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CHE3005 W PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL

Tutorial 2, 2016: Developing Transfer functions

Q1. Consider a transfer function (chp. 3):


Y ' (s )
a
=
bs+
c
U ' (s )

a) What is the steady-state gain of this transfer function?


b) What is the time constant of this transfer function?
c) What is the difference between a process time constant and a process residence time?
d) If U(s) is a step change of magnitude M, use Laplace transfer to find y ' ( t )
e) Will

y ' ( t ) be bound (be finite) for all values of a,b,c? Explain your answer

f) If the final value of y(t) is aM/c, will y(t) ever reach this value? Explain
Q2. Consider the following transfer function (chp.3):
Y ' (s )
5
=
U ' (s ) 10 s +1
a) If U(s) =2/s, what must have been the input u(t) been?
b) Without converting the transfer function into the time domain, determine the final value of Y(t)
if U(s) =2/s .
c) For the same U(s), convert Y(s) to y(t) and determine the value of y(t) at t=10?
d) After what time will y(t) be 80% of the new steady state of y(t)?
e) Having seen how much time it takes to reach 80% of the final value, calculate the value of y(t)
at t=100. Is it 10? Explain why not.
f) If U(s)= (1-e-s)/s, a rectangular pulse, convert Y(s) to y(t) using Laplace transforms and
calculate the value of y(t) as t approaches infinity? (see A4.6 for examples, pg A-13)
Q3. A surge tank below, is designed with a slotted weir so that the outflow rate, w, is linearly
proportional to the liquid level inside the tank; that is, (chp. 3)
w=Rh

wi

Where
w

W, wi

h
R
A

mass flowrates
density
liquid height
constant
Area of tank

(kg/h)
(kg/m3)
(m)
(kg/h/m)
(m2)

a) If the liquid level is the controlled variable in this process, develop a steady state mass balance
for this process.
b) Develop an unsteady state mass balance for this system.
c) From a) and b), develop a transfer equation for how the liquid level changes with changes in w i.

i.e. H(s)/W(s). What is the process gain and time constant for this transfer function?
d) A more realistic equation for w and the liquid level is given by:

w=R h1.5
Develop a transfer function for how the liquid level changes with changes in wi. i.e. H(s)/W(s).

(Important question to ask yourself is whether you can simply take the difference between
U.S.S and S.S). What is the process gain and time constant for this transfer function?

V2, T2 V1,
, CA,2
T1 , CA,1

Q4. A two compartment autoclave is shown in figure below. The two compartments are best modelled
as two CSTRs. The basic idea is to feed the reactant dissolved in water continuously into the first tank
compartment, where they will be preheated by energy liberated in the exothermic reaction, which is
primarily anticipated to occur in the second compartment. The wall separating the two compartments is
thin thus allowing heat transfer from the second compartment to the first compartment. A cooling water
coil is fitted in the second compartment to regulate the temperature of the both the first and second
compartment. (Ch. 2)

q 0 , Ti ,
CAi

QT

Qc

q 2 , T2 ,
CA,2
q 1 , T1 ,
CA,1

If the liquid level inside both compartments is kept constant by use of overflow slots in each compartment
and the following conditions apply:

Q T =U T A t ( T 1T 2)

UT and AT are the overall heat transfer coefficient and surface area between the

compartments. (Careful of signs here!!!) (J.h-1)


QC =U c A c (T c T 2 ) Uc and Ac are the overall heat transfer coefficient and surface area between the
CA

compartments. (J.h-1)
Molar concentration of A (mol/m3)

Cp

Heat capacity of water (J/kg/K)

V1

Volume of the first compartment (m3)

V2

Volume of the second compartment (m3)

r A =k 0 C A

Rate of reaction (mol.m-3h-1) [A B]

H rxn , A

Heat of reaction (J.mol-1)

q1, q2, q3

Density of water
volumetric flow rate (m3/h)

Furthermore, you can assume that the heat loss to the surroundings is negligible, that only T i, T2, Tc, Cai

change and that assumptions 1-8 made by Fogler, 2006 apply.


a) State the 8 assumptions made in Fogler, 2006
b) Identify input variable and output variable in this process. Which of the identified output variables can
be considered controlled variables, disturbance variables and manipulated variables? Describe a possible
control action for all your identified controlled variables if some are linked then make a decision on
which one will be controlled as a proxy for the other.
c) Write down two separate USS water balances over the two compartments and prove that q0=q1 and that
q1=q2 for this question.
d) If the controlled variable is T1 and T2, develop a steady state mole balance for species A and

energy balance around the first and second compartment separately.


e) If the controlled variable is T1 and T2, develop an unsteady state mole balance for species A and

energy balance around the first and second compartment separately.


f) Develop a transfer function for how the operating temperature of the 1 st compartment is affected by CAi,
and T2. i.e. T1(s)/CAi(s) and T1(s)/T2(s)
g) For homework: Develop a transfer function for how the operating temperature of the 2 nd compartment is
affected by CA1, and Tc i.e T2(s)/CA1(s) and T2(s)/Tc(s). No solution given!

(Please note: The above is the simplest way one can control the compartment temperature of an autoclave. It is
important to ensure that the assumption that majority of the reaction takes place in the second compartment be
validated before a control loop using the transfer functions you developed. The second thing to note here is that
the liquid flow rate is constant, other autoclaves operate at elevated pressures therefore the exit stream is related
to the inside pressure! Think about how you would configure the cooling system or heating system if the reaction
was highly exothermic/endothermic and took place in 1 st compartment. How would you start this reaction from a
shut down if it the reaction only took place at elevated temperatures? Would a steam coil be needed? Where
would you put it?)

Q5. Last year you were taught separations, today you will develop a transfer function for an
equilibrium stage in a tray absorber.
The model that describes the first stage of a distillation column is given below:
L0, x0

V1, y1

L1, x1

V2, y2