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SOCIAL SCIENCE

AmwXcw

STANDARD FIVE

Hmw Lw

142

TERM I

1. CXv Hcp kph-Imew


\mw Pohnp Xan-gIw ]pcm-X-\hpw khn-ti-j-X-I-fp--Xp-am-b Hcp Ncn-{X-n\v
DS-a-bm-Wv. ]gb Xan-gIw Fp tIp-tm \psS Hm-bn hcp-Xv tNc,
tNmf, ]mWvUycmPmm `cn-n-cp kwL-Im-e-s-bm-Wv.

kwL-Imew
kwL-Imew FXv {In. ap. 300 apX {InkvXp-hjw 300 hscbp Ime-L--ambn-cp-p Fv Ncn-{X-]-WvUn-Xm ]d-bp-p. Am-ep \ne-\n-n-cp sNdp-cm-Py-fn NneXv in-{]m-]nv h cmPy--fmbn amdn. hSv "thSw Fp- ]-d-b-sSp Xncp-Xn apX sXv I\ym-Ip-amcn hscbpw, ]Sn-mdv Ad-_n--S hscbpw
Ingv _wKm D-S hscbpw hym]n-n-cp--XmWv kwL-Im-e -X-an-g-Iw.
Atim-Is inem-en-Jn-X-
- -fn D-c-ta-cq-cn-sebpw BZn--\-q-cn-s-ebpw inem-en
-Jn-X-, tdma \mW-b-, NmW-Iys A-im-kv{Xw,Fcn-t{X-bs ISs]-cnkv F {Kov {Kw Fnh kwL-Im-es ]n a\-n-em-m klm-bn-p
kmy-]-{X--fm-Wv.

aqp kwL-
Xan-g-I-n hyXy-kvX-Im-e-L---fn-embn aqp kwL- \ne-\n-n-cp-p.
BZy-kw-L-ns Bm\w, kap-{Z-n apn-tmbXmbn Icp-X-s-Sp- Ipacn
`qJ-WvU-ns-e ZnW a[p-c- bn-em-bn-cpp. CXv IS tm`-m \in-pt]mbn Fp ]d-b-sSpp.
a[y-kwLw, IStm-`--fn \npw c-n-p--Xn-\p-thn kap{Z-Xo-c-pX-s-bp Ipn{]-tZ-i-amb I]m-S-]pcmWv m]n--s--Xv. AXpw ]nmev IStm-`-n-\n-c-bm-b-Xmbn Icp-X-s-Sp-p.
cp-{]m-hiyw kw`-hn IStm-`s `bv ISXo-c-p-\npw hfsc AI-sebm-bn-mWv Ghpw HSp-hn-es kwLw m]n--s--Xv. AXv Cs a[p-cm-\-K-cn Bbn-cpp Fv Ncn{Xw ]d-bp-p.

143

kwL-km-ln-Xy-
kwL-Im-ev cNn--s Imhy--fpsS kam-lm-c-amWv kwL-km-ln-Xy-.Ah
-bn `qcn-`m-Khpw \in-p-t]m-bn.tijn-h ]pmv Fp-smssI Fo t]cp-I-fnep {K--fmbn kam-l-cn--s-n-cn-p-p.Cm-ep cNn--s sXmm-nbw
Xan-gv`m-j-bpsS ASn--m\hymI-c-W-{K--am-Wv. ta]-d {K--fn \nv kwLIme-P-\-X-bpsS Pohn-X-s-n a\-n-em-m km[npw.
{Kln-pI
Xncp-hn-Xmw-Iqdn ]mWvUys `cWImev sXmm-n-b sXmm-nbw
F {Kw {]kn-o-I-cn-p.

aqp cmPhwi (aq-th--m)


kwL-Im-ev Cy-bpsS Zn-W-`m-Kv tNc, tNmf, ]mWvUy Fo aqp
cmP-hw-i-m `cWw \S-n-bn-cp-p. AXp-smv kwL-Im-es aqth-Imew
Fpw hnfn-m-dp-v.
Cu aqth--m-cn Hmtcm-cp--cpw Xp {]tXyI cmP-Nn---fmbn sImSn,
]qh aov XpS-n-bh \n-bn-n-cp-p.

tNc
hnv AS-bm-f-ap sImSnbpw ]\-q-am-e-bp-am-bn-cpp tNc-m-cpsS
{]tXyI Nn-. Ah-cpsS Xe-m\w hn F e-m-bn-cp-p.
sXmok
- v, apknd
- nkv Fnh
- b
- mb
- nc
- pp tNc
- mc
- psS Xpda
- pJ
- . tNc`-c
- W
-{]-tZiw Cs tIc-fhpw, tkew, tImb--q {]tZ-i-fpw Ds-Sp-Xm-bn-cp-p.

tNc sNp-p-h
tNc-cm-Pm--m-cn Ghpw i Bbn-cp tNc sNp-p-hIS-
sIm--msc Iogvs-Spn. I-In-t{Xw \nnp.AXv ]Wn-bp--Xn-\p-ff Iv
lnam-e-b-n \n-p-amWv sImp-h--Xv. Nne--Xn-Imcw F al-Zv{Kw
cNn Cf-tm ASn-I Ct-l-ns Cf-b-k-tlm-Z-c-\m-Wv.

tNmf-cm-Pm--m
]pen AS-bm-f-ap sImSnbpw Bc-Xn-q-am-ebpw {]tXyI cmPNn---fmbn kzoI-cn-n-cp--h-cmWv tNmf-cm-Pm--m. Ch-cpsS Xe- m-\w

144

Dd-bq Bbn-cp-p. Imthcn-q--Ww Ch-cpsS Xpd-ap-J-am


bncpp. tNmf-m-cpsS km{amPyw Nnq, hSs Bm-Sv, sXs
BmSv, sN-v, Xm-hq, Xncp-n-dm-n Fo `q{]-tZ-i-sf
Dsm-p--Xm-bn-cp-p.

Icn-Im-e tNmf
tNmf-cm-Pm--m-cn Ghpw {]i-kvX Icn-Im-e-tNm-f BWv. shn-tm
F bp-n Ctlw tNc-]m-WvUy-cm-Pm--msc tXmev]n-p. Imth-cn-\-Zn-bpsS
IpdpsI Ctmgpw `{Z-ambn \ne-sIm-p IW \nn-Xv Icn-Im-e-tNm-f-\m-Wv.
Imjn-I-hn-I-k-\-n-\mbn Atlw At\Iw tXmSp-I \nn-p. Cpw Irjnpthn ^e-{]-Z-ambn D]-tbm-Kn-p-sIm-n-cn-p

shm Ctlw \nn henb

tXmSm-bn-cp-p. Ie-sbbpw kmln-Xy-sbpw t{]mm-ln-n-p--Xnepw Ctlw ap


]-n-bn-em-bn-cp-p.
s]mcp-\-cm-p-ssS F {Kw cNn apS-m-a-I-n-bm ]n-W-msse F
{Kw cNn Dcp-n-c---\m Fo Ihn-I Ct-l-ns cmP-k-`sb Ae--cn-n
cp- p.

kwL- I m- e - I - h n- X - I

Ct- l - ns alXzw DZv t Lm- j n- p- p v .

tIms- c pw- t Nm- f F tNmf- c m- P mhv Am- e s


{]i-kvX-I-hn-bpsS Imhy-ta--sbbpw kmwkvIm-cnI

] nkn- c m- s s- b m F

al-Xz-sbpw]n

tI-dnp.

t\cn ImWmsX Xs Atl


- s kzw kplr
- mbn kzoIc
- n
- p. kulrZ-
- ns
{]Xo- I-ambn Ctlw Ctmgpw hmgv-s-Sp-p.
IW

145

]mWvUy

tIms-cpw-tNm-f\pw hnkn-cm-ss-bmdpap kvt\lw

ao AS-bm-f-ap sImSnbpw thn]q


ame-bp-am-bn-cpp ]mWvUy-mcpsS cmP-Nn--.
a[pc
- b
- mb
- nc
- pp Chc
- psS Xe
- m\
- w. tImss
Xpd-ap-J-hpw.
Cs a[pc
- , cma\
- mY
- ]
- pcw ]pXpt-m-,
I\ym-Ip-amcn Fo `q`m -K- Dsm-p-Xm-bn-cpp Ch-cpsS cmPyw.

cmw-]m-WvUy-s\-Sp-s-gn-b
]mWvUy-cm-Pm--m-cn i cmw s\Sp-s-gn-b Bbn-cp-p.
Xe-b-e-m\w F ep \S bp-n Ctlw tNc,
tNmf-ssk-\y-sf tXmev]n-p.As\ Xe-b-e-m-\p scp-sh
]mWvUy F t]cn-\l-\mbn. D-tc-y-bntep hnP-b-I-c-ambn
]S-\-bn--Xn-\m

Bcy--ssS-I-S- -s\-Sp-s-gn-b Fpw

hnfn--s-n-cpp.
cmw s\Sp-s-gn-b Xan-gvI-hn-I-sfbpw hnZzm-m-scbpw BZ-cn-n-cp
cmPm-hm-bn- cp-p. Ah-cpsS klm-b-tm-sS-bmWv a[p-c-bn IssS-kwLw F
HSp-hn-es kwLw m]n--s--Xv.

Nn-c-N-m
sNdnb `qhn-`m-K--fn `cWw \S-n-bn-cp \mSp-hm-gn-I Ipdp-\n-e-a-
AYhm th (thfn) FmWv Adn-b-s-n-cp--Xv. Ch-cn

aqth--m-cpsS \nb-{-

W-]-cn-[n-p-nepw Am-sXbpw `cWw \S-n-bn-cp--h Dv.

AXn-b-am
Nn-c-N-m-cn {]tXyIw FSp-p-]-d-tb B BWv AXn-bam. XISq
F {]tZiw Xe- m-\-amn `cWw \S-n-bn-cp-p.hoc-nepw Zm\ -nepw
t{ijvT\
- mbncpp. kp{]k
- n Ihb
- n{-Xn- bmb Huhb
- m Ctl
-
- ns cmPk
- `-b
- n
AwK- am-bn-cp-p. Hcn AXn-b-ams in-sb-n th {X Adn-hn-msX
sXmssam F Hcp Nn- cN B{I-a-W-ns\m-cp-n. Atm Huh-bm ZqXp- ambn sNv
AXn- b - a ms [oc- X - s b- - nbpw ssk\y- _ - e s--nbpw t_m[y-s-Spn, bpw Hgn-hm-n.
IssS- F-gp-h-I Fp {]kn-n-bmn
Ggp-Zm-\-io- e-cn Hcm-fm-bn-cpp AXn-bam.

146

(XISq FXv Cs []pcn FdnbsSp eamWv)

IssSFgp-h-I
Nn-c-N-m-cn DZm-c-a-Xn-I-fmb Ggp-Zm-\-io-e
t{ijvT-m-cmbn hmgv-s-Sph cm-Wv. X-fpsS
[ocX
- s
- b
- m Zm\i
- oe
-
- nemWv Ah {]ik
- vXc
- mb
- X
- v.
]p-mv F {K-nse Nndp-]m-Wm-p-ssS
F IrXn IssSFgp-h-IfpsS amlm -ys FSp-p-]-d-bp-p-v.

ap-h-np tXsIm-Sp ]mcn

abn-en\p ]pXp \evInb t]I

AXn-b-am

Huh-bm
ap-h-np tXsIm-Sp ]mcn
abn-en\p ]pXp \evInb t]I
Hu--bmp s\n \evInb AXn-b-am
A]q-hkv{Xw kzbw AWn-bmsX inh\p \evInb BbvAn-c
sImn-a-e-bnse Iqp-Imv kzw cmPyw Xs km-\n hhn-Hmcn
bmNn--h\p Xs IpXn-csbbpw \mSn-s\bpw \evInb ae-b-am Xncp-ap-Sn-Imcn
Imn Ign-tbn h-tmgpw tXSn-hhp th-sXmw Zm\w sNbvX
\nb-tm-S
Cu Ggp-t]cpw ]cs And-b-s-Sp--h-cm-Wv.

147

hnNm-cn--am-{X-bn Hpw Nnn-msX sNbvX Zm\w F-Xn-\m CXns\ AXn-c


Zm\w F A-n Xan-gn sImssS-aSw Fp hnti-jn-n-p-p.

kwL-ImeIhn-I
kwL-Im-e-I-hn-I-fn IWn-b]q-p-\m, I]n-e, ]c-W, \o-c,
hnkn-cm-ss-bm, tamkn-Io-c-\m, s]cp-n-n-c-\m XpS-n-b-h FSp-p-]-d-b-s
-tS--h-cm-Wv.
Hu-bm Imss-m-Sn-\n-bm, \s-ss-bm, apS-m-a--n-bm, shn-ho-Xn-bm,
]mcn-bpsS aln-f-am-cmb A-ssh-k-ssh Fn-h-scms kwL-Ime Ih-bn-{Xn-I-fmbn-cp-p.
cmPm--m-cnse Ihn-Ifmbn-cpp ]mWvUy-. A-dn-hp-ssS-\-n, Bcy--ssS-I-S
s\Sp-s-gn-b, tNmf Ipf-ap-p

Xpnb Inn-h-f-h, tNmf \p-cp-n-c

XpS-n-b-h.

kwL-Im-e-k-aqlw
Xan-g-I-ns Ncn-{X-n kwL-Im-es kph-Imew FmWv tcJ-s-Spn-bn-p--Xv. As P\X kzmX shSnv Pohn--h-cm-bn-cp-p. \mSn-sbpw
`mj-bp-sSbpw hf-bvp-thn A[zm-\n--h-cm-Wh. [mn-I-X-bn Ddp \nv
AXn{]-Imcap PohnXw Nn-s-Spn Pohn-p-Im-Wn--h-cm-bn-cpp. AXp -Xs
]nevm-es Xan-gvk-{-Zm-b-hp-am-bn.
Hm-bn kqnmw
cmPm--m

sImSn

]pjv]w

Xem\w

XpdapJw

`cW{]tZiw

]\q

hn

sXmn

Cs tIcfw,

apkndn

tkew, tImbq

ASbmfw
tNc

hnv

Nnq, hSs BmSv,


tNmf
]my

]pen
ao

Anq
thn]q

Ddbq
a[pc

Imthcnq

sXs BmSv, sNv,

]Ww

Xmhq, Xncpndmn

sImss

a[pc, ]pXptm, cma\mY


]pcw, Xncps\then

148

aqey-\nbw
I.

aqh-cn (tN-c, tNmf, ]mWvUy) Rm Bcv?


icn-bmb Dcw sXc-s-Spv Fgp-Xp-I.
1. ]\-q-ame [cn--h .............
2. a[pc Fs Xe-m\w .............
3. ]pen-smSn Fs Nnw .............
4. Imth-cn-q--Ww Fs Xpd-apJw .............
5. aosImSn Fs Nnw .............

II. tbmPn-n-pI

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

]pen
hnv
ao
Zn-W-a-[pc
I]m-S-]pcw
Cp a[pc

]mWvUy
a[y-kwLw
HSp-hn-es kwLw
tNmf
tNc
BZy-kwLw

III. tNmZy-v Npcpn Dcw \evIpI

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

kwL-Imew Fm Fv?
kwL- F{X? Ah GsXmw?
kwL-Ime Ih-bn-{Xn-I-fpsS t]sc-gp-XpI?
aqth-I Bscms?
Icn-Im-e Bcv? At-l-ns {]tXy-I-X-I Fsms?
IssS Fgp-h-I Bscms?

IV. hni-Z-ambn Dcw \evIp-I.

1. kwL-Im-ev Pohn-n-cp t{ijvT-cmb Ihn-I-fpsS t]sc-gp-XpI.


2. tNc-tNmf]mWvUy -cm-Pm--m `cn-n-cp {]tZ-i--fpsS ]nI Xm-dm-p-I.
Ipdnv
hSs BmSv FXv Ctm-gs theq Xncp-h-m-ae Pn-Isf kqNn-n-p-p.
CXp-t]mse addp {]tZ-i-pw Ctm-gs Pn-Ipw Xn-ep _w IpnIv hni-Z-amn sImSp-m-hpXmWv.

149

V. {]hnp ]Tnmw.
NphsS ImWp--Xp-t]m-se-bp at\m-`q-]Sw Nn{X- tNcpw tNmfpw
thn Xm-dm-p-I.
]mWvUy

AS-bm-f-]pjv]w
thn]qhv

sImSnao
`c-W-{]-tZiw
a[p-c, cma-\m-Y-]p-cw,
]pXp-tm-, Xncp-s\then
t{ijvT-cm-Pm--m
\ne--cp-Xn-cp-hn]m-WvUy
]mWvUy s\Sp-s-gn-b

Xe-m\w
a[pc

VI. hcq! \apv {K-im-e-bn-tev t]mImw. Ipdn-p-I Xm-dmmw.


1. kwL-km-ln-Xy-nse Fp-smssI cNn Ihn-I-fpsS t]cp-I.
2. ]p-mv F kam-lm-c-nse IrXn-I-fpsS t]cp-Ifpw AXns
cN-bn-Xm-fpw.
3. ]nm-es tNc-tNm-f-]m-WvUy-cm-Pm--m-cpsS t]cp-I-fpsS ]nI.
4. IssS-F-gp-h-Isf kw_-n IY-I.

VII. k-ev]nmw Fgp-Xmw.


1. Rms\mcp cmPm-hm-bm \ `cWw \evIm Fsms sNpw?
2. \nv Hcp \ cmPm-hm-I-W-sa-n Fsms \ KpW- hf
nsbSp-t--Xp-v.

VIII. {]h\w
Xncp-n-dm--nv Acn-In-ep IW kinv AW-bpsS nXn, \nn-Xn,
{]tbm-P-\- Fnh a\nemp-I.
aqth--cpsS ]Xm-I-I \nn-pI.
Cs anI Xan-gvI-hn-I-fpsS ]nI Xm-dm-p-I.

150

2. temIw Npnb km-cn-I


]pXnb e Idnbp-hm-\p B{K-l-amWv a\p-jys km-c-v ASnm-\w. ]pcm-X-\-Im-ev ]pXnb \mSp-I Ip a\-n-em-m\pw hym]mcw sNm\pw
IpSn-tb-dm thnbpw ]pXnb ]pXnb hkvXp--sf-n a\-n-em-m thnbpw apw
[mcmfw bm{X-I \S-n-bn-p-v.
kwL-Im-e-X-an-g-I-nse P\-v {Kokv, tdmw, CuPn-]vv, Atd-_y cmPy, ate-jy, Ing-n-y Zzo]p-I, Cugw (kn-tem), ssN\ apX-emb cmPy--fp
-ambn hym]m-c-_-- Dm-bn-cp-p. {Kov tZi-n\pw Cy-p-an-S-bn Bsmn\v 120 I-ep-I hp t]mbn-sm-n-cp-p Fv Ncn-{X-Im-c-m Nqn-m-Wnp-p. kwL-Im-e-cm-Pm--m IShm-Wn-Py-n {]i-kvX-cm-bn-cp-p. AXn-\mbn
Ah ]e-\m-Sp-I kin-p-Ibpw sNbvXn-cp-p. AhsctmseXs ]e cmPy-
-fn \np km-cn-I ISh-gnbpw Ic-h-gnbpw \psS \mn-tev hpw t]mbp
ancp-p.

Ic-am-bm-{X-I
kap-{Z-am- Xncn--dn-bp--Xn\p appXs ]e `q`m-K-fn-sebpw km-cn-I X-fpsS Ab\m-Sp-I-fn-tepsNv
Ahn-Ss Imem-h-, P\--fpsS Pohn-X-co-Xn, km-n-Ih-f XpS-n-b-h-sb-n a\-n-em-n-bncp-p.Ah-cpsS Iqn Cy-bn-tep h Nne km-cn-Isf-n \app a\
-n-em-n-bmtem?

saK-kvX-\okv ({In. ap. 350-290)


Ctlw {Kokn \npw h Hcp km-cn-bm-bn-cp-p. \smcp `qan-im-kv{Xhn-Z-Kv-\m-bn-cp-p. N{-Kp-]vX-au-cys `c-W-Im-ev ]m_v hgn Cy-bn Fntp. Av ]mS-eo-]p-{X-ns `cWw \nb-{n-n-cp skeyq-kv

\nt-dns

ZqX-\mbn {]hn-n-cp-p. Ctlw Fgp-Xnb CUnF {K-n Cy-sbnbp [mcmfw hnhc DsSpnbnpv.

151

Xan-gv\m-n kwL-Ime ]mWvUy `cn-n-cp Imev Atlw a[p-c-bn hp.


Xan-gv\m-Sns\]n am{X-a lnam-e-b-s-nbpw em-Zzo-]n-s\-nbpw Ahn-S-s {]IrXn-`w-Kn-sb-p-dn-pw- Xs {K-n `wKn-bmbn hnh-cn-n-pv. Cu {Kw ]nm
-ev Cy kin \nc-h[n km-cn-Iv

Bh-iy-amb

hnh-c- {]Zm\w

sNbvXp.
cmw N{-Kp-]vXs `c-W-Im-ev ssN\-bn
\nv Cy-bn-te-p-h km-cn-bm-bn-cpp ^mln-bm.
Hcp _p-a-X-k-\ym-kn-bmb Ctlw Cy-bpsS ]e `mK-fn- Npn k-cn-n-p-v. ]e _p-a-X- B-cm-[-\m-e-b
-fpw inem-en-Jn-X-fpw \nco-n-p.

lpbm-MvkmMv ({In. ap. 603-664)


Ctlw ssN\-bn \nv Imivao Xmgvhc hgn Cybn-tev hp. Lj-h[-\ F N{I-hn-bpsS `cW-Im-e-m-bn-cp-p. _p-a-X-s-n a\-n-em-m-\mbncpp At-l-ns bm{X-.
\fm k-I-em-im-e-bn 12 hj-mew Xn aX-hn-Zym-`ymkw t\Sn. AtXmsSmw
Xs kmln-Xyw, hymI-c-Ww, sshZyw, thZ-, XXz-im-kv{Xw, IcIu
iew Fn-hbpw A`y-kn-p.
]-h Zn-tW-y-bn `cWw \S-n-bn-cp Imev Atlw
Imo-]p-c-p-h-p. Iptd-mew AhnsS Xma-kn-p-Ibpw sNbvXp.Amev Imn-bn 10,000 _p-`n-p- Xma-kn-n-cp-pshpw \qdn-tesd
_p-hn-lm-c- Dm-bn-cpp Fpw Atlw Xs bm{Xm-hn-h-c-W-{K-n

Fgp-Xn-bn-p-v. kyqn FmWv B bm{Xm-hn-h-c-W-{K--

ns t]cv. ]mWvUy-\m-n Av A\p-`-h-s-n-cp ma-s--nbpw


{]kvXpX {K-n kqNn-n-n-p-v.

C_v _q ({In. h. 1304-1368)


Cy kin BZys apow km-cn-bmWv C_v _q-. samtdm-
km-cn-bmb Ctlw sXp-]-Sn-m-d ae-mX hgn-bm-Wv Cy-bn-tev h-Xv.
apl--Zv_n Xp-ns `c-W-Im-e-m-bn-cpp AXv. Cy-bpsS kmaq-ly-cm-jv{Sob
nXn-K-Xn-I-sf-n a\-n-em-m-\m-bn-cpp B hc-hv.

152

Cy-bn Dm-bn-cp Imev 7 hj-mew Uln


-bn Atlw \ymbm-[n-]-\mbn tPmen sNbvXn-cp-p.
GI-tZiw 30 hj-mew Atlw bm{X-bn Xs-bmbn-c-pp.IpXn-c, H-Iw, tXmWn, Im\S XpS-nb hnhn[-am--fn-eqsS Atlw AXn-Zqcw bm{X

sNbvXn-

cp-p. samw 44 cmPy-- kin-p.


Uln-bnse kpm-m-cpsS cmjv{Sob
kmaq-lnI kwhn-[m-\-sf kqva-ambn

\nco-nv Xs ]pkvX-I-n

tcJ-s-Sp-n-bn-p-v. kin \mSp-I-fpsS `qan-im-kv{Xw, {]Ir-Xn-k--v,


P\--fpsS Pohn-X-coXn XpS-n-b-h-sb- n

hni-Z-ambn Fgp-Xn-bn-p-v.

Ct-l-ns kmcw `qan-im-kv{X-]-T-\-n\v hfsc klm-b-I-am-bn-p-v.

kap-{Z-k-m-c-
kap-{Z-am- Ip-]n-Sn-p--Xn\pw hym]mcw sNp--Xn-\p-ambn bm{X
\S-n-bn-cp Nnesc \ap-n-hnsS ]cn-N-b-sSmw.

amtm-t]mtfm ({In. h. 1254-1324)


amtm-t]mtfm C-en-bnse sh\okv \K-c-n P\n-p. {InkvXp-hjw 1271-mw
Bv \t sNdp--n Xs A-t\m-sSmw ssN\-bn-tev bm{X sNbvXp.
BZyw kap-{Z-amtW t]jy D-S-en Fn.
AhnsS \nv Ic-hgn 5 hjw bm{X sNbvXv ]n-tajy-bnse tKm]n acp-`qan ISv ssN\-bn {]thin-p.
amtm-t]mtfm ssN\-bnse cmPm-hmb IpssJms
cmP-k-`-bn tPmen sNbvXp. bptdm-]y bp-ap-d-I
]cn-N-b-s-Spn klm-bn-p. AXn-\m ssN\-bpsS
Hcp {]tZ-i-ns

KhW-dmbpw

cmPm-hns

ZqX-

\mbpw tPmen sNm km[n- p. AhnsS \npw Cy, ayma, e Fo


cmPy- - f n- t ev k- c n- p. 16 h j- mew ssN\- b n Xma- k n- - t ijw
kztZ-i-tp aS-n. ssN\-bn\nv sImp h hkv{X-,

153

B`- c - W - , sNv , sshcw XpS- nb Aaq- e y- h - k v X p- P\- p


]cn- N - b - s - S p- n. Ing- \mSp- I - f psS al- z- s - n amtmt]mtfm
IuXp- I - I - c - a mb hnhc \In.
k-cn \mSp-I-fp-sS-sbms {]Ir-Xn-L-S\, \K-c-kw-hn-[m-\w, kmaq-ly-Po-hnXw,
hym]mcw Fn-h-sb-n \mbn ]Tn-p. amtm-t]mtfm Xs bm{Xm-\p-`-h--sf
anen-tbm 2 F bm{Xm-hn-h-c-W-n tcJ-s-Sp-n-bn-p-v.

_-tem-anbm Ubkv ({In. h. 1450-1500)


t]mp-Kokv cmPm-hmb tPm cm-as tk\m-\m-bI-\mbncpp _-tem-anb Ub-kv. Cy-bn-te-p
kap-{Z-amw At\z-jnv aqp I-ep-I- fp-ambn {InkvXp-hjw
1487-mw Bv bm{X Xncn Ctlw B{^n--bpsS sXt
A-p ap\-n Fn-tp. Atm hoin-b-Sn
sImSp-m-ns ImTn-\y-m bm{X XpScm km[n-msX
t]mbn. AXp- s Imv B{^n- - b psS sXs ap\- n\v
sImSp-mp ap\v Fp t]cp-anv aS-n-tm-bn. B{^n--bpsS
Zn-W-ap-\-n Fn-t BZy bqtdm-]y km-cn-bm-bncpp Ct-lw. tPm cm-a cmPmhv ]noSv Cu ap\-n\v {]Xo--bpsS ap\v
Fv t]cn-p.

saK- ({In. h. 1480-1521)


kap-{Z-n-eqsS k-cnv temIw Npn h BZys B F _lp-aXn
t]mp-Kokv \mhn-I-\mb saK--\p-- Xm-Wv. Ctlw kvs]bn-\n \nv 270
\mhn-I-tcm-sSmw 5 I-ep-I-fn ]Sn-m-dp-Zn- n-tev bm{X Xncn-p. Ah
AvemnIv alm-k-ap{Zw hgn sXtAta-cn--bpsS ap\-n Fn-tp. B
`mK-n\v saK- Pe-kn (Megallan Strait) Fp t]cn-p.
]noSv s]k-^nIv alm-k-ap-{Z-n-eqsS bm{X XpSp.
Cu `mK-v kap{Zw sImSp-mnstbm Af-h Xnc-am-e-I-fptStbm iey-an-msX im-ambn ImW-s--Xn-\m im-k-ap{Zw
(Pacific Ocean) Fp t]cn-p.
bqtdm-n \nv ]Sn-mtd Zni-bn-eqsS Gjy-bn-tev
IS-en-eq-sS-bpff hgn Atlw Is-n. kvs]bn-\n \nv

154

bm{X ]pd-sv ^nen-sskv Zzo]p-I hsc sNs-n. Cu bm{X-bvn-S-bn Xs


saK-\pw IqsS-bp-m-bn-cphcn ]ecpw acn-p. tijn-n- cp Nne am{Xw 1522-mw
Bv kvs]bn-\n XncnsI Fn-tp.
GI-tZiw aqp-hj-m-es kap-{Z-bm{XsImv Ah
temIs Npn hp.`qan Hcp tKmf-am-sWpw Cu bm{Xbn-eqsS sXfn-bn--s-p. saK- Xs bm{Xm-\p`-h-sf
Znp-I AS-bm-f-s-Sp-nb tcJm-Nn-{X- klnXw
Ipdnp hn-cp-p. BZy-ambn e--fpsS tcJm-Nn-{X D]-tbm-Kn-Xv saK--\m-Wv.
saK-s bm{X-bmWv s]k-^nIv kap{Zw hgn
]pXnb bm{X-Ipw hmWn-Py-n\pw hgn-Im-n-bm-b-Xv.

bqtdmv

]k-^nIv alm-k-ap{Zw

hSt
Ata-cn

Gjy

Cy

B{^n
Cy
alm-k-ap{Zw

sXt
Ata-cn

Bkvt{S-enb

{In-^ sImfw-_kv ({In.-h. 1451-1506)


Ctlw C-en-bnse Pt\mhm \K-c-n P\n-p. amtm-tmtfm-bpsS
bm{Xm-hn-h-c-W- hmbn sImfw-_ -kn\v kap-{Z-k-m-c-n AXn-bmb
Xmev]cyw P\n-p.

Am-ev Gjybpw bqtdmpw Xn-ep hmWnPyw

155

Ic-h-gn -bmWv \Sncp--Xv. BI-bm ssN\-bn-tepw


Cy-bn-te pw kap-{Z-n-eqsS hgn Ist-Xv
Bh-iy-ambn hp. ]Sn-m-tdmv bm{X sNbvXv
Cy-bn-se-pI F-Xm-bn- cpp

]k-^nIv alm-k-ap{Zw

bqtdmv

hSt
Ata-cn
]k-^nIv alm-k-ap{Zw

At-l-ns eyw.

Gjy

]mtemkv
kvs]bn-

Cy

Icn-_o-b IS

B{^n
Cy
alm-k-ap{Zw

sXt
Ata-cn

Bkvt{S-enb

{In^ sImfw_-kns kap-{Z-bm{X

{In.-h. 1492 kvs]bn-\nse cmPm-hns klm-b-tmsS kmm-a-cnb F


I-en Atlw bm{X Bcw-`n-p-. 50 Znhkw bm{X sNbvX-tm hSt Atacn-
bpsS Ing- Xoc-p Hcp Zzo]-k-aq-l-n Fn. AXv Cy-bm-Wv Fp sXn-cnv AhnsS Xma-kn-n-cp P\-sf Nph Cym-m (sdUv Cykv) Fp
hnfn-p. Cu Zzo]p-I Ctm ]na Cy Zzo]p-I F A-n
shv CUokv sFe vkv Fv Adn-b-s-Sp-p.
{In. h. 1520 kap-{Z-k-mcw \S-nb Ata-cntKm shkv]qKn F \mhn
I\mWv Atacn Is-n-b-Xv.AXv Cy Bbn-cp-n Fpw AXv

Hcp ]pXnb

`qJ-WvU-am-sWpw Xncn--dn--Xpw At-l-am-bn-cp-p. B `qJWvUw At-l-ns


t]cn Ata-cn Fv Ad-nb-s-p.

156

hmkvtImU Kma ({In. h. 1460-1524)


bqtdmv `qJ-WvU-nse t]mp-Kokv cmPym-c-\mb Hcp
\mhn-I-\m-bn-cpp hmkvtImU Kma. _-tem-an-bm-U-b-ns

kap-

{Z-k-m-c-n-\p-th-n-bp I \nm-Wns tat\mw hlnn-cp Bfm-bn-cpp Ct-lw.


t]mp-Ko-knse enkv_ Xpd-ap-Jp \nv bm{X Bcw-`n
Ctlw B{^n-bpsS ]Sn-m-d Xocv sXt A-pff {]Xo--bpsS ap\n Fn-tp.

Cym-m-c-\mb Hcp hym]m-cn-bpsS klm-b-tmsS Cy alm-k-ap{Zw


ISv Cy-bpsS ]Sn-m-d Xoc-p tIc-f-nse tImgn-tmSv F ep
hptNp. AXv {In. h. 1498 sabv 20mw XobXn Bbn-cp-p.
As\ bqtdm-n\pw Cypw CS-bnep kap-{Z-k-m-c-amw BZyambn IsnbXv hmkvtIm-UKm-a-bm-Wv. bqtdmpw Cybpw Xn IS hgnbp hym]mcw Bcw-`n-p--Xn\pw XpSv Cy- bq-tdm-ns tImf\n Bbn-o-cp
--Xn-\p-ap

ASn-m-\-am-bn-oXv hmkvtIm-U-Km-a-bpsS

bm{X-bm-bn-cpp.

]nsbpw cp-{]m-hiyw Ctlw Cy-bn-tev bm{X sNbvXn-p-v.

]k-^nIv alm-k-ap{Zw

bqtdmv

Gjy

enkv_ t]mp-K

AvemvdnIv
alm-k-ap{Zw

Cy

B{^n
tImgn-tmSv

sXt
Ata-cn

]k-^nIv alm-k-ap{Zw

hSt
Ata-cn

Cy
alm-k-ap{Zw
aU-Km-kvI Zzo]v

edif Kid

hmkvtImU Kma-bpsS kap-{Z-k-m-c-]Yw

157

Bkvt{S-enb

Hmnmw Ismw
bm{X-I

Icbm{X-I
saK-kvX-\okv CUnIm

ISbm-{X-I
amtm-t]mtfm

^mln-bm

_-tem-anbm Ubv

lqbm-MvkmMv

saK-

C_v _q

{In-^ sImfw-_kv
hmkvtIm-U-Kma

]pXnb hgn-I `qan Dcp-Xv Ip-]n-Sp- hym]mcw IpSn-tbw kw_


-n hnh-c-
Hcp tZi-ns {]Ir-Xn-k--v, km-nI nXn, Pohn-X-co-Xn, `c-W-k-{
-Zmbw kw_-n-p hnh-c-p-dn-p-I
_p-aXw Am-es cmPm--m \mfm k-I-em-im-e-sb--n-bp hnhc-
Adn-n-cnmw

Cw-ns BZy-`q-]Sw hc B tSmfan


tSmf-an-bpsS `q]-S-amWv ]nm-e-p-mb ]e `q]-S-pw ASn-m-\-am-b-Xv.
_yqKn F I-en temIw Npnb A\p-`-h-n \nv Pohn-h--fpsS
Dhw F {Kw cNn B Nmkv Umhn
I-ep-I-fpsS thKX IW-m-p GIIw \mv
temIw Npnb BZy I-ens t]cv hnIvtSm-dnb

158

aqey-\nbw

I. icn-bmb Dcw sXc-s-Spv Fgp-XpI


1. ]-h-cpsS Imev Imo-]qcw kin kmcn
A) ^mln-bm B) lpbm-MvkmMv C) amtm-t]mtfm
2. sh\okv \K-c-m-c\mb kmcn
A) saK-
B) amtm-t]mtfm C) hoc-am-ap-\n-h
3. ]mWvUy-`-c-W-Im-ev Xan-gv\mSv kin kmcn
A) saK-kvX-\okv B) C_v _ C) tSmfan

II. ]qcn-n-pI
1. \mw Hcp ep \npw asmcp e-tv t]mIp--Xn\v.................... Fp
]d-bp-p.
2. lpbm-MvkmMv Fgp-Xnb bm{Xm-hn-h-c-Ws .................... Fp ]d-bp-p.
3. hmkvtIm-U- Kma Cy-bn hn-d-n-bXv ..........................F e-m-Wv.
4. saK-kvX-\okv Fgp-Xnb {K-ns t]cv .................................
5. Cy-bn Dm-bn-cp Ghpw ]pcm-X-\-amb kh-I
- -em-ime.............................

III. tbmPn-n-pI
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

saK-kvX-\okv
lpbm-MvkmMv
amtm-t]mtfm
Ata-cntKm shkv]qKn
saK-
hmkvtIm-U -Kma

anen-tbm 2
Ata-cn
kyqn
`q]-S-ns BZy- D-]-tbmKw
t]mp-Kokv \mhn-I
CUn

159

IV. Npcpn Fgp-XpI


1. kmcw Fm-sev?
2. hmkvtIm-U- Kma Cy-bn-tev GXp-am-n-eq-sS-bmWv hX?v
3. saK-kvX-\okv Xs {K-n kqNn-n-n-p-Xv Fsms?
4. sImSp-mp ap\v Fm-sev? B t]cv Dm-b-sX-s\?

V. `q]Sw D]-tbm-Knv km-c-]m-X-I hcp cknmw.


kap-{Z-p \oe-\ndw \evIpI
hmkvtIm-U- Km-a-bpsS km-c-]mX ]-\n-d-n AS-bm-f-s-Sp-pI
sImfw-_-kns km-c-]mX Idp-p-\ndw sImv AS-bm-f-s-Sp-pI
saK-s km-c-]mX Nph-p-\ndw sImv AS-bm-f-s-Sp-pI
Ch-bn Ghpw \ofw IqSnb bm{X Bcp-tSXv?

160

3. \mw hkn-p `qan


tImSn--W-n\p hj-p apv A\--amb BIm-iv Hcp almkvt^m-S\w (Big Bang) Dmbn Fp imkv{X- Icp-Xp-p. Atm {]Im-itaLw t]mse NnX-dnb {Zhy-I-Wn-I-I s\_p-e-I (Nebulas) F t]cn Adn-bs-Sp-p. Cu s\_p-e-I-fn \nmWs{X \-{X-a-WvU-e-fpw kqcy-Ip-Spw-_hpw
Dm-b-Xv.

`qan-bpsS D-hw
alm-kvt^m-S-\-m cq]w sIm kqcy-Ip-Spw-_-nse Hcp AwK-amWv `qan.
alm-kvt^mS-\- ^-e-ambn Dmb AXn-I-Tn-\-amb NqSpsImv hmX-I-fpw {Zhy-I-Wn
-Ifpw {]]-amsI hym]n-p. Imew Gsd IS--tm- Dm-b am--fpsS ^eambn
BIm-iv [mcmfw taL- Hcp-an-pIq-Sn.
{ItaW XWp taL--fn \np h ag
s]m XpS-n.
hj--tfmfw s]bvXp-sIm-n-cp ag-bm
`qan-bpsS

ta-cv XWp-p-dv ]md-I-fp-

m-bn. ag-bmbn s]bvXn-d-nb shw `qan-bnse


Xmgv {]tZ-i--fn \ndv alm-k-ap-{Z- (Oceans) cq]w sImp. sh-n
apmsX tijn `mK `qJ-WvU--fmbn (Continents).

`qan-bpsS D`m-K-ns LS\


`qan-bpsS LS-\sb \mep-`m-K--fmbn Xcw-Xn-cn-mw-.
1. `qhw (Crust)
2. D-hNw (Mantle)
3. ]pd-mv (Outer Core)
4. AI-mv (Inner Core)

161

\n-dn-bmtam?
`qan kqcy-\n \nv 93 aney ssa (93,000,000 Intem-ao-) AI-se-bm-Wv.
kqcys\Npp ap tKmf--fpsS \nc-bn aqma-Xn-S-m-Wv `qan)

`qan-bpsS tKmf-a-WvU-e-
-e-a-WvUew
Pe-a-WvUew
hmbp-a-WvUew (A--co-w)
ssPh-a-WvUew
Fv \membn Xncnp ]cn-tim-[n-mtem?

e-a-WvUew (Litho sphere)


`qan-bpsS D]cnXen-embn ImW-s-Sp `mK-am-Wv eaew. Chn-sS
-bmWv ae-I, ]oT-`q-an-I, Xmgvhc-I, ka-X-e- Fn-h-sbms ImW-s-Sp--Xv.

Pe-a-WvUew (Hydrosphere)
`qan-bpsS taev]-c-n Pew \ndp ImW-s-Sp `mKs sam-n
Peaew Fp ]d-bp-p. alm-k-ap-{Z-, kap-{Z-,XSm-I- Fn-h-sbms
CXns-Spw.

hmbp-a-WvUew (A--cow) (Atmosphere)


`qan-bpsS Dm-nse amKva `qhs ]nfp-sImv ]pd-t-ph
tm AXnse hmX-I-fpw \ocm-hn-bp-samsqSn `qan-p-ta

Hcp hmbp-a-WvU-e-

ambn cq]-sa-Sp-p. Cu hmbp-a-WvUew `qan-bpsS Kpcp-Xzm-Ij-W-_ew \nanw AI


p t]mImsX `qansb Npn nXn sNp-p. CXn-s\-bm-Wv hmbp aWvU-e-sap ]dbp-Xv.

ssPh-a-WvUew (Biosphere)

ssPh-a-WvUew (Biosphere)
kky-fpw Pp-fpw Pohn-p `mK-s-bmWv

hmbp-a-WvUew

ssPh-a-WvUew Fp ]d-bp--Xv. CXn Ic, Pew,


hmbp Fnh Ds-Spw.

`qJWvU-fpsS cq]-s-S
`qan Dm-b-tm `qJ-WvU--fn-msX H `qJ

ssPh-a-WvUew (Biosphere)
Pe-a-WvUew

-WvU-am-bn-cp-p. ]mPnbm

e-a-WvUew

162

`qJWvUw (Pangea) Fm-W-Xn\p t]cv. Bbn-c--W-n\p hj-- fpsS Ne-\w


sImv `qan-bpsS ]pd-tmSv ]e Ij- W--fmbn AIpXpS-n. A-s\-bmWv
`qJ-Wv U-^-e-I- (Continental Plates) cq]-s--Xv.
`qJ-WvU-^-e-I- `qan-p-n Xnf-p-a-dn-p-sIm-n-cn-p amKva-bpsS apIfn s]mn-n-S-p-I-bm-Wv. am{X-a Ne\w aqew Imem--c-n ]c-kv]cw sXnam
dn-b-Xns

^e-ambn ]pXnb

`qJ-WvU- cq]-s-p. Ctmgpw Cu `qJ-WvU-

sas sas \on-sm-t-bn-cn-p-p.

`qJ-WvU-^-e-I-p ta BsI Ggp `qJ-WvU- nXn sNp-p.


1. Gjy 2. B{^n 3. hSs Ata-cn 4. sXt Ata-cn 5. bqtdmv
6. Bkvt{X-enb 7. Amn Fn-h-bmWv
hSv sXv Ata-cn--Ifpw Gjy, B{^n-, bqtdmv Fnhbpw Htm-sSmp sXmp
InS-p `qJ-WvU--fm-Wv.
Bkvt{X-enb Fm hi-fpw Pe-m Np-s {]tXyI Zzo]v `qJ-WvU-amWv.
Amn apgp-h\pw ap aqSn-n-S-p-p.

`qJ-WvU-]-e-I-Ip aney
Bp-I app apX Cp-hsc

A[ym-]-Iv
Cu Nn{X-nse ]e \nd--sfbpw GItZiw-hj--sfbpw Xmc-Xayw sNbvXp Ipn-Ip hni-Zo-I-cn-p-sIm-Sp-mw.

163

Cy hSpZni-bn-tepw hSp sXv Ata-cn--I ]Sn-m-dp-Zn-i-bn-tepw


Bkvt{X-enb Amn--bpsS t\scbpw \on-sm-n-cn-p-p. Cu \on\p ]e Imc-W-- ]d-b-s-Sp-p.
`qan-bpsS D]-cn-X-e-ns LS\sb ]h-X-, ]oT-`q-an-I, ka-X-e-, Xmgv
hc-I Fn-s\ \membn Xncn-mw.

]-X-
`qJ-WvU-^-e-I--fpsS \o-m Dm-Ip kw sImpw An-]-Xkvt^m-S-\-ns ^e-ambpw `qan-bpsS D]-cn-X-e-n ]h-X-fpw ae-\n-c-Ifpw IppIfpw cq]-s-Sp-p. (D-Zm-l-c-W-)
1. lnam-e-b-]hXw

Gjy

2. BUokv ]h-X-\nc sXs Ata-cn


3. B]vkv

bqtdmv

4. tdmn ]hXw

hSs Ata-cn

5. Infn-a-mtcm

B{^n
B]vkv

lnam-e-b- ]hXw

]oT-`q-an-I
]h-X-sfm Dbcw Ipd-hm-sW-nepw km[m-cW `q\n-c-n \nv Dbv
]cp InS-p- hnim-e-amb `q{]-tZ-i--sf-bmWv ]oT-`qan Fp ]d-bp--Xv.
Um ]o-T--`qan

(D-Zm-l-c-W-)
1. Xn_v ]qthjy
2. Um ]o-T--`qan Gjy (C-y)
3. sImf-dm-tUm -]oT-`qan hSt Ata-cn

164

ka-X-e-
kap-{Z-\n-c-n \nv 0300 ao hsc Db-c-ap \ncp ]c hnim-e-amb
`q{]-tZ-i--sf-bmWv ka-X-e- Fp ]d-bp--Xv.
DZm-l-c-W-
1. D-tc-y ka-Xew Gjy (C-y)
(kn-p-Kw-Km-k-a-X-ew)
2. enbm\mkv ka-Xew

sXs Ata-cn

3. ew_mUn- k-a-Xew

bqtdmv

Xmgvhc-I
`qan-bn Dm-Ip hn-ep-I ImcWw Nne `q`m-K- Xmgvpw Nne `mK Dbpw ImW-s-Sp-p. Cs\Db cp `q`m-K-nS-bn D Xmgv
{]tZ-i--sf-bmWv Xmgvhc-I Fp ]d-bp--Xv.
DZm-lc-W-
1. ss\Xmgvhc B{^n
2. {Km v Imt\ym- hSs Ata-cn
3. knp Xmgvhc Gjy

ss\Xmgvhc

ka-Xew

hyXykvX `qL-S-\-I Fs\cq]-sp FmWv CXp-hsc \ a\-n-emn-b-Xv. C\n Pem-i-b--sf-p-dnv t\mmw.

alm-k-ap-{Z-
`qan-bn ImW-s-Sp hfsc Bg-ap AXn-hn-im-e-amb Pem-i-bs alm-kap-{Z- (Oceans) Fp ]d-bp-p. Xmc-X-tay\Bghpw hnkvXr-Xnbpw Ipd--hsb
IS (Sea) Fp ]d-bpp.

165

`qJ-WvU-sf Npn-n-S-p Av alm-k-ap-{Z- Ch-bm-Wv.


1. s]k-^nIv alm-k-ap{Zw
2. AvemnIv alm-k-ap{Zw

s]k-^nIv alm-k-ap{Zw

3. Cy alm-k-ap{Zw

Cy alm-k-ap{Zw

4. AmnIv alm-k-ap{Zw
5. BnIv alm-k-ap{Zw

s]k-^nIv alm-k-ap-{Z-am-Wv Ghpw hep-Xv. `qan-bpsS BsI hnkvXons aqn-sem-mWv CXns hnkvXr-Xn. Ghpw IqSp-X Zzo]p-I-fp-Xv
Cu alm-k-ap-{Z-n-em-Wv.

alm-k-ap-{Z-sf IqSmsX a[y-[-c-Wn--S, Ad-_n--S-, Icn--S XpS-n-bh


FSp-p-]-d-bm-hp Nne IS-ep-I-fm-Wv.
kap-{Z--fpsS ASn-v
IS-ep-I-fpsS ASnp apgp-h Htc \nc-mb Xd-b-. Ahn-sSbpw `qan-bpsS D]-cn
-X-e-s-tmse ]h-X-fpw ae-\n-c-Ifpw Ipp-Ifpw ImW-s-Sp-p-v. IS-en-\-Snbn kw`-hn-p `qan-Ip-ep-- An-]-X-kvt^m-S-\- Fnh sImp-mIp am- Xs-bm-Wn-Xn\p Imc-Ww. CsXms hfsc Bg-n \S-p-Xp
sImv \apv t\cnv ImWm Ignbpn.

(I-S-en-\-Sn-bnse ae-Isf ImWm-a-tm. Fn Ahbvv \ndw sImSpp


ckn-mw)

166

D]-Zzo]v
aqp hi-fpw Pe-m Np-sv Hcp `mKw am{Xw
Ic-bp-ambn _-sp InS-p `q`m-Ks D]-Zzo]v Fp
]d-bp-p.
DZm-l-cWw
Cy D]-`q-JWvUw Hcp D]-Zzo]v BWv. CXns
Ing-p-`m-Kv _wKm D-Sepw ]Sn-m-dp-`m-Kv Ad_n--Sepw sXv Cy alm-k-ap-{ZhpamWv.hS-p-`mKw
am{X-amWv Ic-bp-ambn _-s-n-cn-p--Xv.

Zzo]v
\mep hi-fpw kap-{Z-m Np-sp InS-p `q{]-tZ-is Zzo]v Fp
]d-bp-p.
DZm-l-cWw e, BU-am \ntm-_m, e-Zzo-]p-I

BU-am \ntm-_m

`qansb kwc-nmw
`qan-bmWp \psS hmk--ew. \PsS Poh \ne-\np
Htc-sbmcp {Klw. a\p-jy-cpsS ]e ]e {]hr-n-I-fm `qan-bnse apw Impw aen-\am-Ip-p. {]Ir-Xn-hn-`-h-fp-w ]pw Ipd-p hcp-p. CXp
-aqew

`qan-bpsS Xm]w hn-p--Xn\v CS-bm-Ip-p. a\p-

jys Zpcp-]-tbmKw aqew `qan-bn Pohn-I-fpsS kpJ-I-camb \ne-\n-n-\p km[yX sas sas Ipdp hcp-p.
CXp \app henb B]-n-\n-S-h-cp-p-p. AXp-sImv
a\p-jy-scbpw kky--sfbpw Pp--sfbpw kwc-n--Wsa-p-s-n amen\yfn-m ^e-]p-jvSn-bp Hcp `qanbmbn Cu tKmfs \ne-\n-dp-m-\p Npa-Xe hnZymnI-fmb \ap-p-v.

167

aqey-\nbw
I. icn-bmb Dcw sXc-s-Spv Fgp-XpI.

1. `qan-bpsS D]-cn-X-e-n 0300 ao Db-c-ap {]tZiw


A) ]h-X-

B) ]oT-`qan

C) ka-X-e-

2. e Hcp
A) Zzo]v B) D]-Zzo]v C) IS
3. B]vkv ]Xw nXn sNp `qJWvUw
A) Gjy

B) B{^n

C) bqtdmv

4. Um ]oT-`qan nXn sNp `qJWvUw


A) B{^n

B) Gjy C) Bkvt{X-enb

II. ]qcn-n-pI

1. `qan, Pew, hmbp Fn-h-sbmw tN-Xns\ ___________ Fp ]d-bp-p.


2. Bbn-c--W-n\p hjs Ne\w sImv `qan-bpsS ]pd-tmSv hnSv
AIv ______________ cq]-sp.
3. aqp hi
- Pe
- m Nps
- pw Hcp hiw am{Xw ap IcI
- f
- pa
- mbn _s
- pw
InS-p `q{]-tZ-is ______________Fp ]d-bp-p.
4. alm-k-ap{Ztf-m hnkvXrXn Ipd Pe--c-p-Isf ______________
Fp ]d- bp-p.
III.

tNcpw-]Sn tNpI

1. `qJ-WvU-

BU-am \ntm-_m

2. alm-k-ap-{Z- ss\
3. D]-Zzo]v

Av

4. Xmgvhc

Cy

5. Zzo]p-I

Ggv

IV.

Npcpn Fgp-XpI

1. `qan-bpsS hyXykvX aWvU-e--tfh?


2. ]oT-`q-an-bpsS LS\ F-s\-bp--XmWv?
3. alm-k-ap{Zw Fm-sev?
4. Zzo]v Fm-sev?

168

V. {]h\w
1. hnX-dn-bn-n-cn-p A-c-sf {Ia-s-Spn alm-k-ap-{Z--sfbpw `qJ-WvU-sfbpw Isn Fgp-Xp-I.
s]
y
v
n

B
k
lm

ta

ap
m

C
a
G
y

bq
{Zw

t{X

h
cn
sX
n

A) alm-k-ap-{Z-

^v
S
tdm
b

sX
dn
kv

A
^n
en
v

jy
v

B) `qJ-WvU-

VI. temI-`q-]-S-n `qJ-WvU-fpw alm-k-ap-{Z-fpw tcJ-s-Spn \ndw


sImSp-p-I.

kap-{Z-

sXt Ata-cn

Gjy

Bkvt{X-enb

B{^n

Amn

hSt Ata-cn

169

4. Xncn--dn-bm AS-bm-f-
`qan-bpsS D]-cn-X-e-n-ep Ic, Pew, Fn-h-sb-n a\-n-em-m\pw \K-c- {Kma
- {]Ir-Xn-L-S-\-bnse m\-hy-Xymkw Fn-h-sb-p-dnv Adn-bm\pw `qtKmfw
(Globe) `q]Sw (Map) Fnh klm-bn-p-p.

`qtKmfw (Globe)
`qan-bpsS sNdnb amXr-I-bm-Wv tm_v. `qJ-WvU-,
kap-{Z- alm-k-ap-{Z- Fn-h-sb-n a\-n-em
-m CXp klm-bnpw.
`qan-bn Hcp e-ns m\w IrXy-ambn
Fhn-sS-bmWv F-dn-bm thn tm_n-\p-ta hcn-p-f-f km-ev]nI tcJ-I-fmWv Amw-i-tc-J-Ifpw,
tcJmwi tcJ-Ifpw (ZoL-tc-J-I).
Amw-i-tc-J-I (Latitudes)
`qtKm-f-n-t Ing-p-]-Sn-m-dmbn
hc-n-p tcJ-I-sf-bmWv Amw-i-tc-J-I Fp ]d-bp--Xv. tKmf-ns
a[y-`m-Kp 00 Amw-i-tc-Jsb `qa-[y-tcJ (Equator) Fp ]d-bp-p. CXv `qansb
cv At-Kmf
-
- f
- mbn Xncn
- p
- p. `qa[
- yt-cJ
- b
- psS apI`mK
-
- p A[t-Kmf
- s
hSs ]IpXn F A-n Dcm-tKm-f-sap ]d-bp-p. `qa-[y-tc-Jbvp
Iogv`m-K-mbn ImWp A[-tKm -fs sXs ]IpXn F A-n
Zn-W-m-tKm-f-sapw ]d-bpp.
Amw-i-tc-J-I `qtKm-f-n-t \nnX tImWp-I-fn hc-n-cn-p-p.
00`qa-[y-tc-J- bn \nv hS-tmv 900 D-c-{[phw hscbpw sXv 900
Zn-W-{[phw hscbpw BsI 1800 Amw-i-tc-J-I hc-n-p-v. Ch-bn 231/20

170

Bnv hrw
hSv

hSv In-S-I-tcJ (D--cm-b\tcJ)


`qaytcJ

sXv aIctcJ (ZnWmb\


tcJ)
Amnv hrw

sXv

hSv In-S-I-tcJ AYhm Dcm-b-\-tcJbpw (Tropic of Cancer) 231/20 sXv


aIctcJ AYhm Zn-Wm-b-\ -tcJbpw (Tropic of capricorn), 661/20 hSv
Bnv hrhpw (Arctic Circle) 661/20 sXv Amnv hrhpw
(Antartic Circle) {][m\ Amw-i-tc-J-I-fm-Wv.

ZoL-tc-J-I (Longitudes)
`qtKm-f-n-t hS-p-sX-mbn hc--s-n-p k-ev]-tc-J-Isf ZoL
-tc-J-I

AYhm

tcJmwitcJ-I Fp ]d-bp-p. 0 {Ko\nv ZoL-tcJ `qansb


0

cv A[-tKm-f--fmbn Xncn-p-p.Ings A[-tKmfw (]qhm[-tKm-fw)-]-Sn-msd


AY-tKmfw (]-n-am[-tKm-fw) Fv Ahbvp t]cp \evIn-bn-cn-p-p.
00 {Ko\nhnv tcJbvv Ingv 1800 E
hscbpw ]Sn-mdv 1800 W hscbpw BsI
3600ZoL-tc-J-I hc-n-p-v.
Amw-i-tc-J-Ifpw tcJmw-i-tcJIfpw

{Kohnv ZoL-tcJ

kn-p `mK--fn sNdnb NXp-c--f--fpm-Ipw.


`q]-S-n e-sf Ffp--n
Xncn--dn-bm Cu If klmbnpw.
ZoL-tc-J-I-fn a[y-n-ep 00tcJsb
apJy-ZoL-tcJ Fp ]d-bp-p. CXv Cwnse
e ]-W-n nXn sNp {Ko\nv
hm\-imkv{X Kth-j-W tI{w
Amnv hrw

171

hgn IS-p-t]m-Ip--Xn-\m CXn-s\{Ko\nv tcJ Fp hnfn-p-p. {Ko\nv tcJsb


ASn-m-\-am-n-bmWv AtZ-iob icm-icn kabw (GMT - Greenwich Mean Time)
IW-m-p--Xv.

`q]-S- (Maps)
`qtKmfw (Globe) Dcpv Ccn-p--Xn-\m H-t\m--n A[n-I-hn-h-c-
Adn-bm ]p-I-bn-. AXn-\m `qan-bpsS D]-cn-X-e-nse e--sf-n Ffpw a\
-n-em-m thn Xm-dm--s--h-bm-Wv `q]-S-. D]cnXes Hcp \nnX tXmXv
A\p-k-cnv sNdpXmn hcpmp--XmWv `q]-S-.

`q]Sw t\mn e- Xncn--dn-bp--Xn-\mbn \nd-fpw Zn-S-bm-f-fpw


klm-bn-p-p. temIw apgp-h\pw `q]-S-\nam-W-n\v Htc t]mep AS-bm-f--fmWv
D]-tbm-Kn-p--Xv.

\nd-
hyXykvX `q{]-Ir-Xn-I Xn-cn--dn-bp--Xn\v shtsd \nd- klm-bn-pp.

172

\ndw

`q{]-IrXn
alm-k-ap-{Z-, IS-ep-I, \Zn-I, XSm-I-
ka-X-e-
]oT`q-an-I
]-X-, ae-\n-c-I, Ipp-I

Znp-I
`q]-S--fn-ep e- Xncn--dn-bm Znp-I CmsX
km[y-am-hp-I-bn-. hS-v, sXv, Ing-v, ]Sn-mdv FnhASn-m-\-Zn- i-I-fmWv.
kqN-I-
`q]-S--fnse e-fpw {]tXy-I-XIfpw kqNn-n-p--Xn-\mbn
-

Xm-dm n-bnp AS-bm-f--fm-Wv kqN-I-


DZm-l-cWw

\Zn-I
A-tZ-iob AXnn

knp

kw-m\AXnn
Xe-m\w

{X

-]p

Kw

{_

ap

\Z
alm-\Zn

X]Xn

CybpsS `q]-S-n \Zn-I ASbm-f-s-Spn ImWnn-cn-p-p. CXp-t]mse av kqN-I--fpsS D]-tbmKw


`q]-S-]p-kvX-I-n \npw a\-n-em-p-I.

tKmZm-hcn

Ad-_n--S

IyjvW
_wKm D-S
Imthcn

173

Cy alm-k-ap{Zw

sk.ao

sk.ao

`q]-S- ]e-X-c-n-epv
DZm-l-cWw
{]Ir-Xn-L-S\m `q]Sw
`c-W-kw-hn-[m\`q]Sw
Imem-hm `q]Sw
KXm-K-X-`q-]Sw
[mXp-k--p--fpsS `q]Sw

`q]-S--fpsS D]-tbm-K-
`q]-S- Ncn-{X-Im-c-mpw -im-kv{X--mpw {]tbm-P-\-{]-Z-am-Wv.
I-tem-Sn-p \mhn-Ipw cmPy-kw-c--W-hn-`m-K-pw CXv hfsc {]tbm-P
\-{]-Z-am-Wv.
hnt\m-Z-k-m-cn-Iv ]pXnb ]pXnb e--fn-tev bm{X sNm {]tbm-P-\
-s-Sp-p.

`q]-S-]p-kvXIw (ATLAS)
`q]-S--fpsS kam-l-c-W-amWv `q]-S-]p-kvXIw AYhm
Ave-kv. temI-m-I-am-\-ap `q{]-Ir-Xn, temI-cm-jv{S-
XpS-n-b-h-sb-n

[mcmfw

hnh-c

CXn

`q]-S-]p-kvXIw

\npw

e`n-pw. Cu ]pkvX-I-ns Ah-km-\-`m-Kv \evIn-bn-p


AIm-cm-Zn (A--came) {Ia-n-ep ]n-I-bnse hnh-c-fpsS klmbtmsS `q]-S--fnse m\\nbw

Ffp--

am-mw.
]e ]e cmPy, `q{]-Ir-Xn, hn`-h-, KXm-KX
am- XpS-n-b-h-sbn ]Tn-p-tm \n_--ambpw
Avek v D]-tbm-K-s-Sp-Ww. \mw

hmbn-p ]pkvX-I-

n-ep `qan-im-kv{X-]-c-amb LS-\-Isf I-dn-bp-hm `q]-S- klm-bn-p-p.

174

tm_pw `q]-S-fpw Xn-ep hyXym-k-


tm_v

`q]Sw

DcpXv

]cXv

`qanbpsS BIrXnsb {]IS-nnpp

`qanbpsS hnkv{XrXnsb {]Isampp

`qtKm-fs Npn Hmtcm e--sfbmbn t\mmw

\nhn hp t\mp--Xn-\m `qanbn-ep Fm e--sfbpw Hcp-anp


ImWmw

sImp \S-m {]bmkw

sImp-\-S-m Ffpw

kqva hnh-c- CXn e`y-a

Fm hnh-c-fpw CXn e`npw

aqey-\nbw
I.

icn-bmb Dcw sXc-s-Spv Fgp-XpI


1. 231/20hSs Amw-i-tcJ BWv
A) In-S-I-tcJ B) D-cm-b-\-tcJ C) aI-c-tcJ Cu) `qa-[y-tcJ
2. Ing-p-]-Sn-m-dmbn hc-n-p k-ev]-tcJ
A) ZoL-tcJ B) {Ko\nv tcJ C) Amw-i-tcJ
3. ASn-m\Znp-I
A) aqv B) Av C) \mev
4. `qtKmfw {]I-S-am-pp
A) `qan-bpsS hnkvXow B) `qan-bpsS BIrXn C) D-cm[-tKm-fs

II.

]qcn-n-pI
1. `qan-bpsS D]-cn-X-es Hcp \nnX tXmX-\p-k-cnv hc-n-p--XmWv________
2. `q]-S--fn ImWp sNw]pn hc-I __________ kqNn-n-pp.
3. `q]-S--fpsS kam-lm-c-amWv __________
4. `qan-bpsS sNdnb amXr-I-bmWv __________

175

III.

tNmZy-v Dcw \evIpI.


1. Amw-i-tc-J-I Fm-sev?
2. ZoL-tc-J-I Fm-sev?
3. `q]-S- sImp {]tbm-P-\- Gh?
4. `q]-S-pw tm_n-\p-ap hyXym-k- Fsmw?

IV.

{]h\w
1. Ave-kns klm-b-tmsS NphsS ]d-bp-h AS-bm-f-s-Sp-pI
In-S-I-tcJ (Dcmb\tcJ)
aIc tcJ (ZnWmb\tcJ)
`qa-[y-tcJ
{Ko\nv tcJ

176

5. Fpw GXnepw
Fm hn`-h-pw ASn-mam-bXv av F hn`-h-am-Wv. kky-, Pp-
XpSn-bp Fmw ans KpWw sImmWv kar-amIpXv.
hfsc \oXpw XpS-bm-b-Xp-amb {]{InbIfneq-sS-bmWv av cq]-s--Xv.
XpS-bmb kqcy-Xm-]-m ]md-I NqSm-hp-p. Cu ]md-I-fpsS ta`mKw ag, Imv
Fn-h-tbv DSv sNdnb Ip-I-fm-Ip-p. XpSv sNdp-X-cn-I-fmbn ap-m-Ip-p.
ac-ns thcp-I IS-p-sN-p--Xp-aqew ]md-I s]mn-]n-f-cm-\n-S-bm-Ip-p. Pew,
Imv, Pp- Fnh aqehpw Cu Ip-Iv m\-amw kw`-hn-pp.
ans kz`m-hw, Xcn-I-fpsS henw, hfqdv, km{X Fn-h-bv-\p-k-cn-mWv
kky-h-fbvv A\p-tbm-Py-hp-w A-m--Xp-am-Ip--Xv.

Hm ! A-s\-bmtWm?
Hcp L\sknao- av cq]-s-Sm 1000 hj-n-e-[nIw thn-h-cp-sa-mWv
IW-m-p--Xv. Fm AXn-ibw tXmp-ptm?
av cq]-s-Sm klm-bn-p LS-I-

kqcy-{]-Imiw

ag

Imv

PohPm-e-

Cy-bn ImW-s-Sp an-\-


Cy-bn ImW-s-Sp hnhn-[-Xcw ap-Isf {]tXyI C\--fmbn Xncn-m-hp-Xm-Wv.
1. ha-v (F-a-v)
4. Ncav
2. Icn-av
5. aW
3. sNv

177

m
vK m
\n
-
A
^

Cy hnhn-[-Xcw ap-I
h

]mIn-m

t\

`qm

Zi

m-t

_
v

aymam

_wKm D-S
Ad-_n--S
Fav
sNv
Icn-av
Ncav
aW

{ioe
cm

Cy alm-k-ap{Zw

178

cm

h av (F-a-v)
kky- Xg-p-h-f-cp-hm A\p-tbm-Py-amb amWv
Fa-v. \Zn-I-fp-sSbpw kap{Z-fpsSbpw Xoc-p ka-X-e{]-tZ-i-fn Ccw av ImW-s-Sp-p. CXp [mXp-hn-`h-

\nd--Xm-Wv.
s\v, tKmX-v, Icn-v, ]bh-, F-hn-p-I,
_men apX-em-bh CXn hf-cp-p.
hSs Cy ka-X-ew, Ing-pw- ]-Sn-mdpw D kap-{Z-Xo-ck-a-X-e-, \Zn-I-fpsS s]mgn-ap-J-k-a-X-e- Fn-hn-S-fn-semw
Ccw av ImW-s-Sp-p.s]mgn-apJw FXv \Zn IS-en-t\mSp tNcp
`mK-am-Wv. Imb IS-en-t\mSv tNcp `mKs Agn-apJw

Fp

]d-bp-p.
Ad-nn-cnmw
\Zo-Xo-c-k-a-X-e--fn s\v [mcm-f-ambn Irjn sN-s-Sp-p. \Zo-Xo-c-k-a-X-e-sf
Cy-bpsS Acn-nw Fp hnti-jn-n-mw. \Zn-I-fnse Pew Hgp-n-sm-p-hcp hf-q-dp Fav \ZoapJv ASn-bp--XmWv CXn\p ImcWw. DZm-l-cW-n\v Imth-cn \Zn-bpsS s]mgn-ap-J-m-\-mWv Xm-hq, \mK-]-Ww Fo
]-W-fp-X.v

Icn-av
Idp-p-\n-d-ap amWv Icn-a-v. Cuw tiJ-cnp-h-bvm Ign-hp am-Wn-Xv. Fv, ]cp-n,
Icnv XpS-n-b-hbvp hf-cm tbmPn--Xm-Wv.
Um ]oT-`q-an-bnse emhm-{]-tZ-i--fnepw,a[y
-{]-tZ-iv,KpP-dm-v,Xan-gv\m-Sv,B{m Fo kw\
-fn Ccw av ]cs ImW-s-Sp-p.

sNv
sN-n Ccp-ns HmIvsskUv A[nIw D-XpsImmWv AXv Nphn- cn-p--Xv. \ne--S-e, tNmfw,
Icnv, Xn\-h-, ]--dn-I, ]g-, ]qs-Sn
-I, Fnh Cu an \mbn Xgphfcpw.

179

Um-Wnse Nne {]tZ-i-, Xan-gv\m-Sv, Im-S-I, Hdo-, B{m, cmP-m-\ns


Ing-p-`m-Kw FnhnS-fn Ccw av ImW-s-Sp-p.

Ncav
Cy-bnse ae--cn-hp-I-fn ]cs Ncav
ImW-s-Sp-p-v. tXbn-e, Imn, d, Iip-amhv XpS-nb
tXm-hn-f-Iv hfsc tbmPn--Xm-Wv. Gew, {Kmp-, Ipcp-ap-fIv
XpS-nb

kpK--hy-RvP-\-fpw CXn \mbn hf-cpw.


Bm-anse ImUaw {]tZ-iw, Xan-gv\m-nse Ingpw

]Sn-m-dp-ap ae\nc-I, tNmm-\m-Kv]q ]oT-`qan XpS-nb


`mK--fn Cu av ImW-s-Sp-p.

aW
hc hnim-e-amb aWc-ns\ acp-`qan Fp ]d-bp-p. Chn-Ss aW
Cuw kw`cn-p-h-bvm Ign-bm--Xm-Wv. AXp-sImv CXp Irjnv A\p-tbm-Pya-. acp-{]-tZ-is Cu aW an
Ifn-a-]q-gntbm kky--fpsS Pon
Ah- in-jvS-tfm Hpw C.
acp-`q-an-bn acp-k-ky- am{Xta
hf-cp-I-bp-p. Np-I--n, Cu-\ apX
-em-bh Cu C\-n s]-Xm-Wv. Cy-bn
cmP-m, ]m-_ns sXp-`mKw, KpP-dm
-ns Nne

`mK-

Fn-hn-S--fn

aWc-p-I \nd acp`qan ImW-s


-Sp-p.

asm-env
`qan-bpsS D]cnXense an
kky-h-fbvv tbmPn hf- AS-nbn-cn-p-p. Cu ^e-]p-jvSn-bp av Imv, ag, Pe
-{]-hmlw Fn-h-bm Henp t]mIp-p. CXns\
asm-env Fp ]d-bp-p-.
asm-env ans ^e-]pjvSn Cm-Xm-pw.
hfw Cm-Xm-hp-tm ta ans ^e-`q-bnjvTX
\jvS-s-Spw.

180

kky-sf [mcmfw \in-n-p-Xpw hr- shn--f


-bp-Xpw asm-en-n\v CS-bm-pw. As\ av hf-an-m-Xmbn amdpw. Irjn-\p-tbm-Py-amb e- asm-en-p-aqew
-D]tbm-K-iq-\y-ambnsmn-cn-p-p.

ans ^e-`q-bn-jvTX-bpsS {]m[m\yw


Irjn-bp-sSbpw ImSn-sbpw karnp ImcWw
ans ]pjvSn-bm-Wv. `y-hn-f-I-fmb s\v, tKmX-v, tNmfw Fn-h-bp-sSbpw
\mWy-hn-f-I-fmb ]cp-n, Icn-v, XpS-n-b-hbpw tXm-hn-f-I-fmb tXbn-e,Imn,d
Fn-h-bpsSbpw hfbvv ans ^e`qbn-jvTX Hgn-p-Iq-Sm ]m--Xm-Wv. {]Xy-ambpw ]tcm--ambpw av \psS \mSns km-n-I-h-fsb ]e Xc-n
klm-bn-p-p. Cy-bnse 75% P\-pw sXmgn \evIp-Xv Irjnbpw IpImen
hf-ep-am-Wv.
h\- apJy-ambpw ans ]pjvSnsb
B{i-bn-mWp

\ne-\n-evp--Xv.

h\-

sImv A\-h[n {]tbm-P-\- Dv. arK-


v c \evIp

A`-b-m-\--fmWp

ImSp-I. temIp ]e `mK--fn \nv


hnt\m-Z-k-m-cn-I

\psS

h\-k-arn

ImWp-hm-\mbn Fp-p-v.

ans hf-qdp Ipd-m AXn hnf-bp [m\y--fnepw ]--dn-I-fnepw


]g--fnepw t]mj-I- Ipd-bpw. CXp \nanw
a\p-jypw Ip-Im-en-Ipw t]mj-W-p-dhp
A\p-`-h-s-Spw. As\ tcmK-sf sNdp-m-\p
in \jvS-sv a\p-jy tcm-Kn-I-fmbn amdpw.

181

ap-kw-c-Ww
ac--fpsS thcp-I asm-enp XS-bp-p. AXp-sImv [mcmfw ac- \p-h-f
-Ww.
`qan-bn ]Sp hf-cp kky-fpw ]ppw ]n-e-Ifpw ag-m-ev ans
t]mj-I-sf kwc-n-p-p.
]ne hfw, NmW-Iw, Ip-Imen hfw XpS-n-bh [mcmfw D]-tbm-Kn--Ww.
Nm{In-I-Ir-jn-coXn (hn-f-I amn amn) kzoI-cn--Ww.
IoS-\m-in-\n-I, If-\m-in\n XpS-nb hnj-h-kvXp- Xfn-p-Xv Ign-bp-{X
Hgn-hm--Ww.
Ncn-hp-\n-e--fnse Irjnv Xp-I-fmnbp {]tXy-I-coXn {]tbm-Kn--Ww.

Ncn-hp-\n-e--fnse Irjn

Ad-nn-cnmw
temI-ns ]m-c-nw Iyq_m-Zzo]v
acp-`q-an-bnse I HIw
CuPn-]vXns shfp Xw ]cpn
Ifn-a]m-{X-\nm-W-]-T\w kndm-anIv
Cy-bn A[nIw hnf-bp apfIv lwtK-dn-b _m_vdn
temIv Ghpw IqSp-X hnev]-\-bm-Ip hkvXp tIm^n
Cy \ne--c-nse Fa-ns Afhv 24%
Icn-a-n-s Cy t]cv dnK
Cy-bn asm-enp _m[n-X-{]-tZ-i-ns hnkvXow 20%

{]h\w 1
\n-fpsS kvIqh-f-nse av kwc-n-p--Xn\v Fsms sNmw?
1.

3.

2.

4.

182

{]h\w 2
\n-fpsS {Kma-nse av kwc--npXn\p thn \n-v aptmp hbvm
\p \nt-i-......
1.
2.
3.
4.

aqey-\nbw
I.

icn-bmb Dcw sXc-s-Spv Fgp-XpI


1. av cq]-s-Sp-p--Xn-\p Hcp LSIw
A) kqcy-{]-Imiw

B) a\p-jys Adnhv

C) b{w

2. Cy-bn ImW-s-Sp an-\-


A) aqv B) cv C) Av
3. C\n ]d-bp--h-bn kpK--hy-RvP\w
A) d

B) tKmXv

C) {Kmq

4. Cu--\-I hf-cp av
A) F

B) aW

C) sNv

5. `y-hn-f-I-fn Hv
A) s\v B) tXbne C) ]cpn
II.

]qcn-n-pI
1. kky- Xg-p-hf-cm B[m-c-am-bXv ______________ .
2. Imv, ag _____________ Fnh av cq]-s-Spp LSI--fmWv.
3. \Zo-P-e-n Hgp-In-sm-p-h-cp av _____________ .
4. Cuw kw`-cnp hbvp av _____________ .
5. a-sm-enp XS-bp--Xn\v _____________ hfWw.

183

III. icn

sXv ( ) AS-bm-f-s-Sp-pI.

1. ans ]pjvSn--\p-k-cnt kky-h-f Dm-hp-I-bp-p.


2. acp-a-W Cy-bn ImW-s-Sp-n
3. \Zo-k-a-X-e--fn Icn-ap ImW-s-Sp-p-.
4. kky--fpsS thcp-I asm-enp XS-bp-p.
IV.

tNcpw-]Sn tNpI
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

hav ae-cn-hp-I
Icn-a
acp-`qan
Ncav
\Zn-I-fpsS s]mgn-apJw
sNv
Idp-p-\ndw
acp-a-W
Nph-p-\ndw

V. Npcpn Fgp-XpI

1. Cy-bn ImW-s-Sp {][m\an-\- Gh?


2. sNv Nph--sXp-sImv?
3. Ncav GXp-Xcw hnf-Iv tbmPn--XmWv?
4. Icn-a-ns\n sNdp-Ip-dnv Fgp-Xp-I.
5. asm-enp XS-bm-\p am- Gh?
6. ap kwc--W-n-\p \nt-i- ]d-bpI
VI.

hni-Z-ambn Dcw \evIpI

1. Cy-bnse an-\--sf-n Hcp D]-\ymkw Fgp-Xp-I.


VII.

{]h\w

1. an-\--fpsS kz`mhw AXn sNm-hp Irjn-I ChsbmWn-p Nn{Xw


hcv {]Zin-n-pI.
2. \n-fpsS {Kma-n ImW-s-Sp an-\--sf AhnsS hf-cp kky--sfbpw
ImWn-p h-Nn{Xw hc-bvpI.
VIII.

{]h-\-]-Xn
hyXykvX C\w ap-I tiJ-cnv Nmv t]-dn Hnp {]Zin-n-p-I.

184

]Sn-mdv ZoLtc-J-I
0

180 150 120 90 60 30 0

30 60 90 120 150

In

]Sn

Ingp ZoL-tc-J-I
0

180

sX

60

60

30

30

`qa-[y-tcJ
{Kohnv tcJ

`qa-[y-tcJ

30

30

60

60

180 150 120 90 60 30 0

30 60 90 120 150

180

`qa-[y-tc-J-Isf (
) \-{X-Nn--an-SpI.
{Kohnv tcJ-Isf (
) {XntIm-W-Nn--an-SpI.
icn-bmb Dcw Xnc-s-Spv Fgp-XpI
1. `qa-[y-tcJ `qansb ______________ c-mbn hn`-Pn-pp
(A) D-cm-tKm-f-sapw Zn-Wm-tKm-f-sapw
(B) hSv sXv A-tKm-f--fmbn
(C) `qJ-WvU-fpw kap-{Zfpw
(Cu) k
 a-X-e--fmbpw ]oT-`q-an-I-fmbpw
2. {Ko
(A)
(B)
(C)
(Cu)

hnvtcJ `qansb _____________ Bbn hn`-Pn-pp


hSv sXv A-tKm-f--fmbn
ka-X-e--fmbpw ]oT-`q-an-I-fmbpw
Ingv ]Sn-mdv A-tKm-f--fmbn
` qJ-WvU--fmbpw kap-{Z--fmbpw

3. `qtKm-f-ns apI-fn hSp sXmbn hc-bv-s-n-p


kev] tcJ-I- _______________.
(A) {Kohnv tcJ-I
(B) `qa[y tcJ(C) ZoLmwi tcJ-I
(Cu) Amwitc-J-I
263
185

sXv Amwitc-J-I

hSv Amwitc-J-I

temI-`q-]Sw

4. `qtKm-f-ns apI-fn Ingv ]Sn-m-dmbn hc-bv-s-n-p


k]-tc-J-I _______________.
(A) ZoLmw-i-tc-J-I
(B) `qa-[y-tcJ
(C) {Kohnv tcJ
(Cu) Amwi tcJ-I
5. `qtKmfw ____________ A-tKm-f--fmbn hn`-Pn--s-n-cn-p-p.
(A) \mev
(B) c
(C) Fv
(Cu) Bdv
6. `qa-[y-tc-Jbpw {Kohnv tcJbpw `qtKm-fs
______________ Bbn hn`-Pn-p-p.
(A) A-tKm-f--fmbn
(B) tKmf--fmbn
(C) `q]S--fmbn
( Cu) ka-X-e--fmbn

Ip-]n-Snmw
_m_p-hn\v Ggp `qJ-WvU-fpw Npn k-cn-m B{K-lw.
Ah Xmsg ]d-bp Amw-i-tc-J-Ifpw ZoLmw-i-tc-J-Ifpw
_n-p ev t]mbm GsXmw `qJWvU-sf
ImWp-hm km[n-pw.? t]cv Fgp-Xp-I.
600 hSv Aw 600 Ingv ZoL-tc-J-I ______________
300 sXv Aw 1200 Ingv ZoL-tc-J-I

_
 _____________

00 Aw 300 Ingv ZoL-tc-J-I

______________

600 hSv Aw 1200 ]Sn-mdv ZoL-tc-J-I _ _____________


300 sXv Aw 600 ]Sn-mdv ZoL-tc-J-I ______________

186

'F\npw km[n-pw, Rm sNbvXp'


(I can, I did)
hnZymnIfpsS {]h\hnh-c-kq-NnI
hnjbw :
{Ia
\ XnbXn

]mT-`mKw

]mT-ns
Xe-sv

187

{]h\w

Ipdnv

188