom to the class nor so fast that the data is
difficult to record.
(b) By using a burette
The above demonstration may also be performed by using a long
burette. It has its own scale too. However, it may be difficult for
students sitting at the back in the classroom to see the scale. Also,
the upper end is open, which implies that several balls of the same
size should be available. In fact, in the demonstration (a) above, the
upper end of the tube may be kept open, if several balls of the same
size are available, since the most tricky part of it is to close the upper
end leaving no air bubbles inside the tube.
The demonstration with the burette can also be made more effective
in the same manner as discussed above.
Note:
1.

In the class discussion following the demonstration of a steel


ball falling down with uniformed speed, an important question
will be what are the two balancing forces under which it moves
with uniform velocity? One is the net weight of the ball acting
downwards due to which its speed increases in the beginning.
As its speed increases, the resistance of liquid, acting upwards,
to the motion increases till it balances the weight. Then
onwards, the ball acquires terminal velocity and the speed
remains nearly constant.

2.

There are a number of situations in everyday life where an object


falls down with uniform velocity in exactly the same manner as
the ball in a liquid.
(a) When a paratrooper descends from an aeroplane with the
help of a parachute, resistance of air on the parachute often
balances her/his weight. In such an event she/he moves
vertically down with uniform speed, except for some
horizontal drift due to the wind (Fig. D 1.2).
(b) Many children play with a toy parachute which is first thrown
up. Then it moves down in exactly the same manner as the
paratrooper with a parachute.
(c) A shuttle cock, which is used in the game of badminton,
may be shot vertically upwards, when it comes down,

221

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORA TORY MANUAL

Fig. D 1.2: Discent of a parachute is nearly uniform

players often see that it is moving down with uniform


downward speed (if there is no wind) after a small initial
period of increasing speed.
3.

222

This demonstration may also be done by the apparatus used for


finding the viscosity of liquid by Stokes law. However, for
demonstrating uniform motion in a straight line, the
demonstration is easier and better by: (a) using a scale to read
the position of the ball, and (b) keeping the tube slightly inclined
towards the horizontal.

DEMONSTRATION

UNIT NAME

DEMONSTRATION

To demonstrate the nature of motion of a ball on an


inclined track
Make an inclined plane of about 50 cm length with 2 3 cm height at
the raised end. Alternately, one can use a double inclined track
apparatus and make the inclined plane by joining its two arms at the
base strip so that these form a single plane. Give it a low inclination
by raising one end of the base strip by about two cm with the help of
a wooden block, or a book, etc. (Fig. D 2.1). Now let a metronome
produce sound signals at intervals of seconds. Keep the ball at the
higher end of one of the inclined planes. Release it at any signal (which
may be called 0th signal) and let students observe its position at 1st,
2nd, 3rd and 4th signals after the release. For this purpose, divide the
class into four groups. Explain to them in advance, with the help of a
diagram on the blackboard, that group I will observe the 1st position
of the ball, group II the 2nd position of the ball, and so on.

Fig. D 2.1: Motion of a ball on a double inclined plane

After the demonstration, there are as many observations for each


position of the ball as the number of students in each group. Let one
student in each group collect the observation in his/her group,
calculate the mean value and record it on the blackboard. Then it
can be shown that distances covered by the ball in successive intervals
of second go on increasing by equal amounts when the ball roll
down the incline.
Note:
1.

In the absence of a metronome, let a person tap on the table at a


steady pace which synchronises with extreme positions of the
pendulum of a clock, or a simple pendulum of 25 cm length on
a laboratory stand.

2.

If a strobe-light is available, use it illuminate the ball moving


down the track. Then students can visually see successively
longer distances moved by the ball in equal intervals of time.

223

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORA TORY MANUAL

DEMONSTRATION

To demonstrate that a centripetal force is necessary for moving


a body with a uniform speed along a circle, and that magnitude
of this force increases with angular speed
(a) Using a glass tube and slotted weights
Take a glass tube about 15 cm long and 10 mm outside diameter.
Make its ends smooth by heating them over a flame. Now pass a
strong silk or nylon thread about 1.5 m long through the tube. At
one end of the thread tie a packet of sand or a rubber stopper and
at the other a weight (W) (about three to 10 times the weight of the
sand/cork). First, demonstrate that on lifting the glass tube, the
weight stays on the table while the packet of sand or the stopper
gets lifts up (Fig. D 3.1).
Now by holding the glass tube firmly in one hand and the weight (W)
in the other, rotate the packet of sand in a horizontal circle. When the
speed of motion is sufficiently fast, the weight (W) can hang freely
without the support of your hand. Adjust the speed of rotation such
that the position of the weight (W) does not change. In this situation,
weight (W) provides the centripetal force necessary to keep the packet
or stopper moving along a circular path (Fig. D 3.2). If the speed of
motion is increased further, the weight (W) even moves up and vice
versa. Why?

Fig. D 3.1: The weight tied at the end passing


down the glass tube is much heavier
than the packet of sand

224

DEMONSTRATION 3
U
N
NIT

As a safety precaution, in this demonstration,


the packet to be rotated in a horizontal circle
should be a packet of sand, or a packet of a
few fine lead shots, or a rubber stopper, etc.,
lest it breaks off and strikes someone. Again,
the glass tube should be wrapped with two
layers of tape, lest it breaks and hurt the hand
of the person demonstrating the experiment.

AME

Packet moving
in a horizontal
circle

Glass tube
held in hand

(b) Using a roller and a turn table


If a turn table (as you might have seen in a
Nylon thread
gramophone) or a potters wheel is available,
it can also be used to demonstrate centripetal
force. A small roller is placed on the turn
Weight
table and its frame is attached to the control
peg by a rubber band (Fig. D 3.3). The roller
Fig. D 3.2: On revolving the packet of
sand at a suitable speed,
is free to roll radially towards or away from
the weight lifts off the table;
the centre. The disc is set in motion first at
its weight is just enough to
the lowest speed of 16 revolution per minute.
provide the necessary
The stretching of the rubber band indicates
centripetal force
that a force acts outwards along the radius.
At higher speeds, 33 r.p.m., or 45 r.p.m., or 78 r.p.m., the stretching
of the rubber band could seen to be larger and larger, showing that
greater and greater centripetal force comes into play. Note that as
the angular speed increases, the radius of circular motion of the
roller also increases due to elongation of the rubber band.

Turn table

Central peg

Rubber band

Roller

Fig. D 3.3: Elongation of rubber band indicates


that it is exerting a centripetal force
on the roller

225

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORA TORY MANUAL

DEMONSTRATION

To demonstrate the principle of centrifuge


Bend a glass tube (about 10 to 15 mm diameter) slightly at its middle
to make an angle of, say, 160. Fill it with coloured water leaving an
air bubble in it and then close its both ends with rubber stoppers.
Now mount it on the turn-table with both its arms inclined to
horizontal say, at, 10 while keeping the turn-table horizontal. The
lowest portion of the tube in the middle is attached to the central peg
of the turn-table (Fig. D 4.1). The air bubble then stays at the top of
one or both the arms of the glass tube.

Fig. D 4.1: A bent glass tube filled with a liquid but having an air bubble
attached to the central peg of turn table at its middle

Now rotate the turn-table and increase its speed in steps, 16 r.p.m.,
then 33 r.p.m., then 45 r.p.m. and then 78 r.p.m. As the speed of
rotation increases, draw attention that the air bubble is moving
towards the centre, the lowest part of the tube.
The rotating turn-table is an accelerated frame of reference. At every
point on it, the acceleration is directed towards the centre. Thus, an
object at rest in this frame of reference experiences an outward force.
Every molecule of water in the tube experiences this force, just like
the force of gravitation. Under the action of this force, denser matter
moves outwards and the less dense inwards.

226

DEMONSTRATION

UNIT NAME

DEMONSTRATION

To demonstrate interconversion of potential and kinetic energy


Interconversion of kinetic and potential energies may be easily
demonstrated by Maxwells Wheel (Fig. D 5.1). It consists of a wheel
rigidly fixed on a long axle passing through its centre. It is suspended
by two threads of equal length, tied to the axle on two sides of the
wheel. In the lowest position of the wheel, separation between the
lower ends of the two threads is slightly more than that between
them at the supporting at the
top.
To set it in action the wheel is
rotated and moved up so that
both threads wind up on the
axle. As the wheel moves up, it
gains some potential energy. On
releasing, it moves down and its
P.E. is converted to K.E. of
rotation of the wheel. At its
lowest position when all the
length of the two threads has
unwound, all the energy of the
wheel is kinetic due to which the
threads start winding up in the
opposite direction.

Thread
Thread

Axle

Wheel

Thus, the wheel starts moving


upwards, converting its K.E.
into P.E.
Fig. D 5.1: The Maxwells wheel

Note: In order to ensure that loss of energy in successive up and


down motions of the wheel be small, the threads should be
quite flexible, inextensible and identical to each other.

227

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORA TORY MANUAL

DEMONSTRATION

To demonstrate conservation of momentum


The law of conservation of momentum can be demonstrated using
two bifilar pendulums of the same length using bobs of different
materials (Fig. D 6.1). The time period T for both pendulums is the
same. Initially the two bobs A and B touch each other in their rest
position. Also the suspension fibres of A and B are parallel to each
other in their rest positions.
The bob A is displaced with the
help of a wooden strip and allowed
to touch the reference peg C and
thus given a displacement, a,
which is noted with the scale. The
strip is then quickly removed, so
that bob A moves smoothly
towards the rest position and
collides with the bob B. The
maximum displacement a and b
of the bobs A and B respectively
C
AB
after collision are
noted
simultaneously. On the right hand
side of B, a rider is put on the scale,
Fig. D 6.1: The bifilar pendulums
which is pushed by the ball B, as
it undergoes the displacement b .
Then reading the displacement of A directly and of B from the
displaced position of the rider becomes easier.
The masses mA and mB of the bobs are measured. The velocities of the
bobs, just before and just after the collision are proportional to their
displacements, since the time period, T, for both the pendulums is
equal and the velocity of a simple pendulum in its central position is
equal to (amplitude 2/T). Therefore, the equality of total momentum
of the two bobs before and after their collision implies
m A a = mA a + mB b
Having measured a, a and b , the above equality can be checked up
(a and b are the displacements after the impact).

228

DEMONSTRATION

UNIT NAME

DEMONSTRATION

To demonstrate the effect of angle of launch on range of a


projectile
The variation in the range of a projectile with the angle of launch can
be demonstrated using a ballistic pistol or toy-gun and mounting it
suitably so that the angle of launch can be varied. While mounting
the gun care must be taken to see that the axis of the gun passes
through the centre of the circle graduated in degrees (Fig. D 7.1). If a
toy-gun is used, whose maximum range is more than the length of
the classroom, then this demonstration may be done in an open
area such as the school play ground.
Plumb-line

Clamp

90
180
270

Circular
protector

Holes for
fixing the
clamp

Wooden
circular disc
rigidly fixed
vertically

Fig. D 7.1: A set up to study the range of a


projectile fired with a toy pistol

As the gun is fired at different angles ranging between 0 and 90,


the corresponding ranges are measured with care. A graph for the
angle of projection versus the range may be drawn.
Alternately one can also study the range of water jet projected at
different angles provided it is assured that water will be released at
same pressure.

229

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORA TORY MANUAL

DEMONSTRATION

To demonstrate that the moment of inertia of a rod changes with


the change of position of a pair of equal weights attached to the rod
Take a glass rod and hang it horizontally from its centre of gravity with
the help of a light, thin wire. Take two lumps of equal mass of plasticine,
roll both of them separately to get discs of same size and uniform
thickness. Now attach them near the two ends of the rod (like rings) so
that the rod is again horizontal [Fig. D 8.1(a)]. Make sure that the
plasticine cylinders easily move along the rod. Give a small angular
displacement to the rod and note the time for 10 oscillations. Find the
time period for one oscillation. Now, move the rings of plasticine by
equal distances towards the centre of the rod so that it remains
horizontal [Fig. D 8.1(b)]. Give a small displacement to the rod and
again note the time period for 10 oscillations. Find the time period for
one oscillation. Are the two time periods the same or different? If you

Copper wire

Glass rod

C.G.

Nut near
the ends

Nut closer
to centre

(a)

230

(b)

Fig. D 8.1: Setup to demonstrate that total mass remaining constant, the
moment of inertia depends upon distribution of mass. Here
nuts have replaced the plasticine balls: (a) the movable mass
are far apart, (b) the masses are closer to the C.G. of the rod

DEMONSTRATION 8

UNIT NAME

find that the time periods in both the situations are different, it shows
that the moment of inertia changes with the distribution of the mass
of a body even if the total mass remains the same.
An important caution for a convincing demonstration is that the
point where a thin metal wire is attached to the glass rod (the point
about which the glass rod makes rotatory oscillations) should remain
fixed. The metal wire should be so tied that the rod hangs horizontally
from it. It ensures that the axis of rotation passes through its C.G.
The wire can be fixed tightly by using a strong adhesive. Therefore,
the position of plasticine discs have to be adjusted so that the glass
rod hangs horizontally.

231

DEMONSTRATION

To demonstrate the shape of capillary rise in a wedge-shaped gap


between two glass sheets

Match stick
Water level
between the slides
Glass slides

Rubber band

Coloured water

Petri-dish

Fig. D 9.1: Capillary rise of water is higher at the end


tied by rubber band in the wedge-shaped
gap between the glass slides

Capillary
tubes

Water
levels

Coloured
water
Petri-dish

You would require two plane glass


slides, a thick rubber band, a match
stick, a petri-dish, some potassium
permanganate granules and a felt-tip
glass marking pen.
Clean the two slides and the petri-dish
thoroughly with soap and water and
rinse with distilled water. Ensure that
no soap film remains on them. Fill the
dish about half with distilled water
coloured by potassium permangnate.
Tie one end of the pair of slides together
with a rubber band and put a match
stick between their free ends (Fig. D 9.1).
Dip this arrangement in the coloured
water in the petri-dish. Water rises more
at the tied end as compared to that at
the match stick end because the
separation between the glass slides
increases linearly from the tied end to
the match stick end.
Note
1. The same effect could be
demonstrated by using a number
of capillary tubes of different
diameters arranged side by side in
increasing order of diameter, as
shown in Fig. D 9.2.

Fig. D 9.2: Rise of water in capillary tubes of different


diameters

2. Students may take up this


experiment as an activity or
project work.

DEMONSTRATION

To demonstrate affect of atmospheric pressure by making partial


vacuum by condensing steam
To perform this demonstration you will need a round-bottom flask,
a glass tubing, a cork, cork borer, a long piece of pressure rubber
tube just fitting the glass tubing, a pinch cock, burner, tripot stand,
laboratory stand with a clamp and large water container.
Take some water in a round bottom flask. Close its mouth tightly
with a rubber cork, in which a short glass tube is fitted. Attach a
pressure rubber tube, about 1.5 m long, in the open end of the glass
tube. Heat the water, as shown in Fig. D 10.1(a). The steam produced
in the flask expels the air from the flask, the glass tube and the
rubber tube. Stop heating after some time and tightly close the mouth
of the rubber tube with a pinch cock immediately.
Invert the flask and clamp it as high as possible in a tall stand placed
on the table [Fig. D 10.1(b)]. Dip the free end of the rubber tube in
coloured water kept in the large container on the ground and release
the pinch cock. As the flask cools, water from the container rushes
through the glass tube into the flask. The students will naturally
Rubber tube

Short glass tube


Rubber cork
Water

Fig. D 10.1 (a): On heating the water in flask,


steam drives air out fr om it

10

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORA TORY MANUAL

Fig. D 10.1 (b): Atmospheric pressure pushes coloured water up


into the flask as steam in the flask condenses

become curious to know the reason why water rises through the height.
It may be explained in terms of difference in pressure of air on the
surface of the water in the container and inside the flask.
Note
To make this experiment more spectacular, a student may climb
on the table and raise the stand by another 2 m. Then the pressure
rubber tube may also have to be longer.

234

DEMONSTRATION

UNIT NAME

DEMONSTRATION

11

To study variation of volume of a gas with its pressure at constant


temperature with a doctors syringe
This demonstration can be given with the help of a large (50 mL or
more) doctors syringe (disposable type), laboratory stand, grease or
thick lubricating oil, 200 gram to 1 kg weights which fit over one
another, cycle value-tube, rubber band, a wooden block and a
laboratory stand.
Make the piston in the syringe air tight by applying a drop of thick
lubricating oil or grease into the syringe. Draw out the piston in the
syringe so that the volume of air enclosed by it is equal to its full
capacity. Next close the outlet tube of the syringe by fixing a piece of
cycle value-tube on it and folding the valve-tube. Hold the syringe
vertically with a laboratory stand with its base resting on a wooden
block (Fig. D 11.1).
Press the piston downward with the hand to compress the air inside.
Release the piston and observe, whether the air inside regains its
initial volume by pushing the piston up. Since, the friction between
the piston and the inner surface of the syringe is quite large, both

Piston
40
35

Compressed air

25
20

Rubber or
cloth pad

15
10
5
0

Wooden block

Graduated
outer body
of syringe
Cycle valve
tube

Fig. D 11.1: The load is kept on the piston of the syringe to apply
the force of its weight along the axis of the piston

235

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORA TORY MANUAL

being of plastic, the air inside is unable to push the piston upto its
original position. When the piston comes to rest, the thrust of
atmospheric pressure plus limiting friction is acting on it downwards.
Note the volume of enclosed air in this position of the piston.
Next, pull the piston up a little and release. Again it does not reach
quite upto its original position. This time the thrust of atmospheric
pressure minus limiting friction is acting on it downwards. Note this
volume of air also and check that the mean of the two volumes so
measured is equal to the original volume of air at atmospheric pressure.
Now balance a 1 kg weight on the handle of the piston. Note the two
volumes of enclosed air, (i) piston slowly moving up and coming to
rest, and (ii) piston slowly moving down and coming to rest and find
their mean. In this manner note volume, V, of air for at least two
different loads, say 1 kg and 1.8 kg, balanced turn by turn on the
piston. Check up, in the end that volume for no load is same as that
at the beginning to ensure that no air leaks out during the experiment.
Draw a graph between 1/V and load W for the three observations,
W = 0 kg, 1 kg and 1.8 kg if a graph black-board is available.
Alternately, it may be given as an assignment to students.

236

DEMONSTRATION

UNIT NAME

DEMONSTRATION

12

To demonstrate Bernoullis theorem with simple illustrations


(a) Suspend two simple pendulums from a horizontal rod clamped
to a laboratory stand (Fig. D 12.1). Use paper balls or table tennis
balls as bobs. Their bobs should be close to each other and at
the same height but not touching each
other. Ask the students what would
happen if you strongly blow into the
space between the bobs. A person/
student not thinking in terms of
Bernoullis theorem would conclude that
air pushed into this space will push the
bobs away from each other. Now blow air
between the two bobs suspended close
to each other and ask them to observe
what happens. The speed of air passing
between them gets increased due to less
space available and so the pressure there,
gets decreased. Thus, the pressure of air
on their outer faces of the bobs pushes
Fig. D 12.1
them closer. That is why one observes
the bobs to actually move closer.
(b) Place a sheet of paper supported by
two books in the form of a bridge.
Let the books be slightly converging
(Fig. D 12.2) i.e., their separation is larger
on the side facing you. Now, you blow
under the `bridge, the paper `bridge is
pushed down.
(c) Hold the shorter edge of a sheet of paper
horizontally, so that its length curves
down by its weight [Fig. D 12.3(a)]. If you
press down lightly on the horizontal part
Fig. D 12.2
of the curve with your finger the paper
curves down more. Now, instead of
touching with the hand hold the horizontal edge of the sheet of
paper close to your mouth. Blow over the paper along the
horizontal. Does the hanging sheet of paper get pushed down or

237

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORA TORY MANUAL

Sheet of
Paper

Fig. D 12.3 (a)

Blown Air

Fig. D 12.3 (b)

lifts up [Fig. D 12.3(b)]? The curved shape of paper makes the


tubes of flow of the wind narrower as the wind moves ahead as
shown in [Fig. D 12.3(c)]. Thereby its speed increases and pressure
on the upper side of the paper decreases.

Fig. D 12.3 (c)

(d) Fill coloured water in an insecticide/pesticide spray


pump. Spray the water on a white sheet of paper.
Coloured drops deposit on the paper. It is evident
that water from the tank rises up in the tube
attached to it and is then forced ahead in the form
of tiny droplets. But what makes it rise up in the
tube? As the pump forces air out of a fine hole, the
speed of air in the region immediately above the
open end of the tube in the tank becomes high
(Fig. D 12.4). Thus, the pressure of air in the region
is lower than the surrounding still air (which is equal
to atmospheric pressure). Right in this region, just below
the hole in the pump is the upper end of the fine tube
through which water rises up, due to atmospheric
pressure acting on the surface of water outside the tube.

Fig. D 12.4

238

DEMONSTRATION 12

UNIT NAME

(e) Fig. D 12.5 shows the construction of a Bunsen burner. The fuel
gas issues out of the jet J in the centre of the vertical tube. Due
to the high speed of gas, its pressure gets lowered. So, through a
wide opening in the side of the vertical tube air rushes in, mixes
up with fuel gas and the gas burns with a hot and blue flame. If
the air does not get mixed with fuel gas at this stage and comes
into contact with it only at the flame level, the flame will be
bright yellow-orange like that of a candle, due to incomplete
combustion of the gas which gives off comparatively less heat
than when it burns with a blue flame.

Fig. D 12.5

239

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORA TORY MANUAL

DEMONSTRATION

13

To demonstrate the expansion of a metal wire on heating


Stretch a length of any metal wire firmly between two laboratory
stands, which are fixed rigidly on the table by G-clamps (Fig. D 13.1).
Suspend a small weight at the centre of the wire and stretch the wire
as tightly as possible, without significantly bending the iron stands.
However, the wire cannot be made straight and some sagging is
inevitable due to the weight suspended at the centre. Place a pointer
on the hind side of the upper edge of the weight to serve as reference.
Heat the wire along its entire length by a spirit lamp or a candle. The
wire is seen to sag more and the weight moves down. Remove the
flame to let the wire cool. As the wire gradually cools, the weight
ascends to its original position.
Wire

Pointer
Small
weight

Fig. D 13.1: A taut wire sags on heating due to its thermal expansion

Note:

240

The wire can also be heated electrically, if so desired. Use a step-down


transformer which gives various voltages in steps from 2 volt to 12
volt. The advantage is that heating of the wire for a certain voltage
applied across it will be uniform along its whole length and the
observed sagging by this heating will be repeatable.

DEMONSTRATION

UNIT NAME

DEMONSTRATION

14

To demonstrate that heat capacities of equal masses of


aluminium, iron, copper and lead are different
This demonstration can be performed with
four cylinders of aluminium, iron, copper
and lead having equal mass and crosssectional area, a rectangular blocks of
paraffin wax, beaker/metallic vessel,
thread, water and a heating device.
Since the four solid cylinders are having
equal mass and equal cross-sectional
a rea, their lengths are inversely
proportional to their densities. Take
water in a beaker or a metallic vessel and
boil it. Suspend the four cylinders, tied
with threads, fully inside boiling water
(cautiously, if a beaker is being used).
After a few minutes all have attained
the temperature of boiling water
[Fig. D 14.1(a)].

(a)

Take out the cylinders in quick


succession and place them side by
side on a thick block of paraffin wax
[Fig. D 14.1(b)]. The cylinders sink to
different depths in the paraffin wax. They
all cool from temperature of boiling water
to melting point of wax during the process
of sinking. Although all the cylinders have
the same mass, but the amount of heat
they give out are different.
An alternative (and more convenient to do)
method is to have a wooden board with
semi cylindrical grooves resting against a
block. Equal length of each groove is
initially filled with wax. Hot cylinders are
placed on this wax in the grooves, instead
of on the wax block.

(b)

Fig. D 14.1: Qualitative comparison of


heat capacities of different
metals

241

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORA TORY MANUAL

Note
A substantial portion of heat given out by each cylinder is
radiated into the atmosphere. Moreover, they radiate at
different rates because of the difference in their surface areas.
Therefore, by this experiment we only get a qualitative
comparison of the heat capacities of these solids.

242

DEMONSTRATION

UNIT NAME

DEMONSTRATION

15

To demonstrate free oscillations of different vibrating systems


A number of demonstrations involving vibrating systems are
presented through (a) to (j). Demonstrate as many vibrating systems
as possible and discuss the following in each case:
(i) What are the energy changes that occur during vibrations?
(ii) How can the frequency of vibration be altered?
(iii) Can the damping of the system be reduced? If so, how?
(iv) How does the force acting on the oscillating body vary with
its displacement from the
mean position?
(a) Simple pendulum: Make a
rather long and heavy simple
pendulum following the steps
described in Experiment 6. One
may tie a brick or a 1kg weight
at one end of a strong thread
about 1.5 m in length. Suspend
the pendulum from a stand
having a heavy base so that it
does not topple over. The base
can be made heavy by putting
a heavy load on it, say a few
bricks. Alternatively, the stand
may be clamped on the table
with a G-clamp. The vertical rod
of the stand may be further
supported by tying it to three
G-clamps fixed on the table
(Fig. D 15.1). A sturdy stand will
help in keeping the pendulum
oscillating for quite a long time
with very small damping.

Fig. D 15.1: Set up to study oscillations


of a heavy pendulum

(b) Vibrating hacksaw blade: Clamp a hacksaw blade (or a thin metal
strip) with its flat surface horizontal at the edge of the table by a

243

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORA TORY MANUAL

G-clamp (Fig. D 15.2). Load the free end by


about 20 g of plasticine or by putting a 20 g
weight on the flat free end and fastening it to
the blade with a thread. Let the free end of the
blade vibrate up and down. Repeat the
demonstration with a smaller load and then
with no load on the blade. Compare the
oscillations with different loads.

Fig. D 15.2: A hacksaw blade clamped at


one end vibrates up and down

(c) Oscillating liquid column: Fix a U-tube of


large diameter (about 2cm) on a stand with
its arms vertical. Fill liquid of low viscosity
e.g., water or kerosene or methylated spirit
in it. Let the liquid column oscillate up and
down in the tube (Fig. D 15.3). For this
purpose blow repeatedly into one arm of
the U-tube with your mouth as soon as
the liquid column in the arm you are
blowing attains maximum height so as to
generate a small air pressure in it each
time so as to oscillate the liquid column
by resonance. Another method is to slightly
tilt the stand to one side repeatedly, with
the U-tube fixed on it so as to oscillate the
liquid column by resonance.

A low cost U-tube can be improvised with


two straight tubes of about 3.5 cm to 4 cm
diameter and each of length about 50 cm. Fix
Fig. D 15.3: Set up to demonstrate oscillations
the tubes vertically on a wooden board about
of liquid column in a U-tube
20 cm to 30 cm apart. Join their lower ends
with a piece of a rubber tube, or a piece of hose
pipe made of plastic. A plastic hose pipe is better
because it bends to the U-shape easily. Fill this U-tube with
coloured water upto about 10 cm below the two open ends.
Oscillate the liquid in the tube by either of the two methods
described above.
(d) Helical spring : Attach a suitable mass, say 1kg, at one end of a
helical spring (Fig. D 15.4). Suspend the spring vertically. Pull
the weight down through a small distance and let it go. Observe
and study the vertical oscillations of the mass suspended by the
lower end of the spring.
(e) Oscillations of a floating test-tube : Take a test tube and fill at its
Fig. D 15.4: A load attached bottom about 10 g of lead shots or iron filings or sand. Float the
to the lower end of a helical tube in water and adjust the load (lead shots or iron filings or
spring oscillates up and down sand) in the tube till it floats vertically. Keeping the tube vertical
push it a little downwards and release it so that it begins to
oscillates up and down on the surface of the water (Fig. D 15.5).

244

DEMONSTRATION 15

UNIT NAME

(f)

Oscillations of a ball along a curve : Take about


30 cm length of aluminium curtain channel
and bend it into an arc of a circle. Put it on a
table and provide it proper support by two
rectangular pieces of thick card board or
plywood to keep it standing in a vertical plane.
Let a ballbearing or a glass marble oscillate
in its groove (Fig. D 15.6). Alternatively place
a concave mirror (10 cm or 15 cm aperture)
or a bowl or a karahi on a table with its
concave side facing up. Let a ball bearing or a
glass marble oscillate in it along an arc passing
through its lowest point as shown by point P
in Fig. D 15.6.

(g) Oscillations of a ball on the double inclined


track: Adjust a double inclined
track on a table with its arms
equally inclined to the horizontal
(Fig. D 15.7). Release a steel ball
bearing (2.5 cm diameter) from
the upper end of one of the arms
and let it oscillate to and fro
between the two arms of the
double inclined plane.

Lead shots

Fig. D 15.5: A test tube floating


in vertical position
due to a load in it,
oscillates up and
down, when it is
pushed a little and
then released

Fig. D 15.6: Arrangement to demonstrate the

(h) Oscillations of a trolley held


to-and-fro motion of a steel ball in
between two springs on a table:
a channel in the for m of an arc of
Take a trolley and attach two
a circle
identical helical springs at each of
its ends such that the springs are along a straight line. Place the
trolley on a table and fix the free ends of the springs to two rigid
supports on opposite ends of the table so that the springs are
under tension along the same straight line [Fig. D 15.8(a)].
Displace the trolley slightly to
one side keeping both springs
under tension. Release the
Enlarge view of
central curved part
trolley and observe its to and
fro motion along the length of
the springs. Find the time
period of oscillations and also
make a note of damping.
(i)

Oscillations of a trolley
attached to a spring: Remove
Fig. D 15.7: Arrangement to demonstrate the toone of the springs from the set
and-fr o motion of a ball along a
up arranged for demonstration
double inclined track
(h) shown in Fig D 15.8 (a).
Displace the trolley to one side and release it. Compare the time
period of oscillations affect of damping with the earlier case.

245

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORA TORY MANUAL

(a)

Wheels not
touching
the table
(b)

Fig. D 15.8: (a) Set up for demonstrating the to-and-fro motion


of a trolley held between two identical springs
(b) Arrangement to demonstrate the to-and-fro motion
of a trolley suspended from a high support while it is
held between two springs on either side

(j)

246

Oscillations of a trolley suspended from a point and held between


two springs: Set up the trolley with two springs on a table as
described in demonstration (h) above. Attach an inflexible string
to the trolley as shown in Fig. D 15.8(b). Fix the other end of the
string to a stand kept on a stool placed on the table or to a hook
on the ceiling such that the trolley remains suspended just above
the table. Set the trolley in oscillation by displacing it slightly to
one side. Study how the time period of oscillations and damping
get affected as compared to the case when the trolley was placed
on the table, as in demonstration (h).

DEMONSTRATION

UNIT NAME

DEMONSTRATION

16

To demonstrate resonance with a set of coupled pendulums


Take two iron stands and keep them on the table at about 40 cm
from each other. Tie a half metre scale (or still better a straight strip
of wood about 1.5 cm wide) between them so that it is horizontal
with its face vertical and free to rotate about its upper edge
(Fig. D 16.1). Near one edge of the scale suspend a pendulum with a
heavy bob (say, approximately 200 g). Also suspend four or five
pendulums of different lenghts with bobs of relatively lower masses.
However, one of them should be exactly of the same length as the
one with the heavy bob, as described.

Fig. D 16.1: A set up to demonstrate resonance

Let all the pendulums come to a rest after setting up the arrangement
described above. Gently pull the bob of the heavy pendulum and
release it so that it starts oscillating. Make sure that other pendulums
are not disturbed in the process. Observe the motion of other
pendulums. Which of the pendulums oscillates with the same
frequency as that of the heavy pendulum? How does the amplitude
of vibrations of different pendulums differ?

247

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORA TORY MANUAL

DEMONSTRATION

17

To demonstrate damping of a pendulum due to resistance


of the medium
(a) Damping of two pendulums of equal mass due to air: Set up two
simple pendulums of equal length. The bob of one should be small
in size say made of solid brass. The bob of the other should be of
the same mass but larger in size either of a lighter material like
thermocole or a hollow sphere. Give them the same initial
displacement and release simultaneously. Observe that in the
pendulum with the larger bob the amplitude decreases more
rapidly. Due to its larger area, air offers more resistance to its
motion. Though both pendulums had the same energy to start
with, the larger bob looses more energy in each oscillation.
(b) Alternative demonstration by comparing damping due to air and
water: Set up a simple pendulum about half metre long with a
metal bob of 25 mm or more diameter. In its vertical position the
bob should be about 4 cm to 5 cm above the table. First, let the
pendulum oscillate in air and observe its damping. Now place a
trough below the bob containing water just enough to immerse
the bob in water. Let the pendulum oscillate with the bob immersed
in water and note the effect of changing the medium on damping.

248

DEMONSTRATION

UNIT NAME

DEMONSTRATION

18

To demonstrate longitudinal and transverse waves


A few characteristic properties of
transverse and longitudinal waves can
be demonstrated with the help of a
slinky, which is a soft spring made of a
thin flat strip of steel (about 150 to 200
turns) having a diameter of about 6 cm
and width 8 cm to 10 cm. Nowadays
slinky shaped spirings made of plastics
are also available. Let two students hold
each end of the slinky and stretch it to
its full length (at least 5 metres) on a
smooth floor. Give a sharp transverse
jerk at one end and let the student
observe the pulse as it moves along the
spring [Fig. D 18.1(a)].
Find the speed of the pulse by
measuring the time taken by it to move
(a)
from one end to the other along the
stretched length of the spring. For more Fig. D 18.1(a): Motion of a pulse through a
slinky
accuracy, instead of measuring time
taken by the pulse to move from one
end to the other, measure the time taken by it to make three to four
journeys along the entire length of the spring. This would be possible
because each pulse moves back and forth along the spring a few
times before it dies.
Repeat the experiment by decreasing
the tension in the spring (by stretching
it to a smaller length) and find the speed
of the pulse. Does the speed depend on
tension?

(b)

Fig. D 18.1(b): A compression moving along


the length of a slinky

The slinky can also be used to


demonstrate propagation of longitudinal waves. To do so, give a
longitudinal jerk at one end of the slinky, keeping the slinkly
stretched on the floor to about half the length (2.5 m) than while
demonstrating movement of a transverse pulse [Fig. D 18.1(b)]. Ask

249

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORA TORY MANUAL

the students to observe the motion of the pulse in the form of


compression of the spring.
The damping may be too high if the floor is not very smooth. In that
case the experiment may be performed by suspending the slinky from
a steel wire stretched between two pegs firmly fixed on opposite walls
of the room. In order to minimise the effect of sagging of the spring in
the middle, support the spring by tying it to the wire with pieces of
thread spaced at about 25 cm from each other. All pieces of thread
must be equal in length.
The transverse waves may also be demonstrated with the help of a
flexible clothes line or a rubber tubing or a rope instead of a slinky.
Tie one end of the rubber tubing or the clothes line to the knob of a
door and give it a jerk at the other end while keeping it stretched. If
the rubber tube is heavy (fill water in it) and is held loosely, the pulse
would move slowly to make better observation.
Instead of a single pulse, a series of pulses one after the other creating
an impression of a continuous wave propagation may also be
demonstrated. This can be done by using a slinky or a flexible clothes
line. Stretch the slinky on the ground and ask one of the students to
hold one end firmly. Instead of giving just one jerk at the other end,
move the hand to and fro continuously to make waves of wavelength
about 0.5m which can be seen to move continuously along the spring.

250

DEMONSTRATION

UNIT NAME

DEMONSTRATION

19

To demonstrate reflection and transmission of waves at the


boundary of two media
Stretch the slinky on a smooth floor
or suspend it from a stretched steel
wire as described in Demonstration
18.1. Keeping one end fixed, send a
pulse from the other end. Note the
size and direction of displacement of
pulse before and after it gets reflected
at the fixed end. Note that the
reflected pulse is upside down with
little change in its size in comparison
to the incident pulse [Fig. D 19.1(a)].
Next join the coil spring (slinky) with
another long helical spring of heavier
mass end to end [Fig. D 19.1(b)].
Stretch them by holding the free end
of each spring and produce a pulse
at the free end of the lighter spring
(slinky). Observe what happens when
(a)
the pulse arrives at the joint of two
springs. In what way (i.e., with
Fig. D 19.1 (a): A pulse reflected at a fixed end
undergoes phase change of
respect to size and direction of
displacement) does the reflected
pulse undergo a change? Does the
pulse transmitted to the heavier spring also undergo any change?
Repeat the demonstration by sending the pulse from the end of the
heavier spring. Note how the reflected and transmitted pulse undergo
a change at the boundary of the two springs as compared to the
incident pulse [Fig. D 19.1(c)].
How do these changes differ from those in case of incident pulse
going from lighter to heavier spring?

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LABORATORY MANUAL

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Fig. D 19.1 (b): Reflection and transmission


of a pulse moving from
a rarer medium to a
denser medium

Fig. D 19.1 (c): Reflection and transmission of


a pulse moving from a denser
medium to a rarer medium

Now join the slinky (coil spring) to a fine thread instead of a heavier
spring. Stretch the spring and the thread and produce a pulse at the
free end of the spring. Note what happens to the pulse at the boundary
of the spring and the thread.

252

DEMONSTRATION

UNIT NAME

DEMONSTRATION

20

To d e m o n s t r a t e t h e p h e n o m e n o n o f b e a t s d u e t o
superposition of waves produced by two tuning forks of
slightly different frequencies
Take two tuning forks of identical frequency. Attach a small piece of
plasticine or wax to the prongs of one of the tuning forks. This will
slightly lower the frequency of the tuning fork. Now holding them
one in each hand strike both the tuning forks simultaneously on two
rubber pads. Place them close to each other.
Carefully listen to the combined sound produced by the two tuning
forks. Gradual increase and decrease in the intensity of sound will
be heard. It is due to beats produced by the superposition of waves
of slightly different frequencies. You can also count the number of
beats produced per second if their frequency does not exceed two or
three beats per second. The person who is listening to the beats,
gives a silent signal at each minimum intensity or maximum intensity,
e.g., by shaking his head in the manner we say yes. Then a second
person with a stop-watch, either finds the time taken by 10 beats or
counts the number of beats in 5 seconds. The person with the stopwatch will also listen to the beats, though less loudly and may measure
the frequency without the aid of a signal by the first person.
If two tall tuning forks of the same frequency mounted on resonating
wooden boxes are available, all the students in a classroom may be
able to listen to the beats. Place them on a desk in the centre of the
classroom. Let there be pin-drop silence in the classroom. Then strike
the tuning forks with a rubber hammer in quick succession, with
roughly equal force. Make their frequencies slightly different by
loading one with plasticine or wax or by tightly attaching a small
load with adhesive tape. Both tuning forks must be of rather good
quality and must give audible sound for about 8 to 10 seconds in
spite of dissipation of energy in the resonating box.

253

LABORATORY MANUAL

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DEMONSTRATION

21

To demonstrate standing waves with a spring


Stretch the wire spring (heavier one and not the slinky) to a length of
6 m to 7 m, by tying its one end to a door handle. It may sag in the
middle but that will not affect the demonstration. Give a transverse
horizontal jerk at the free end, a pulse will travel along the spring,
and get reflected back and forth. If instead of stretching the spring in
air it is stretched along the ground, then due to large damping, the
results will not be so clear and convincing.
Now generate a continuous transverse wave in the spring by giving
series of jerks to the spring at fixed time intervals. Change the
frequency of the waves by changing the time period of oscillating your
hand till stationary waves are set up. You will find that stationary
waves are produced only when an integral number of loops, i.e., 1,2,3
etc. are accommodated in the entire length of the spring. In other
words, stationary waves are produced corresponding to only some
definite time periods.
Ask one of the students to measure the time period of standing waves
when one loop, two loops, three loops, and so on are formed in a
given length of stretched spring. For the same extension of the spring,
and thus for the same tension in the spring, how are the time periods
of stationary waves of one loop, two loops, and three loops related to
each other?
While producing stationary waves, suddenly stop moving your hand
to and fro and thus stop supplying energy to the spring. This is best
done by taking the help of a stool on which your hand rests while
producing the waves as well as when you stop your hand. Observe
that the spring continues to vibrate for some time with the same time
period and the same number of loops. Thus, it can be demonstrated
that the stretched spring is capable of making free oscillations in
several modeswith one loop, two loops, three loops, etc. The various
time periods with which you can produce stationary waves in it, are
also the natural time periods of the spring.

254

Thus, when you are producing and observing stationary waves in the
stretched spring, you can consider it as a resonance phenomenon.
However, in this case, the object being subjected to forced oscillations
(i.e., the stretched spring), is capable of oscillating freely with one of

DEMONSTRATION 21

UNIT NAME

the several time periods, unlike the simple pendulums with which
you experimented earlier to study the phenomenon of resonance.
One can also demonstrate stationary waves with a spring when its
both ends are free to move. Tie a thread, 3 4 m in length, at one
end of the spring. Tie other end of the thread to a hook on the wall or
a door handle. Stretch the spring by holding it at its free end and
send a continuous transverse wave in the spring by moving the end
in your hand. Do you observe that the stationary waves now produced
are somewhat different than those produced when one end of the
spring was fixed. Note the difference in the pattern of stationary
waves in the two situations and discuss the reason for the difference.
Also ask to note the number of loops produced when a stationary
wave is set in the spring.
Change the time period of the wave by adjusting to and fro motion of
your hand to produce loop, 1 loop, 2 loop and so on for same
extension of the spring.
How are these time periods related to the various time periods of
vibration when the end not in your hand was kept fixed and extension
of the spring was the same?
Note
Mathematically, it can be shown that superposition of two waves
of the same frequency (and thus moving with same velocity)
travelling in opposite directions in an infinite medium, produce
stationary waves. In this mathematical treatment, there is no
need of specific frequencies at which the stationary waves are
produced. However, it is not possible to translate that
mathematical result into a simple experimental demonstration.
In an experiment we have to take a finite medium, like the
stretched spring of finite length. A finite medium with boundaries
has its natural frequencies and thus experiment is done at those
frequencies. In the above demonstrations one wave is produced
by hand and the other (travelling in the opposite direction) is
the reflected wave and their superposition produces stationary
waves, exemplifying the above referred mathematical result.

255

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LABORATORY MANUAL

APPENDICES
APPENDIX A-1
SOME IMPORTANT CONSTANTS
Name

Symbol

Speed of light in vacuum


Charge of electron
Gravitational constant
Planck constant
Boltzmann constant
Avogadro number
Universal gas constant
Mass of electron
Mass of neutron
Mass of proton
Electron-charge to mass ratio
Faraday constant
Rydberg constant
Bohr radius
Stefan-Boltzmann constant
Wiens constant
Permittivity of free space
Permeability of free space

Value

c
e
G
h
k
NA
R
me
mn
mp
e/me
F
R
a0

b
0

2.9979 108 m s1
1.602 1019 C
6.673 1011 N m2 kg 2
6.626 1034 J s
1.381 1023 J K1
6.022 1023 mol1
8.314 J mol1 K1
9.110 1031 kg
1.675 1027 kg
1.673 1027 kg
1.759 1011 C/kg
9.648 104 C/mol
1.097 107 m1
5.292 1011 m
5.670 108 W m2 K4
2.898 103 m K
8.854 1012 C2 N1 m2

1/40

8.987 109 N m 2 C 2

4 107 T m A1
1.257 106 Wb A1m1

Other Useful Constants


Name
Mechanical equivalent of heat
Standard atmospheric pressure
Absolute zero
Electron volt
Unified Atomic mass unit
Electron rest energy
Energy equivalent of 1 u
Volume of ideal gas (0 C and 1 atm)
Acceleration due to gravity
(sea level, at equator)

256

Symbol
J
1 atm
0K
1 eV
1u
mc2
1 uc2
V
g

Value
4.186 J cal1
1.013 105 Pa
273.15 C
1.602 1019 J
1.661 1027 kg
0.511 MeV
931.5 MeV
22.4 L mol1
9.78049 m s2

APPENDICES

UNIT NAME

APPENDIX A-2
Densities of substances (20 C)
Substance

Density
(103 kgm3)

Alcohol (methyl)
Alcohol (ethyl)
Asbestos
Brass (60.40)
Brass (70.30)
Cast iron
Caster Oil
Charcoal
Coal
Copper
Constantan
Cork
Diamond
German Silver
Glass
Glycerine
Gold (pure)
Gold (22 carat)
Gold (9 carat)
Graphite
Ice
Manganin
Mild Steel
Milk
Mercury

0.81
0.79
2.4
8.4
8.5
7.0
0.95
0.4
1.6 1.4
8.9
8.9
0.24
3.5
8.4
2.5
1.3
19.3
17.5
11.3
2.3
0.92
8.5
7.9
1.03
13.56

Substance

Density
(103 kgm3)

Olive oil
Quartz (crystal)
Sea water 1.03
Stainless steel
Turpentine
Wrought iron
Zinc
Water 0 C
4 C
20 C
100 C
Water, heavy
(D2O) at max. density
temperature, 11 C

0.9
2.6
7.8
0.85
7.8
7.1
0.99987
1.00000
0.99823
0.9584

1.106

Petrol
Kerosene 0.80
Common salt sol.
(20% by wt.)
Air (STP)
Carbon dioxide (STP)
Hydrogen (STP)
Oxygen (STP)
Nitrogen (STP)

0.70
1.189
0.00129
0.00198
0.00009
0.00143
0.00125

APPENDIX A-3
Variation of atmospheric temperature and pressure with altitude
(At sea level, pressure = Standard atmosphere and temperature = 15 C assumed)
Altitude
(metres)
(1)
0
250
500
750
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000

Pressure
(millibars)
(2)
1013.25
983.58
854.61
926.34
898.75
825.56
794.25
746.82
701.08
657.64
616.40
577.28
540.20
471.81
410.61
356.00
307.42
246.36

Temperature (C)
(3)
15.0
13.4
11.8
10.1
8.5
5.2
2.0
1.2
4.5
7.8
11.0
14.2
17.5
29.0
30.5
37.0
43.5
50.0

257

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

APPENDIX A-4
Acceleration due to gravity at different
places in India along with their Latitude,
Longitude and Elevation
Place

g(m/s2)

Latitude
(N)

Agra
Aligarh
Allahabad
Varanasi
Mumbai
Kolkata
Delhi
Equator
Jaipur
Udaipur
Srinagar
North Pole
Chennai
Thruanatapuram
Tirupati
Madurai
Bangaluru
Guwahati
Bhubaneswar

9.7905
9.7908
9.7894
9.7893
9.7863
9.7880
9.7914
9.7805
9.7900
9.7881
9.7909
9.8322
9.7828
9.7812
9.7822
9.7810
9.7803
9.7899
9.7866

2712
2754
2527
2520
1854
2235
2840
0000
2655
2435
3405
9000
1304
828
1338
955
1257
2612
2028

Longitude
( E)
7802
7805
8151
8300
7249
8820
7714
n.a.
7547
7344
7450
n.a.
8015
7658
7924
787
7737
9145
8554

Elevation
(m)
158
187
94
81
10
6
216
0
433
563
159
0
6
27
169
133
915
52
23

APPENDIX A-5
Surface tension of liquids
Substance
Water

Acetic acid
Ethyl Alcohol

Glycerol
Methyl Alcohol
Mercury
Oleic acid
Kerosene
Turpentine

258

In contact with
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Vapour
Vapour
Vapour
Air
Vapour
Vapour
Vapour
Air
Vapour
Air
Air
Vapour
Vapour
Vapour
Air
Air
Air

Temp (C)
10
20
30
40
50
10
20
50
0
10
20
30
20
90
0
20
50
20
100
20
20
20

Surface Tension(103 Nm1)


74.22
72.55
71.18
69.56
67.91
28.8
27.8
24.8
24.05
23.61
22.75
21.89
63.04
58.6
24.49
22.61
20.14
470
456
32.5
24
27

APPENDICES

UNIT NAME

APPENDIX A-6
Coefficient of viscosity of liquids
Substance

Temp (C)

(1) Water

Coefficient of viscosity (cP)

0
20
50
100
15
30
60
100
0
20
50
70
0
20
50
100
200
0
20
30
50
20
25
30
0
20
40
10
30
50
0
20
40

(2) Acetic Acid

(3) Ethyl Alcohol

(4) Mercury

(5) Methyl Alcohol

(6) Glycerine
(7) Carbon disulphide
(8) Castor oil
(9) Carbon tetrachloride

1.787
1.002
0.5468
0.2818
1.31
1.04
0.70
0.43
1.773
1.200
0.834
0.504
1.685
1.554
1.407
1.240
1.052
0.82
0.597
0.510
0.403
1495
942
622
0.436
0.4375
0.329
2420
451
125
1.348
0.972
0.744

APPENDIX A-7
Elastic properties of solids
Substance

Aluminium
Brass (70/30)
Copper
Gold
Iron (soft)
Silver
Steel (mild)
Rubber
Wood (oak)
Wook (teak)
Glass
Quartz

Youngs
Modulus
(1010 Nm2)
7.03
10.06
12.98
7.8
21.14
8.27
21.19
0.05
1.3
1.7
5.1-7.1
5.4

Modulus of
rigidity
(1010 Nm2)
2.61
3.73
9.83
2.7
8.16
3.03
8.22
0.00015
3.1
3.4

Bulk
Modulus
(1010 Nm2)
7.55
11.18
13.78
21.7
16.98
10.36
17.92
3.75
-

259

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

APPENDIX A-8
Velocity of sound
Substance

Temperature
(0 C)

Alcohol
*Aluminium
Air
*Brass
*Copper
(annealed)
Carbon dioxide
*Glass, crown
*Glass, flint

Velocity of
longitudinal
wave (ms1)

20
20
0
20
20

1177
5240
331.45
3130-3450
3790

0
20
20

259
4710-5300
3490-4550

Substance

Temperature
(0 C)

Velocity of
longitudinal
wave (ms1)

0
20
20
0
20

1284
5170
1451
334
5150

20
100
0

1484
405
316

Hydrogen
*Iron
Mercury
Nitrogen
*Steel
(tool)
Water
Water vapour
Oxygen

*In case of solids, velocities of longitudinal waves in thin rods are quoted.
For the gases for which v0, the velocity of sound at 0 C is quoted here, vt the velocity at t 0C with fair degree
1

273.15 +t 2
of accuracy, is v t = v0

273.15
APPENDIX A-9
Average speed of some selected objects
S.No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Object

Speed

Slug or snail
Tortoise
Man walking
Man riding a bicycle
100 m race (International mens)
Railway train (fastest in India in
1988 - Shatabdi Express)
Cheetah (the fastest land animal)
Surjit (the fastest bird)
Jumbo jet aeroplane
Sound in air
Near earth satellite
Earth moving round Sun
Light

1.6 mm/s
10 to 15 cm/s
80 to 160 cm/s
2.5 to 5 m/s
~10 m/s
38.9 m/s
29 m/s
100 m/s
267 m/s
331 m/s
7.7 km/s
29.9 km/s
300,000 km/s

APPENDIX A-10
Coefficient of friction between some common surfaces
Surfaces in contact
Glass on glass
Wood on glass
Wood on wood
Wood on steel
Steel on steel
Steel on steel
Stone on concrete
Car tyre on concrete

260

Condition
Clean and dry
Clean and dry
Clean and dry
Clean and dry
Clean and dry
Greased
Dry
Moderate speed

Coefficient of dynamic friction


0.18
0.2 to 0.3
0.25 to 0.5
0.20 to 0.25
0.17 - 0.23
0.05
0.45
0.40

APPENDICES

UNIT NAME

APPENDIX A-11
Standard wire gauge
Size (S.W.G)

Diameter (mm)

Size (S.W.G.)

Diameter (mm)

7.62

21

0.813

7.01

22

0.711

3
4

6.40
5.89

23
24

0.610
0.559

5.38

25

0.508

4.88

26

0.457

4.47

27

0.417

8
9

4.06
3.66

28
29

0.376
0.345

10

3.25

30

0.315

11

2.95

31

0.295

12

2.64

32

0.274

13
14

2.34
2.03

33
34

0.254
0.234

15

1.83

35

0.213

16

1.63

36

0.193

17

1.42

37

0.173

18
19

1.22
1.02

38
39

0.152
0.132

20

0.914

40

0.122

APPENDIX A-12
Coefficient of expansion
Solids

Aluminium
Brass
Copper

Coefficient of
linear expansion
(106 K1)
24
18 to 19
16.7

Constantan

18

Glass (Pyrex)

Liquids

Coefficient of
volume expansion
(104 K1)

Alcohol (ethyl)

11.2

Alcohol (methyl)

12.2

Benzene

12.4

Ether (ethyl)

16.3

Glycerine

5.3

Glass (soft soda)


Iron (cast)
Iron (wrought)
Ice

8.5
10.0
12.0
51.0

Mercury
Water (15 C)
Water (99 C)

1.8
1.5
7

Steel

11.0

Kerosene oil

10.0

Lead

23.0

Zinc

28.0

261

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

APPENDIX A-13
Specific heat of substances
Substance

Specific heat,
Jkg1 K1

Solids
Aluminium (0 C)
Copper (0 C)
Copper (50 C)
Ice
Iron (cast)
Iron (wrought)
Steel
Lead
Brass
Constantan
Zinc (0 C)
Glass (crown)
Glass (flint)
Sand

Substance

Specific heat,
Jkg1 K1

Liquids
877
380
390
2100
500
483
470
130
380
412
384
670
500
1000 to 800

Ethyl Alcohol
Methyl alcohol
Benzene
Ether
Glycerine
Mercury
Water (15 C)
Brine (0 C)
Sea water (17 C)

APPENDIX A-14
Latent heat of fusion and vaporisation
104 Jkg1

Substance
(i)

Latent heat of fusion

Aluminium
Calcium
Copper
Gold
Iron
Lead
Mercury
Magnesium
Platinum
Silver
Sodium
Tin
Zinc
Water
(ii)
Latent heat of vaporisation
Acetic acid
Benzene
Carbon disulphide
Ether
Water (100 C)
Water (30 C)

262

40.2
23.0
20.5
6.3
26.8
2.5
1.17
37.7
11.3
10.5
11.3
5.8
10.0
33.4
40.5
39.4
35.1
35.1
226.0
243.0

2436
2562
1680
2352
2478
140
4185.5
2970
3930

APPENDICES

UNIT NAME

APPENDIX A-15
Boiling point of distilled water
Pressure
(105 Pa)

Boiling point
(C)

0.784

93.0

0.88

96.2

0.98

99.1

1.013

100.0

1.209

105.0

1.76

116.3

1.96

119.6

APPENDIX A-16
International practical temperature scale 1968
K
1.

Triple point of water

2.

Boiling point of hydrogen at pressure

13.81

259.34

of 25 cm of mercury

17.042

256.108

3.

Boiling point of hydrogen

20.28

252.87

4.

Boiling point of neon

27.102

246.048

5.

Triple point of oxygen

54.361

218.789

6.

Triple point of argon

83.798

189.352

7.

Condensation point of oxygen

90.188

182.962

8.

Triple point of water

273.16

0.01

9.

Boiling point of water

373.15

100

10.

Freezing point of tia

505.1181

11.

Freezing point of zinc

692.73

419.58

12.

Freezing point of silver

1235.08

961.93

13.

Freezing point of gold

1337.58

1064.43

231.9681

Notes :
1.

The regulations on the IPTS-68 were adopted by the Inter national Committee on Weights
and Measures in 1968.

2.

Boiling points (condensation points) and freezing points, unless otherwise stated are at
standard atmospheric pressure (i.e., 760 mm of mercury at 0C or 101325 Pa).

263

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1.

Advanced Practical Physics,

2.

Physics is Fun (Book I to IV),


Heinemann Educational Books Ltd.
The Flying Circus of Physics,

3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Practical Physics for PreEngg./Pre.Medical/B.Sc. I


students.
Practical Physics for PreUniversity Students
A Lab. Manual of Physics,
Physics-Guide to Experiments
Vol I to V
Physics Laboratory Guide

12.
13.

Physics, an Experimental Science


Source Book for Science Teaching
Physics Resource Materials for
Secondary School Teachers,
Vol. I and II,
Physics Experiments and Projects
Enjoy Physics

14.

Projects in Physics

15.
16.

Physics Through Experiments


Vol. II - Mechanical Systems
Great Experiments in Physics

17.

Laboratory Experiments in Physcis

18.

The Many Faces of Teaching and


Learning Mechanics in Secondary
and Tertiary Education
New Trends in Physics Teaching,
Vol. III
New Trends in Physics Teaching,
Vol. IV
Teaching School Physics:
A UNESCO Source Book
Physics Laboratory Manual for
Senior Secondary Classes,
Vol. I, Class XI and Vol. II, Class XII
A Textbook of Practical Physics,
Book No.

19.
20.
21.
22.

23.
24.

Practical Physics,

Leslie Beckett (General Editor)


John Murray,
Jim Jardine
Jearl Walker,
New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
U.S. Kushwaha & S.S.Datta, Chandigarh:
Panjab University.
U.S. Kushwaha & S.S. Datta, Chandigarh:
Panjab University.
D.P. Khandelwal, Vani Educational
The Nuffield Foundation,
Longmans, Green and Co. Ltd.
Physics Science Study Committee, Indian
Edition published by NCERT, New Delhi.
White and White, Van Nostrand
UNESCO (Revised Edition)
Regional College of Education,
Mysore.
W.Bolton, Pergamon Press.
Vinay B. Kamble,
Vikram Sarabhai Community Science Centre.
N.D.N. Belham,
London: B.T. Batsford Ltd.
B. Saraf and D.P. Khandelwal,
Vikas Publishing House.
Edited by Morris H. Shamos,
New York : Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Charles E. Dull, H. Clark Metcal and John
E. Williams. New York; Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Edited by P.L. Linse, UNESCO - Utrecht.

Edited by John L. Lewis, UNESCO.


Edited by E.J. Wenham, UNESCO,
John L. Lewis, Paris: Penguine - UNESCO.
NCER T, New Delhi.

H.S. Allen and H.Moore, Macmillan & Co,,


5697, 2007.
W.S. Franklin, C.M., EBSCO, HOST.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

UNIT NAME

25.

Advanced Level Practical Work


for Physics

Mike Crundell & Chris Mee, Hodder &


Stoughton (seek books.com.air)

26.

Practical Physics,

G.L. Squires, Cambridge University


Press (2001).

27.

Thinking Physics :Practical Lessons in Lewis C. Epstein.


Critical Thinking (Paperback)

SOME USEFUL W EBSITES


1.

www.meet - physics.net/David Harrison.

2.

www.upscale.utoronto.ca/general internet/Harrison/Flash

3.

www.ac.wwu.edu

4.

www.scienceclarified.com

5.

www.met.tamu.edu

6.

hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsci.edu

7.

http://kidsearth.nasa.gov/archive/airpressure

8.

www.Amazon.co.uk/books

9.

www.tesco.com/books/

10.

www.choosebooks.com

11.

www.doorone.co.uk/physics+books

12.

www.GLsquires-2001-books.google.com

13.

www.antiqbook.co.uk/boox/seab/5697.html

14.

www.practicalphysics.org/go/guidance_43.html

265

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

DATA SECTION
LOGARITHMS

TABLE I
N

10

0000 0043

0086

0128

0170

11

0414 0453

0492

0531

0569

0253 0294 0334 0374

5
4

13
12

17
16

21 26
2O 24

30
28

34 38
32 36

0607

0645 0682 0719 0755

4
4

8
7

12
11

16
15

20 23
18 22

27
26

31 35
29 33

0969

1004 1038 1072 1106

3
3

7
7

11
10

14
14

18 21
17 20

25
24

28 32
27 31

1303

1335 1367 1399 1430

3
3

6
7

10
10

13
13

16 19
16 19

23
22

26 29
25 29

1614

1644 1673 1703 1732

3
3

6
6

9
9

12
12

15 19
14 17

22
20

25 28
23 26

1903

1931 1959 1987 2014

3
3

6
6

9
8

11
11

14 17
14 17

20
19

23 26
22 25

2175

2201 2227 2253

2279

3
3

6
5

8
8

11
10

14 16
13 16

19
18

22 24
21 23

2430

2455 2480 2504 2529

3
3

5
5

8
8

10
10

13 15
12 15

18
17

20 23
20 22

2672

2695 2718 2742 2765

2
2

5
4

7
7

9
9

12 14
11 14

17
16

19 21
18 21

2900

2923 2945 2967 2989

2
2

4
4

7
6

9
8

11 13
11 13

16
15

18 20
17 19

0212

12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

266

0792 0828
1139 1173
1461 1492
1761 1790
2041 2068
2304 2330
2553 2577
2788 2810

0864
1206
1523
1818
2095
2355
2601
2833

0899
1239
1553
1847
2122
2380
2625
2856

0934
1271
1584
1875
2148
2405
2648
2878

20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29

3010
3222
3424
3617
3802
3979
4150
4314
4472
4624

3032
3243
3444
3636
3820
3997
4166
4330
4487
4639

3054
3263
3464
3655
3838
4014
4183
4346
4502
4654

3075
3284
3483
3674
3856
4031
4200
4362
4518
4669

3096
3304
3502
3692
3874
4048
4216
4378
4533
4683

3118
3324
3522
3711
3892
4065
4232
4393
4548
4698

3139
3345
3541
3729
3909
4082
4249
4409
4564
4713

3160
3365
3560
3747
3927
4099
4265
4425
4579
4728

3181
3385
3579
3766
3945
4116
4281
4440
4594
4742

3201
3404
3598
3784
3962
4133
4298
4456
4609
4757

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1

4
4
4
4
4
3
3
3
3
3

6
6
6
6
5
5
5
5
5
4

8
8
8
7
7
7
7
6
6
6

11 13
10 12
10 12
9
11
9
11
9
10
8
10
8
9
8
9
7
9

15
14
14
13
12
12
11
11
11
10

17
16
15
15
14
14
13
13
12
12

19
18
17
17
16
15
15
14
14
13

30
31
32
33
34

4771
4914
5051
5185
5315

4786
4928
5065
5198
5328

4800
4942
5079
5211
5340

4814
4955
5092
5224
5353

4829
4969
5105
5237
5366

4843
4983
5119
5250
5378

4857
4997
5132
5263
5391

4871
5011
5145
5276
5403

4886
5024
5159
5289
5416

4900
5038
5172
5302
5428

1
1
1
1
1

3
3
3
3
3

4
4
4
4
4

6
6
5
5
5

7
7
7
6
6

9
8
8
8
8

10
10
9
9
9

11
11
11
10
10

13
12
12
12
11

35
36
37
38
39

5441
5563
5682
5798
5911

5453
5575
5694
5809
5922

5465
5587
5705
5821
5933

5478
5599
5717
5832
5944

5490
5611
5729
5843
5955

5502
5623
5740
5855
5966

5514
5635
5752
5866
5977

5527
5647
5763
5877
5988

5539
5658
5775
5888
5999

5551
5670
5786
5899
6010

1
1
1
1
1

2
2
2
2
2

4
4
3
3
3

5
5
5
5
4

6
6
6
6
5

7
7
7
7
7

9
8
8
8
8

10
10
9
9
9

11
11
10
10
10

40
41
42
43
44

6021
6128
6232
6335
6435

6031
6138
6243
6345
6444

6042
6149
6253
6355
6454

6053
6160
6263
6365
6464

6064
6170
6274
6375
6474

6075
6180
6284
6385
6484

6085
6191
6294
6395
6493

6096
6201
6304
6405
6503

6107
6212
6314
6415
6513

6117
6222
6325
6425
6522

1
1
1
1
1

2
2
2
2
2

3
3
3
3
3

4
4
4
4
4

5
5
5
5
5

6
6
6
6
6

8
7
7
7
7

9
8
8
8
8

10
9
9
9
9

45
46
47
48
49

6532
6628
6721
6812
6902

6542
6637
6730
6821
6911

6551
6646
6739
6830
6920

6561
6656
6749
6839
6928

6471
6665
6758
6848
6937

6580
6675
6767
6857
6946

6590
6684
6776
6866
6955

6599
6693
6785
6875
6964

6609
6702
6794
6884
6972

6618
6712
6803
6893
6981

1
1
1
1
1

2
2
2
2
2

3
3
3
3
3

4
4
4
4
4

5
5
5
4
4

6
6
5
5
5

7
7
6
6
6

8
7
7
7
7

9
8
8
8
8

DATA SECTION

UNIT NAME

LOGARITHMS
TABLE 1 (Continued)
N

50
51
52
53

6990
7076
7160
7243

6998
7084
7168
7251

7007
7093
7177
7259

7016
7101
7185
7267

7024
7110
7193
7275

7033
7118
7202
7284

7042
7126
7210
7292

7050
7135
7218
7300

7059
7143
7226
7308

7067
7152
7235
7316

1
1
1
1

2
2
2
2

3
3
2
2

3
3
3
3

4
4
4
4

5
5
5
5

6
6
6
6

7
7
7
6

8
8
7
7

54

7324 7332

7340

7348

7356

7364

7372 7380 7388 7396

55
56
57
58
59

7404
7482
7559
7634
7709

7412
7490
7566
7642
7716

7419
7497
7574
7649
7723

7427
7505
7582
7657
7731

7435
7513
7589
7664
7738

7443
7520
7597
7672
7745

7451
7528
7604
7679
7752

7459
7536
7612
7686
7760

7466
7543
7619
7694
7767

7474
7551
7627
7701
7774

1
1
1
1
1

2
2
2
1
1

2
2
2
2
2

3
3
3
3
3

4
4
4
4
4

5
5
5
4
4

5
5
5
5
5

6
6
6
6
6

7
7
7
7
7

60
61
62
63
64

7782
7853
7924
7993
8062

7789
7860
7931
8000
8069

7796
7768
7938
8007
8075

7803
7875
7945
8014
8082

7810
7882
7952
8021
8089

7818
7889
7959
8028
8096

7825
7896
7966
8035
8102

7832
7903
7973
8041
8109

7839
7910
7980
8048
8116

7846
7917
7987
8055
8122

1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1

2
2
2
2
2

3
3
3
3
3

4
4
3
3
3

4
4
4
4
4

5
5
5
5
5

6
6
6
5
5

6
6
6
6
6

65
66
67
68
69

8129
8195
8261
8325
8388

8136
8202
8267
8331
8395

8142
8209
8274
8338
8401

8149
8215
8280
8344
8407

8156
8222
8287
8351
8414

8162
8228
8293
8357
8420

8169
8235
8299
8363
8426

8176
8241
8306
8370
8432

8182
8248
8312
8376
8439

8189
8254
8319
8382
8445

1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1

2
2
2
2
2

3
3
3
3
2

3
3
3
3
3

4
4
4
4
4

5
5
5
4
4

5
5
5
5
5

6
6
6
6
6

70
71
72
73
74

8451
8513
8573
8633
8692

8457
8519
8579
8639
8698

8463
8525
8585
8645
8704

8470
8531
8591
8651
8710

8476
8537
8597
8657
8716

8482
8543
8603
8663
8722

8488
8549
8609
8669
8727

8494
8555
8615
8675
8733

8500
8561
8621
8681
8739

8506
8567
8627
8686
8745

1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1

2
2
2
2
2

2
2
2
2
2

3
3
3
3
3

4
4
4
4
4

4
4
4
4
4

5
5
5
5
5

6
5
5
5
5

75
76
77
78
79

8751
8808
8865
8921
8976

8756
8814
8871
8927
8982

8762
8820
8876
8932
8987

8768
8825
8882
8938
8993

8774
8831
8887
8943
8998

8779
8837
8893
8949
9004

8785
8842
8899
8954
9009

8791
8848
8904
8960
9015

8797
8854
8910
8965
9020

8802
8859
8915
8971
9025

1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1

2
2
2
2
2

2
2
2
2
2

3
3
3
3
3

3
3
3
3
3

4
4
4
4
4

5
5
4
4
4

5
5
5
5
5

80
81
82
83
84

9031
9085
9138
9191
9243

9036
9090
9143
9196
9248

9042
9096
9149
9201
9253

9047
9101
9154
9206
9258

9053
9106
9159
9212
9263

9058
9112
9165
9217
9269

9063
9117
9170
9222
9274

9069
9122
9175
9227
9279

9074
9128
9180
9232
9284

9079
9133
9186
9238
9289

1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1

2
2
2
2
2

2
2
2
2
2

3
3
3
3
3

3
3
3
3
3

4
4
4
4
4

4
4
4
4
4

5
5
5
5
5

85
86
87
88
89

9294
9345
9395
9445
9494

9299
9350
9400
9450
9499

9304
9355
9405
9455
9504

9309
9360
9410
9460
9509

9315
9365
9415
9465
9513

9320
9370
9420
9469
9518

9325
9375
9425
9474
9523

9330
9380
9430
9479
9528

9335
9385
9435
9484
9533

9340
9390
9440
9489
9538

1
1
0
0
0

1
1
1
1
1

2
2
1
1
1

2
2
2
2
2

3
3
2
2
2

3
3
3
3
3

4
4
3
3
3

4
4
4
4
4

5
5
4
4
4

90
91
92
93
94

9542
9590
9638
9685
9731

9547
9595
9643
9689
9736

9552
9600
9647
9694
9741

9557
9605
9652
9699
9745

9562
9609
9657
9703
9750

9566
9614
9661
9708
9754

9571
9619
9666
9713
9759

9576
9624
9671
9717
9763

9581
9628
9675
9722
9768

9586
9633
9680
9727
9773

0
0
0
0
0

1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1

2
2
2
2
2

2
2
2
2
2

3
3
3
3
3

3
3
3
3
3

4
4
4
4
4

4
4
4
4
4

95
96
97
98
99

9777
9823
9868
9912
9956

9782
9827
9872
9917
9961

9786
9832
9877
9921
9965

9791
9836
9881
9926
9969

9795
9841
9886
9930
9974

9800
9845
9890
9934
9978

9805
9850
9894
9939
9983

9809
9854
9899
9943
9987

9814
9859
9903
9948
9997

9818
9863
9908
9952
9996

0
0
0
0
0

1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1

2
2
2
2
2

2
2
2
2
2

3
3
3
3
3

3
3
3
3
3

4
4
4
4
3

4
4
4
4
4

267

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

ANTILOGARITHMS
TABLE II

268

00
.01
.02
.03
.04
.05
.06
.07
.08
.09

1000
1023
1047
1072
1096
1122
1148
1175
1202
1230

1002
1026
1050
1074
1099
1125
1151
1178
1205
1233

1005
1028
1052
1076
1102
1127
1153
1180
1208
1236

1007
1030
1054
1079
1104
1130
1156
1183
1211
1239

1009
1033
1057
1081
1107
1132
1159
1186
1213
1242

1012
1035
1059
1084
1109
1135
1161
1189
1216
1245

1014
1038
1062
1086
1112
1138
1164
1191
1219
1247

1016
1040
1064
1089
1114
1140
1167
1194
1222
1250

1019
1042
1067
1091
1117
1143
1169
1197
1225
1253

1021
1045
1069
1094
1119
1146
1172
1199
1227
1256

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3

.10
.11
.12
.13
.14
.15
.16
.17
.18
.19

1259
1288
1318
1349
1380
1413
1445
1479
1514
1549

1262
1291
1321
1352
1384
1416
1449
1483
1517
1552

1265
1294
1324
1355
1387
1419
1452
1486
1521
1556

1268
1297
1327
1358
1390
1422
1455
1489
1524
1560

1271
1300
1330
1361
1393
1426
1459
1493
1528
1563

1274
1303
1334
1365
1396
1429
1462
1496
1531
1567

1276
1306
1337
1368
1400
1432
1466
1500
1535
1570

1279
1309
1340
1371
1403
1435
1469
1503
1538
1574

1282
1312
1343
1374
1406
1439
1472
1507
1542
1578

1285
1315
1346
1377
1409
1442
1476
1510
1545
1581

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3

2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

.20
.21
.22
.23
.24

1585
1622
1660
1698
1738

1589
1626
1663
1702
1742

1592
1629
1667
1706
1746

1596
1633
1671
1710
1750

1600
1637
1675
1714
1754

1603
1641
1679
1718
1758

1607
1644
1683
1722
1762

1611
1648
1687
1726
1766

1614
1652
1690
1730
1770

1618
1656
1694
1734
1774

0
0
0
0
0

1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1

1
2
2
2
2

2
2
2
2
2

2
2
2
2
2

3
3
3
3
3

3
3
3
3
3

3
3
3
4
4

.25
.26
.27
.28
.29

1778
1820
1862
1905
1950

1782
1824
1866
1910
1954

1786
1828
1871
1914
1959

1791
1832
1875
1919
1963

1795
1837
1879
1923
1968

1799
1841
1884
1928
1972

1803
1845
1888
1932
1977

1807
1849
1892
1936
1982

1811
1854
1897
1941
1986

1816
1858
1901
1945
1991

0
0
0
0
0

1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1

2
2
2
2
2

2
2
2
2
2

2
3
3
3
3

3
3
3
3
3

3
3
3
4
4

4
4
4
4
4

.30
.31
.32
.33
.34
.35
.36
.37
.38
.39

1995
2042
2089
2138
2188
2239
2291
2344
2399
2455

2000
2046
2094
2143
2193
2244
2296
2350
2404
2460

2004
2051
2099
2148
2198
2249
2301
2355
2410
2466

2009
2056
2104
2153
2203
2254
2307
2360
2415
2472

2014
2061
2109
2158
2208
2259
2312
2366
2421
2477

2018
2065
2113
2163
2213
2265
2317
2371
2427
2483

2023
2070
2118
2168
2218
2270
2323
2377
2432
2489

2028
2075
2123
2173
2223
2275
2328
2382
2438
2495

2032
2080
2128
2178
2228
2280
2333
2388
2443
2500

2037
2084
2133
2183
2234
2286
2339
2393
2449
2506

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5

4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
5

.40
.41
.42
.43
.44
.45
.46
.47
.48

2512
2570
2630
2692
2754
2818
2884
2951
3020

2518
2576
2636
2698
2761
2825
2891
2958
3027

2523
2582
2642
2704
2767
2831
2897
2965
3034

2529
2588
2649
2710
2773
2838
2904
2972
3041

2535
2594
2655
2716
2780
2844
2911
2979
3048

2541
2600
2661
2723
2786
2851
2917
2985
3055

2547
2606
2667
2729
2793
2858
2924
2992
3062

2553
2612
2673
2735
2799
2864
2931
2999
3069

2559
2618
2679
2742
2805
2871
2938
3006
3076

2564
2624
2685
2748
2812
2877
2944
3013
3083

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5

5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
6

5
5
6
6
6
6
6
6
6

.49 3090 3097

3105

3112

3119

3126

3133 3141 3148 3155

DATA SECTION

UNIT NAME

ANTILOGARITHMS
TABLE II (Continued)
N

.50
.51
.52
.53
.54

3162
3236
3311
3388
3467

3170
3243
3319
3396
3475

3177
3251
3327
3404
3483

3184
3258
3334
3412
3491

3192
3266
3342
3420
3499

3199
3273
3350
3428
3508

3206
3281
3357
3436
3516

3214
3289
3365
3443
3524

3221
3296
3373
3451
3532

3228
3304
3381
3459
3540

1
1
1
1
1

1
2
2
2
2

2
2
2
2
2

3
3
3
3
3

4
4
4
4
4

4
5
5
5
5

5
5
5
6
6

6
6
6
6
6

7
7
7
7
7

.55 3548 3556


.56 3631 3639

3565
3648

3573
3656

3581
3664

3589
3673

3597 3606 3614 3622


3681 3690 3698 3707

1
1

2
2

2
3

3
3

4
4

5
5

6
6

7
7

7
8

.57 3715 3724


.58 3802 3811
.59 3890 3899

3733
3819
3908

3741
3828
3917

3750
3837
3926

3758
3846
3936

3767 3776 3784 3793


3855 3864 3873 3882
3945 3954 3963 3972

1
1
1

2
2
2

3
3
3

3
4
4

4
4
5

5
5
5

6
6
6

7
7
7

8
8
8

.60
.61
.62
.63
.64
.65
.66
.67
.68
.69

3981
4074
4169
4266
4365
4467
4571
4677
4786
4898

3990
4083
4178
4276
4375
4477
4581
4688
4797
4909

3999
4093
4188
4285
4385
4487
4592
4699
4808
4920

4009
4102
4198
4295
4395
4498
4603
4710
4819
4932

4018
4111
4207
4305
4406
4508
4613
4721
4831
4943

4027
4121
4217
4315
4416
4519
4624
4732
4842
4955

4036
4130
4227
4325
4426
4529
4634
4742
4853
4966

4046
4140
4236
4335
4436
4539
4645
4753
4864
4977

4055
4150
4246
4345
4446
4550
4656
4764
4875
4989

4064
4159
42S6
4355
4457
4560
4667
4775
4887
5000

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5

5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
6
6

6
6
6
6
6
6
6
7
7
7

6
7
7
7
7
7
7
8
8
8

7
8
8
8
8
8
9
9
9
9

8
9
9
9
9
9
10
10
10
10

.70
.71
.72
.73
.74
.75
.76
.77
.78
.79

5012
5129
5248
5370
5495
5623
5754
5888
6026
6166

5023
5140
5260
5383
5508
5636
5768
5902
6039
6180

5035
5152
5272
5395
5521
5649
5781
5916
6053
6194

5047
5164
5284
5408
5534
5662
5794
5929
6067
6209

5058
5176
5297
5420
5546
5675
5808
5943
6081
6223

5070
5188
5309
5433
5559
5689
5821
5957
6095
6237

5082
5200
5321
5445
5572
5702
5834
5970
6109
6252

5093
5212
5333
5458
5585
5715
5848
5984
6124
6266

5105
5224
5346
5470
5598
5728
5861
5998
6138
6281

5117
5236
5358
5483
5610
5741
5875
6012
6152
6295

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
6
6

6
6
6
6
6
7
7
7
7
7

7
7
7
8
8
8
8
8
8
9

8
8
9
9
9
9
9
10
10
10

9 11
10 11
10 11
10 11
10 12
10 12
11 12
11 12
11 13
11 13

.80
.81
.82
.83
.84

6310
6457
6607
6761
6918

6324
6471
6622
6776
6934

6339
6486
6637
6792
6950

6353
6501
6653
6808
6966

6368
6516
6668
6823
6982

6383
6531
6683
6839
6998

6397
6546
6699
6855
7015

6412
6561
6714
6871
7031

6427
6577
6730
6887
7047

6442
6592
6745
6902
7063

1
2
2
2
2

3
3
3
3
3

4
5
5
5
5

6
6
6
6
6

7
8
8
8
8

9
9
9
9
10

10
11
11
11
11

12 13
12 14
12 14
1314
13 15

.85
.86
.87
.88
.89

7079
7244
7413
7586
7762

7096
7261
7430
7603
7780

7112
7278
7447
7621
7798

7129
7295
7464
7638
7816

7145
7311
7482
7656
7834

7161
7328
7499
7674
7852

7178
7345
7516
7691
7870

7194
7362
7534
7709
7889

7211
7379
7551
7727
7907

7228
7396
7568
7745
7925

2
2
2
2
2

3
3
3
4
4

5
5
5
5
5

7
7
7
7
7

8
8
9
9
9

10
10
10
11
11

12
12
12
12
13

13 15
13 15
14 16
14 16
14 16

.90
.91
.92
.93
.94

7943
8128
8318
8511
8710

7962
8147
8337
8531
8730

7980
8166
8356
8551
8750

7998
8185
8375
8570
8770

8017
8204
8395
8590
8790

8035
8222
8414
8610
8810

8054
8241
8433
8630
8831

8072
8260
8453
8650
8851

8091
8279
8472
8670
8872

8110
8299
8492
8690
8892

2
2
2
2
2

4
4
4
4
4

6
6
6
6
6

7
8
8
8
8

9
9
10
10
10

11
11
12
12
12

13
13
14
14
14

15 17
15 17
15 17
16 18
16 18

.95
.96
.97
.98
.99

8913
9120
9333
9550
9772

8933
9141
9354
9572
9795

8954
9162
9376
9594
9817

8974
9183
9397
9616
9840

8995
9204
9419
9638
9863

9016
9226
9441
9661
9886

9036
9247
9462
9683
9908

9057
9268
9484
9705
9931

9078
9290
9506
9727
9954

9099
9311
9528
9750
9977

2
2
2
2
2

4
4
4
4
5

6
6
7
7
7

8
8
9
9
9

10
11
11
11
11

12
13
13
13
14

15
15
15
16
16

17 19
17 19
17 20
18 20
18 20

269

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

NATURAL SINES
TABLE I

270

0'

6'

12'

18'

24'

30'

36'

42'

48'

54'

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Mean

1'

2'

3'

4'

5'

.0000

0017

0035

0052

0070

0087

0105

0122

0140

0157

12

15

1
2

.0175
.0349

0192
0366

0209
0384

0227
0401

0244
0419

0262
0436

0279
0454

0297
0471

0314
0488

0332
0506

3
3

6
6

9
9

12
12

15
15

.0523

0541

0558

0576

0593

0610

0628

0645

0663

0680

12

15

4
5

.0698
.0872

0715
0889

0732
0906

0750
0924

0767
0941

0785
0958

0802
0976

0819
0993

0837
1011

0854
1028

3
3

6
6

9
9

12
12

15
14

.1045

1063

1080

1097

1115

1132

1149

1167

1184

1201

12

14

7
8

.1219
.1392

1236
1409

1253
1426

1271
1444

1288
1461

1305
1478

1323
1495

1340
1513

1357
1530

1374
1547

3
3

6
6

9
9

12
12

14
14

.1564

1582

1599

1616

1633

1650

1668

1685

1702

1719

12

14

10

.1736

1754

1771

1788

1805

1822

1840

1857

1874

1891

12

14

11
12

.1908
.2079

1925
2096

1942
2113

1959
2130

1977
2147

1994
2164

2011
2181

2028
2198

2045
2215

2062
2232

3
3

6
6

9
9

11
11

14
14

13

.2250

2267

2284

2300

2317

2334

2351

2368

2385

2402

11

14

14
15

.2419
.2588

2436
2605

2453
2622

2470
2639

2487
2656

2504
2672

2521
2689

2538
2706

2554
2723

2571
2740

3
3

6
6

8
8

11
11

14
14

16

.2756

2773

2790

2807

2823

2840

2857

2874

2890

2907

11

14

17
18

.2924
.3090

2940
3107

2957
3123

2974
3140

2990
3156

3007
3173

3024
3190

3040
3206

3057
3223

3074
3239

3
3

6
6

8
8

11
11

14
14

19

.3256

3272

3289

3305

3322

3338

3355

3371

3387

3404

11

14

20

.3420

3437

3453

3469

3486

3502

3518

3535

3551

3567

11

14

21

.3584

3600

3616

3633

3649

3665

3681

3697

3714

3730

11

14

22

.3746

3762

3778

3795

3811

3827

3843

3859

3875

3891

11

14

23

.3907

3923

3939

3955

3971

3987

4003

4019

4035

4051

11

14

24
25

.4067
.4226

4083
4242

4099
4258

4115
4274

4131
4289

4147
4305

4163
4321

4179
4337

4195
4352

4210
4368

3
3

5
5

8
8

11
11

13
13

26

Differences

.4384

4399

4415

4431

4446

4462

4478

4493

4509

4524

10

13

27 .4540

4555

4571

4586

4602

4617

4633

4648

4664

4679

10

13

28
29

.4695
.4848

4710
4863

4726
4879

4741
4894

4756
4909

4772
4924

4787
4939

4802
4955

4818
4970

4833
4985

3
3

5
5

8
8

10
10

13
13

30

.5000

5015

5030

5045

5060

5075

5090

5105

5120

5135

10

13

31
32

.5150
.5299

5165
5314

5180
5329

5195
5344

5210
5358

5225
5373

5240
5388

5255
5402

5270
5417

5284
5432

2
2

5
5

7
7

10
10

12
12

33

.5446

5461

5476

5490

5505

5519

5534

5548

5563

5577

10

12

34
35

.5592
.5736

5606
5750

5621
5764

5635
5779

5650
5793

5664
5807

5678
5821

5693
5835

5707
5850

5721
5864

2
2

5
5

7
7

10
10

12
12

36

.5878

5892

5906

5920

5934

5948

5962

5976

5990

6004

12

37

.6018

6032

6046

6060

6074

6088

6101

6115

6129

6143

12

38
39

.6157
.6293

6170
6307

6184
6320

6198
6334

6211
6347

6225
6361

6239
6374

6252
6388

6266
6401

6280
6414

2
2

5
4

7
7

9
9

11
11

40

.6428

6441

6455

6468

6481

6494

6508

6521

6534

6547

11

41
42

.6561
.6691

6574
6704

6587
6717

6600
6730

6613
6743

6626
6756

6639
6769

6652
6782

6665
6794

6678
6807

2
2

4
4

7
6

9
9

11
11

43

.6820

6833

6845

6858

6871

6884

6896

6909

6921

6934

11

44

.6947

6959

6972

6984

6997

7009

7022

7034

7046

7059

10

DATA SECTION
U

NIT

NAME

NATURAL SINES
TABLE I (Continued)
0'

6'

12'

18'

24'

30'

36'

42'

48'

54'

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Mean
Differences
1'

2'

3'

4'

5'

45
46

.7071
.7193

7083
7206

7096
7218

7108
7230

7120
7242

7133
7254

7145
7266

7157
7278

7169
7290

7181
7302

2
2

4
4

6
6

8
8

10
10

47

.7314

7325

7337

7349

7361

7373

7385

7396

7408

7420

10

48
49

.7431
.7547

7443
7558

7455
7570

7466
7581

7478
7593

7490
7604

7501
7615

7513
7627

7524
7638

7536
7649

2
2

4
4

6
6

8
8

10
9

50

.7660

7672

7683

7694

7705

7716

7727

7738

7749

7760

51

.7771

7782

7793

7804

7815

7826

7837

7848

7859

7869

52
53

.7880
.7986

7891
7997

7902
8007

7912
8018

7923
8028

7934
8039

7944
8049

7955
8059

7965
8070

7976
8080

2
2

4
3

5
5

7
7

9
9

54

.8090

8100

8111

8121

8131

8141

8151

8161

8171

8181

55
56

.8192
.8290

8202
8300

8211
8310

8221
8320

8231
8329

8241
8339

8251
8348

8261
8358

8271
8368

8281
8377

2
2

3
3

5
5

7
6

8
8

57

.8387

8396

8406

8415

8425

8434

8443

8453

8462

8471

58
59

.8480
.8572

8490
8581

8499
8590

8508
8599

8517
8607

8526
8616

8536
8625

8545
8634

8554
8643

8563
8652

2
1

3
3

5
4

6
6

8
7

60

.8660

8669

8678

8686

8695

8704

8712

8721

8729

8738

61

.8746

8755

8763

8771

8780

8788

8796

8805

8813

8821

62
63

.8829
.8910

8838
8918

8846
8926

8854
8934

8862
8942

8870
8949

8878
8957

8886
8965

8894
8973

8902
8980

1
1

3
3

4
4

5
5

7
6

64

.8988

8996

9003

9011

9018

9026

9033

9041

9048

9056

65
66

.9063
.9135

9070
9143

9078
9150

9085
9157

9092
9164

9100
9171

9107
9178

9114
9184

9121
9191

9128
9198

1
1

2
2

4
3

5
5

6
6

67

.9205

9212

9219

9225

9232

9239

9245

9252

9259

9265

68

.9272

9278

9285

9291

9298

9304

9311

9317

9323

9330

69
70

.9336
.9397

9342
9403

9348
9409

9354
9415

9361
9421

9367
9426

9373
9432

9379
9438

9385
9444

9391
9449

1
1

2
2

3
3

4
4

5
5

71

.9455

9461

9466

9472

9478

9483

9489

9494

9500

9505

72
73

.9511
.9563

9516
9568

9521
9573

9527
9578

9532
9583

9537
9588

9542
9593

9548
9598

9553
9603

9558
9608

1
1

2
2

3
3

3
3

4
4

74

.9613

9617

9622

9627

9632

9636

9641

9646

9650

9655

75
76

.9659
.9703

9664
9707

9668
9711

9673
9715

9677
9720

9681
9724

9686
9728

9690
9732

9694
9736

9699
9740

1
1

1
1

2
2

3
3

4
3

77

.9744

9748

9751

9755

9759

9763

9767

9770

9774

9778

78

.9781

9785

9789

9792

9796

9799

9803

9806

9810

9813

79
80

.9816
.9848

9820
9851

9823
9854

9826
9857

9829
9860

9833
9863

9836
9866

9839
9869

9842
9871

9845
9874

1
0

1
1

2
1

2
2

3
2

81

.9877

9880

9882

9885

9888

9890

9893

9895

9898

9900

82
83

.9903
.9925

9905
9928

9907
9930

9910
9932

9912
9934

9914
9936

9917
9938

9919
9940

9921
9942

9923
9943

0
0

1
1

1
1

2
1

2
2

84

:9945

9947

9949

9951

9952

9954

9956

9957

9959

9960

85
86

.9962
.9976

9963
9977

9965
9978

9966
9979

9968
9980

9969
9981

9971
9982

9972
9983

9973
9984

9974
9985

0
0

0
0

1
1

1
1

1
1

87

.9986

9987

9988

9989

9990

9990

9991

9992

9993

9993

88

.9994

9995

9995

9996

9996

9997

9997

9997

9998

9998

89
90

.9998
1.000

9999

9999

9999

9999

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

271

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

NATURAL COSINES
TABLE II

272

0'

6'

12'

18'

24'

30'

36'

42'

48'

54'

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Mean

1'

2'

3'

4'

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

.9999

9999

9999

9999

1
2

.9998
.9994

9998
9993

9998
9993

9997
9992

9997
9991

9997
9990

9996
9990

9996
9989

9995
9988

9995
9987

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
1

0
1

.9986

9985

9984

9983

9982

9981

9980

9979

9978

9977

4
5

.9976
.9962

9974
9960

9973
9959

9972
9957

9971
9956

9969
9954

9968
9952

9966
9951

9965
9949

9963
9947

0
0

0
1

1
1

1
1

1
2

.9945

9943

9942

9940

9938

9936

9934

9932

9930

9928

7
8

.9925
.9903

9923
9900

9921
9898

9919
9895

9917
9893

9914
9890

9912
9888

9910
9885

9907
9882

9905
9880

0
0

1
1

1
1

2
2

2
2

.9877

9874

9871

9869

9866

9863

9860

9857

9854

9851

10

.9848

9845

9842

9839

9836

9833

9829

9826

9823

9820

11
12

.9816
.9781

9813
9778

9810
9774

9806
9770

9803
9767

9799
9763

9796
9759

9792
9755

9789
9751

9785
9748

1
1

1
1

2
2

2
3

3
3

13

.9744

9740

9736

9732

9728

9724

9720

9715

9711

9707

14
15

.9703
.9659

9699
9655

9694
9650

9690
9646

9686
9641

9681
9636

9677
9632

9673
9627

9668
9622

9664
9617

1
1

1
2

2
2

3
3

4
4

16

.9613

9608

9603

9598

9593

9588

9583

9578

9573

9568

17
18

.9563
.9511

9558
9505

9553
9500

9548
9494

9542
9489

9537
9483

9532
9478

9527
9472

9521
9466

9516
9461

1
1

2
2

3
3

3
4

4
5

19

.9455

9449

9444

9438

9432

9426

9421

9415

9409

9403

20

.9397

9391

9385

9379

9573

9367

9361

9354

9348

9342

21
22

.9336
.9272

9330
9265

9323
9259

9317
9252

9311
9245

9304
9239

9298
9232

9291
9225

9285
9219

9278
9212

1
1

2
2

3
3

4
4

5
6

23

.9205

9198

9191

9184

9178

9171

9164

9157

9150

9143

24
25

.9135
.9063

9128
9056

9121
9048

9114
9041

9107
9033

9100
9026

9092
9018

9085
9011

9078
9003

9070
8996

1
1

2
3

4
4

5
5

6
6

26

.8988

8980

8973

8965

8957

8949

8942

8934

8926

8918

27

.8910

8902

8894

8886

8878

8870

8862

8854

8838

28
29

.8829
.8746

8821
8738

8813
8729

8805
8721

8796
8712

8788
8704

8780
8695

8771
8686

8763
8678

8755
8669

1
1

3
3

4
4

6
6

7
7

30

.8660

8652

8643

8634

8625

8616

8607

8599

8590

8581

31
32

.8572
.8480

8563
8471

8554
8462

8545
8453

8536
8443

8526
8434

8517
8425

8508
8415

8499
8406

8490
8396

2
2

3
3

5
5

6
6

8
8

33

.8387

8377

8368

8358

8348

8339

8329

8320

8310

8300

34
3S

.8290
.8192

8281
8181

8271
8171

8261
8161

8251
8151

8241
8141

8231
8131

8221
8121

8211
8111

8202
8100

2
2

3
3

5
5

7
7

8
8

36

.8090

8080

8070

8059

8049

8039

8028

8018

8007

7997

37

.7986

7976

7965

7955

7944

7934

7923

7912

7902

7891

38
39

.7880
.7771

7869
7760

7859
7749

7848
7738

7837
7727

7826
7716

7815
7705

7804
7694

7793
7683

7782
7672

2
2

4
4

5
6

7
7

9
9

40

.7660

7649

7638

7627

7615

7604

7593

7581

7570

7559

41
42

.7547
.7431

7536
7420

7524
7408

7513
7396

7501
7385

7490
7373

7478
7361

7466
7349

7455
7337

7443
7325

2
2

4
4

6
6

8
8

10
10

43

.7314

7302

7290

7278

7266

7254

7242

7230

7218

7206

10

44

.7193

7181

7169

7157

7145

7133

7120

7108

7096

7083

10

Differences
5'

DATA SECTION
U

NIT

NAME

NATURAL COSINES
TABLE II (Continued)
0'

6'

12'

18'

24'

30'

36'

42'

48'

54'

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Mean

1'

2'

3'

4'

5'

45
46

.7071
.6947

7059
6934

7046
6921

7034
6909

7022
6896

7009
6884

6997
6871

6984
6858

6972
6845

6959
6833

2
2

4
4

6
6

8
8

10
11

47

.6820

6807

6794

6782

6769

6756

6743

6730

6717

6704

11

48
49

.6691
.6561

6678
6547

6665
6534

6652
6521

6639
6508

6626
6494

6613
6481

6600
6468

6587
6455

6574
6441

2
2

4
4

7
7

9
9

11
11

50

.6428

6414

6401

6388

6374

6361

6347

6334

6320

6307

11

51

.6293

6280

6266

6252

6239

6225

6211

6198

6184

6170

11

52
53

.6157
.6018

6143
6004

6129
5990

6115
5976

6]01
5962

6088
5948

6074
5934

6060
5920

6046
5906

6032
5892

2
2

5
5

7
7

9
9

11
12

54

.5878

5864

5850

5835

5821

5807

5793

5779

5764

5750

12

55
56

.5736
.5592

5721
5577

5707
5563

5693
5548

5678
5534

5664
55]9

5650
5505

5635
5490

5621
5476

5606
5461

2
2

5
5

7
7

10
10

12
12

57

.5446

5432

5417

5402

5388

5373

5358

5344

5329

5314

10

12

58
59

.5299
.5150

5284
5135

5270
5120

5255
5105

5240
5090

5225
5075

5210
5060

5195
5045

5180
5030

5165
5015

2
3

5
5

7
8

10
10

12
13

60

.5000

4985

4970

4955

4939

4924

4909

4894

4879

4863

10

13

61

.4848

4833

4818

4802

4787

4772

4756

4741

4726

4710

10

13

62
63

.4695
.4540

4679
4524

4664
4509

4648
4493

4633
4478

4617
4462

4602
4446

4586
4431

4571
4415

4555
4399

3
3

5
5

8
8

10
10

13
13

64

.4384

4368

4352

4337

4321

4305

4289

4274

4258

4242

11

13

65
66

.4226
.4067

4210
4051

4195
4035

4179
4019

4163
4003

4147
3987

4131
3971

4115
3955

4099
3939

4083
3923

3
3

5
5

8
8

11
11

13
14

67

.3907

3891

3875

3859

3843

3827

3811

3795

3778

3762

11

14

68

.3746

3730

3714

3697

3681

3665

3649

3633

3616

3600

11

14

69
70

.3584
.3420

3567
3404

3551
3387

3535
3371

3518
3355

3502
3338

3486
3322

3469
3305

3453
3289

3437
3272

3
3

5
5

8
8

11
11

14
14

71

.3256

3239

3223

3206

3190

3173

3156

3140

3123

3107

11

14

72
73

.3090
.2924

3074
2907

3057
2890

3040
2874

3024
2857

3007
2840

2990
2823

2974
2807

2957
2790

2940
2773

3
3

6
6

8
8

11
11

14
14

74

.2756

2740

2723

2706

2689

2672

2656

2639

2622

2605

11

14

75
76

.2588
.2419

2571
2402

2554
2385

2538
2368

2521
2351

2504
2334

2487
2317

2470
2300

2453
2284

2436
2267

3
3

6
6

8
8

11
11

14
14

77

.2250

2233

2215

2198

2181

2164

2147

2130

2113

2096

11

14

78

.2079

2062

2045

2028

2011

1994

1977

1959

1942

1925

11

14

79
80

.1908
.1736

1891
1719

1874
1702

1857
1685

1840
1668

1822
1650

1805
1633

1788
1616

1771
1599

1754
1582

3
3

6
6

9
9

11
12

14
14

81

.1564

1547

1530

1513

1495

1478

1461

1444

1426

1409

12

14

82
83

.1392
.1219

1374
1201

1357
1184

1340
1167

1323
1149

1305
1132

1288
1115

1271
1097

1253
1080

1236
1063

3
3

6
6

9
9

12
12

14
14

84

.1045

1028

1011

0993

0976

0958

0941

0924

0906

0889

12

14

85
86

.0872
.0698

0854
0680

0837
0663

0819
0645

0802
0628

0785
0610

0767
0593

0750
0576

0732
0558

0715
0541

3
3

6
6

9
9

12
12

15
15

87

.0523

0506

0488

0471

0454

0436

0419

0401

0384

0366

12

15

88

.0349

0332

0314

0297

0279

0262

0244

0227

0209

0192

12

15

89
90

.0175
.0000

0157

0140

0122

0105

0087

0070

0052

0035

0017

12

15

Differences

273

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

NATURAL TANGENTS
TABLE III

274

0'

6'

12'

18'

24'

30'

36'

42'

48'

54'

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Mean

1'

2'

3'

4'

5'

.0000

0017

0035

0052

0070

0087

0105

0122

0140

0157

12

15

1
2

.0175
.0349

0192
0367

0209
0384

0227
0402

0244
0419

0262
0437

0279
0454

0297
0472

0314
0489

0332
0507

3
3

6
6

9
9

12
12

15
15

.0524

0542

0559

0577

0594

0612

0629

0647

0664

0682

12

15

4
5

.0699
.0875

0717
0892

0734
0910

0752
0928

0769
0945

0787
0963

0805
0981

0822
0998

0840
1016

0857
1033

3
3

6
6

9
9

12
12

15
15

.1051

1069

1086

1104

1122

1139

1157

1175

1192

1210

12

15

7
8

.1228
.1405

1246
1423

1263
1441

1281
1459

1299
1477

1317
1495

1334
1512

1352
1530

1370
1548

1388
1566

3
3

6
6

9
9

12
12

15
15

.1584

1602

1620

1638

1655

1673

1691

1709

1727

1745

12

15

10

.1763

1781

1799

1817

1835

1853

1871

1890

1908

1926

12

15

11
12

.1944
.2126

1962
2144

1980
2162

1998
2180

2016
2199

2035
2217

2053
2235

2071
2254

2089
2272

2107
2290

3
3

6
6

9
9

12
12

15
15

13

.2309

2327

2345

2364

2382

2401

2419

2438

2456

2475

12

15

14
15

.2493
.2679

2512
2698

2530
2717

2549
2736

2568
2754

2586
2773

2605
2792

2623
2811

2642
2830

2661
2849

3
3

6
6

9
9

12
13

16
16

16

.2867

2886

2905

2924

2943

2962

2981

3000

3019

3038

13

16

17
18

.3057
.3249

3076
3269

3096
3288

3115
3307

3134
3327

3153
3346

3172
3365

3191
3385

3211
3404

3230
3424

3
3

6
6

10
10

13
13

16
16

19

.3443

3463

3482

3502

3522

3541

3561

3581

3600

3620

10

13

16

20

.3640

3659

3679

3699

3719

3739

3759

3779

3799

3819

10

13

17

21

.3839

3859

3879

3899

3919

3939

3959

3979

4000

4020

10

13

17

22

.4040

4061

4081

4101

4122

4142

4163

4183

4204

4224

10

14

17

23

.4245

4265

4286

4307

4327

4348

4369

4390

4411

4431

10

14

17

24
25

.4452
.4663

4473
4684

4494
4706

4515
4727

4536
4748

4557
4770

4578
4791

4599
4813

4621
4834

4642
4856

4
4

7
7

11
11

14
14

18
18

26

.4877

4899

4921

4942

4964

4986

5008

5029

5051

5073

11

15

18

27

.5095

5117

5139

5161

5184

5206

5228

5250

5272

5295

11

15

18

28
29

.5317
.5543

5340
5566

5362
5589

5384
5612

5407
5635

5430
5658

5452
5681

5475
5704

5498
5727

5520
5750

4
4

8
8

11
12

15
15

19
19

30

.5774

5797

5820

5844

5867

5890

5914

5938

5961

5985

12

16

20

31
32

.6009
.6249

6032
6273

6056
6297

6080
6322

6104
6346

6128
6371

6152
6395

6176
6420

6200
6445

6224
6469

4
4

8
8

12
12

16
16

20
20

33

.6494

6519

6544

6569

6594

6619

6644

6669

6694

6720

13

17

21

34
35

.6745
.7002

6771
7028

6796
7054

6822
7080

6847
7107

6873
7133

699
7159

6924
7186

6950
7212

6976
7239

4
4

9
9

13
13

17
18

21
22

36

.7265

7292

7319

7346

7373

7400

7427

7454

7481

7508

14

18

23

37

.7536

7563

7590

7618

7646

7673

7701

7729

7757

7785

14

18

23

38
39

.7813
.8008

7841
8127

7869
8156

7898
8185

7926
8214

7954
8243

7983
8273

8012
8302

8040
8332

8069
8361

5
5

9
10

14
15

19
20

24
24

40

.8391

8421

8451

8481

8511

8541

8571

8601

8632

8662

10

15

20

25

41
42

.8693
.9004

8724
9036

8754
9067

8785
9099

8816
9131

8847
9163

8878
9195

8910
9228

8941
9260

8972
9293

5
5

10
11

16
16

21
21

26
27

43

.9325

9358

9391

9424

9457

9490

9523

9556

9590

9623

11

17

22

28

44

.9657

9691 9725

9759

9793

9827

9861

9896

9930

9965

11

17

23

29

Differences

DATA SECTION
U

NIT

NAME

NATURAL TANGENTS
TABLE III (Continued)
0'

6'

12'

18'

24'

30'

36'

42'

48'

54'

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Mean
Differences
1'

2'

3'

4'

5'

45 1.0000 0035

0070

0105

0141

0176

0212

0247

0283

0319

12

18

24

46

1.0355 0392

0428

0464

0501

0538

0575

0612

0649

0686

12

18

25

30

47

1-0724

0761

0799

0837

0875

0913

0951

0990

1028

1067

13

19

25

32

48 1-1106 1145
49 1.1504 1544

1184
1585

1224
1626

1263
1667

1303
1708

1343
1750

1383
1792

1423
1833

1463
1875

7
7

13
14

20
21

27
28

33
34

50

1-1918

1960

2002

2045

2088

2131

2174

2218

2261

2305

14

22

29

35

51

1.2349 2393

2437

2482

2527

2572

2617

2662

2708

2753

15

23

30

38

52
53

1.2799 2846
1.3270 3319

2892
3367

2938
3416

2985
3465

3032
3514

3079
3564

3127
3613

3175
3663

3222
3713

8
8

16
16

24
25

31
33

39
41

54

1.3764 3814

3865

3916

3968

4019

4071

4124

4176

4229

17

26

34

43

55
56

1-4281
1-4826

4335
4882

4388
4938

4442
4994

4496
5051

4550
5108

4605
5166

4659
5224

4715
5282

4770
5340

9
10

18
19

27
29

36
38

45
48

57

1.5399 5458

5517

5577

5637

5697

5757

5818

5880

5941

10

20

30

40

50

58
59

1.6003 6066
1.6643 6709

6128
6775

6191
6842

6255
6909

6319
6977

6383
7045

6447
7113

6512
7182

6577
7251

11
11

21
23

32
34

43
45

53
56

31

60

1-7321

7391

7461

7532

7603

7.675

7747

7820

7893

7966

12

24

36

48

60

61

1.8040 8115

8190

8265

8341

8418

8495

8572

8650

8728

13

26

38

51

64

62
63

1.8807 8887
1.9626 9711

8967
9797

9047
9883

9128
9970

9210
9292
9375
9458
9542
14
2.0057 2.0145 2.0233 2.0323 2.0413 15

27
29

41
44

55
58

68
73

64

2.0503 0594

0686

0778

0872

0965

1060

1155

1251

1348

16

31

47

63

78

65
66

2.1445 1543
2.2460 2566

1642
2673

1742
2781

1842
2889

1943
2998

2045
3109

2148
3220

2251
3332

2355
3445

17
18

34
37

51
55

68
73

85
92

67

2.3559 3673

3789

3906

4023

4142

4262

4383

4504

4627

20

40

60

79

99

68

2.4751 4876

5002

5129

5257

5386

5517

5649

5782

5916

22

43

65

87

108

69
70

2.6051 6187
2.7475 7625

6325
7776

6464
7929

6605
8083

6746
8239

6889
8397

7034
8556

7179
8716

7326
8878

24
26

47
52

71
78

95
104

119
131

71

2.9042 9208

9375

9544

9714

9887

3.0061 3.0237 3.0415 3.0595 29

58

87

116

145

72
73

3.0777 0961
3.2709 2914

1146
3122

1334
3332

1524
3544

1716
3759

1910
3977

2106
4197

2305
4420

2500
4646

32
36

64
72

96 129
108 144

161
180

74

3.4874 5105

5339

5576

5816

6059

6305

6554

6806

7062

41

811 22

163

204

75
76

3.7321 7583
4.0108 0408

7848
0713

8118
1022

8391
1335

8667
i653

8947
1976

9232
2303

9520
2635

9812
2972

46
53

93 139 186
107 160 213

232
267

77

4.3315 3662

4015

4374

4737

5107

5483

5864

6252

6646

78

4.7046 7453

7867

8288

8716

9152

9594

5.0045 5.0504 5.0970 Mean differences cease

79
80

5.1446 1929
5.6713 7297

2422
7894

2924
8502

3435
9124

3955
9758

4486
5026
5578
6140
to be sufficiently accurate.
6.0405 6.1066 6.1742 6.2432

81

6.3138 3859

4596

5350

6122

6912

7720

8548

82
83

7.1154 2066
8.1443 2636

3002
3863

3%2
5126

4947
6427

5958
7769

6996
9152

8062
9158
8.0285
9.0579 9.2052 9.3572

84

9.5144 9.677

9.845

10.02

10.20

10.39

10.58

10.78

10.99

11-20

85
86

1143
14.30

11.66
14.67

11.91
15.06

12.16
15.46

12.43
15.89

12.71
16.35

13.00
16.83

13.30
17.34

13.62
17.89

13.95
18.46

87

19.08

19.74

20.45

21.20

22.02

22.90

23.86

24.90

26.03

27.27

88

28.64

30.14

31.82

33.69

35.80

38.19

40.92

44.07

47.74

52.08

89 57.29
63.66
90 not defined

71.62

81.85

95.49

114.6

143.2

191.0

286.5

573.0

9395

7.0264

275

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

NOTES

276

DATA SECTION
U

NIT

NAME

NOTES

277

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

NOTES

278